Sample records for analyzing one-way experiments

  1. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.


    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  2. Sample size calculation for microarray experiments with blocked one-way design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sin-Ho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main objectives of microarray analysis is to identify differentially expressed genes for different types of cells or treatments. Many statistical methods have been proposed to assess the treatment effects in microarray experiments. Results In this paper, we consider discovery of the genes that are differentially expressed among K (> 2 treatments when each set of K arrays consists of a block. In this case, the array data among K treatments tend to be correlated because of block effect. We propose to use the blocked one-way ANOVA F-statistic to test if each gene is differentially expressed among K treatments. The marginal p-values are calculated using a permutation method accounting for the block effect, adjusting for the multiplicity of the testing procedure by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR. We propose a sample size calculation method for microarray experiments with a blocked one-way design. With FDR level and effect sizes of genes specified, our formula provides a sample size for a given number of true discoveries. Conclusion The calculated sample size is shown via simulations to provide an accurate number of true discoveries while controlling the FDR at the desired level.

  3. Leading by words: A voluntary contribution experiment with one-way communication


    Koukoumelis, Anastasios; Levati, Maria Vittoria; Weisser, Johannes


    In this paper, we study a voluntary contribution mechanism with one-way communication. The relevance of one person's words is assessed by assigning exogenously the role of the "communicator" to one group member. Contrary to the view that the mutual exchange of promises is necessary for the cooperation-enhancing effect of communication, we ï¬ nd that, compared to a standard voluntary contribution mechanism with no communication, one-way communication signiï¬ cantly increases contributions and ...

  4. The Roland De Witte Experiment, R. T. Cahill, and the One-Way Speed of Light (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catania J.


    Full Text Available In “The Roland De Witte 1991 Experiment (to the Memory of Roland De Witte” (Progr. Phys , 2006, v. 2(3, 60–65, R.T. Cahill gives us a briefing on his view that interferometer measurements and one-way RF coaxial cable propagation-time measure- ments amount to a detection of the anisotropy in the speed of light. However, while I obtain first order propagation delays in calculations for on e-way transit which would show geometric modulation by Earth’s rotation, I do not agree with Cahill’s simplistic equation that relates the modulation solely to the projection of the absolute velocity vector v on the coaxial cable, called v P by Cahill (ibid., p. 61–62. The reader should be warned that Cahill’s equation for ∆ t (ibid., p.63 is crude compared with a full Special Relativistic derivation.

  5. One-way radiative transfer (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.


    We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.

  6. Time-transfer experiments between satellite laser ranging ground stations via one-way laser ranging to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Skillman, D. R.; Mcgarry, J.; Hoffman, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) has long been used to measure the distance from a ground station to an Earth-orbiting satellite in order to determine the spacecraft position in orbit, and to conduct other geodetic measurements such as plate motions. This technique can also be used to transfer time between the station and satellite, and between remote SLR sites, as recently demonstrated by the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) project by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiaes (CNES) and Observatorire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) as well as the Laser Time Transfer (LTT) project by the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, where two-way and one-way measurements were obtained at the same time. Here we report a new technique to transfer time between distant SLR stations via simultaneous one-way laser ranging (LR) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft at lunar distance. The major objectives are to establish accurate ground station times and to improve LRO orbit determination via these measurements. The results of these simultaneous LR measurements are used to compare the SLR station times or transfer time from one to the other using times-of-flight estimated from conventional radio frequency tracking of LRO. The accuracy of the time transfer depends only on the difference of the times-of-flight from each ground station to the spacecraft, and is expected to be at sub-nano second level. The technique has been validated by both a ground-based experiment and an experiment that utilized LRO. Here we present the results to show that sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy are achievable. Both experiments were carried out between the primary LRO-LR station, The Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station, and its nearby station, Mobile Laser System (MOBLAS-7), both at Greenbelt, Maryland. The laser transmit time from both stations were recorded by the same event timer referenced to a Hydrogen maser. The results have been compared to data from a common All

  7. One-way unlocalizable quantum discord (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Fan, Heng; Li, Yongming


    In this paper, we present the concept of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and investigate its properties. We provide a polygamy inequality for it in a tripartite pure quantum system of arbitrary dimension. Several tradeoff relations between the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and other correlations are given. If the von Neumann measurement is made on a part of the system, we give two expressions of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord in terms of partial distillable entanglement and quantum disturbance. Finally, we also provide a lower bound for bipartite shareability of quantum correlation beyond entanglement in a tripartite system.

  8. The one-way unlocalizable quantum discord

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming


    In this paper, we present the concept of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and investigate its properties. We provide a polygamy inequality for it in tripartite pure quantum system of arbitrary dimension. Several trade-offs between the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and other correlations are given. If the von Neumann measurement is on a part of the system, we give two expressions of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord in terms of partial distillable entanglement and quantum disturbance. Finally, we also provide a lower bound for bipartite shareability of quantum correlation beyond entanglement in a tripartite system.

  9. Experimental one-way quantum computing. (United States)

    Walther, P; Resch, K J; Rudolph, T; Schenck, E; Weinfurter, H; Vedral, V; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A


    Standard quantum computation is based on sequences of unitary quantum logic gates that process qubits. The one-way quantum computer proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel is entirely different. It has changed our understanding of the requirements for quantum computation and more generally how we think about quantum physics. This new model requires qubits to be initialized in a highly entangled cluster state. From this point, the quantum computation proceeds by a sequence of single-qubit measurements with classical feedforward of their outcomes. Because of the essential role of measurement, a one-way quantum computer is irreversible. In the one-way quantum computer, the order and choices of measurements determine the algorithm computed. We have experimentally realized four-qubit cluster states encoded into the polarization state of four photons. We characterize the quantum state fully by implementing experimental four-qubit quantum state tomography. Using this cluster state, we demonstrate the feasibility of one-way quantum computing through a universal set of one- and two-qubit operations. Finally, our implementation of Grover's search algorithm demonstrates that one-way quantum computation is ideally suited for such tasks.

  10. Bargaining Mechanisms for One-Way Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Abeliuk


    Full Text Available We introduce one-way games, a two-player framework whose distinguishable feature is that the private payoff of one (independent player is determined only by her own strategy and does not depend on the actions taken by the other (dependent player. We show that the equilibrium outcome in one-way games without side payments and the social cost of any ex post efficient mechanism can be far from the optimum. We also show that it is impossible to design a Bayes–Nash incentive-compatible mechanism for one-way games that is budget-balanced, individually rational and efficient. To address this negative result, we propose a privacy-preserving mechanism based on a single-offer bargaining made by the dependent player that leverages the intrinsic advantage of the independent player. In this setting the outside option of the dependent player is not known a priori; however, we show that the mechanism satisfies individual rationality conditions, is incentive-compatible, budget-balanced and produces an outcome that is more efficient than the equilibrium without payments. Finally, we show that a randomized multi-offer extension brings no additional benefit in terms of efficiency.

  11. Logica's one-way VSAT system (United States)

    Barrington-Cook, J. I.


    Logica has recently produced the main 'collection and forwarding' element for a comprehensive one-way VSAT system. The system is designed to utilize the extra bandwidth available from direct-to-home broadcasts using the MAC/packet television standard, in order to provide point-to-multipoint data transmission via satellite. The expectation of very large volumes of supply for standard decoders, together with the large amount of bandwidth available, suggest that extremely low cost data transmission may become available. The system is designed to provide the necessary infrastructure to allow this bulk data, low cost approach to be offered for small scale and ad-hoc data transmission.

  12. One way Doppler extractor. Volume 1: Vernier technique (United States)

    Blasco, R. W.; Klein, S.; Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.; Yanosov, J. A.


    A feasibility analysis, trade-offs, and implementation for a One Way Doppler Extraction system are discussed. A Doppler error analysis shows that quantization error is a primary source of Doppler measurement error. Several competing extraction techniques are compared and a Vernier technique is developed which obtains high Doppler resolution with low speed logic. Parameter trade-offs and sensitivities for the Vernier technique are analyzed, leading to a hardware design configuration. A detailed design, operation, and performance evaluation of the resulting breadboard model is presented which verifies the theoretical performance predictions. Performance tests have verified that the breadboard is capable of extracting Doppler, on an S-band signal, to an accuracy of less than 0.02 Hertz for a one second averaging period. This corresponds to a range rate error of no more than 3 millimeters per second.

  13. One way Doppler Extractor. Volume 2: Digital VCO technique (United States)

    Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.


    A feasibility analysis and trade-offs for a one-way Doppler extractor using digital VCO techniques is presented. The method of Doppler measurement involves the use of a digital phase lock loop; once this loop is locked to the incoming signal, the precise frequency and hence the Doppler component can be determined directly from the contents of the digital control register. The only serious error source is due to internally generated noise. Techniques are presented for minimizing this error source and achieving an accuracy of 0.01 Hz in a one second averaging period. A number of digitally controlled oscillators were analyzed from a performance and complexity point of view. The most promising technique uses an arithmetic synthesizer as a digital waveform generator.

  14. Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imaging via One-Way Wave Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, Quyen


    We develop an efficient algorithm for Synthetic Aperture Sonar imaging based on the one-way wave equations. The algorithm utilizes the operator-splitting method to integrate the one-way wave equations. The well-posedness of the one-way wave equations and the proposed algorithm is shown. A computational result against real field data is reported and the resulting image is enhanced by the BV-like regularization.

  15. Analyzing and mining automated imaging experiments. (United States)

    Berlage, Thomas


    Image mining is the application of computer-based techniques that extract and exploit information from large image sets to support human users in generating knowledge from these sources. This review focuses on biomedical applications of this technique, in particular automated imaging at the cellular level. Due to increasing automation and the availability of integrated instruments, biomedical users are becoming increasingly confronted with the problem of analyzing such data. Image database applications need to combine data management, image analysis and visual data mining. The main point of such a system is a software layer that represents objects within an image and the ability to use a large spectrum of quantitative and symbolic object features. Image analysis needs to be adapted to each particular experiment; therefore, 'end user programming' will be desired to make the technology more widely applicable.

  16. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng


    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  17. One-way electromagnetic waveguide using multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices (United States)

    Tang, Zhenghua; Lei, Dajun; Huang, Jianquan; Jin, Gui; Qiu, Feng; Yan, Wenyan


    The multiferroic Fibonacci superlattices (MFSs) are composed of single-phase multiferroic domains with polarization and magnetization according to the rule of Fibonacci sequence. We propose to construct a one-way electromagnetic waveguide by the MFSs. The forbidden band structures of the MFSs for the forward and backward electromagnetic waves are not completely overlapped, and an obvious translation between them occurs around the fixed point ω bar = 1 with broken time-reversal and space inversion symmetries (TRSIS), which indicates the existence of one-way electromagnetic modes in the MFSs. Transmission spectrum is utilized to present this property and to indicate further one-way electromagnetic modes lying within the polaritonic band gap. The maximum forbidden bandwidth (divided by midgap frequency) of 5.4% for the backward electromagnetic wave (BEW) is found, in which the forward electromagnetic wave (FEW) can pass. The functions of one-way propagation modes and polaritonic band gap integrated into the MFSs can miniaturize the one-way photonic devices. The properties can also be applied to construct compact microwave isolators.

  18. The one-way wave equation and its invariance properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviandier, Luc [Thales Research and Technology, Campus de Polytechnique, 91767 Palaiseau (France); LAUM, CNRS, Universite du Maine, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The harmonic wave equation in inhomogeneous media is exactly split into coupled first-order equations with respect to a principal direction of propagation according to the Bremmer scheme. The resulting one-way wave equation is shown not to conserve energy flux for dimensions two and three against the general belief in one-way wave propagation or parabolic equation literature. Conservation of energy flux is only ensured in the high frequency limit. On the other hand, a simple invariant is found that may be seen as a generalization of the Snell law to arbitrary, non-stratified, media. Similarly, the reciprocity property is not fully ensured in general and the time-reversal symmetry is ensured for propagating fields. Besides, in the one-way wave equation, the additional term to the standard parabolic equation is shown to strengthen mode coupling. The analysis encompasses the evanescent waves.

  19. Topological one-way fiber of second Chern number

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ling


    Optical fiber is a ubiquitous and indispensable component in communications, sensing, biomedicine and many other lightwave technologies and applications. Here we propose topological one-way fibers to remove two fundamental mechanisms that limit fiber performance: scattering and reflection. We design three-dimensional~(3D) photonic crystal fibers, inside which photons propagate only in one direction, that are completely immune to Rayleigh and Mie scatterings and significantly suppress the nonlinear Brillouin and Raman scatterings. A one-way fiber is also free from Fresnel reflection, naturally eliminating the needs for fiber isolators. Our finding is enabled by the recently discovered Weyl points in a double-gyroid~(DG) photonic crystal. By annihilating two Weyl points by supercell modulation in a magnetic DG, we obtain the photonic analogue of the 3D quantum Hall phase with a non-zero first Chern number~($C_1$). When the modulation becomes helixes, one-way fiber modes develop along the winding axis, with the ...

  20. Efficient quantum circuits for one-way quantum computing. (United States)

    Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Liu, Yu-Xi; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco


    While Ising-type interactions are ideal for implementing controlled phase flip gates in one-way quantum computing, natural interactions between solid-state qubits are most often described by either the XY or the Heisenberg models. We show an efficient way of generating cluster states directly using either the imaginary SWAP (iSWAP) gate for the XY model, or the sqrt[SWAP] gate for the Heisenberg model. Our approach thus makes one-way quantum computing more feasible for solid-state devices.

  1. Fundamentals of universality in one-way quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Miyake, A


    We build a framework allowing for a systematic investigation of the issue: "Which quantum states are universal resources for one-way quantum computation?" We start by re-examining what is exactly meant by "universality" in quantum computation, and what the implications are for universal one-way quantum computation. Given the framework of a measurement-based quantum computer, where quantum information is processed by local operations only, the most general universal one-way quantum computer is one which is capable of accepting arbitrary classical inputs and producing arbitrary quantum outputs--we refer to this property as CQ-universality. We then show that a systematic study of CQ-universality in one-way quantum computation is possible by identifying entanglement features that must be present in every universal resource. These insights are used to identify several states as being not universal, such as 1D cluster states, W states, and ground states of non-critical 1D spin systems. Our criteria are strengthened...

  2. Signal transmission in a Y-shaped one-way chain

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xiaoming; Lv, Huaping


    It has been found that noise plays a key role to improve signal transmission in a one-way chain of bistable systems [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. E 58, 2952 (1998)]. We here show that the signal transmission can be sharply improved without the aid of noise, if the one-way chain with a single source node is changed with two source nodes becoming a Y-shaped one-way chain. We further reveal that the enhanced signal transmission in the Y-shaped one-way chain is regulated by coupling strength, and that it is robust to noise perturbation and input signal irregularity. We finally analyze the mechanism of the enhanced signal transmission by the Y-shaped structure.

  3. Urban One-way Traffic Organization and Its Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉龙; 伊新苗


    One-way traffic organization is a direct, efficient and economic method to solve traffic congestion and expand traffic capacity. With its evolution, advantages and disadvantages introduced its setting conditions demon strated. The general method and processes are summarized in planning for urban one-way streets project, viz. in vestigation, drawing out and evaluation of project, selecting of project and beneficial analysis. Fuzzy synthetical evaluation other fields is employed to evaluate the project. Its evaluation system and method is introduced and Delphi method is adopted to obtain evaluation index. Finally, taking Harbin city as an example, the application process of above-mentioned method is illuminated. Accordingly, it is proved that the method is exercisable.

  4. One-way quantum computing in the optical frequency comb. (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C; Flammia, Steven T; Pfister, Olivier


    One-way quantum computing allows any quantum algorithm to be implemented easily using just measurements. The difficult part is creating the universal resource, a cluster state, on which the measurements are made. We propose a scalable method that uses a single, multimode optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method is very efficient and generates a continuous-variable cluster state, universal for quantum computation, with quantum information encoded in the quadratures of the optical frequency comb of the OPO.

  5. Constructing a one-way hash function one-way function based on the unified Chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Min; Peng Fei; Chen Guan-Rong


    A new one-way hash function based on the unified chaotic system is constructed.With different values of a key parameter,the unified chaotic system represents different chaotic systems,based on which the one-way hash function algorithm is constructed with three round operations and an initial vector on an input message.In each round operation,the parameters are processed by three different chaotic systems generated from the unified chaotic system.Feed-forwards are used at the end of each round operation and at the end of each element of the message processing.Meanwhile,in each round operation,parameter-exchanging operations are implemented.Then,the hash value of length 160 bits is obtained from the last six parameters.Simulation and analysis both demonstrate that the algorithm has great flexibility,satisfactory hash performance,weak collision property,and high security.

  6. Analysis of one-way laser ranging data to LRO, time transfer and clock characterization (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    We processed and analyzed one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), obtained from June 13, 2009 until September 30, 2014. We pair and analyze the one-way range observables from station laser fire and spacecraft laser arrival times by using nominal LRO orbit models based on the GRAIL gravity field. We apply corrections for instrument range walk, as well as for atmospheric and relativistic effects. In total we derived a tracking data volume of ≈ 3000 hours featuring 64 million Full Rate and 1.5 million Normal Point observations. From a statistical analysis of the dataset we evaluate the experiment and the ground station performance. We observe a laser ranging measurement precision of 12.3 cm in case of the Full Rate data which surpasses the LOLA timestamp precision of 15 cm. The averaging to Normal Point data further reduces the measurement precision to 5.6 cm. We characterized the LRO clock with fits throughout the mission time and estimated the rate to 6.9 × 10-8, the aging to 1.6 × 10-12/day and the change of aging to 2.3 × 10-14 /day2over all mission phases. The fits also provide referencing of onboard time to the TDB time scale at a precision of 166 ns over two and 256 ns over all mission phases, representing ground to space time transfer. Furthermore we measure ground station clock differences from the fits as well as from simultaneous passes which we use for ground to ground time transfer from common view observations. We observed relative offsets ranging from 33 to 560 ns and relative rates ranging from 2 × 10-13 to 6 × 10-12 between the ground station clocks during selected mission phases. We study the results from the different methods and discuss their applicability for time transfer.

  7. Quantum Digital Signature based on quantum one-way functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, X; L\\"u, Xin; Feng, Deng-Guo


    A quantum digital signature protocol based on quantum mechanics is proposed in this paper. The security of the protocol relies on the existence of quantum one-way functions by quantum information theorem. This protocol involves a so-called arbitrator who validates and authenticates the signed message. In this protocol, we use privacy key algorithm to ensure the security of quantum information on channel and use quantum public keys to sign message. To guarantee the authenticity of the message, a family of quantum stabilizer codes are employed. Our protocol presents a novel method to construct ultimately secure digital system in future secure communication.

  8. One-way ANOVA based on interval information (United States)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza


    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  9. Acoustic topological insulator and robust one-way sound transport (United States)

    He, Cheng; Ni, Xu; Ge, Hao; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Yan-Bin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng


    Topological design of materials enables topological symmetries and facilitates unique backscattering-immune wave transport. In airborne acoustics, however, the intrinsic longitudinal nature of sound polarization makes the use of the conventional spin-orbital interaction mechanism impossible for achieving band inversion. The topological gauge flux is then typically introduced with a moving background in theoretical models. Its practical implementation is a serious challenge, though, due to inherent dynamic instabilities and noise. Here we realize the inversion of acoustic energy bands at a double Dirac cone and provide an experimental demonstration of an acoustic topological insulator. By manipulating the hopping interaction of neighbouring ’atoms’ in this new topological material, we successfully demonstrate the acoustic quantum spin Hall effect, characterized by robust pseudospin-dependent one-way edge sound transport. Our results are promising for the exploration of new routes for experimentally studying topological phenomena and related applications, for example, sound-noise reduction.

  10. Quantitative Comparison of Three Standardization Methods Using a One-Way ANOVA for Multiple Mean Comparisons (United States)

    Barrows, Russell D.


    A one-way ANOVA experiment is performed to determine whether or not the three standardization methods are statistically different in determining the concentration of the three paraffin analytes. The laboratory exercise asks students to combine the three methods in a single analytical procedure of their own design to determine the concentration of…

  11. One-way successive plate cross wedge rolling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In our last paper(Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2009,52(11):3117-3121) we designed the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR(cross wedge rolling).This kind of machine colligates the advantages of high rigidity and small floor space for roller CWR machine and those of simple die manufacture and high precision for plate CWR machine.At the same time,it abandons the shortcomings of complex die manufacture and poor precision for roller CWR machine,and those of poor rigidity and large floor space for plate CWR machine.During rolling,the upper and lower rolling plates of the machine make reciprocating slide toward or away from each other,so the inertial forces should be overcome,which will cause great energy loss,besides,large floor space is needed when the rolled workpiece is large.In order to solve the above problems,this paper presents the one-way successive plate CWR machine,whose rolling plates need not make reciprocating slide.Hence,it has high energy utilization efficiency and production efficiency.Furthermore,the roll scale can be removed automatically.In particular,the machine can produce large axisymmetrical workpieces.

  12. A classical one-way function to confound quantum adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Vazirani, U; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander; Vazirani, Umesh


    The promise of quantum computation and its consequences for complexity-theoretic cryptography motivates an immediate search for cryptosystems which can be implemented with current technology, but which remain secure even in the presence of quantum computers. Inspired by recent negative results pertaining to the nonabelian hidden subgroup problem, we present here a classical algebraic function $f_V(M)$ of a matrix $M$ which we believe is a one-way function secure against quantum attacks. Specifically, inverting $f_V$ reduces naturally to solving a hidden subgroup problem over the general linear group (which is at least as hard as the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group). We also demonstrate a reduction from Graph Isomorphism to the problem of inverting $f_V$; unlike Graph Isomorphism, however, the function $f_V$ is random self-reducible and therefore uniformly hard. These results suggest that, unlike Shor's algorithm for the discrete logarithm--which is, so far, the only successful quantum attack ...

  13. Epidemic spreading on one-way-coupled networks (United States)

    Wang, Lingna; Sun, Mengfeng; Chen, Shanshan; Fu, Xinchu


    Numerous real-world networks (e.g., social, communicational, and biological networks) have been observed to depend on each other, and this results in interconnected networks with different topology structures and dynamics functions. In this paper, we focus on the scenario of epidemic spreading on one-way-coupled networks comprised of two subnetworks, which can manifest the transmission of some zoonotic diseases. By proposing a mathematical model through mean-field approximation approach, we prove the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria of this model. Through the theoretical and numerical analysis, we obtain interesting results: the basic reproduction number R0 of the whole network is the maximum of the basic reproduction numbers of the two subnetworks; R0 is independent of the cross-infection rate and cross contact pattern; R0 increases rapidly with the growth of inner infection rate if the inner contact pattern is scale-free; in order to eradicate zoonotic diseases from human beings, we must simultaneously eradicate them from animals; bird-to-bird infection rate has bigger impact on the human's average infected density than bird-to-human infection rate.

  14. Criteria of backscattering in chiral one-way photonic crystals (United States)

    Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chang, Shu-Wei


    Optical isolators are important devices in photonic circuits. To reduce the unwanted reflection in a robust manner, several setups have been realized using nonreciprocal schemes. In this study, we show that the propagating modes in a strongly-guided chiral photonic crystal (no breaking of the reciprocity) are not backscattering-immune even though they are indeed insensitive to many types of scatters. Without the protection from the nonreciprocity, the backscattering occurs under certain circumstances. We present a perturbative method to calculate the backscattering of chiral photonic crystals in the presence of chiral/achiral scatters. The model is, essentially, a simplified analogy to the first-order Born approximation. Under reasonable assumptions based on the behaviors of chiral photonic modes, we obtained the expression of reflection coefficients which provides criteria for the prominent backscattering in such chiral structures. Numerical examinations using the finite-element method were also performed and the results agree well with the theoretical prediction. From both our theory and numerical calculations, we find that the amount of backscattering critically depends on the symmetry of scatter cross sections. Strong reflection takes place when the azimuthal Fourier components of scatter cross sections have an order l of 2. Chiral scatters without these Fourier components would not efficiently reflect the chiral photonic modes. In addition, for these chiral propagating modes, disturbances at the most significant parts of field profiles do not necessarily result in the most effective backscattering. The observation also reveals what types of scatters or defects should be avoided in one-way applications of chiral structures in order to minimize the backscattering.

  15. Perceptual shrinkage of a one-way motion path with high-speed motion. (United States)

    Nakajima, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Yutaka


    Back-and-forth motion induces perceptual shrinkage of the motion path, but such shrinkage is hardly perceived for one-way motion. If the shrinkage is caused by temporal averaging of stimulus position around the endpoints, it should also be induced for one-way motion at higher motion speeds. In psychophysical experiments with a high-speed projector, we tested this conjecture for a one-way motion stimulus at various speeds (4-100 deg/s) along a straight path. Results showed that perceptual shrinkage of the motion path was robustly observed in higher-speed motion (faster than 66.7 deg/s). In addition, the amount of the forwards shift at the onset position was larger than that of the backwards shift at the offset position. These results demonstrate that high-speed motion can induce shrinkage, even for a one-way motion path. This can be explained by the view that perceptual position is represented by the integration of the temporal average of instantaneous position and the motion representation.

  16. Experimental Realization of a One-way Quantum Computer Algorithm Solving Simon's Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Tame, M S; Di Franco, C; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G


    We report an experimental demonstration of a one-way implementation of a quantum algorithm solving Simon's Problem - a black box period-finding problem which has an exponential gap between the classical and quantum runtime. Using an all-optical setup and modifying the bases of single-qubit measurements on a five-qubit cluster state, key representative functions of the logical two-qubit version's black box can be queried and solved. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental realization of the quantum algorithm solving Simon's Problem. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm. With a view to scaling up to larger numbers of qubits, we analyze the resource requirements for an n-qubit version. This work helps highlight how one-way quantum computing provides a practical route to experimentally investigating the quantum-classical gap in the query complexity model.

  17. Can the one-way speed of light be used for detection of violations of the relativity principle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spavieri, Gianfranco, E-mail: [Centro de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quintero, Jesús [Postgrado en Física Matemática, Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”, Barquisimeto 3001 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Unnikrishnan, C.S. [Gravitation Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Gillies, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4714 (United States); Cavalleri, Giancarlo; Tonni, Ernesto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Bosi, Leonardo [Politecnico di Milano, CNR/INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Experimental attempts at measurement of the one-way speed of light are considered within the framework of relativistic theories. We show that if the effect of clock transport is taken into account, the observations from this class of experiment do not actually lead to either measurement of the one-way speed of light or determination of the absolute velocity of the preferred frame (even if, for non-entrained ether theories, such a frame were to exist). -- Highlights: ► We consider preferred frame theories that agree with experiments that support SR. ► Measurements of the one-way speed of light is discussed. ► The effect of clock transport is taken into account. ► These experiments do not lead to measurement of the one-way speed of light. ► The absolute velocity of the preferred frame cannot be detected.

  18. Radioactive beam experiments using the Fragment Mass Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.


    The Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) is a recoil mass spectrometer that has many potential applications in experiments with radioactive beams. The FMA can be used for spectroscopic studies of nuclei produced in reactions with radioactive beams. The FMA is also an ideal tool for studying radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest, using inverse kinematics. The FMA has both mass and energy dispersion, which can be used to efficiently separate the reaction recoils from the primary beam. When used with radioactive beams, the FMA allows the recoils from radiative capture reactions to be detected in a low-background environment.

  19. Experimental realization of a one-way quantum computer algorithm solving Simon's problem. (United States)

    Tame, M S; Bell, B A; Di Franco, C; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G


    We report an experimental demonstration of a one-way implementation of a quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem-a black-box period-finding problem that has an exponential gap between the classical and quantum runtime. Using an all-optical setup and modifying the bases of single-qubit measurements on a five-qubit cluster state, key representative functions of the logical two-qubit version's black box can be queried and solved. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental realization of the quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm. With a view to scaling up to larger numbers of qubits, we analyze the resource requirements for an n-qubit version. This work helps highlight how one-way quantum computing provides a practical route to experimentally investigating the quantum-classical gap in the query complexity model.

  20. Demonstration of orbit determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter using one-way laser ranging data (United States)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    We used one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for a demonstration of orbit determination. In the one-way setup, the state of LRO and the parameters of the spacecraft and all involved ground station clocks must be estimated simultaneously. This setup introduces many correlated parameters that are resolved by using a priori constraints. Moreover the observation data coverage and errors accumulating from the dynamical and the clock modeling limit the maximum arc length. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the arc length, the dynamical and modeling accuracy and the observation data coverage on the accuracy of the results. We analyzed multiple arcs using lengths of 2 and 7 days during a one-week period in Science Mission phase 02 (SM02, November 2010) and compared the trajectories, the post-fit measurement residuals and the estimated clock parameters. We further incorporated simultaneous passes from multiple stations within the observation data to investigate the expected improvement in positioning. The estimated trajectories were compared to the nominal LRO trajectory and the clock parameters (offset, rate and aging) to the results found in the literature. Arcs estimated with one-way ranging data had differences of 5-30 m compared to the nominal LRO trajectory. While the estimated LRO clock rates agreed closely with the a priori constraints, the aging parameters absorbed clock modeling errors with increasing clock arc length. Because of high correlations between the different ground station clocks and due to limited clock modeling accuracy, their differences only agreed at the order of magnitude with the literature. We found that the incorporation of simultaneous passes requires improved modeling in particular to enable the expected improvement in positioning. We found that gaps in the observation data coverage over 12 h (≈6 successive LRO orbits

  1. Experience analyzing wind data for large-scale integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhi; Dai, RenChang; Freeman, Lavelle A.; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei [GEe Energy Consulting Group, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Wind is a major piece of the green energy effort, and will certainly play a more important role in the future power industry. GE Energy has conducted a numer of large-scale renewable integration studies in North America. The objective of these studies is to understand how integrating large amounts of variable energy resources into the supply mix affects grid operation and economics. As part of this effort, various statistical analyses were performed to characterize the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. Based on the results of this characterization, further engineering and economic studies are performed to assess operational requirements, costs, and savings attributable to wind resources. For these analyses, a large amount of input data is usually required, and is often obtained in different formats. These data sets are not very intuitive at first glance, and need extensive effort to be developed into something informative. Based on project experience, different methods have been developed to explore and extrapolate the information hidden within large amounts of raw data. Algorithms and macros have been written to validate and correct data, to create summary information, and to produce derived data sets for further analyses. Informative plots and charts have also been programmed into various applications to provide quick, useful analysis when needed. This article introduces some illustrative and easy-to-analyze ways to look at these data using readily available tools. (orig.)

  2. A pseudodifferential equation with damping for one-way wave propagation in inhomogeneous acoustic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, C.C.


    A one-way wave equation is an evolution equation in one of the space directions that describes (approximately) a wave field. The exact wave field is approximated in a high frequency, microlocal sense. Here we derive the pseudodifferential one-way wave equation for an inhomogeneous acoustic medium us

  3. Comment on "One-way deficit of two qubit X states" (United States)

    Jing, Naihuan; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yao-Kun


    We improve the recent method of Wang et. al to calculate exactly the one-way information deficit of any X-state. Analytical formulas of the one-way information deficit are given for several nontrivial regions of the parameters.

  4. Multisymplectic Hsmiltonian Formulation for a One-Way Seismic Wave Equation of High-Order Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the Lagrangian density and covariant Legendre transform, we obtain the multisymplectic Hamiltonian formulation for a one-way seismic wave equation of high-order approximation. This formulation provides a new perspective for studying the one-way seismic wave equation. A multisymplectic integrator is also derived.

  5. On the Experimental Determination of the One-Way Speed of Light (United States)

    Perez, Israel


    In this paper the question of the isotropy of the one-way speed of light is addressed from an experimental perspective. In particular, we analyse two experimental methods commonly used in its determination. The analysis is aimed at clarifying the view that the one-way speed of light cannot be determined by techniques in which physical entities…

  6. Nonlinear behavior analysis of spur gear pairs with a one-way clutch (United States)

    Gill-Jeong, Cheon


    Nonlinear behavior analysis of a paired spur gear system with a one-way clutch was used to verify whether a one-way clutch is effective for reducing torsional vibration. The dynamic responses were studied over a wide frequency range by speed sweeping to check the nonlinear behavior using numerical integration. The gear system with a one-way clutch showed typical nonlinear behavior, such as softening nonlinearity and jump phenomena. The oscillating component of the dynamic transmission error was reduced over the entire frequency range compared to a system without a one-way clutch, and double-side contact could be prevented, even with very small backlash. Installing a one-way clutch on both sides of the gear system was more effective at mitigating the negative effects of various parameter changes than installing one only on the input or output side.

  7. Moments Based Framework for Performance Analysis of One-Way/Two-Way CSI-Assisted AF Relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua


    When analyzing system performance of conventional one-way relaying or advanced two-way relaying, these two techniques are always dealt with separately and, thus, their performance cannot be compared efficiently. Moreover, for ease of mathematical tractability, channels considered in such studies are generally assumed to be subject to Rayleigh fading or to be Nakagami-$m$ channels with integer fading parameters, which is impractical in typical urban environments. In this paper, we propose a unified moments-based framework for general performance analysis of channel-state-information (CSI) assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems. The framework is applicable to both one-way and two-way relaying over arbitrary Nakagami-$m$ fading channels, and it includes previously reported results as special cases. Specifically, the mathematical framework is firstly developed under the umbrella of the weighted harmonic mean of two Gamma-distributed variables in conjunction with the theory of Pad\\\\\\'e approximants. Then, general expressions for the received signal-to-noise ratios of the users in one-way/two-way relaying systems and the corresponding moments, moment generation function, and cumulative density function are established. Subsequently, the mathematical framework is applied to analyze, compare, and gain insights into system performance of one-way and two-way relaying techniques, in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, and achievable data rate. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results as well as previously reported results whenever available, and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate and compare system performance of one-way and two-way relaying.

  8. Measuring the user experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Tullis, Thomas


    Measuring the User Experience was the first book that focused on how to quantify the user experience. Now in the second edition, the authors include new material on how recent technologies have made it easier and more effective to collect a broader range of data about the user experience. As more UX and web professionals need to justify their design decisions with solid, reliable data, Measuring the User Experience provides the quantitative analysis training that these professionals need. The second edition presents new metrics such as emotional engagement, personas, k

  9. Checking Questionable Entry of Personally Identifiable Information Encrypted by One-Way Hash Transformation (United States)

    Chen, Xianlai; Fann, Yang C; McAuliffe, Matthew; Vismer, David


    Background As one of the several effective solutions for personal privacy protection, a global unique identifier (GUID) is linked with hash codes that are generated from combinations of personally identifiable information (PII) by a one-way hash algorithm. On the GUID server, no PII is permitted to be stored, and only GUID and hash codes are allowed. The quality of PII entry is critical to the GUID system. Objective The goal of our study was to explore a method of checking questionable entry of PII in this context without using or sending any portion of PII while registering a subject. Methods According to the principle of GUID system, all possible combination patterns of PII fields were analyzed and used to generate hash codes, which were stored on the GUID server. Based on the matching rules of the GUID system, an error-checking algorithm was developed using set theory to check PII entry errors. We selected 200,000 simulated individuals with randomly-planted errors to evaluate the proposed algorithm. These errors were placed in the required PII fields or optional PII fields. The performance of the proposed algorithm was also tested in the registering system of study subjects. Results There are 127,700 error-planted subjects, of which 114,464 (89.64%) can still be identified as the previous one and remaining 13,236 (10.36%, 13,236/127,700) are discriminated as new subjects. As expected, 100% of nonidentified subjects had errors within the required PII fields. The possibility that a subject is identified is related to the count and the type of incorrect PII field. For all identified subjects, their errors can be found by the proposed algorithm. The scope of questionable PII fields is also associated with the count and the type of the incorrect PII field. The best situation is to precisely find the exact incorrect PII fields, and the worst situation is to shrink the questionable scope only to a set of 13 PII fields. In the application, the proposed algorithm can

  10. "Imprisoned" in pain: analyzing personal experiences of phantom pain. (United States)

    Nortvedt, Finn; Engelsrud, Gunn


    This article explores the phenomenon of "phantom pain." The analysis is based on personal experiences elicited from individuals who have lost a limb or live with a paralyzed body part. Our study reveals that the ways in which these individuals express their pain experience is an integral aspect of that experience. The material consists of interviews undertaken with men who are living with phantom pain resulting from a traumatic injury. The phenomenological analysis is inspired by Zahavi (J Conscious Stud 8(5-7):151-167, 2001) and Merleau-Ponty (Phenomenology of perception. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1962/2000). On a descriptive level the metaphors these patients invoke to describe their condition reveal immense suffering, such as a feeling of being invaded by insects or of their skin being scorched and stripped from their body. Such metaphors express a dimension of experience concerning the self that is in pain and others whom the sufferer relates to through this pain, as well as the agony that this pain inflicts in the world of lived experience. This pain has had a profound impact on their lives and altered their relationship with self (body), others and the world. Their phantom pain has become a reminder of their formerly intact and functioning body; they describe the contrast between their past and present body as an ambiguous and disturbing experience. We conclude that these sensitive and personalized experiences of phantom pain illuminates how acts of expression--spoken pain--constitute a fundamental dimension of a first-person perspective which contribute to the field of knowledge about "phantom pain".

  11. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation. (United States)

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T


    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis.

  12. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil


    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  13. Comments on the rank product method for analyzing replicated experiments. (United States)

    Koziol, James A


    Breitling et al. introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we relate the rank product method to linear rank statistics and provide an alternative derivation of distribution theory attending the rank product method.

  14. Designing experiments and analyzing data a model comparison perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Scott E


    Through this book's unique model comparison approach, students and researchers are introduced to a set of fundamental principles for analyzing data. After seeing how these principles can be applied in simple designs, students are shown how these same principles also apply in more complicated designs. Drs. Maxwell and Delaney believe that the model comparison approach better prepares students to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis appropriate for various designs; and builds a stronger foundation, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics omitt

  15. Application of simple array method in one-way traffic synthetic asessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; LIU Guang-ping


    One-Way Traffic synthetic assessing can not only determine the assessment method, but can also provide an opportunity for further study of road systems. Comparing three Road Traffic Planning methods, which are Value Analysis method, Simple Array method and Step Analysis method, this paper concludes that Simple Array method has one prominent merit, avoiding the complicated relationship of various factors and simplifying the complex problem. Therefore Simple Array method is firstly presented in this paper to be the assessing measure to assess the One-Way Traffic Planning project. Although this assessing method cannot wholly give way to man's will, through consistently testing on qualitative factors and with the decision-making results of a multiprogram, this method is still an effective method. Using an example of Harbin One-Way Traffic planning, with seven assessing indexes including economic benefit index, Simple Array method is applied to synthetically assessing the program. This fully reflects the general function of One-Way Traffic planning program and objectively evaluates the program. It also proves that, as the method of One-Way Traffic synthetic assessing, Simple Array method is rational and practical.

  16. One-way quantum deficit and quantum coherence in the anisotropic XY chain (United States)

    Ye, Biao-Liang; Li, Bo; Zhao, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Fei, Shao-Ming


    In this study, we investigate pairwise non-classical correlations measured using a one-way quantum deficit as well as quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain in a transverse magnetic field for both zero and finite temperatures. The analytical and numerical results of our investigations are presented. In the case when the temperature is zero, it is shown that the one-way quantum deficit can characterize quantum phase transitions as well as quantum coherence. We find that these measures have a clear critical point at λ = 1. When λ ≤ 1, the one-way quantum deficit has an analytical expression that coincides with the relative entropy of coherence. We also study an XX model and an Ising chain at the finite temperatures.

  17. Quantum de Finetti Theorem under Fully-One-Way Adaptive Measurements (United States)

    Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme


    We prove a version of the quantum de Finetti theorem: permutation-invariant quantum states are well approximated as a probabilistic mixture of multifold product states. The approximation is measured by distinguishability under measurements that are implementable by fully-one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our result strengthens Brandão and Harrow's de Finetti theorem where a kind of partially-one-way LOCC measurements was used for measuring the approximation, with essentially the same error bound. As main applications, we show (i) a quasipolynomial-time algorithm which detects multipartite entanglement with an amount larger than an arbitrarily small constant (measured with a variant of the relative entropy of entanglement), and (ii) a proof that in quantum Merlin-Arthur proof systems, polynomially many provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to one-way LOCC operations.

  18. One-way steering of optical fields via dissipation of an atomic reservoir (United States)

    Rao, Shi; Hu, Xiangming; Li, Lingchao; Xu, Jun


    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering as a form of quantum correlation lies between entanglement and Bell nonlocality and exhibits an inherent asymmetry between two observers. We study EPR steering of two fields, which are generated via four-wave mixing processes and are entangled with each other due to the dissipation of the atomic reservoir. It is shown that the one-way steering happens from one mode to the other for different cavity decay rates and not too small cooperation parameters. Depending on the adiabatic and nonadiabatic conditions, the one-way steering occurs in a different detuning region when the cooperation parameters are relatively small. An increase in the cooperation parameters leads to an increase both in the parameter region and in the degree for the one-way steering. Finally we generalize the present scheme to the cases of the bright and/or collective fields.

  19. One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Biao; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang


    In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system - magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally.

  20. Bending self-collimated one-way light by using gyromagnetic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing-Bo [School of Electronic Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Construction Laboratory of Modern Measurement Technology and Intelligent System, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300 (China); Li, Zhen; Wu, Rui-xin, E-mail: [School of Electronic Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We theoretically demonstrate that electromagnetic waves can self-collimate and propagate unidirectionally in photonic crystals fabricated using semicylindrical ferrite rods in magnetized states. The parity and time-reversal symmetries of such photonic crystals are broken, resulting in a self-collimated one-way body wave within the photonic crystals. By applying the bias magnetic field in a complex configuration, the self-collimated one-way wave beam can be bent into arbitrary trajectories within the photonic crystal, providing an avenue for controlling wave beams.

  1. [Molecular basis of one-way serological reaction between SINV and XJ-160 virus]. (United States)

    Wang, Li-hua; Fu, Shi-hong; Yang, Yi-liang; Zhu, Wu-yang; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-dong


    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of one-way serological reaction between XJ-160 virus and SINV by recombinant viruses which exchanged the glycoprotein genes individually or simultaneously. Three recombinant viruses were obtained based on the whole-length infectious cDNA clone of XJ-160 virus. The infectivity and pathogenesis to BHK-21 cells and animals were studied and the gene which controlled this one-way serological reaction phenomenon was searched by MCPENT. The results showed that the E2 glycoprotein was the main factor which influenced the growth rate, plaque morphology and pathogenicity of BHK-21 cells and suckling mice. The results of MCPENT showed that the E2 glycoprotein of SINV played a major role in this one-way serological reaction phenomenon. Our study identified the SINE2 gene was the determined gene for one way serological reaction between XJ-160 virus and SINV, and this research laid the foundation for further analysis of the genomic structure and function of SINV.

  2. Developing English and Spanish Literacy in a One-Way Spanish Immersion Program (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Lindsay Kay


    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the possible cause and effect relationship between educational programming, specifically one-way Spanish immersion and traditional English-only, and native English-speaking fifth graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension. Archival data was used to examine students' reading achievement as…

  3. One-way Penetration of the Boundary Wave in Anisotropic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Arkhipov


    Full Text Available One-way penetration of the boundary wave in single-layer and multilayer anisotropic structures is investigated. We show that the conditions for minimal wave reflection from one side and full wave reflection from another side of the structure are possible. No conversation of polarization can be obtained for the considered effect.

  4. Security analysis of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shi-Hong; Shan Peng-Yang


    The collision and statistical properties of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos are investigated Analysis and simulation results indicate that collisions exist in the original algorithm and,therefore,the original algorithm is insecure and vulnerable. An improved algorithm is proposed to avoid the collisions.

  5. Spatiotemporal quasiperiodicity transition to chaos in the one-way coupled bistability lattice system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世平; 田钢; 屈进禄; 徐树山


    One-way coupled optical bnstability lattice (OCBL) system for open flow is investigated. By using numerical simulations spatiotemporal quasiperiodicity is found. A rough phase diagram indicating the main spatiotemporal dynamic behavior in weakly coupled lattice is given. The transitions between spatiotemporal quasiperiodicity and chaos are observed. This result is important for the understanding of turbulence.

  6. Complex spatiotemporal behavior in a chain of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Gorria, C.;


    The dynamics of asymmetrically coupled nonlinear elements is considered. It is shown that there are two distinctive regimes of oscillatory behavior of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements depending on the relaxation time and the strength of the coupling. In the subcritical regime when...... nonlinear model....

  7. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy (United States)

    Schwartz, Todd A.


    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  8. Experimental realization of one-way quantum computing with two-photon four-qubit cluster states. (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Che-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Goebel, Alexander; Chen, Shuai; Mair, Alois; Pan, Jian-Wei


    We report an experimental realization of one-way quantum computing on a two-photon four-qubit cluster state. This is accomplished by developing a two-photon cluster state source entangled both in polarization and spatial modes. With this special source, we implemented a highly efficient Grover's search algorithm and high-fidelity two-qubit quantum gates. Our experiment demonstrates that such cluster states could serve as an ideal source and a building block for rapid and precise optical quantum computation.

  9. Observation of Genuine One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering. (United States)

    Wollmann, Sabine; Walk, Nathan; Bennet, Adam J; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J


    Within the hierarchy of inseparable quantum correlations, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is distinguished from both entanglement and Bell nonlocality by its asymmetry-there exist conditions where the steering phenomenon changes from being observable to not observable, simply by exchanging the role of the two measuring parties. While this one-way steering feature has been previously demonstrated for the restricted class of Gaussian measurements, for the general case of positive-operator-valued measures even its theoretical existence has only recently been settled. Here, we prove, and then experimentally observe, the one-way steerability of an experimentally practical class of entangled states in this general setting. As well as its foundational significance, the demonstration of fundamentally asymmetric nonlocality also has practical implications for the distribution of the trust in quantum communication networks.

  10. One-Way Diffusion of Ionic Liquids in a Mixing Process with Water (United States)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Tahara, Daiki; Kurita, Rei


    In contrast to the usual diffusive mixing process between two miscible liquids, the ionic liquid [Cnmim][PF6] forms a droplet in water while mixing. The droplet retains a sharp interface with surface tension, gradually decreasing in size until completely mixed with water. This peculiar behavior in the mixing process accompanies one-way diffusion, in which ions diffuse in one direction only from the bulk IL droplet into the bulk continuum of water. The activation energy of the one-way diffusion at the [Cnmim][PF6]/water interface increases with increasing length of the hydrophobic alkyl chains attached to the cation molecules of [Cnmim][PF6]. It is considered that the hydrophobic nanoscale structure observed in [C4mim][PF6] plays an important role in the generation of the droplet and the mixing dynamics.

  11. A wind-powered one-way bistable medium with parity effects (United States)

    Rosenberger, Tessa; Schattgen, Graham; King-Smith, Matthew; Shrestha, Prakrit; Maxted, Katsuo J.; Lindner, John F.


    We describe the design, construction, and dynamics of low-cost mechanical arrays of 3D-printed bistable elements whose shapes interact with wind to couple them one-way. Unlike earlier hydromechanical unidirectional arrays, our aeromechanical one-way arrays are simpler, easier to study, and exhibit a broader range of phenomena. Solitary waves or solitons propagate in one direction at speeds proportional to wind speeds. Periodic boundaries enable solitons to annihilate in pairs in arrays with an even number of elements. Solitons propagate indefinitely in odd arrays that frustrate pairing. Large noise spontaneously creates soliton-antisoliton pairs. Soliton annihilation times increase quadratically with initial separations, as expected for random-walk models of soliton collisions.

  12. Acoustic one-way mode conversion and transmission by sonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Shiliang; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping


    We proposed a scheme to achieve one-way acoustic propagation and even odd mode switching in two mutually perpendicular sonic crystal waveguides connected by a resonant cavity. The even mode in the entrance waveguide is able to switch to odd mode in the exit waveguide through a symmetry match between the cavity resonant modes and the waveguide modes. Conversely, the odd mode in the exit waveguide is unable to be converted into the even mode in the entrance waveguide as incident waves and eigenmodes are mismatched in their symmetries at the waveguide exit. This one way mechanism can be applied to design an acoustic diode for acoustic integration devices and can be used as a convertor of the acoustic waveguide modes.

  13. Longitudinal chirality, enhanced non-reciprocity, and nano-scale planar one-way guiding

    CERN Document Server

    Mazor, Yarden


    When a linear chain of plasmonic nano-particles is exposed to a transverse DC magnetic field, the chain modes are elliptically polarized, in a single plane parallel to the chain axis; hence, a novel longitudinal plasmon-rotation is created. If, in addition, the chain geometry possesses longitudinal rotation, e.g. by using ellipsoidal particles that rotate in the same plane as the plasmon rotation, strong non-reciprocity is created. The structure possesses a new kind of chirality--the longitudinal chirality--and supports one-way guiding. Since all particles rotate in the same plane, the geometry is planar and can be fabricated by printing leaf-like patches on a single plane. Furthermore, the magnetic field is significantly weaker than in previously reported one-way guiding structures. These properties are examined for ideal (lossless) and for lossy chains.

  14. Quantum error correcting codes and one-way quantum computing: Towards a quantum memory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlingemann, D


    For realizing a quantum memory we suggest to first encode quantum information via a quantum error correcting code and then concatenate combined decoding and re-encoding operations. This requires that the encoding and the decoding operation can be performed faster than the typical decoherence time of the underlying system. The computational model underlying the one-way quantum computer, which has been introduced by Hans Briegel and Robert Raussendorf, provides a suitable concept for a fast implementation of quantum error correcting codes. It is shown explicitly in this article is how encoding and decoding operations for stabilizer codes can be realized on a one-way quantum computer. This is based on the graph code representation for stabilizer codes, on the one hand, and the relation between cluster states and graph codes, on the other hand.

  15. Aperiodicity in one-way Markov cycles and repeat times of large earthquakes in faults

    CERN Document Server

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Pacheco, Amalio F


    A common use of Markov Chains is the simulation of the seismic cycle in a fault, i.e. as a renewal model for the repetition of its characteristic earthquakes. This representation is consistent with Reid's elastic rebound theory. Here it is proved that in {\\it any} one-way Markov cycle, the aperiodicity of the corresponding distribution of cycle lengths is always lower than one. This fact concurs with observations of large earthquakes in faults all over the world.

  16. Experimental realization of Deutsch's algorithm in a one-way quantum computer. (United States)

    Tame, M S; Prevedel, R; Paternostro, M; Böhi, P; Kim, M S; Zeilinger, A


    We report the first experimental demonstration of an all-optical one-way implementation of Deutsch's quantum algorithm on a four-qubit cluster state. All the possible configurations of a balanced or constant function acting on a two-qubit register are realized within the measurement-based model for quantum computation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, therefore demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm.

  17. A comparison of one-way video and two-way video educational videoteleconferencing (United States)

    Hendrix, Craig L.


    The literature reviewed in this study supported the effectiveness of educational videoteleconferencing; however, relatively little research was found comparing the two most interactive types of educational videoteleconferencing systems. An experimental research project was conducted, attempting to determine which educational videoteleconferencing system is more effective. Specifically, this project was designed to answer the following question: Is live two-way video with two-way audio more effective than live one-way video with two-way audio educational videoteleconferencing (EVC)?

  18. On one-way Doppler measurements of space craft and celestial objects (United States)

    Jochim, E. F. M.


    The orbital velocity of a spacecraft and other celestial objects is monitored by observing the Doppler frequency shift of the signals received at the ground station. This is possible one-way in case the transmitted frequency is stable enough. In most spacecraft a calibrated transponder allows two-way Doppler frequency registrations. In general, the factor 2 is expected as the quotient between two- and one-way frequencies. However, this is no longer the case when the motion of the observed object deviates from the orbit as predicted. Frequency differences appear. Porsche (1999) has published a formula to describe these differences based on the assumption of a double projection of the true velocity vector. In the present paper a more sophisticated analysis of the influence of state errors on the track-ing results is deduced. This theory has been tested by the Doppler measurements during flybys of the comet space probe GIOTTO penetrating through the comae of the comets P/Halley and P/Grigg-Skjellerup. One-way Doppler measurements of the low Earth satellites CHAMP and TERRASAR-X show a tendency for the applicability of this approach. Finally, some conse-quences for the observation of other celestial objects are discussed.

  19. Measurement of one-way velocity of light and light-year (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    For space science and astronomy the fundamentality of one-way velocity of light (OWVL) is selfevident. The measurement of OWVL (distance / interval) and the clock synchronization with light-signal transfer make a logical circulation. This means that OWVL could not be directly measured but only come indirectly from astronomical method (Romer's Io eclipse and Bradley's sidereal aberration). Furthermore, the light-year by definitional OWVL and the trigonometry distance with AU are also un-measurable. In this report two methods of clock synchronization to solve this problem were proposed: The arriving-time difference of longitudinal-transverse wave (Ts - Tp) or ordinary-extraordinary light (Te - To) is measured by single clock at one end of a dual-speed transmission-line, the signal transmission-delay (from sending-end time Tx to receiving-end time Tp or To) calculated with wave-speed ratio is: (Tp -Tx) = (Ts -Tp) / ((Vp / Vs) - 1) or: (To -Tx) = (Te - To) / ((Vo / Ve ) - 1), where (Vp / Vs) = (E / k) 1/2 is Yang's / shear elastic-modulus ratio obtained by comparing two strains at same stress, (Vo / Ve) = (ne / no) is extraordinary/ordinary light refractive-index ratio obtained by comparing two deflection-angles. Then, two clocks at transmission-line two ends can be synchronized directly to measure the one-way velocity of light and light-year, which work as one earthquakestation with single clock measures first-shake-time and the distance to epicenter. The readings Na and Nb of two counters Ca and Cb with distance L are transferred into a computer C by two leads with transmission-delay Tac and Tbc respectively. The computer progressing subtraction operation exports steady value: (Nb - Na) = f (Ta - Tb ) + f (Tac - Tbc ), where f is the frequency of light-wave always passing Ca and Cb, Ta and Tb are the count-start time of Ca and Cb respectively. From the transmission-delay possess the spatial translational and rotational invariability, the computer exports steady value

  20. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.


    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection that maximize the sum rate of the secondary network without degrading the quality of service of the primary network by respecting a tolerated interference threshold were formulated. Single relay selection and optimal power allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward protocols were studied. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods were used to find the optimal power allocation. The transmission process to exchange two different messages between two transceivers for two-way relaying technique takes place in two time slots. In the first slot, the transceivers transmit their signals simultaneously to the relay. Then, during the second slot the relay broadcasts its signal to the terminals. Moreover, improvement of both spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved compared with the one-way relaying technique. As an extension, a multiple relay selection for both one-way and two-way relaying under cognitive radio scenario using amplify-and-forward were discussed. A strong optimization tool based on genetic and iterative algorithms was employed to solve the 
formulated optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection, where discrete relay power levels were considered. Simulation results show that the practical and low-complexity heuristic approaches achieve almost the same performance of the optimal relay selection schemes either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity.

  1. Generating equally weighted test particles from the one-way flux of a drifting Maxwellian (United States)

    Makkonen, T.; Airila, M. I.; Kurki-Suonio, T.


    The problem of generating equally weighted test particles from the one way flux of drifting Maxwellian is tackled. This paper extends previous work on the subject by presenting a simple and efficient rejection sampling algorithm together with C++ source files. The properties of the underlying probability distribution function, having the form of a normal distribution times x with positive support, are also disseminated. The method presented in this paper has been successfully used to combine fluid and kinetic models for trace impurity problems in plasma physics.

  2. One-way acoustic mirror based on anisotropic zero-index media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhong-ming; Liang, Bin, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-chun, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zou, Xin-ye [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Yong [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506, France and Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We have designed a one-way acoustic mirror comprising anisotropic zero-index media. For acoustic beam incident at a particular angle, the designed structure behaves like a high-efficient mirror that redirects almost all the incident energy into another direction predicted by the Snell's law, while becoming virtually transparent to beams propagating reversely along this output path. Furthermore, the mirror can be tailored to work at arbitrary incident angle by simply adjusting its geometry. Our design, with undirectional reflection functionality and flexible working angle, may offer possibilities in space isolations and have deep implication in various scenarios like ultrasound imaging or noise control.

  3. One-Way Ranging Method Using Reference-Based Broadcasting Messages for Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    Lee, Cheolhyo; Nam, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, You-Ze

    This paper proposes a one-way ranging method using reference-based broadcasting messages. The method is based on impulse radio UWB (Ultra-wideband) for wireless sensor networks. The proposed method reduces traffic overheads and increases the ranging accuracy using frequency offsets and counter information based on virtually synchronized counters between RNs (Reference Nodes) and MNs (Mobile Nodes). Simulation results show that the proposed method can alleviate the ranging errors comparing to SDS-TWR (Symmetric Double-Sided Two-Way Ranging) method in terms of the frequency offset.

  4. One-Way Information Deficit and Geometry for a Class of Two-Qubit States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao-Kun; MA Teng; LI Bo; WANG Zhi-Xi


    The work deficit,as introduced by Jonathan Oppenheim et al.[Phys.Rev.Lett.89 (2002) 180402]is a good measure of the quantum correlations in a state and provides a new standpoint for understanding quantum non-locality.In this paper,we analytically evaluate the one-way information deficit (OWID) for the Bell-diagonal states and a class of two-qubit states and further give the geometry picture for OWID.The dynamic behavior of the OWID under decoherence channel is investigated and it is shown that the OWID of some classes of X states is more robust against the decoherence than the entanglement.

  5. One-way hash function based on hyper-chaotic cellular neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qun-Ting; Gao Tie-Gang


    The design of an efficient one-way hash function with good performance is a hot spot in modern cryptography researches. In this paper, a hash function construction method based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics is proposed. First, the chaos sequence is gotten by iterating cellular neural network with Runge-Kutta algorithm, and then the chaos sequence is iterated with the message. The hash code is obtained through the corresponding transform of the latter chaos sequence. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the new method has the merit of convenience, high sensitivity to initial values, good hash performance, especially the strong stability.

  6. Seismic Imaging, One-Way Wave Equations, Pseudodifferential Operators, Path Integrals, and all that Jazz (United States)

    Artoun, Ojenie; David-Rus, Diana; Emmett, Matthew; Fishman, Lou; Fital, Sandra; Hogan, Chad; Lim, Jisun; Lushi, Enkeleida; Marinov, Vesselin


    In this report we summarize an extension of Fourier analysis for the solution of the wave equation with a non-constant coefficient corresponding to an inhomogeneous medium. The underlying physics of the problem is exploited to link pseudodifferential operators and phase space path integrals to obtain a marching algorithm that incorporates the backward scattering into the evolution of the wave. This allows us to successfully apply single-sweep, one-way marching methods in inherently two-way environments, which was not achieved before through other methods for this problem.

  7. Complete synchronization and generalized synchronization of one-way coupled time-delay systems. (United States)

    Zhan, Meng; Wang, Xingang; Gong, Xiaofeng; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H


    The complete synchronization and generalized synchronization (GS) of one-way coupled time-delay systems are studied. We find that GS can be achieved by a single scalar signal, and its synchronization threshold for different delay times shows the parameter resonance effect, i.e., we can obtain stable synchronization at a smaller coupling if the delay time of the driven system is chosen such that it is in resonance with the driving system. Near chaos synchronization, the desynchronization dynamics displays periodic bursts with the period equal to the delay time of the driven system. These features can be easily applied to the recovery of time-delay systems.

  8. A Note on the Existence of the Posteriors for One-way Random Effect Probit Models. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Sun, Dongchu


    The existence of the posterior distribution for one-way random effect probit models has been investigated when the uniform prior is applied to the overall mean and a class of noninformative priors are applied to the variance parameter. The sufficient conditions to ensure the propriety of the posterior are given for the cases with replicates at some factor levels. It is shown that the posterior distribution is never proper if there is only one observation at each factor level. For this case, however, a class of proper priors for the variance parameter can provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for the propriety of the posterior.

  9. One-way spatial integration of Navier-Stokes equations: stability of wall-bounded flows (United States)

    Rigas, Georgios; Colonius, Tim; Towne, Aaron; Beyar, Michael


    For three-dimensional flows, questions of stability, receptivity, secondary flows, and coherent structures require the solution of large partial-derivative eigenvalue problems. Reduced-order approximations are thus required for engineering prediction since these problems are often computationally intractable or prohibitively expensive. For spatially slowly evolving flows, such as jets and boundary layers, a regularization of the equations of motion sometimes permits a fast spatial marching procedure that results in a huge reduction in computational cost. Recently, a novel one-way spatial marching algorithm has been developed by Towne & Colonius. The new method overcomes the principle flaw observed in Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE), namely the ad hoc regularization that removes upstream propagating modes. The one-way method correctly parabolizes the flow equations based on estimating, in a computationally efficient way, the local spectrum in each cross-stream plane and an efficient spectral filter eliminates modes with upstream group velocity. Results from the application of the method to wall-bounded flows will be presented and compared with predictions from the full linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations and PSE.

  10. Quantification of Information in a One-Way Plant-to-Animal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurance R. Doyle


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate possible broader applications of information theory to the quantification of non-human communication systems, we apply calculations of information entropy to a simple chemical communication from the cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum to the wasp (Cardiochiles nigriceps studied by DeMoraes et al. The purpose of this chemical communication from cotton plants to wasps is presumed to be to allow the predatory wasp to more easily obtain the location of its preferred prey—one of two types of parasitic herbivores feeding on the cotton plants. Specification of the plant-eating herbivore feeding on it by the cotton plants allows preferential attraction of the wasps to those individual plants. We interpret the emission of nine chemicals by the plants as individual signal differences, (depending on the herbivore type, to be detected by the wasps as constituting a nine-signal one-way communication system across kingdoms (from the kingdom Plantae to the kingdom Animalia. We use fractional differences in the chemical abundances, (emitted as a result of the two herbivore types, to calculate the Shannon information entropic measures (marginal, joint, and mutual entropies, as well as the ambiguity, etc. of the transmitted message. We then compare these results with the subsequent behavior of the wasps, (calculating the equivocation in the message reception, for possible insights into the history and actual working of this one-way communication system.

  11. Exact Markov chain and approximate diffusion solution for haploid genetic drift with one-way mutation. (United States)

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A; Miloh, Touvia


    The classical Kimura solution of the diffusion equation is investigated for a haploid random mating (Wright-Fisher) model, with one-way mutations and initial-value specified by the founder population. The validity of the transient diffusion solution is checked by exact Markov chain computations, using a Jordan decomposition of the transition matrix. The conclusion is that the one-way diffusion model mostly works well, although the rate of convergence depends on the initial allele frequency and the mutation rate. The diffusion approximation is poor for mutation rates so low that the non-fixation boundary is regular. When this happens we perturb the diffusion solution around the non-fixation boundary and obtain a more accurate approximation that takes quasi-fixation of the mutant allele into account. The main application is to quantify how fast a specific genetic variant of the infinite alleles model is lost. We also discuss extensions of the quasi-fixation approach to other models with small mutation rates.

  12. Scalable one-way quantum computer using on-chip resonator qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chun-Wang; Li, Hong-Yi; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu


    We propose a scalable and robust architecture for one-way quantum computation using coupled networks of superconducting transmission line resonators. In our protocol, quantum information is encoded into the long-lived photon states of the resonators, which have a much longer coherence time than the usual superconducting qubits. Each resonator contains a charge qubit used for the state initialization and local projective measurement of the photonic qubit. Any pair of neighboring photonic qubits are coupled via a mediator charge qubit, and large photonic cluster states can be created by applying Stark-shifted Rabi pulses to these mediator qubits. The distinct advantage of our architecture is that it combines both the excellent scalability of the solid-state systems and the long coherence time of the photonic qubits. Furthermore, this architecture is very robust against the parameter variations.

  13. Demonstration of a Controlled-Phase Gate for Continuous-Variable One-Way Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira


    We experimentally demonstrate a controlled-phase gate for continuous variables in a fully measurement-based fashion. In our scheme, the two independent input states of the gate, encoded in two optical modes, are teleported into a four-mode Gaussian cluster state. As a result, one of the entanglement links present in the initial cluster state appears in the two unmeasured output modes as the corresponding entangling gate acting on the input states. The genuine quantum character of this gate becomes manifest and is verified through the presence of entanglement at the output for a product two-mode coherent input state. By combining our controlled-phase gate with the recently reported module for universal single-mode Gaussian operations [R. Ukai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240504 (2011)], it is possible to implement universal Gaussian operations on arbitrary multi-mode quantum optical states in form of a fully measurement-based one-way quantum computation.

  14. One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea


    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  15. One-way rotation of a molecule-rotor driven by a shot noise. (United States)

    Echeverria, Jorge; Monturet, Serge; Joachim, Christian


    The shot noise of a tunneling current passing through a molecule-motor can sustain a one-way rotation when populating the molecular excited states by tunneling inelastic excitations. We demonstrate that a ratchet-like ground state rotation potential energy curve is not necessary for the rotation to occur. A relative shift in energy difference between the maxima of this ground state and the minima of the excited states is the necessary condition to get to a unidirectional rotation. The rotor speed of rotation and its rotation direction are both controlled by this shift, indicating the necessity of a careful design of both the ground and excited states of the next generation of molecule-motors to be able to generate a motive power at the nanoscale.

  16. A Novel Approach for Verifiable Secret Sharing by using a One Way Hash Function

    CERN Document Server

    Parmar, Keyur


    Threshold secret sharing schemes do not prevent any malicious behavior of the dealer or shareholders and so we need verifiable secret sharing, to detect and identify the cheaters, to achieve fair reconstruction of a secret. The problem of verifiable secret sharing is to verify the shares distributed by the dealer. A novel approach for verifiable secret sharing is presented in this paper where both the dealer and shareholders are not assumed to be honest. In this paper, we extend the term verifiable secret sharing to verify the shares, distributed by a dealer as well as shares submitted by shareholders for secret reconstruction, and to verify the reconstructed secret. Our proposed scheme uses a one way hash function and probabilistic homomorphic encryption function to provide verifiability and fair reconstruction of a secret.

  17. One-way hash function construction based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yu-Ling; Du Ming-Hui


    Based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system,a novel algorithm for constructing a one-way hash function is proposed and analysed.The message is divided into fixed length blocks.Each message block is processed by the hash compression function in parallel.The hash compression is constructed based on the spatiotemporal chaos.In each message block,the ASCII code and its position in the whole message block chain constitute the initial conditions and the key of the hash compression function.The final hash value is generated by further compressing the mixed result of all the hash compression values.Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm presents high sensitivity to the message and key,good statistical properties,and strong collision resistance.

  18. Acoustic one-way metasurfaces: Asymmetric Phase Modulation of Sound by Subwavelength Layer (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-Ye; Yang, Jing; Yin, Lei-Lei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    We theoretically design and numerically demonstrate an acoustic one-way metasurface, which is a planar and acoustically subwavelength layer behaving like a nearly-reflectionless surface with arbitrary wave-steering capability for incident wave impinging on one side, while virtually blocking the reversed wave. The underlying mechanism is based on an asymmetric phase modulation by coupling a phase array and a near-zero-index medium. We exemplify a metastructure-based implementation by combining the hybrid metastuctures and labyrinthine structures. Moreover, the performance of the proposed implementation is demonstrated via three distinct phenomena of anomalous refraction, wave splitting and conversion of propagation wave to surface wave. Our findings may offer more possibilities for sound manipulation and improve the application potential of acoustic artificial devices in situations such as ultrasonic imaging and therapy.

  19. The exact distribution of Cochran's heterogeneity statistic in one-way random effects meta-analysis. (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Brad J; Jackson, Dan


    The presence and impact of heterogeneity in the standard one-way random effects model in meta-analysis are often assessed using the Q statistic due to Cochran. We derive the exact distribution of this statistic under the assumptions of the random effects model, and also suggest two moment-based approximations and a saddlepoint approximation for Q. The exact and approximate distributions are then applied to obtain the corresponding distributions of the recently proposed heterogeneity measures I(2) and H(M)(2), the power of the standard test for the presence of heterogeneity and confidence intervals for the between-study variance parameter when the DerSimonian-Laird or the Hartung-Makambi estimator is used. The methodology is illustrated by revisiting a recent simulation study concerning the heterogeneity measures and applying all the proposed methods to four published meta-analyses.

  20. An efficient authentication scheme based on one-way key chain for sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To strike a tradeoff between the security and the consumption of energy, computing and communication resources in the nodes, this paper presents an efficient authentication scheme based on one-way key chain for sensor network. The scheme can provide immediate authentication to fulfill the latency and the storage requirements and defends against various attacks such as replay, impersonation and denial of service. Meanwhile,our scheme possesses low overhead and scalability to large networks. Furthermore, the simple related protocols or algorithms in the scheme and inexpensive public-key operation required in view of resource-starved sensor nodes minimize the storage, computation and communication overhead, and improve the efficiency of our scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme also supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing and passive participation.

  1. One-way sequencing of multiple amplicons from tandem repetitive mitochondrial DNA control region. (United States)

    Xu, Jiawu; Fonseca, Dina M


    Repetitive DNA sequences not only exist abundantly in eukaryotic nuclear genomes, but also occur as tandem repeats in many animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Due to concerted evolution, these repetitive sequences are highly similar or even identical within a genome. When long repetitive regions are the targets of amplification for the purpose of sequencing, multiple amplicons may result if one primer has to be located inside the repeats. Here, we show that, without separating these amplicons by gel purification or cloning, directly sequencing the mitochondrial repeats with the primer outside repetitive region is feasible and efficient. We exemplify it by sequencing the mtDNA control region of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, which harbors typical large tandem DNA repeats. This one-way sequencing strategy is optimal for population surveys.

  2. Comparing One-way and Two-way Coupled Hydrometeorological Forecasting Systems for Flood Forecasting in the Mediterranean Region (United States)

    Givati, Amir; Gochis, David; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald; Yu, Wei


    A pair of hydro-meteorological modeling systems were calibrated and evaluated for the Ayalon basin in central Israel to assess the advantages and limitations of one-way versus two-way coupled modeling systems for flood prediction. The models used included the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Hydro modeling system. The models were forced by observed, interpolated precipitation from rain-gauges within the basin, and with modeled precipitation from the WRF atmospheric model. Detailed calibration and evaluation was carried out for two major winter storms in January and December 2013. Then both modeling systems were executed and evaluated in an operational mode for the full 2014/2015 rainy season. Outputs from these simulations were compared to observed measurements from hydrometric stations at the Ayalon basin outlet. Various statistical metrics were employed to quantify and analyze the results: correlation, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency coefficient. Foremost, the results presented in this study highlight the sensitivity of hydrological responses to different sources of precipitation data, and less so, to hydrologic model formulation. With observed precipitation data both calibrated models closely simulated the observed hydrographs. The two-way coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro modeling system produced improved both the precipitation and hydrological simulations as compared to the one-way WRF simulations. Findings from this study suggest that the use of two-way atmospheric-hydrological coupling has the potential to improve precipitation and, therefore, hydrological forecasts for early flood warning applications. However more research needed in order to better understand the land-atmosphere coupling mechanisms driving hydrometeorological processes on a wider variety precipitation and terrestrial hydrologic systems.

  3. Comparing One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Hydrometeorological Forecasting Systems for Flood Forecasting in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Givati


    Full Text Available A pair of hydro-meteorological modeling systems were calibrated and evaluated for the Ayalon basin in central Israel to assess the advantages and limitations of one-way versus two-way coupled modeling systems for flood prediction. The models used included the Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Hydro modeling system. The models were forced by observed, interpolated precipitation from rain-gauges within the basin, and with modeled precipitation from the WRF atmospheric model. Detailed calibration and evaluation was carried out for two major winter storms in January and December 2013. Then, both modeling systems were executed and evaluated in an operational mode for the full 2014/2015 rainy season. Outputs from these simulations were compared to observed measurements from the hydrometric station at the Ayalon basin outlet. Various statistical metrics were employed to quantify and analyze the results: correlation, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and the Nash–Sutcliffe (NS efficiency coefficient. Foremost, the results presented in this study highlight the sensitivity of hydrological responses to different sources of simulated and observed precipitation data, and demonstrate improvement, although not significant, at the Hydrological response, like simulated hydrographs. With observed precipitation data both calibrated models closely simulated the observed hydrographs. The two-way coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro modeling system produced improved both the precipitation and hydrological simulations as compared to the one-way WRF simulations. Findings from this study, as well as previous studies, suggest that the use of two-way atmospheric-hydrological coupling has the potential to improve precipitation and, therefore, hydrological forecasts for early flood warning applications. However, more research needed in order to better understand the land-atmosphere coupling mechanisms

  4. The Galactic One-Way Shapiro Delay to PSR B1937+21

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, S


    The time delay experienced by a light ray as it passes through a changing gravitational potential by a non-zero mass distribution along the line of sight is usually referred to as Shapiro delay. Shapiro delay has been extensively measured in the Solar system and in binary pulsars, enabling stringent tests of general relativity as well as measurement of neutron star masses . However, Shapiro delay is ubiquitous and experienced by all astrophysical messengers on their way from the source to the Earth. We calculate the "one-way" static Shapiro delay for the first discovered millisecond pulsar PSR~B1937+21, by including the contributions from both the dark matter and baryonic matter between this pulsar and the Earth. We find a value of approximately 5 days (of which 4.74 days is from the dark matter and 0.22 days from the baryonic matter). We also calculate the modulation of Shapiro delay from the motion of a single dark matter halo, and also evaluate the cumulative effects of the motion of matter distribution on...

  5. Building of one-way Hadamard gate for squeezed coherent states (United States)

    Podoshvedov, Sergey A.


    We present an optical scheme to conditionally generate even or odd squeezed superpositions of coherent states (SSCSs). The optical setup consists of an unbalanced beam splitter whose transmittance tends to unity, and additional balanced beam splitters and photodetectors in auxiliary modes. Squeezed coherent states with different amplitudes are the input states in the optical scheme. The single-qubit operations are probabilistic and employ two- and three-photon subtractions from initial beams as the driving force. Generation of the even or odd SSCSs is observed in a wide diapason of values of used parameters. We consider a possibility to realize a one-way Hadamard gate for the squeezed coherent states when the base states are transformed into superposition states. States approximating the output states of a Hadamard gate with high fidelity can be realized by imposing restrictions on the values of used parameters. Higher-order subtractions from input beams are necessary to generate the SSCSs with larger amplitudes and higher fidelities. The problem is resolved in a Wigner representation to take into account imperfections of the optical devices.

  6. Two-factor authentication system based on optical interference and one-way hash function (United States)

    He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Meng, Xiangfeng; Liu, Xiaoli


    We present a two-factor authentication method to verify the personal identification who tries to access an optoelectronic system. This method is based on the optical interference principle and the traditional one-way Hash function (e.g. MD5). The authentication process is straightforward, the phase key and the password-controlled phase lock of one user are loading on two Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) in advance, by which two coherent beams are modulated and then interference with each other at the output plane leading to an output image. By comparing the output image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user's identity. However, the system designing process involves an iterative Modified Phase Retrieval Algorithm (MPRA). For an uthorized user, a phase lock is first created based on a "Digital Fingerprint (DF)", which is the result of a Hash function on a preselected user password. The corresponding phase key can then be determined by use of the phase lock and a designated standard certification image. Note that the encode/design process can only be realized by digital means while the authentication process could be achieved digitally or optically. Computer simulations were also given to validate the proposed approach.

  7. Delay or anticipatory synchronization in one-way coupled systems using variable delay with reset

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; R E Amritkar


    We present a mechanism for the synchronization of one-way coupled nonlinear systems in which the coupling uses a variable delay, that is reset at finite intervals. Here the delay varies in the same way as the system in time and so the coupling function remains constant for the reset interval at the end of which it is reset to the value at that time. This leads to a novel and discrete error dynamics and the resulting general stability analysis is applicable to chaotic or hyperchaotic systems. We apply this method to standard chaotic systems and hyperchaotic time delay systems. The results of the detailed numerical analysis agree with the results from stability analysis in both cases. This method has the advantage that it is cost-effective since information from the driving system is needed only at intervals of reset. Further, in the context of time delay systems, optimization among the different time-scales depending upon the application is possible due to the flexibility among the four different time-scales in our method, viz. delay in the driving system, anticipation in the response system, system delay time and reset time. We suggest a bi-channel scheme for implementing this method in communication field with enhanced security

  8. Design and analysis of logarithmic spiral type sprag one-way clutch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志辉; 严宏志; 曹煜明


    A complete mathematical model for logarithmic spiral type sprag one-way clutch design and analysis is given. It assumes that the motion of all clutch components can be expressed by a model of epicyclic gearing. It takes advantage of Hunt-Crossley contact impact theory to calculate the contact forces between sprags and races, and it can be used for optimization of design and comparison with other types of sprag clutches. A good deal of analysis shows that the parameters of the steady windup angle, the steady contact force, the natural frequency and natural cycle of clutch have nothing to do with the initial velocity of outer race, while the parameters of the maximum transient windup angle, the maximum transient impact force and the steady engagement time increase linearly in the mode of engaging operation of clutch. It is also shown that the strut angle has great influence on the dynamic engagement performance of clutch. The parameters of the steady windup angle, the maximum transient windup angle, the steady engaging time, the steady contact force, the maximum transient impact force and the natural cycle of clutch decrease linearly nearly with the inner strut angle, while the natural frequency of the system increases linearly with the inner strut angle.

  9. Evidence-based practice guidelines--one way to enhance clinical practice. (United States)

    Bailes, Barbara K


    Abdominoplasty and liposuction guidelines are just two of the guidelines that can be accessed and used to enhance patient care. Guidelines also can be used to increase your knowledge about many other health care topics. The NGC has approved guidelines for managing chronic pain, as well as guidelines on chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Many patients have chronic diseases, and you or your family members also may be affected by chronic disorders. These guidelines provide you with a quick overview of evidence-based treatment protocols. These guidelines are not a panacea for evidence-based practice, but using them is one way that perioperative nurses can enhance their clinical skills. Though not everyone has personal Internet access, most health care facilities do or can make access a reality. Other options include medical or public libraries. Then one simply has to access the NGC web site and join other professionals in improving the quality and timeliness of patient care.

  10. Optimizing dynamic downscaling in one-way nesting using a regional ocean model (United States)

    Pham, Van Sy; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Ku, Hyeyun


    Dynamical downscaling with nested regional oceanographic models has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for both operationally forecasted sea weather on regional scales and projections of future climate change and its impact on the ocean. However, when nesting procedures are carried out in dynamic downscaling from a larger-scale model or set of observations to a smaller scale, errors are unavoidable due to the differences in grid sizes and updating intervals. The present work assesses the impact of errors produced by nesting procedures on the downscaled results from Ocean Regional Circulation Models (ORCMs). Errors are identified and evaluated based on their sources and characteristics by employing the Big-Brother Experiment (BBE). The BBE uses the same model to produce both nesting and nested simulations; so it addresses those error sources separately (i.e., without combining the contributions of errors from different sources). Here, we focus on discussing errors resulting from the spatial grids' differences, the updating times and the domain sizes. After the BBE was separately run for diverse cases, a Taylor diagram was used to analyze the results and recommend an optimal combination of grid size, updating period and domain sizes. Finally, suggested setups for the downscaling were evaluated by examining the spatial correlations of variables and the relative magnitudes of variances between the nested model and the original data.

  11. Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking. (United States)

    Poo, Yin; He, Cheng; Xiao, Chao; Lu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Rui-Xin; Chen, Yan-Feng


    One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-reversal and parity symmetries of the magnetic photonic crystals designed, we observe oblique incident space wave propagating one-way in the magnetic photonic crystals with positive or negative refraction occurring at interfaces, which can be manipulated upon the incident angle and operating frequency. Our work may offer a potential platform to realize some exotic photoelectronic and microwave devices such as one-way imaging and one-way cloaking.

  12. Analyzing impact of experience curve on ROI in the software product line adoption process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tüzün, E.; Tekinerdogan, B.


    Context Experience curve is a well-known concept in management and education science, which explains the phenomenon of increased worker efficiency with repetitive production of a good or service. Objective We aim to analyze the impact of the experience curve effect on the Return on Investment (ROI)

  13. One-way-coupling simulation of cavitation accompanied by high-speed droplet impact (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita


    Erosion due to high-speed droplet impact is a crucial issue in industrial applications. The erosion is caused by the water-hammer loading on material surfaces and possibly by the reloading from collapsing cavitation bubbles that appear within the droplet. Here, we simulate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles accompanied by high-speed droplet impact against a deformable wall in order to see whether the bubble collapse is violent enough to give rise to cavitation erosion on the wall. The evolution of pressure waves in a single water (or gelatin) droplet to collide with a deformable wall at speed up to 110 m/s is inferred from simulations of multicomponent Euler flow where phase changes are not permitted. Then, we examine the dynamics of cavitation bubbles nucleated from micron/submicron-sized gas bubble nuclei that are supposed to exist inside the droplet. For simplicity, we perform Rayleigh-Plesset-type calculations in a one-way-coupling manner, namely, the bubble dynamics are determined according to the pressure variation obtained from the Euler flow simulation. In the simulation, the preexisting bubble nuclei whose size is either micron or submicron show large growth to submillimeters because tension inside the droplet is obtained through interaction of the pressure waves and the droplet interface; this supports the possibility of having cavitation due to the droplet impact. It is also found, in particular, for the case of cavitation arising from very small nuclei such as nanobubbles, that radiated pressure from the cavitation bubble collapse can overwhelm the water-hammer pressure directly created by the impact. Hence, cavitation may need to be accounted for when it comes to discussing erosion in the droplet impact problem.

  14. Joint Preprocesser-Based Detectors for One-Way and Two-Way Cooperative Communication Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.


    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication networks are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of L relays. As the receiver is constrained, channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix that reduces the length of the received vector from L to U. In the first part of the work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines our proposed threshold selection criteria with the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm that is based on the mean square error (MSE). Our receiver assists in determining the optimal U. Furthermore, this receiver provides the freedom to choose U for each frame depending on the tolerable difference allowed for MSE. Our study and simulation results show that by choosing an appropriate threshold, it is possible to gain in terms of complexity savings while having no or minimal effect on the BER performance of the system. Furthermore, the effect of channel estimation on the performance of the cooperative system is investigated. In the second part of the work, a joint preprocessor-based detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed for one-way and two-way relaying. This joint preprocessor-based detector operates on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER) instead of minimizing MSE. For a realistic assessment, pilot symbols are used to estimate the channel. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Finally, our proposed scheme has the lowest computational complexity.

  15. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Oliver


    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  16. Composite one-way transmission waveguide based on the curved metal slit and 1D photonic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Gao


    Full Text Available The one-way devices in optical circuits are the key components just as the diodes in electric circuits, which allow the light going in only one direction. A novel one-way transmission structure is proposed which is a curved waveguide containing a confined photonic crystal. When the waveguide is made of perfect electric conductor, the exact calculation results demonstrate that the device shows excellent one-way properties. The forward transmissivity approaches 100% and the largest transmission ratio exceeds 100.92N, where N is the cell number of the photonic crystal in the structure. When the waveguide is made of real metal, the device also presents excellent one-way transmission properties, which can be confirmed by an approximate calculation as well as by the simulation. In working region, the lowest forward tranmissivity is about 30% and the largest one exceeds 70%. The highest transmission ratio exceeds 104.

  17. One-way domain decomposition method with exact radiation condition and fast GMRES solver for the solution of Maxwell's equations (United States)

    Stupfel, Bruno; Lecouvez, Matthieu


    For the solution of the time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problem by inhomogeneous 3-D objects, a one-way domain decomposition method (DDM) is considered: the computational domain is partitioned into concentric subdomains on the interfaces of which Robin-type transmission conditions (TCs) are prescribed; an integral representation of the electromagnetic fields on the outer boundary constitutes an exact radiation condition. The global system obtained after discretization of the finite element (FE) formulations is solved via a Krylov subspace iterative method (GMRES). It is preconditioned in such a way that, essentially, only the solution of the FE subsystems in each subdomain is required. This is made possible by a computationally cheap H (curl)- H (div) transformation performed on the interfaces that separate the two outermost subdomains. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix of the system are bounded by two, and optimized values of the coefficients involved in the local TCs on the interfaces are determined so as to maximize the minimum eigenvalue. Numerical experiments are presented that illustrate the numerical accuracy of this technique, its fast convergence, and legitimate the choices made for the optimized coefficients.

  18. Manipulating one-way space wave and its refraction by time-reversal and parity symmetry breaking


    Yin Poo; Cheng He; Chao Xiao; Ming-Hui Lu; Rui-Xin Wu; Yan-Feng Chen


    One-way transmission and negative refraction are the exotic wave properties founded in photonic crystals which attract a great attention due to their promising applications in photonic devices. How to integrate such two phenomena in one material or device is interesting and valuable. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that one-way electromagnetic space wave can be realized by means of two-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. Simultaneously breaking the time-rever...

  19. Effects of Professional Experience and Group Interaction on Information Requested in Analyzing IT Cases (United States)

    Lehmann, Constance M.; Heagy, Cynthia D.


    The authors investigated the effects of professional experience and group interaction on the information that information technology professionals and graduate accounting information system (AIS) students request when analyzing business cases related to information systems design and implementation. Understanding these effects can contribute to…

  20. One way and the other: the bidirectional relationship between ambivalence and body movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K. Schneider; A. Eerland; F. van Harreveld; M. Rotteveel; J. van der Pligt; N. van der Stoep; R.A. Zwaan


    Prior research exploring the relationship between evaluations and body movements has focused on one-sided evaluations. However, people regularly encounter objects or situations about which they simultaneously hold both positive and negative views, which results in the experience of ambivalence. Such

  1. One Way to Eliminate Corruption—Educating People——Brief Introduction on Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuShi-feng; YangRu-ping


    This article,according to the author's working experience in a hydropower project,briefly introduces some basic knowledge about bidding process and sample contract document.It is aiming at giving a common knowledge to the students who will be involved in work relating to bid after their graduation in the college.It is hoped that this kind of knowledge can help people properly use funds for a project and thus corruption can be minimized.

  2. More than One Way to Find the Neutrino Mixing Angle Theta13 from Reactor Data

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Amir N; Ralston, John P


    We show that the analysis methods used in recent work of the Daya Bay and RENO collaborations are relatively insensitive to the physical variables and have been evaluated with non-standard measures of significance. The main features of the methods consist of variationally fitting many more parameters than data points. We find evidence that over-parameterization of data fits actually degrades the experimental determination of sin^2(2theta13). Simpler, more transparent methods can improve its extraction from the data, fully exploiting the greatly improved systematic errors, made possible by the multiple detectors and superb hardware construction of these experiments.

  3. Alternatives to F-Test in One Way ANOVA in case of heterogeneity of variances (a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Moder


    Full Text Available Several articles deal with the effects of inhomogeneous variances in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. A very early investigation of this topic was done by Box (1954. He supposed, that in balanced designs with moderate heterogeneity of variances deviations of the empirical type I error rate (on experiments based realized α to the nominal one (predefined α for H0 are small. Similar conclusions are drawn by Wellek (2003. For not so moderate heterogeneity (e.g. σ1:σ2:...=3:1:... Moder (2007 showed, that empirical type I error rate is far beyond the nominal one, even with balanced designs. In unbalanced designs the difficulties get bigger. Several attempts were made to get over this problem. One proposal is to use a more stringent α level (e.g. 2.5% instead of 5% (Keppel & Wickens, 2004. Another recommended remedy is to transform the original scores by square root, log, and other variance reducing functions (Keppel & Wickens, 2004, Heiberger & Holland, 2004. Some authors suggest the use of rank based alternatives to F-test in analysis of variance (Vargha & Delaney, 1998. Only a few articles deal with two or multifactorial designs. There is some evidence, that in a two or multi-factorial design type I error rate is approximately met if the number of factor levels tends to infinity for a certain factor while the number of levels is fixed for the other factors (Akritas & S., 2000, Bathke, 2004.The goal of this article is to find an appropriate location test in an oneway analysis of variance situation with inhomogeneous variances for balanced and unbalanced designs based on a simulation study.

  4. A Comparison of One-Way and Two-Way Coupling Methods for Numerical Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Karl Benra


    Full Text Available The interaction between fluid and structure occurs in a wide range of engineering problems. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. One possibility for reducing the computational effort of fluid-structure simulations is the use of one-way coupled simulations. In this paper, different problems are investigated with one-way and two-way coupled methods. After an explanation of the solution strategy for both models, a closer look at the differences between these methods will be provided, and it will be shown under what conditions a one-way coupling solution gives plausible results.

  5. Study of Unrecovered Strain and Critical Stresses in One-Way Shape Memory Nitinol (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad; Datla, Naresh V.; Konh, Bardia; Podder, Tarun K.; Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran


    Unique thermomechanical properties of Nitinol known as shape memory and superelasticity make it applicable for different fields such as biomedical, structural, and aerospace engineering. These unique properties are due to the comparatively large recoverable strain, which is being produced in a martensitic phase transformation. However, under certain ranges of stresses and temperatures, Nitinol wires exhibit unrecovered strain. For cyclic applications, it is important to understand the strain behavior of Nitinol wires. In this study, the unrecovered strain of different Nitinol wire diameters was investigated using constant stress experiment. Uniaxial tensile test has been also performed to find the range of critical stresses. It was observed that the unrecovered strain produced in the first loading-unloading cycle affects the total strain in the subsequent cycles. Moreover, a critical range of stress was found beyond which the unrecovered strain was negligible while the wires heated up to the range of 70-80°C, depending on the wire diameters. The unrecovered strain of wire diameters of 0.19 mm and less was found to be sensitive to the critical stress. On the other hand, for wire diameters bigger than 0.19 mm this connection between the unrecovered strain and the critical stress was not observed for the same range of heating temperature.

  6. Behind the scenes of GS: there’s only one way to go

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    At CERN, all of the Laboratory’s imports and exports are routed in the same way: through the Logistics Service. This GS-IS Group service is responsible for receiving, inspecting and distributing all goods sent to the Organization.   Whether products for the CERN Stores, components for the experiments, tools, machinery and materials for the workshops or equipment for users and members of the personnel, nothing escapes the attention of CERN’s Logistics Service, which every year processes nearly 70,000 incoming deliveries, 7,500 shipments and 160,000 distributed items. “The vast majority of our imports come from CERN Member States,” says imports and customs procedures manager Laurence Planque, “but we are receiving more and more goods for collaborators working at CERN from non-Member States such as China, India and Pakistan. All these imports are entitled to diplomatic exemption, so every day we have to manage the customs clearance procedures wit...

  7. Thermomechanical characterization of one-way shape memory Nitinol as an actuator for active surgical needle (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad

    tested and different ranges of critical stress were found for different wire diameters. The transformation temperatures of different wire diameters at zero stress have been achieved by performing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) test. The actuation force created by Nitinol wire is measured through constant strain experiment. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) study was also performed to investigate the phase of Nitinol wires under various thermomechanical loading conditions. In summary, the effect of wire diameter on the required critical stresses to avoid the unrecovered strain between first and second cycle of heating and cooling are presented and the results of both mechanical tests are justified by the results obtained from the XRD study.

  8. Science Teaching Experiences in Informal Settings: One Way to Enrich the Preparation Program for Preservice Science Teachers (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    The high attrition rate of new science teachers demonstrates the urgent need to incorporate effective practices in teacher preparation programs to better equip preservice science teachers. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate a way to enrich preservice science teachers' preparation by incorporating informal science teaching practice into…

  9. Constant Time Delay: One Way to Provide Positive Behavioral Support for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Stevens, Kay B.; Lingo, Amy S.


    Teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) understand conceptually, emotionally, and legally the importance of using research-based procedures as well as positive behavioral supports. One way to provide positive behavioral support for students with EBD is constant time delay (CTD). CTD is an instructional delivery procedure…

  10. FORTRAN IV Program for One-Way Analysis of Variance with A Priori or A Posteriori Mean Comparisons (United States)

    Fordyce, Michael W.


    A flexible Fortran program for computing one way analysis of variance is described. Requiring minimal core space, the program provides a variety of useful group statistics, all summary statistics for the analysis, and all mean comparisons for a priori or a posteriori testing. (Author/JKS)

  11. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino


    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction in the retailing literature. Second, the framework synthesizes and integrates multiple central concepts from different research streams into a common framework for analyzing shopping trip satisfaction. Propositions are derived regarding the relationships among the different concepts...

  12. Juicer Provides a One-Click System for Analyzing Loop-Resolution Hi-C Experiments. (United States)

    Durand, Neva C; Shamim, Muhammad S; Machol, Ido; Rao, Suhas S P; Huntley, Miriam H; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman


    Hi-C experiments explore the 3D structure of the genome, generating terabases of data to create high-resolution contact maps. Here, we introduce Juicer, an open-source tool for analyzing terabase-scale Hi-C datasets. Juicer allows users without a computational background to transform raw sequence data into normalized contact maps with one click. Juicer produces a hic file containing compressed contact matrices at many resolutions, facilitating visualization and analysis at multiple scales. Structural features, such as loops and domains, are automatically annotated. Juicer is available as open source software at

  13. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes


    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  14. One Way into Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 崔春燕


    Culture, in a wide sense, is the sum total of material and spiritual products created by man in the historical process of a socialpractice. In a narrow sense, it refers to a social ideology and the political system and constitutional organization corresponding to the ideology.Language has a very special position in this big culture and it cannot be well taught and learnt without the introducing of cultural knowledge. One ofthe effective ways to increase awareness of the euhural is to learn the patterns of western everyday life.

  15. One-way light transport controlled by synthetic magnetic fluxes and {\\mathscr{P}}{\\mathscr{T}}-symmetric resonators (United States)

    Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.


    Controlled directional light propagation using optical nonlinearity has previously been proposed. Here, we propose a one-way optical device with linear elements controlled by synthetic magnetic fluxes. The device consists of two parity–time symmetric side-coupled resonators with balanced gain and loss. The gain and loss break the reflection symmetry and the magnetic fluxes break the transmission symmetry. Through tuning the magnetic fluxes, reflectionless full transmission in one direction and transmissionless full reflection in the opposite direction can be achieved. The device acts as a light-checking valve, preventing wave propagation in one direction. The proposed one-way transporter uses the nonreciprocity induced by non-Hermiticity and magnetic fluxes without applying nonlinearity. We anticipate that our findings will be useful for optical control and manipulation.

  16. Magnetized Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Structures: Hall Opacity, Hall Transparency, and One-Way Photonic Surface States

    CERN Document Server

    Davoyan, Arthur


    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic (TM) electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge: we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one-way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to a possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  17. A Hybrid One-Way ANOVA Approach for the Robust and Efficient Estimation of Differential Gene Expression with Multiple Patterns


    Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah; Rahman Jamal; Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar; Roslan Harun; Md. Nurul Haque Mollah


    Background Identifying genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression is one of the primary objectives of gene expression data analysis. Several statistical approaches, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), are used to identify DE genes. However, most of these methods provide misleading results for two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression in the presence of outlying genes. In this paper, an attempt ...

  18. Mining Social Networks for Analyzing Students Learning Experience and their Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessy Geo.V.M


    Full Text Available On different social media sites, students discuss and contribute to their daily encounters in a casual and informal manner. Analyzing such data, though, can be difficult. The complication of students’ experiences reflected from social media content requires human understanding problem of a student’s experience exposes from social media sitedrequirehuman investigation or communication.Examining data from such a social media can be demanding task. In this article, we develop a workflow to combine both qualitative analysis and large-scale data mining techniques. It pays a concentration on engineering student’s Twitter posts to recognize the problem and the difficulty in their educational practices. Based on this result, a multi-label classification algorithm that is Naive Bayes Multi-label Classifier algorithm and Memetic classifier is applied to categorize tweets presenting students' problems.Memetic classifier is a population based approach to split individuals education for problem search, which has had their own advantages in solving optimization problems.

  19. Development of One-way Moisture Transferring Knitted Fabric%单向导湿针织面料的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈百顺; 郭峰; 何泽寿


    从理论分析和具体操作方法上,介绍织物单向导湿的实现方式。通过印花工艺对织物进行微型窗整理,以及利用丙纶的芯吸作用,开发了4款具有单向导湿功能的网眼组织针织面料,并介绍面料的编织生产工艺和印花加工工艺。以5次水洗前后的单向导湿传递指数和芯吸高度来评价织物的吸湿性和导湿性能,结果表明,4款面料均具有良好的单向导湿性能,且没有明显的优劣差异,此种功能产品尤其适合制作高性能的户外运动服装。最后针对单向导湿织物的重点研究方向和存在问题提出了一些建议。%Based on the theoretical analysis and operation methods of one-way moisture transferring of fabric, the paper analyzes the implementing process. It develops 4 kinds of new mesh knitted fabrics with one-way mois-ture transferring function obtained by using printing process (micro-window structure) and wicking of polypropylene. Besides, it introduces in detail the knitting technology and the dyeing and finishing technology. The moisture ab-sorption and transferring property of fabrics is evaluated in terms of wicking height and one-way moisture transfer-ring index before washing and after 5 times’ washing respectively. The results show that the new knitted fabrics have good one-way moisture transferring property, and there are no significant differences between them; this kind of functional product is particularly suitable for the high-performance outdoor sports apparel. Furthermore, the exist-ed problems and future research direction are given.

  20. Three-dimensional study of a one-way, flexible magnetorheological elastomer-based micro fluid transport system (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz


    This paper presents a three-dimensional study of a controllable flexible magnetically-activated micropump. The tubular micropump employs magnetically induced deformation of magnetorheological elastomer and one-way flexible conical valves for fluid transport. Three-dimensional magneto-fluid-solid interaction analysis is employed to investigate the performance of the system. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the effectiveness of the system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.

  1. Recent advances in acoustic one-way manipulation%声单向操控研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彬; 袁樱; 程建春


    电子二极管的发明标志着现代电子学的诞生,在整个人类社会中引起了科技的深刻变革。声波是一种具有非常悠久的研究历史的经典波,却始终被认为仅具有对称的传播形式。若能制造出可像电子二极管控制电流般实现声波单向导通的声学器件,显然将对整个声学研究领域产生重大影响,具有重要的科学意义及应用价值。第一个基于非线性媒质与声子晶体的声二极管利用非线性突破声学互易原理的局限,首次实现了将声能流限制在单一方向上的声整流效应。针对非线性系统转换效率低下的固有缺陷,在线性体系内围绕声单向传播这个重要科学问题开展了一系列理论和实验研究,设计与制备了多种具有特殊结构和性能的线性声学单向结构,在器件的效率、带宽及尺寸方面产生了突破。在声二极管研究的基础上,第一个可以像电子三极管操控电流般对声流进行操控与放大的声三极管理论模型也被提出。本文介绍了声单向传播这一新兴且富有蓬勃生机的研究领域中的主要进展。%Realizations of one-way manipulations in various kinds of energy flux are always highly desirable. The most famous example should be the invention of electric diodes which marked the emergence of modern electronics and resulted in worldwide technology revolutions. Acoustic wave, albeit a classical wave with much longer research history in comparison with the electricity, has long been thought to propagate easily along two opposite directions in any path. Hence it should be intriguing to realize the one-way transmission of acoustic waves by designing the acoustical analogy of electric diodes, which would have deep implications in all the acoustics-based applications and the field of acoustics in general. In this review, we briefly describe recent advances in acoustic one-way manipulation which has become a new frontier

  2. Experimenting with spirituality: analyzing The God Gene in a nonmajors laboratory course. (United States)

    Silveira, Linda A


    References linking genes to complex human traits, such as personality type or disease susceptibility, abound in the news media and popular culture. In his book The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired into Our Genes, Dean Hamer argues that a variation in the VMAT2 gene plays a role in one's openness to spiritual experiences. In a nonmajors class, we read and discussed The God Gene and conducted on a small scale an extension of the study it describes. Students used polymerase chain reaction to replicate a portion of their VMAT2 genes, and they analyzed three polymorphic sites in the sequence of these products. Associations between particular VMAT2 alleles and scores on a personality test were assessed by t test. The course, of which this project was a major part, stimulated student learning; scores on a test covering basic genetic concepts, causation/correlation, and laboratory methodology improved after completion of the course. In a survey, students reported the laboratory project aided their learning, especially in the areas of statistics and the linking of genes to behaviors. They reported high levels of engagement with the project, citing in particular its personal nature as motivating their interest.

  3. A Hybrid One-Way ANOVA Approach for the Robust and Efficient Estimation of Differential Gene Expression with Multiple Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed (DE between two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression is one of the primary objectives of gene expression data analysis. Several statistical approaches, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, are used to identify DE genes. However, most of these methods provide misleading results for two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression in the presence of outlying genes. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a hybrid one-way ANOVA approach that unifies the robustness and efficiency of estimation using the minimum β-divergence method to overcome some problems that arise in the existing robust methods for both small- and large-sample cases with multiple patterns of expression.The proposed method relies on a β-weight function, which produces values between 0 and 1. The β-weight function with β = 0.2 is used as a measure of outlier detection. It assigns smaller weights (≥ 0 to outlying expressions and larger weights (≤ 1 to typical expressions. The distribution of the β-weights is used to calculate the cut-off point, which is compared to the observed β-weight of an expression to determine whether that gene expression is an outlier. This weight function plays a key role in unifying the robustness and efficiency of estimation in one-way ANOVA.Analyses of simulated gene expression profiles revealed that all eight methods (ANOVA, SAM, LIMMA, EBarrays, eLNN, KW, robust BetaEB and proposed perform almost identically for m = 2 conditions in the absence of outliers. However, the robust BetaEB method and the proposed method exhibited considerably better performance than the other six methods in the presence of outliers. In this case, the BetaEB method exhibited slightly better performance than the proposed method for the small-sample cases, but the the proposed method exhibited much better performance than the BetaEB method for both the small- and large


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heruna Tanty


    Full Text Available Analysis of chemical substances in some processes an-organic bottled water and drinking water recharge has been done using One Way Manova. Samples originated from springs Ciburial Bogor taken in May 2009 at 10 depots refill drinking water process (AMDIU Around Syahdan and Anggrek Campus of Bina Nusantara University. Reserve osmosis filtration processes and filtration Hollow Fiber and testing of heavy metal contents of five CN, Pb, Mn, Cr, and Cd in the company carried out the bottled water (bottled water PT Buana Cikarang Tirta Abadi. Test results and analysis show that the processed water filtration contains CN, Pb, Mn, Cr, and Cd was lower than that of water filtration was not processed. And drinking water processed by filtration Reserve Osmosis, contains CN, Pb, Mn, Cr, and Cd was lower than that processed by Hollow Fiber Filtration and Granular Activated Charcoal.

  5. Analyzing a Service-Learning Experience Using a Social Justice Lens (United States)

    Tinkler, Barri; Hannah, C. Lynne; Tinkler, Alan; Miller, Elizabeth


    This mixed methods study explores a service-learning experience embedded in a social foundations course in a teacher education program. The authors differentiate learning outcomes for social justice and charity service-learning, and utilize this framework to examine whether the service-learning experience fosters a social justice perspective. The…

  6. Tailored One-Way and Two-Way Shape Memory Capabilities of Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone)-Based Systems for Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Pandini, Stefano; Riccò, Theonis; Borboni, Alberto; Bodini, Ileana; Vetturi, David; Cambiaghi, Danilo; Toselli, Maurizio; Paderni, Katia; Messori, Massimo; Pilati, Francesco; Chiellini, Federica; Bartoli, Cristina


    This paper investigates the shape memory capabilities of semicrystalline networks, focusing the attention on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) systems, a class of materials that allows to satisfy important requirements for their applications as biomedical devices, such as the good biocompatibility, the fast recovery of large "temporary" shape configurations, and the easy tailoring of the transformation temperatures. The materials were prepared with various crosslink densities and crosslinking methodologies; in particular, beside a thermal crosslinking based on reactive methacrylic end groups, a novel type of covalently crosslinked semicrystalline systems was prepared by a sol-gel approach from alkoxysilane-terminated PCL precursors, so as to avoid potentially toxic additives typically used for free-radical thermal curing. The materials were subjected to biological tests, to study their ability in sustaining cell adhesion and proliferation, and to thermal characterizations, to evaluate the possibility to tailor their melting and crystallization temperatures. The one-way shape memory (i.e., the possibility to set the material in a given configuration and to recover its pristine shape) and the two-way shape memory response (i.e., the triggered change between two distinguished shapes on the application of an on-off stimulus) were studied by applying optimized thermo-mechanical cyclic histories. The ability to fix the applied shape and to recover the original one on the application of heating (i.e., the one-way effect) was evaluated on tensile bars; further, to investigate a potential application as self-expandable stents, isothermal shape memory experiments were carried out also on tubular specimens, previously folded in a temporary compact configuration. The two-way response was studied through the application of a constant load and of a heating/cooling cycle from above melting to below the crystallization temperature, leading to a reversible elongation/contraction effect

  7. Investigation of crystal structures of one-way shape memory Nitinol wire actuators for active steerable needle (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad; Konh, Bardia; Hutapea, Parsaoran


    Due to its outstanding properties of Nitinol, known as shape memory and superelasticity, Nitinol wires have been used as actuators in many medical devices. For the medical applications, it is critical to have a consistent strain response of Nitinol wires. This work focuses on studying the effect of parameters such as biased stress, maximum temperature, and wire diameters that influence the strain response of Nitinol wires. Specifically, Nitinol phase transformations were studied from microstructural point of view. The crystal structures of one-way shape memory Nitinol wires of various diameters under different thermomechanical loading conditions were studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The location and intensity of characteristic peaks were determined prior and after the thermomechanical loading cycles. It was observed that Nitinol wires of diameters less than 0.19 mm exhibit unrecovered strain while heated to the range of 70ºC to 80ºC in a thermal cycle, whereas no unrecovered strains were found in larger wires. The observation was supported by the XRD patterns where the formation of R-phase crystal structure was showed in wire diameters less than 0.19 mm at room temperature.

  8. Thermal hydraulic studies of spallation target for one-way coupled Indian accelerator driven systems with low energy proton beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Mantha; A K Mohanty; P Satyamurthy


    BARC has recently proposed a one-way coupled ADS reactor. This reactor requires typically ∼ 1 GeV proton beam with 2 mA of current. Approximately 8 kW of heat is deposited in the window of the target. Circulating liquid metal target (lead/lead-bismuth-eutectic) has to extract this heat and this is a critical R&D problem to be solved. At present there are very few accelerators, which can give few mA and high-energy proton beam. However, accelerators with low energy and hundreds of micro-ampere current are commercially available. In view of this, it is proposed in this paper to simulate beam window heating of ∼ 8 kW in the target with low-energy proton beam. Detailed thermal analysis in the spallation and window region has been carried out to study the capability of heat extraction by circulating LBE for a typical target loop with a proton beam of 30 MeV energy and current of 0.267 mA. The heat deposition study is carried out using FLUKA code and flow analysis by CFD code. The detailed analysis of this work is presented in this paper.

  9. A one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system with combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong; Wu, Juan; Lu, Guihua


    Coupled hydrological and atmospheric modeling is an effective tool for providing advanced flood forecasting. However, the uncertainties in precipitation forecasts are still considerable. To address uncertainties, a one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system, with a combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting, has been developed. It consists of three high-resolution single models and four sets of ensemble forecasts from the THORPEX Interactive Grande Global Ensemble database. The former provides higher forecasting accuracy, while the latter provides the range of forecasts. The combined precipitation forecasting was then implemented to drive the Chinese National Flood Forecasting System in the 2007 and 2008 Huai River flood hindcast analysis. The encouraging results demonstrated that the system can clearly give a set of forecasting hydrographs for a flood event and has a promising relative stability in discharge peaks and timing for warning purposes. It not only gives a deterministic prediction, but also generates probability forecasts. Even though the signal was not persistent until four days before the peak discharge was observed in the 2007 flood event, the visualization based on threshold exceedance provided clear and concise essential warning information at an early stage. Forecasters could better prepare for the possibility of a flood at an early stage, and then issue an actual warning if the signal strengthened. This process may provide decision support for civil protection authorities. In future studies, different weather forecasts will be assigned various weight coefficients to represent the covariance of predictors and the extremes of distributions.

  10. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire


    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  11. Combining NASA/JPL One-Way Optical-Fiber Light-Speed Data with Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Doppler-Shift Data to Characterise 3-Space Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available We combine data from two high precision NASA / JPL experiments: (i the one-way speed of light experiment using optical fibers: Krisher T.P., Maleki L., Lutes G.F., Pri- mas L.E., Logan R.T., Anderson J.D. and Will C.M. Phys. Rev. D , 1990, v. 42, 731–734, and (ii the spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data: Anderson J.D., Campbell J.K., Ekelund J.E., Ellis J. and Jordan J.F. Phys. Rev. Lett. , 2008, v. 100, 091102, to give the solar-system galactic 3-space average speed of 486 km / s in the direction RA = 4.29 h , Dec = -75.0°. Turbulence effects (gravitational waves are also evident. Data also reveals the 30 km / s orbital speed of the Earth and the Sun inflow component at 1AU of 42 km / s and also 615 km / s near the Sun, and for the first time, experimental measure- ment of the 3-space 11.2 km / s inflow of the Earth. The NASA / JPL data is in remark- able agreement with that determined in other light speed anisotropy experiments, such as Michelson-Morley (1887, Miller (1933, Torr and Kolen (1981, DeWitte (1991, Cahill (2006, Munera (2007, Cahill and Stokes (2008 and Cahill (2009.

  12. Combining NASA/JPL One-Way Optical-Fiber Light-Speed Data with Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Doppler-Shift Data to Characterise 3-Space Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available We combine data from two high precision NASA/JPL experiments: (i the one-way speed of light experiment using optical fibers: Krisher T.P., Maleki L., Lutes G.F., Primas L.E., Logan R.T., Anderson J.D. and Will C.M. Phys. Rev. D, 1990, v.42, 731-734, and (ii the spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data: Anderson J.D., Campbell J.K., Ekelund J.E., Ellis J. and Jordan J.F. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, v.100, 091102, to give the solar-system galactic 3-space average speed of 486 km/s in the direction RA = 4.29 h, Dec = -75.0 Deg. Turbulence effects (gravitational waves are also evident. Data also reveals the 30 km/s orbital speed of the Earth and the Sun inflow component at 1AU of 42 km/s and also 615 km/s near the Sun, and for the first time, experimental measurement of the 3-space 11.2 km/s inflow of the Earth. The NASA/JPL data is in remarkable agreement with that determined in other light speed anisotropy experiments, such as Michelson-Morley (1887, Miller (1933, Torr and Kolen (1981, DeWitte (1991, Cahill (2006, Munera (2007, Cahill and Stokes (2008 and Cahill (2009.

  13. Combining NASA/JPL One-Way Optical-Fiber Light-Speed Data with Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Doppler-Shift Data to Characterise 3-Space Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Reginald T


    We combine data from two high precision NASA/JPL experiments: (i) the one-way speed of light experiment using optical fibers: Krisher T.P., Maleki L., Lutes G.F., Primas L.E., Logan R.T., Anderson J.D. and Will C.M., Phys. Rev. D, vol 42, 731-734, 1990, and (ii) the spacecraft earth-flyby doppler shift data: Anderson J.D., Campbell J.K., Ekelund J.E., Ellis J. and Jordan J.F., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol 100, 091102, 2008, to give the solar-system galactic 3-space average speed of 486km/s in the direction RA=4.29hrs, Dec=-75.0deg. Turbulence effects (gravitational waves) are also evident. Data also reveals the 30km/s orbital speed of the earth and the sun inflow component at 1AU of 42km/s and also 615km/s near the sun, and for the first time, experimental measurement of the 3-space 11.2km/s inflow of the earth. The NASA/JPL data is in remarkable agreement with that determined in other light speed anisotropy experiments, such as Michelson-Morley (1887), Miller (1933), DeWitte (1991), Torr and Kolen (1981), Cahill (2...

  14. Analyzing Semantic Creation on Homophones and Phonograms of Chinese from Personal Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      This article mainly talk about the creating using of homophones and phonograms of Chinese. The writer give us a brief introduction of homophones and phonograms from a normal view, and it mainly strengthens the particular features of these semantic phenomenon through illustrating some examples that come from the experiences of writer, which is different from the normal in⁃stance and it possessing a specific actual significant. While it introduces the reasons of this kind of particular semantic creation, many real particular experiences also exemplified.

  15. Analyzing through Resonant Experience - Becoming the one to understand the other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    study) other. The paper presents a case of being newcomer (to research communities) researching newcomer innovation (of others) (Revsbaek, 2014). Suggesting that researcher’s resonant experience is an issue of research validity raises the question of researcher qualifications not only being about...

  16. Two-way against one-way nesting for climate downscaling in Europe and the Mediterranean region using LMDZ4 (United States)

    Li, Shan; Li, Laurent; Le Treut, Hervé


    In the 21st century, the estimated surface temperature warming projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs) is between 0.3 and 4.8 °C, depending on the scenario considered. GCMs exhibit a good representation of climate on a global scale, but they are not able to reproduce regional climate processes with the same level of accuracy. Society and policymakers need model projections to define climate change adaptation and mitigation policies on a global, regional and local scale. Climate downscaling is mostly conducted with a regional model nested into the outputs of a global model. This one-way nesting approach is generally used in the climate community without feedbacks from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to GCMs. This lack of interaction between the two models may affect regional modes of variability, in particular those with a boundary conflict. The objective of this study is to evaluate a two-way nesting configuration that makes an interactive coupling between the RCM and the GCM, an approach against the traditional configuration of one-way nesting system. An additional aim of this work is to examine if the two-way nesting system can improve the RCM performance. The atmospheric component of the IPSL integrated climate model (LMDZ) is configured at both regional (LMDZ-regional) and global (LMDZ-global) scales. The two models have the same configuration for the dynamical framework and the physical forcings. The climatology values of sea surface temperature (SST) are prescribed for the two models. The stretched-grid of LMDZ-global is applied to a region defined by Europe, the Mediterranean, North Africa and Western North Atlantic. To ensure a good statistical significance of results, all simulations last at least 80 years. The nesting process of models is performed by a relaxation procedure of a time scale of 90 minutes. In the case of two-way nesting, the exchange between the two models is every two hours. The relaxation procedure induces a boundary conflict

  17. Investigation of effective thermal conductivity for pebble beds by one-way coupled CFD-DEM method for CFETR WCCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chen, Youhua [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Huang, Kai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)


    Highlights: • A CFD-DEM coupled numerical model is built based on the prototypical blanket pebble bed. • The numerical model can be applied to simulate heat transfer of a pebble bed and estimate effective thermal conductivity. • The numerical model agrees well with the theoretical SZB model. • Effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds for WCCB is estimated by the current model. - Abstract: The mono-sized beryllium pebble bed and the multi-sized Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}/Be{sub 12}Ti mixed pebble bed are the main schemes for the Water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). And the effective thermal conductivity (k{sub eff}) of the pebble beds is important to characterize the thermal performance of WCCB. In this study, a one-way coupled CFD-DEM method was employed to simulate heat transfer and estimate k{sub eff}. The geometric topology of a prototypical blanket pebble bed was produced by the discrete element method (DEM). Based on the geometric topology, the temperature distribution and the k{sub eff} were obtained by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The current numerical model presented a good performance to calculate k{sub eff} of the beryllium pebble bed, and according to the modeling of the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}/Be{sub 12}Ti mixed pebble bed, k{sub eff} was estimated with values ranged between 2.0 and 4.0 W/(m∙K).

  18. Improvement and Analysis of One-Way Honing to Inner Ball Surface of Spherical Plain Bearing%关节轴承内圈球面单程珩磨分析与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the one-way honing process of inner surface of spherical plain bearing,the principle of one-way honing and finishing process are analyzed,and the principle defects of one-way honing and finishing are illustrated.A method of the spherical round-trip honing and super-finishing technique to replace the one-way honing is put for-ward,and the function of round-trip honing and working principle and characteristics of super-finishing are expoun-ded.%基于关节轴承内圈球面单程珩磨工艺,分析单程珩磨的原理和光整作用过程,说明了单程珩磨光整的原理性缺陷,提出了替代方法即球面双程珩磨和超精加工技术,并阐述了双程珩磨的作用和超精加工的工作原理及特点。

  19. Analyzing the thermionic reactor critical experiments. [thermal spectrum of uranium 235 core (United States)

    Niederauer, G. F.


    The Thermionic Reactor Critical Experiments (TRCE) consisted of fast spectrum highly enriched U-235 cores reflected by different thicknesses of beryllium or beryllium oxide with a transition zone of stainless steel between the core and reflector. The mixed fast-thermal spectrum at the core reflector interface region poses a difficult neutron transport calculation. Calculations of TRCE using ENDF/B fast spectrum data and GATHER library thermal spectrum data agreed within about 1 percent for the multiplication factor and within 6 to 8 percent for the power peaks. Use of GAM library fast spectrum data yielded larger deviations. The results were obtained from DOT R Theta calculations with leakage cross sections, by region and by group, extracted from DOT RZ calculations. Delineation of the power peaks required extraordinarily fine mesh size at the core reflector interface.

  20. Using a Virtual Experiment to Analyze Infiltration Process from Point to Grid-cell Size Scale (United States)

    Barrios, M. I.


    The hydrological science requires the emergence of a consistent theoretical corpus driving the relationships between dominant physical processes at different spatial and temporal scales. However, the strong spatial heterogeneities and non-linearities of these processes make difficult the development of multiscale conceptualizations. Therefore, scaling understanding is a key issue to advance this science. This work is focused on the use of virtual experiments to address the scaling of vertical infiltration from a physically based model at point scale to a simplified physically meaningful modeling approach at grid-cell scale. Numerical simulations have the advantage of deal with a wide range of boundary and initial conditions against field experimentation. The aim of the work was to show the utility of numerical simulations to discover relationships between the hydrological parameters at both scales, and to use this synthetic experience as a media to teach the complex nature of this hydrological process. The Green-Ampt model was used to represent vertical infiltration at point scale; and a conceptual storage model was employed to simulate the infiltration process at the grid-cell scale. Lognormal and beta probability distribution functions were assumed to represent the heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters at point scale. The linkages between point scale parameters and the grid-cell scale parameters were established by inverse simulations based on the mass balance equation and the averaging of the flow at the point scale. Results have shown numerical stability issues for particular conditions and have revealed the complex nature of the non-linear relationships between models' parameters at both scales and indicate that the parameterization of point scale processes at the coarser scale is governed by the amplification of non-linear effects. The findings of these simulations have been used by the students to identify potential research questions on scale issues

  1. Context, Experience, Expectation, and Action—Towards an Empirically Grounded, General Model for Analyzing Biographical Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Reiter


    Full Text Available The article proposes a general, empirically grounded model for analyzing biographical uncertainty. The model is based on findings from a qualitative-explorative study of transforming meanings of unemployment among young people in post-Soviet Lithuania. In a first step, the particular features of the uncertainty puzzle in post-communist youth transitions are briefly discussed. A historical event like the collapse of state socialism in Europe, similar to the recent financial and economic crisis, is a generator of uncertainty par excellence: it undermines the foundations of societies and the taken-for-grantedness of related expectations. Against this background, the case of a young woman and how she responds to the novel threat of unemployment in the transition to the world of work is introduced. Her uncertainty management in the specific time perspective of certainty production is then conceptually rephrased by distinguishing three types or levels of biographical uncertainty: knowledge, outcome, and recognition uncertainty. Biographical uncertainty, it is argued, is empirically observable through the analysis of acting and projecting at the biographical level. The final part synthesizes the empirical findings and the conceptual discussion into a stratification model of biographical uncertainty as a general tool for the biographical analysis of uncertainty phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100120

  2. 单向Hash函数SHA-256的研究与改进%One-way Hash function research and improved SHA-256

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper focuses on the study of the Hash SHA-256 algorithm,analyzes the logic and the compression function of the SHA-256 algorithm.On the basis of the study,it designs an improved Hash function SHA-256,using VC ++ development tools,completed the software implementation.It verifies the improved Hash function SHA-256 has better nonlinearity,one-way,collision resistance,randommess and avalanche effect by the theoretical analysis,realization of software for the string of text file Hash and comparison of the calculation results.%对Hash函数SHA-256进行了研究,分析了SHA-256的算法逻辑,以及它所采用的压缩函数的构造,在此基础上研究设计了一个改进的Hash函数SHA-256,应用VC++开发工具对改进的Hash函数SHA-256完成了软件实现.利用理论分析和实现软件对字符串、文本文件进行Hash计算结果的比较,结果证实改进的Hash函数具有更好的非线性性、单向性、抗碰撞性、伪随机性和雪崩效应.

  3. Peeking at ecosystem stability: making use of a natural disturbance experiment to analyze resistance and resilience. (United States)

    Bruelheide, Helge; Luginbühl, Ute


    To determine which factors contribute most to the stability of species composition in a beech forest after profound disturbance, we made use of a natural experiment caused by a severe windthrow that occurred at a permanent monitoring site in an old beech forest in Lower Saxony (Germany). The floristic composition was recorded for the succeeding five years after the disturbance and used to derive measures of resistance and resilience for plots as well as for individual species. Due to the existence of previously established randomly distributed permanent plots, we had precise information of the pre-disturbance state, including initial cover of the herb layer, species richness, and species composition. Variables describing the floristic change, resistance, and resilience were derived from correspondence analysis allowing for partitioning the effects of variation among plots from those of temporal change. We asked to which degree these variables could be predicted by pre-disturbance state and disturbance intensity. We found that both the pre-disturbance state and the disturbance intensity were good predictors for floristic change and resistance, while they failed to predict resilience. Among the descriptors of the pre-disturbance state the initial cover of the herb layer turned out to be a useful predictor, which is explained by a high vegetation cover buffering against losses and preventing establishment of newcomers. In contrast, species number neither showed a relationship to floristic change nor to resistance. Putative positive effects of species number on stability according to the insurance hypothesis might have been counterbalanced by a disruption of niche complementarity in species-rich communities. Among the descriptors of disturbance intensity, the loss in canopy cover and the change in photosynthetically active radiation after the storm were equally good predictors for the change in floristic composition and resistance. The analysis of the responses of

  4. Early Mission Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for Low-Earth Orbiting Missions using TDRSS Differenced One-way Doppler Tracking Data (United States)

    Marr, Greg C.


    Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.

  5. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F


    samples using various methodologies to better interpret the dynamic results. Parameters such as particle size, layer spacing, chemical composition, external and total surfaces and porosity were determined. The fundamental transport processes in compacted clay systems were studied over a broad range of temperatures, combining microscopic diffusion experiments (T {approx} 98 to -23 {sup o}C) with macroscopic measurements (T {approx} 70 to 0 {sup o}C). Moreover, the freezing behaviour of water in compacted clays and its dynamical properties in the supercooled regime were also investigated using microscopic techniques such as neutron scattering, time of flight and backscattering techniques. Such knowledge contributes to develop simplified models for water (and possibly also solute) transport through clays, as they will be used to assess the performance of radioactive waste repositories. From this point of view, it can be beneficial for the safety of radioactive waste repositories and thus the protection of the environment.

  6. What if we ignore the random effects when analyzing RNA-seq data in a multifactor experiment. (United States)

    Cui, Shiqi; Ji, Tieming; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Qiu, Jing


    Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes between different conditions is one of the main goals of RNA-seq data analysis. Although a large amount of RNA-seq data were produced for two-group comparison with small sample sizes at early stage, more and more RNA-seq data are being produced in the setting of complex experimental designs such as split-plot designs and repeated measure designs. Data arising from such experiments are traditionally analyzed by mixed-effects models. Therefore an appropriate statistical approach for analyzing RNA-seq data from such designs should be generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) or similar approaches that allow for random effects. However, common practices for analyzing such data in literature either treat random effects as fixed or completely ignore the experimental design and focus on two-group comparison using partial data. In this paper, we examine the effect of ignoring the random effects when analyzing RNA-seq data. We accomplish this goal by comparing the standard GLMM model to the methods that ignore the random effects through simulation studies and real data analysis. Our studies show that, ignoring random effects in a multi-factor experiment can lead to the increase of the false positives among the top selected genes or lower power when the nominal FDR level is controlled.

  7. The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) Experiment Aboard Chandrayaan-1 Mission: Instrument and Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Dhanya, M B; Barabash, Stas; Yoshifumi, Futaana; Holmstrom, Mats; Sridharan, R; Wurz, Peter; Schaufelberger, Audrey; Kazushi, Asamura


    SARA experiment aboard the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 had the objective to explore the solar wind-lunar interaction using energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from the lunar surface as diagnostic tool. SARA consisted of an ENA imaging mass analyzer CENA (Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer) and an ion mass analyser SWIM (Solar Wind Monitor), along with a digital processing unit (DPU) which commands and controls the sensors and provides the interface to the spacecraft. Both sensors have provided excellent observational data. CENA has observed ENAs from the lunar surface and found that ~20% of the incident solar wind ions get backscattered as ENAs from the lunar surface. This is contrary to the previous assumptions of almost complete absorption of solar wind by the lunar surface. The observation is relevant for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  8. The Pricing Model of Closed-loop Supply Chain with Capacity Constraint under One-way Substitution Strategy%有限产能下单向替代的闭环供应链定价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁云; 雷红; 左小德


    本文分析存在产品替代策略的情况下,闲环供应链在有限产能及废旧物品回收数量有限条件下的最优定价策略,分别得出四种不同情形下的最优定价策略与利润情况.同时,分析产能限制及废旧物品回收数量限制两个条件对最优定价决策与利润水平的影响,并通过数值试验进行验证.%This paper adopts product substitution strategy to analyze the optimal pricing strategies of closed-loop supply chains with capacity and used product collecting volume constraints. The optimal pricing schemes and profit levels are also calculated under four circumstances. Moreover, this paper discusses the influence of the above two constraints on optimal pricing strategies. Finally, numerical experiments are adopted to test the theoretical analysis. There are two kinds of products in a remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain: new product and remanufactured product. Although both products have similar functions, customers have higher quality perception for new products than re-manufactured products because of production cost and durability factors. Sometimes, a manufacturer needs to provide customers with new products for the price of remanufactured products because the latter products are out of stock. In general, customers are receptive to the substitution effect. Capacity constraint of the manufactureralso plays an important role in the pricing strategy for a supply chain because new products and remanufactured products consume same labor, machine hours and other resources. When a manufacturer's capacity cannot satisfy all demands of both products, the capacity allocation decision becomes important because it can affect profit of supply chain members. With the assumptions of one way substitution and capacity strategy, mathematical models are set up to explore pricing strategies in the closed-loop supply chain. This study also considers the relationship between new product ' s sales amount and

  9. Lesson-analyzing practice of function experiment%机能实验学说课实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 杨秀红


      说课是一种新兴的教学研究改革的手段。机能实验学是一门教学改革后新编排的课程,从课程设置、教学目标、教学流程、课程考核四个方面对机能实验学说课要点进行说明,探讨教师如何完善实验教学备课,使学生快速有效地掌握基本技能和提高综合分析能力。%Lesson-analyzing is a kind of new teaching reform means. Functional experiment is a new arrangement of courses after teaching reform. The present paper deals with the course setting, teaching goal, teaching process, curriculum evaluation of the functional experiment to explore how to perfect experiment teaching, and make students master basic skills quickly and effectively and improve the comprehensive analysis ability.

  10. One way to Lorentz's Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Bessonov, E G


    The derivation of Lorentz Transformations (LT) based on the Principle of Relativity and dependence of the rate of clocks tick (time dilation) on their velocity is presented. The analysis of different ways of the LT derivation allows to look at LT and their consequences from different standpoints, to make them more accessible to a wide circle of readers interested in the relativistic physics.

  11. Theory of wave propagation in magnetized near-zero-epsilon metamaterials: evidence for one-way photonic states and magnetically switched transparency and opacity. (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader


    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  12. Compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer arrays on National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (United States)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Tritz, K.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Hao, G. Z.; Zhu, Y. B.


    A compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode arrays has been successfully tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. The SSNPA diagnostic provides spatially, temporally, and pitch-angle resolved measurements of fast-ion distribution by detecting fast neutral flux resulting from the charge exchange (CX) reactions. The system consists of three 16-channel subsystems: t-SSNPA viewing the plasma mid-radius and neutral beam (NB) line #2 tangentially, r-SSNPA viewing the plasma core and NB line #1 radially, and p-SSNPA with no intersection with any NB lines. Due to the setup geometry, the active CX signals of t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA are mainly sensitive to passing and trapped particles, respectively. In addition, both t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA utilize three vertically stacked arrays with different filter thicknesses to obtain coarse energy information. The experimental data show that all channels are operational. The signal to noise ratio is typically larger than 10, and the main noise is x-ray induced signal. The active and passive CX signals are clearly observed on t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA during NB modulation. The SSNPA data also indicate significant losses of passing particles during sawteeth, while trapped particles are weakly affected. Fluctuations up to 120 kHz have been observed on SSNPA, and they are strongly correlated with magnetohydrodynamics instabilities.

  13. Sticky or Slippery Wetting: Network Formation Conditions Can Provide a One-Way Street for Water Flow on Platinum-cured Silicone. (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Nair, Sithara S; Veeravalli, Sharon; Moseh, Patricia; Wynne, Kenneth J


    -temperature end (slippery surface) but became pinned at the low-temperature end (sticky surface) and did not move when the slide was rotated 180°. The surface was therefore a "one-way street" for water droplet flow. Theory provides fundamental understanding for slippery/sticky behavior for gradient S-PDMS and Pt-PDMS coatings. A model for network formation is based on hydrosilylation at high temperature and condensation curing of Si-OH from autoxidation of Si-H at low temperatures. In summary, network formation conditions strongly affect receding contact angles and water adhesion for Sylgard 184 and the filler-free mimic Pt-PDMS. These findings suggest careful control of curing conditions is important to silicones used in microfluidic devices or as biomedical materials. Network-forming conditions also impact bulk mechanical properties for Sylgard 184, but the range that can be obtained has not been critically examined for specific applications.

  14. One-way Transmission Tunnel Based on Bell-LaPadula Model%一种基于Bell-LaPadula模型的单向传输通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 陈曙辉


    在物理隔离情况下,为确保内部网络的安全,数据只能从低密级网络向高密级网络传输.由于没有信息反馈,单向网络协议使传统数据库同步技术无法生效,且数据在传输过程中极容易发生信息丢失和信息错误.针对这些难点问题,引入BLP安全模型进行分析,在数据库同步和高可靠传输方面提出了安全可靠的解决方案,并对依据该方案设计出来的单向传输通道进行了可用性分析.%In the situation of physical isolation, data can only be transmitted from the low security level network to the high one to ensure the safety of the internal network. Without message feedback,one-way network protocol makes the traditional database synchronization technology unusable,and it is very easy that information loss or information error in the transmission process occur frequently. To solve these problems, this paper analyses the BLP model,and presents a safe and reliable solution in the one-way synchronization of database and high reliable transmission. The a-vailability analysis for the one-way transmission tunnel based on our solution is also provided.

  15. A Biomechanical Study of Hyoid Bone and Laryngeal Movements During Swallowing Comparing the Blom Low Profile Voice Inner Cannula and Passy-Muir One Way Tracheotomy Tube Speaking Valves. (United States)

    Srinet, Prateek; Van Daele, Douglas J; Adam, Stewart I; Burrell, Morton I; Aronberg, Ryan; Leder, Steven B


    The aim of this prospective, consecutive, cohort study was to investigate the biomechanical effects, if any, of the Blom low profile voice inner cannula and Passy-Muir one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valves on movement of the hyoid bone and larynx during swallowing. Ten adult patients (8 male, 2 female) with an age range of 61-89 years (mean 71 years) participated. Criteria for inclusion were ≥18 years of age, English speaking, and ability to tolerate both changing to a Blom tracheotomy tube and placement of a one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valve with a fully deflated tracheotomy tube cuff. Digitized videofluoroscopic swallow studies were performed at 30 frames/s and with each patient seated upright in the lateral plane. A total of 18 swallows (three each with 5 cc bolus volumes of single contrast barium and puree + barium × 3 conditions) were analyzed for each participant. Variables evaluated included larynx-to-hyoid bone excursion (mm), maximum hyoid bone displacement (mm), and aspiration status under three randomized conditions: 1. Tracheotomy tube open with no inner cannula; 2. Tracheotomy tube with Blom valve; and 3. Tracheotomy tube with Passy-Muir valve. Blinded reliability testing with a Pearson product moment correlation was performed on 20 % of the data. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for combined measurements of larynx-to-hyoid bone excursion and maximum hyoid bone displacement was r = 0.98. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for aspiration status was 100 %. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for larynx-to-hyoid bone excursion and maximum hyoid bone displacement during swallowing based upon an open tracheotomy tube, Blom valve, or Passy-Muir valve. Aspiration status was identical for all three randomized conditions. The presence of a one-way tracheotomy tube speaking valve did not significantly alter two important components of normal pharyngeal swallow biomechanics, i.e., hyoid bone and laryngeal movements

  16. Generation of high-fidelity four-photon cluster state and quantum-domain demonstration of one-way quantum computing. (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Kuwashiro, Shin; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki


    We experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating a four-photon entangled cluster state with fidelity over 0.860+/-0.015. We show that the fidelity is high enough to guarantee that the produced state is distinguished from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and Dicke types of genuine four-qubit entanglement. We also demonstrate basic operations of one-way quantum computing using the produced state and show that the output state fidelities surpass classical bounds, which indicates that the entanglement in the produced state essentially contributes to the quantum operation.

  17. One-way quantum computing with arbitrarily large time-frequency continuous-variable cluster states from a single optical parametric oscillator (United States)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Wang, Pei; Sridhar, Niranjan; Chen, Moran; Pfister, Olivier; Menicucci, Nicolas C.


    One-way quantum computing is experimentally appealing because it requires only local measurements on an entangled resource called a cluster state. Record-size, but nonuniversal, continuous-variable cluster states were recently demonstrated separately in the time and frequency domains. We propose to combine these approaches into a scalable architecture in which a single optical parametric oscillator and simple interferometer entangle up to (3 ×103 frequencies) × (unlimited number of temporal modes) into a computationally universal continuous-variable cluster state. We introduce a generalized measurement protocol to enable improved computational performance on this entanglement resource.

  18. Exhaustive expansion: A novel technique for analyzing complex data generated by higher-order polychromatic flow cytometry experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsil Wes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex data sets generated by higher-order polychromatic flow cytometry experiments are a challenge to analyze. Here we describe Exhaustive Expansion, a data analysis approach for deriving hundreds to thousands of cell phenotypes from raw data, and for interrogating these phenotypes to identify populations of biological interest given the experimental context. Methods We apply this approach to two studies, illustrating its broad applicability. The first examines the longitudinal changes in circulating human memory T cell populations within individual patients in response to a melanoma peptide (gp100209-2M cancer vaccine, using 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to delineate subpopulations of viable, gp100-specific, CD8+ T cells. The second study measures the mobilization of stem cells in porcine bone marrow that may be associated with wound healing, and uses 5 different staining panels consisting of 8 mAbs each. Results In the first study, our analysis suggests that the cell surface markers CD45RA, CD27 and CD28, commonly used in historical lower order (2-4 color flow cytometry analysis to distinguish memory from naïve and effector T cells, may not be obligate parameters in defining central memory T cells (TCM. In the second study, we identify novel phenotypes such as CD29+CD31+CD56+CXCR4+CD90+Sca1-CD44+, which may characterize progenitor cells that are significantly increased in wounded animals as compared to controls. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that Exhaustive Expansion supports thorough interrogation of complex higher-order flow cytometry data sets and aids in the identification of potentially clinically relevant findings.

  19. Haemodynamics of giant cerebral aneurysm: A comparison between the rigid-wall, one-way and two-way FSI models (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Bobkova, M. S.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu


    In this paper a computer simulation of a blood flow in cerebral vessels with a giant saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation of the basilar artery is performed. The modelling is based on patient-specific clinical data (both flow domain geometry and boundary conditions for the inlets and outlets). The hydrodynamic and mechanical parameters are calculated in the frameworks of three models: rigid-wall assumption, one-way FSI approach, and full (two-way) hydroelastic model. A comparison of the numerical solutions shows that mutual fluid- solid interaction can result in qualitative changes in the structure of the fluid flow. Other characteristics of the flow (pressure, stress, strain and displacement) qualitatively agree with each other in different approaches. However, the quantitative comparison shows that accounting for the flow-vessel interaction, in general, decreases the absolute values of these parameters. Solving of the hydroelasticity problem gives a more detailed solution at a cost of highly increased computational time.

  20. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment (United States)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  1. Mechanism of one-way traffic of hexameric phi29 DNA packaging motor with four electropositive relaying layers facilitating antiparallel revolution. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyi; Khisamutdinov, Emil; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan


    The importance of nanomotors in nanotechnology is akin to that of mechanical engines to daily life. The AAA+ superfamily is a class of nanomotors performing various functions. Their hexagonal arrangement facilitates bottom-up assembly for stable structures. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA translocation motor contains three coaxial rings: a dodecamer channel, a hexameric ATPase ring, and a hexameric pRNA ring. The viral DNA packaging motor has been believed to be a rotational machine. However, we discovered a revolution mechanism without rotation. By analogy, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating on its own axis. One-way traffic of dsDNA translocation is facilitated by five factors: (1) ATPase changes its conformation to revolve dsDNA within a hexameric channel in one direction; (2) the 30° tilt of the channel subunits causes an antiparallel arrangement between two helices of dsDNA and channel wall to advance one-way translocation; (3) unidirectional flow property of the internal channel loops serves as a ratchet valve to prevent reversal; (4) 5'-3' single-direction movement of one DNA strand along the channel wall ensures single direction; and (5) four electropositive layers interact with one strand of the electronegative dsDNA phosphate backbone, resulting in four relaying transitional pauses during translocation. The discovery of a riding system along one strand provides a motion nanosystem for cargo transportation and a tool for studying force generation without coiling, friction, and torque. The revolution of dsDNA among 12 subunits offers a series of recognition sites on the DNA backbone to provide additional spatial variables for nucleotide discrimination for sensing applications.

  2. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)


    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  3. Analyzing Inquiry Questions of High-School Students in a Gas Chromatography Open-Ended Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlock-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi


    This paper describes the implementation of an open-ended inquiry experiment for high-school students, based on gas chromatography (GC). The research focuses on identifying the level of questions that students ask during the GC open inquiry laboratory, and it examines whether implementing the advanced inquiry laboratory opens up new directions for…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A new sample chamber has been designed which allows high temperature Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) experiments on metallic melts which offer a number of special experimental problems: they are highly corrosive, have high vapour pressures and strongly absorb X-rays. The EXAFS spect

  5. Einstein's physical geometry at play: inertial motion, the boostability assumption, the Lorentz transformations, and the so-called conventionality of the one-way speed of light

    CERN Document Server

    Valente, Mario Bacelar


    In this work, Einstein's view of geometry as physical geometry is taken into account in the analysis of diverse issues related to the notions of inertial motion and inertial reference frame. Einstein's physical geometry enables a non-conventional view on Euclidean geometry (as the geometry associated to inertial motion and inertial reference frames) and on the uniform time. Also, by taking into account the implications of the view of geometry as a physical geometry, it is presented a critical reassessment of the so-called boostability assumption (implicit according to Einstein in the formulation of the theory) and also of 'alternative' derivations of the Lorentz transformations that do not take into account the so-called 'light postulate'. Finally it is addressed the issue of the eventual conventionality of the one-way speed of light or, what is the same, the conventionality of distant simultaneity (within the same inertial reference frame). It turns out that it is possible to see the (possible) conventionali...

  6. One-Way Multishape-Memory Effect and Tunable Two-Way Shape Memory Effect of Ionomer Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid). (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Li, Guoqiang


    Reversible elongation by cooling and contraction by heating, without the need for repeated programming, is well-known as the two-way shape-memory effect (2W-SME). This behavior is contrary to the common physics-contraction when cooling and expansion when heating. Materials with such behavior may find many applications in real life, such as self-sufficient grippers, fastening devices, optical gratings, soft actuators, and sealant. Here, it is shown that ionomer Surlyn 8940, a 50-year old polymer, exhibits both one-way multishape-memory effects and tunable two-way reversible actuation. The required external tensile stress to trigger the tunable 2W-SME is very low when randomly jumping the temperatures within the melting transition window. With a proper one-time programming, "true" 2W-SME (i.e., 2W-SME without the need for an external tensile load) is also achieved. A long training process is not needed to trigger the tunable 2W-SME. Instead, a proper one-time tensile programming is sufficient to trigger repeated and tunable 2W-SME. Because the 2W-SME of the ionomer Surlyn is driven by the thermally reversible network, here crystallization and melting transitions of the semicrystalline poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid), it is believed that a class of thermally reversible polymers should also exhibit tunable 2W-SMEs.

  7. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium: one-way conversion from mycophenolate mofetil and de novo use in stable liver transplant recipients. (United States)

    Nure, E; Magalini, S C; Frongillo, F; Barbarino, R; Pepe, G; Avolio, A W; Agnes, S


    Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is a formulation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) that releases the active molecule in the intestine reducing drug-related gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. The aim of present work was to summarize the use of EC-MPS for one-way conversion from mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) due to GI side effects and for de novo administration in a stable liver transplant population. In 10 patients on MMF and low-dose calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), significant GI side effects suggested drug conversion to ameliorate subjective symptoms. In 5 patients, EC-MPS was initiated de novo together with reduction of CNI for prevention of long-term renal failure. Conversion was carried out at equivalent MMF/EC-MPS dosages. Reevaluation at 2 months after conversion showed that no episode of rejection or infection occurred, and white blood cell count, CNI levels and doses, and creatinine clearance did not vary significantly. In 70% of converted patients there was a reduction of GI symptoms, especially diarrhea. Eighty percent suspended proton pump inhibitors. The de novo-treated patients showed no significant GI side effects. In conclusion, conversion from MMF to EC-MPS demonstrated significant GI symptom relief and de novo drug administration was well tolerated.

  8. Is there more than one way to skin a newt? Convergent toxin resistance in snakes is not due to a common genetic mechanism. (United States)

    Feldman, C R; Durso, A M; Hanifin, C T; Pfrender, M E; Ducey, P K; Stokes, A N; Barnett, K E; Brodie, E D; Brodie, E D


    Convergent evolution of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance, at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, characterizes coevolutionary arms races between amphibians and their snake predators around the world, and reveals remarkable predictability in the process of adaptation. Here we examine the repeatability of the evolution of TTX resistance in an undescribed predator-prey relationship between TTX-bearing Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos). We found that that local newts contain levels of TTX dangerous enough to dissuade most predators, and that Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes within newt range are highly resistant to TTX. In fact, these populations of Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes are so resistant to TTX that the potential for current reciprocal selection might be limited. Unlike all other cases of TTX resistance in vertebrates, H. platirhinos lacks the adaptive amino acid substitutions in the skeletal muscle sodium channel that reduce TTX binding, suggesting that physiological resistance in Eastern Hog-nosed Snakes is conferred by an alternate genetic mechanism. Thus, phenotypic convergence in this case is not due to parallel molecular evolution, indicating that there may be more than one way for this adaptation to arise, even among closely related species.

  9. Application of VOD Service in One-way CATV Network%VOD 点播业务在广电单向网络中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱臣; 栾长青


    In the triple play , two-way network transformation is the key to the development of radio and TV network .But the bidirectional transformation need to invest a lot of money , and vigorously carry out two-way business also need to replace the existing set-top boxes , financial pressure is difficult to be sustained in a short time.Like before, only depend on the subscription has been difficult to continue , need to rely on the diversity of value-added services to enhance profitability , this paper mainly introduces the VOD value-added service system to carry out the one-way network environment .%在三网融合的情况下,双向化改造是广电网络发展的重点,但是双向网改需要大量的资金投入,大力开展双向业务还需要更换现有的机顶盒,资金压力在短时间内难以得到缓解,像以前一样单纯依赖收视费已经难以为继,亟需依靠多元化的增值业务以增强盈利能力,为此主要介绍在单向网络环境下开展的VOD增值业务系统。

  10. Analyzing Virtual Reference Station for GPS surveying: experiments and applications in a test site of the northern Apennine (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Casula


    Full Text Available The availability of a GPS network of 10-20 km mean size, provides good topographical support for the measurement of ground displacements, even at a local scale such as a landslide. In particular, a series of multitemporal kinematic or rapid-static GPS acquisitions of a landslide allows a good characterization of its displacements if the measurements are referred to a GPS reference network. Nevertheless, a wider network formed by stations located at long distances, for example at several tens of kilometers, characterized by large spacing, can lead to results affected by high noise, degrading the accuracy of final point positions. In order to obtain an adequate GPS reference network, some virtual reference stations (VRSs can be introduced, even if a network refinement based on VRS cannot reach the same accuracy of a real local network. Some experiments, including measurements on a real landslide, have been performed in order to evaluate the performance of this technique. The results point out that the standard deviation of the obtained solutions is about two or three times larger than those which can be reached using a real local network.

  11. 垂直轴水轮机单向流固耦合数值研究%One way fluid and structure interaction numerical analysis of vertical axis tidal turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 何环宇; 张学伟; 马勇


    As for vertical axis turbine fluid-structure interaction problems ,using one-way FSI meth-od ,combined with uniform force and interpolation method ,the stress distribution of the blade ,the stress distribution ,displacement and the deformation of VAWT (vertical axis water turbine) were an-alyzed .The most danger state of the VAWT when it is rotating and the changing law with TSR (tip-speed ratio) were given .The results show that under a certain TSR ,azimuth angle is the most dan-gerous working condition when the impeller by the resultant force is the largest .The most dangerous azimuth increases as the TSR ,and gradually approaching the place where the blade chord line and the velocity direction is perpendicular ,that is 90° .The uniform force and interpolation method are used to analyze one-way FSI (fluid-solid interaction) of blades ,which can get the same change law ,and uni-form force method tends to be more conservative .%针对垂直轴水轮机流固耦合问题,采用均布力法和插值法相结合的单向流固耦合方法,在不同速比的工况下,分析叶片应力、水轮机整体应力、位移以及应变的变化规律,得出垂直轴水轮机在旋转过程中最危险工作方位角及其随速比变化的规律。结果表明:在一定速比下,当水轮机转到某一方位角时,叶轮受合力最大,此方位角为最危险工况;最危险方位角随着速比增大而增大,并逐渐接近叶片弦线与来流速度方向垂直的位置即90°;基于均布力法和插值法对水轮机叶片进行单向流固耦合分析,可以得到相同变化规律,在数值上均布力法更趋于保守。

  12. Experience of analyzing legislative and scientific components while choosing the assessment criteria in open competitions on design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetova Anna Yur'evna


    their performance according to the specification on design of the capital construction project, which is an integral part of competitive documentation on purchase execution. With such criteria as “qualification of the participant of competition”, “experience in similar types of works”, “business reputation” and “existence of purchase of the material and other resources necessary for work performance”, with adoption of law on contract system, serious changes didn’t happen. The innovation of the legislation is only that now the customer has to establish minimum / extremely minimum and/or maximum / extremely maximum assessment value according to these criteria in competitive documentation. The assessment of applications will occur in this case according to legislatively certain mathematical formulas of calculation. On the basis of the above, considering a scientific component of this research, it is possible to tell that, despite some changes of an assessment criteria, in general the mechanism of their choice hasn’t been improved.

  13. 从单向传达到交互参与的设计思维转换%Design Thinking Transformation from One-way Convey to Interaction Involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉怀; 周家乐


    以参与性设计为启示,分析了单向传达与交互参与2种设计的优缺点,论述了交互参与性设计的研究价值与意义,在此基础上,提出了交互参与性设计的设计思路使设计更好的满足消费需求,从而达到产消一体化的目的。%Enlightened by the interactive participate design,it analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of one-way convey and interaction involvement in design,discussed the research value and significance of interaction involvement in design.On this basis,it put forward the design ideas of interaction involvement in design,made the design better to meet consumer demand,so as to achieve the goal of integration of production and consumption.

  14. Parallel Processing of Syntax Parsing Algorithm for UPD Grammar Based on One-way Cell Automata%基于单向点格自动机的UPG文法识别并行算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    UPG文法是一种特殊的生成文法,在分析的过程中可以没有回溯。该文法能够更好地描述自然语言中特殊的语法结构。单向点格自动机是进行语言并行识别的模型。通过对该文法和点格自动机深入的分析,提出了一种在并行环境下基于点格自动机的无回溯的语法分析和识别算法。文章通过实例详细描述了算法并行处理的过程,验证算法的正确性和可行性。%A uniquely parsable grammar(UPD)is a special kind of generative grammar where parsing can be performed without backtracking. UPD grammars have greater generative power than the context-free grammars. This family of grammars and one-way cell automata is deeply analyzed. A recognition and parsing algorithm under Paral-lel environment is presented. The process of parallel processing is described by instance and the validity of the algo-rithm is verified.

  15. Theory Transmission:from One-way to Two-way%从理论的(单向)旅行到(双向)对话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    长期以来,中国的文学理论批评始终笼罩在西方理论的阴影之下,西方的理论可以通过翻译的中介长驱直入进入中国的文学理论批评话语中。虽然理论的旅行会发生某种变异,但这种旅行和变异长期以来却一直是单向的,也即从西方到东方。美国文学理论家希利斯•米勒最近同时在西方和中国出版的一本演讲集则一改这种理论单向旅行的路径,加进了与中国学者对话的部分,这应该是一个可喜的开端。本文作者认为,中国经济的飞速发展使得中国文化和文学理论走向世界也提到了中国学者的议事日程上。在这方面,米勒与中国学者张江的对话可以说预示了这种理论双向旅行的开始,但是作为中国学者,我们应该积极主动地与西方以及国际主流学者进行交流和对话。也许翻译的中介会使得中国的理论在西方世界发生变异,但是如果中西文论的对话能够持续进行下去,那就是值得的。%For a long time, China’s literary theory and criticism was overshadowed by Western theories. Through translation, Western theories have a clear path to China’s literary critical discourse. There are changes and aberrance during the transmission, but the transmission and aberrance have long been unidirectional: from West to East. J. Hillis Miller, an American literary critic recently published a collection of speeches in the West and China at the same time. The theories do not travel in a one-way system in this book, to which he adds the dialogues between Western theorists and their Chinese counterparts. This marks a good beginning. In this paper, the author holds that the rapid development of Chinese economy allows Chinese scholars to bring Chinese culture and literary theories to the world. In this regard, Miller’s dialogue with Chinese scholar ZHANG Jiang probably signifies the beginning of a two-way transmission of theories

  16. A full quantum analysis of the Stern–Gerlach experiment using the evolution operator method: analyzing current issues in teaching quantum mechanics (United States)

    Benítez Rodríguez, E.; Arévalo Aguilar, L. M.; Piceno Martínez, E.


    To the quantum mechanics specialists community it is a well-known fact that the famous original Stern–Gerlach experiment (SGE) produces entanglement between the external degrees of freedom (position) and the internal degree of freedom (spin) of silver atoms. Despite this fact, almost all textbooks on quantum mechanics explain this experiment using a semiclassical approach, where the external degrees of freedom are considered classical variables, the internal degree is treated as a quantum variable, and Newton's second law is used to describe the dynamics. In the literature there are some works that analyze this experiment in its full quantum mechanical form. However, astonishingly, to the best of our knowledge the original experiment, where the initial states of the spin degree of freedom are randomly oriented coming from the oven, has not been analyzed yet in the available textbooks using the Schrödinger equation (to the best of our knowledge there is only one paper that treats this case: Hsu et al (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 012109)). Therefore, in this contribution we use the time-evolution operator to give a full quantum mechanics analysis of the SGE when the initial state of the internal degree of freedom is completely random, i.e. when it is a statistical mixture. Additionally, as the SGE and the development of quantum mechanics are heavily intermingled, we analyze some features and drawbacks in the current teaching of quantum mechanics. We focus on textbooks that use the SGE as a starting point, based on the fact that most physicist do not use results from physics education research, and comment on traditional pedagogical attitudes in the physics community.

  17. 聚乳酸-羟基乙酸共聚物-壳聚糖单向缓释膜制剂的研究%Preparation of PLGA-CS one-way controlled release membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏婷; 孙洪范; 马桂蕾; 俞玫


    Objective To create a one-way controlled release film carrying drugs for treating diseases without impacting on the surrounding normal tissues. Methods Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan was used respectively to produce outer film and release film, and the two layers were combined through an intermediary layer. One-way release experiment, protein release and epimedium glycoside release were conducted to evaluate the release behavior. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) was conducted to determine the change of film microstructure at different release time. Degradation rate was used to determine the physical properties of the film. Cell test and animal test(HE staining) were performed to evaluate the biocompatibility and effectiveness of the drug-release system. Results Release experiments and drug delivery test showed that film was carried different kind of drugs(water-soluble and fat-soluble), which demonstrated one-way controlled release effect. The microstructure of the film was different at different times. After 15 days, the degradation rate was about 96 %. In addition, the film showed good biocompatibility. Epimedium glycoside releasing film was induced the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to produce a certain amount of alkaline phosphatase and get differentiated. Conclusion It is demonstrated the drug release film shows good biocompatibility, one-way controlled release behavior and certain therapeutic effectiveness.%目的:研制一种可以携带药物单向作用患处的膜型缓释制剂,避免对周围正常组织产生不良影响。方法昆明小鼠30只,鼠龄6周,雌性,体质量20 g左右。利用聚乳酸-羟基乙酸共聚物(PLGA)和壳聚糖分别制作外层膜和释放膜,通过交联层将2层结合,利用单向释放实验、蛋白释放、淫羊藿苷释放(测定其光密度值)确定膜的单向缓释放性。分别取不同释放时期的膜做扫描电子显微镜观察,确定其在不同释放

  18. 综合热分析仪在本科生实验教学中的应用%Applications of Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer in Undergraduates’ Innovative Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欣欣; 张利利; 戴鹏; 吴明在


    Base on the thermal gravimetric analysis of CuSO4 ·5H2 O,a simple and feasible experiment is de-signed for Undergraduates. We introduce the principle of thermal gravimetric analyzer,the operation steps,the analysis of the data and its values in undergraduates’ experiments.%以五水合硫酸铜的热重曲线的测量为例设计了一项简单易行的热综合分析仪的应用课程,介绍了热综合分析的实验原理,数据分析方法,阐述了将热综合分析仪在本科生实验教学中应用的重要性和可行性。

  19. Analyzing Orientations (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  20. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: proteins can recognize binding sites of homologous proteins in more than one way.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Martin


    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of protein-protein interaction is a fundamental problem with many practical applications. The fact that different proteins can bind similar partners suggests that convergently evolved binding interfaces are reused in different complexes. A set of protein complexes composed of non-homologous domains interacting with homologous partners at equivalent binding sites was collected in 2006, offering an opportunity to investigate this point. We considered 433 pairs of protein-protein complexes from the ABAC database (AB and AC binary protein complexes sharing a homologous partner A and analyzed the extent of physico-chemical similarity at the atomic and residue level at the protein-protein interface. Homologous partners of the complexes were superimposed using Multiprot, and similar atoms at the interface were quantified using a five class grouping scheme and a distance cut-off. We found that the number of interfacial atoms with similar properties is systematically lower in the non-homologous proteins than in the homologous ones. We assessed the significance of the similarity by bootstrapping the atomic properties at the interfaces. We found that the similarity of binding sites is very significant between homologous proteins, as expected, but generally insignificant between the non-homologous proteins that bind to homologous partners. Furthermore, evolutionarily conserved residues are not colocalized within the binding sites of non-homologous proteins. We could only identify a limited number of cases of structural mimicry at the interface, suggesting that this property is less generic than previously thought. Our results support the hypothesis that different proteins can interact with similar partners using alternate strategies, but do not support convergent evolution.

  1. There is more than one way to turn a spherical cellular monolayer inside out: type B embryo inversion in Volvox globator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhn Stephanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial folding is a common morphogenetic process during the development of multicellular organisms. In metazoans, the biological and biomechanical processes that underlie such three-dimensional (3D developmental events are usually complex and difficult to investigate. Spheroidal green algae of the genus Volvox are uniquely suited as model systems for studying the basic principles of epithelial folding. Volvox embryos begin life inside out and then must turn their spherical cell monolayer outside in to achieve their adult configuration; this process is called 'inversion.' There are two fundamentally different sequences of inversion processes in Volvocaceae: type A and type B. Type A inversion is well studied, but not much is known about type B inversion. How does the embryo of a typical type B inverter, V. globator, turn itself inside out? Results In this study, we investigated the type B inversion of V. globator embryos and focused on the major movement patterns of the cellular monolayer, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs connecting the cells. Isolated intact, sectioned and fragmented embryos were analyzed throughout the inversion process using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We generated 3D models of the identified cell shapes, including the localizations of CBs. We show how concerted cell-shape changes and concerted changes in the position of cells relative to the CB system cause cell layer movements and turn the spherical cell monolayer inside out. The type B inversion of V. globator is compared to the type A inversion in V. carteri. Conclusions Concerted, spatially and temporally coordinated changes in cellular shapes in conjunction with concerted migration of cells relative to the CB system are the causes of type B inversion in V. globator. Despite significant similarities

  2. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team


    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  3. Analyzing binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R


    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  4. 大鼠在体单向肠灌流模型研究肉桂酸肠道吸收特性%Study of intestinal absorption of cinnamic acid in one-way intestinal perfusion rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本坤; 王素军; 曾洁; 钟运鸣; 臧林泉


    Objective To investigate the absorption characteristic of cinnamic acid in rat intestine and the influence of transporter protein on cinnamic acid absorption. Methods One-way intestinal perfusion rat model was established. HPLC was used to measure the content of cinnamon acid in intestine. The absorption rate constant (Ka) and the apparent absorption coefficient ( Peff) were obtained to analyze the absorption kinetics of cinnamon acid. Results The values of Ka and Peff of cinnamic acid in three different regions of rat intestine showed duodenum > jejunum > ileum. The values of Ka and Peff in the same region with different concentrations of cinnamic acid did not show a statistical difference. The values of Ka and Peff of cinnamic acid did not change when treated with MRP2 inhibitor (domethacin) in jejunum, but which significantly increased when treated with Pgp inhibitor ( verapamil hydrochloride) in duodenum. Conclusion Duodenum and jejunum may be the main sites of cinnamic acid absorption, by which mechanism is related to passive diffusion influenced by Pgp,but not MRP2.%目的 研究肉桂酸在大鼠肠道的吸收部位和吸收机制,以及转运蛋白对肉桂酸肠道吸收的影响.方法 建立在体单向肠灌流模型,采用HPLC法测定肉桂酸在肠道中的浓度变化,通过吸收速度常数(Ka)和表观吸收系数(Peff)来研究肉桂酸的吸收动力学特征.结果 肉桂酸在各个肠段的Ka和Peff结果为十二指肠>空肠>回肠,十二指肠和空肠的Ka和Peff值显著性高于回肠(P<0.05),不同浓度肉桂酸在同一肠段的Ka和Peff值差异无统计学意义,加入MRP2抑制剂(吲哚美辛)后Ka和Peff值差异亦无统计学意义,但加入Pgp抑制剂(盐酸维拉帕米)后其值则显著性增加.结论 十二指肠、空肠是肉桂酸吸收的主要部位,吸收机制为被动转运,肠道转运受Pgp转运蛋白的影响,但不受MRP2转运蛋白的影响.

  5. One Way to Holland’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi; Schütze, Laura Maria


    in these museum practices is the question of how to collaborate with source communities, understood as “groups in the past when artifacts were collected, as well as their descendants today” (Peers & Brown, 2003, p. 2). Collaboration with source communities does not adhere only to “old” collections in ethnographic...

  6. One-Way Temperature Compensated Fiber Link (United States)


    individual compensated links. [1] R. Wynands and S. Weyers, “Atomic Fountain Clocks,” Metrologia , vol. 42, pp. S64-S79, 2005. [2] A. D. Ludlow...3] A. Bauch, et al. ,”Comparison Between Frequency Standards oin Europe and the USA at the 10-15 Uncertainty Level,” Metrologia , vol. 43, pp.109

  7. Linear Regression Analysis on Proportion of One-Way Ticket Use in Chengdu Metro%成都地铁单程票使用比例的线性回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Proportion of one-way ticket use in the subway not only relates to passenger purchasing of tickets,journey time,but also relates to AFC use efficiency and life of mechanical components of equipment,having a direct impact on pressure of ticketing operations.Forecast on proportion of one-way ticket offers great help for ticket marketing and decision- making on passenger traffic organization.Establishing a mathematical model for one-way ticket use proportion also plays a guiding role for the future of ticketing operation statistics.%单程票的使用比例不仅关系到地铁乘客出行的购票、乘车时间,还关系到AFC系统的使用效率和设备机械部件的寿命,对票务运营的压力也产生直接的影响。预测单程票使用比例对票务营销、客运组织决策有很大帮助。针对单程票使用比例建立数学模型,为今后的票务运营统计工作起一定的指导作用。

  8. 单向活瓣补片治疗合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流型室间隔缺损%One - way - valved patch for repair of ventricular septal defect with severe pulmonary hypertension with Bi-directional shunt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 总结本院自2003年至2008年用自制单向活瓣补片治疗合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流型室间隔缺损15例的经验.方法 对收治的15例合并重度肺动脉高压双向分流的室间隔缺损患者行单向活瓣补片修补室间隔缺损.结果 本组15例病人无手术死亡,疗效满意,1周时有7例右向左分流,3周时右向左分流消失.随访3个月病人自觉症状改善,肺动脉压下降.结论 单向活瓣补片能降低肺动脉高压危象的发生率,降低围术期死亡率,围术期的管理也非常重要.%Objective To summerize the surgical effect with one - way - valved patch to treat vetricular septal de-feet with severe pulmonary hypertension with bi - directional shunt since 2003. Methods The materials of 15 patients with ventricular septal defect and severe PH with bi- directional shunt who were treated by one- way- valved patch were ana-lyzed. Results No patient died in hospital after operation due to pulmonary hypertention crisis and the low output of left ventrical. Most patients felt better than preoperation and their pulmonary artery pressure decreased gradually. Conclusions One -way -valved patch is useful in decreasing the rate of perioparative pulmonary hypertension crisis and perioperation mortality. The perioperative therapy and prioperative evaluation are also essential to raise surgical operation effect.

  9. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph. (United States)

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  10. One-Way Traffic Organization Optimization Method Based on Network Impedance and Traffic Efficiency%基于路网阻抗及交通效率的单向交通组织优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜凯; 黄文娟; 韩高峰


    To improve the utilization of branch roads and reduce the traffic pressure on arterial roads, the optimization approach of one-way traffic organization is proposed from the view of reducing network impedance and improving traffic efficiency. The bievel programming model is developed with the objective of minimizing network impedance and travel time. The minimum objectixie value of the upper model is obtained by optimizing one-way traffic, and the lower one adopts the capacity limitation-incremental loading method to distribute traffic flow. Through establishing virtual road network, the effectiveness of one-way traffic organization is proved by comparing the network impedance and travel time before and after optimization.%为提高支路的利用率,以降低主干道的交通压力,从降低路网阻抗及提高交通效率的角度出发,提出单向交通组织的优化方法。建立以路网阻抗及出行时间最小化为目标的双层优化模型,其中上层模型通过优化支路的单向交通组织方案使得目标值达到最小,下层模型按照容量限制——增量加栽方法进行交通量的重分配。通过建立虚拟路网,类比分析单向交通组织优化前后的路网阻抗及出行时间,验证单向交通组织的优化效果。

  11. 台湾地区经济增长和能源消费的单方向因果关系%One-Way Causal Relationships between Economic Growth and Energy Consumption in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕武; 吴承业


    应用多变量时间序列间的协整和单方向因果测度理论,探讨1954-2008年台湾地区GDP(国内生产总值)和能源消费之间的长期均衡关系和因果关系.基于误差修正模型及协整阶数的似然比检验,可以发现台湾地区GDP与能源消费,GDP与石油消费,GDP与电力消费之间都存在协整关系.单方向因果测度的Wald统计检验表明,GDP和能源消费相互影响,而GDP对石油消费及电力消费的影响只是单方向的.%In this paper we discuss the long-run balanced relationship and causal relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and energy consumption in Taiwan during the period of 1954-2008 with theories of cointegration among multivariate series and one-way causation measurement. Based on the error-correction model and likelihood ratio test, we find that there is a co-integrated relationship between GDP and energy consumption, GDP and oil consumption, GDP and electricity consumption in Taiwan. The Wald test of the one-way causation measurement shows that there is a mutual effect between the GDP and energy consumption, whereas only one-way that the GDP influences oil and electricity consumption.

  12. Design of cross-linked semicrystalline poly(ε-caprolactone)-based networks with one-way and two-way shape-memory properties through Diels-Alder reactions. (United States)

    Raquez, Jean-Marie; Vanderstappen, Sophie; Meyer, Franck; Verge, Pierre; Alexandre, Michael; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jérôme, Christine; Dubois, Philippe


    Cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-based polyesterurethane (PUR) systems have been synthesized through Diels-Alder reactions by reactive extrusion. The Diels-Alder and retro-Diels-Alder reactions proved to be useful for enhancing the molecular motion of PCL-based systems, and therefore their crystallization ability, in the design of cross-linked semicrystalline polymers with one-way and two-way shape-memory properties. Successive reactions between α,ω-diol PCL (PCL(2) ), furfuryl alcohol, and methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate straightforwardly afforded the α,ω-furfuryl PCL-based PUR systems, and subsequent Diels-Alder reactions with N,N-phenylenedimaleimide afforded the thermoreversible cycloadducts. The cross-linking density could be modulated by partially replacing PCL-diol with PCL-tetraol. Interestingly, the resulting PUR systems proved to be semicrystalline cross-linked polymers, the melting temperature of which (close to 45 °C) represented the switching temperature for their shape-memory properties. Qualitative and quantitative measurements demonstrated that these PUR systems exhibited one-way and two-way shape-memory properties depending on their cross-linking density.

  13. Analyzing radioligand binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard


    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  14. A Novel Method For One-way Hash Function Construction Based on the Couple Map lattices%一种基于改进的CML的Hash函数算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文将标准的耦合映象格子模型进行一定改进,提出了一种基于改进的耦合映象格子的Hash函数构造算法。理论分析,仿真试验和对比分析表明此算法也具有很好的统计特性,抗碰撞性和灵活性。%Based on the couple map lattices (CML), a novel scheme for constructing Hash functions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, the algorithm has good statistical properties, excellent one-way, confusion and diffusion strong collision resistance.

  15. 负载纳米粒子的壳聚糖单向缓释膜的制备及理化性质研究%Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles in-loaded one-way release-controlled chitosan membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书仪; 夏婷; 俞玫


    Objective To prepare and characterize nanoparticles in-loaded one-way release-controlled chitosan membrane,and to explore the release-controlled rule of the film in vitro.Methods The chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by inverse crosslinking-emulsion method.The one-way release-controlled membrane was prepared by a casting method.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to evaluate the morphological properties and particle size analyzer was used to analyze particle size distribution.The morphology of the membrane was inspected through scanning electron microscope (SEM).MTT assay was applied to determine the biological safety of chitosan nanoparticles.The distribution of the nanoparticles was observed by fluorescence microscope.The in vitro release studies were adopted to evaluate the release-controlled rule.Results The four kinds of nanoparticles had spherical shapes and uniform particle size.The size of the hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan nanoparticle was (255.40±39.10) nm.Hyaluronic acid-coated chitosan nanoparticles showed the best property of sustained release and biocompatibility.The membrane had a loose inner layer and a dense outer layer,and the distribution of the nanoparticles was uniform in the inner layer of the membrane.The release of protein from membrane was unidirectional and the membrane displayed good controlled release property.Conclusions The nanoparticles in-loaded one-way release-controlled chitosan membrane presents good one-way sustained release performance.It is potentially useful in delivery system of growth factors.%目的 将壳聚糖纳米粒子与壳聚糖单向缓释膜结合,制备得到负载纳米粒子的壳聚糖单向缓释膜,并对其理化性质及体外释放性能进行研究.方法 采用反相乳化法制备壳聚糖纳米粒子,采用流延法制备壳聚糖单向缓释膜,通过透射电镜、扫描电镜和粒度分析仪检测纳米粒子的形态、大小及壳聚糖单向缓释膜表面形貌,MTT

  16. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9. (United States)

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  17. Multicenter experiment for quality control of peptide-centric LC-MS/MS analysis - A longitudinal performance assessment with nLC coupled to orbitrap MS analyzers. (United States)

    Campos, Alex; Díaz, Ramón; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Sierra, Jose; Gallardo, Oscar; Sabidó, Eduard; López-Lucendo, Maria; Ignacio Casal, J; Pasquarello, Carla; Scherl, Alexander; Chiva, Cristina; Borras, Eva; Odena, Antonia; Elortza, Félix; Azkargorta, Mikel; Ibarrola, Nieves; Canals, Francesc; Albar, Juan P; Oliveira, Eliandre


    Proteomic technologies based on mass spectrometry (MS) have greatly evolved in the past years, and nowadays it is possible to routinely identify thousands of peptides from complex biological samples in a single LC-MS/MS experiment. Despite the advancements in proteomic technologies, the scientific community still faces important challenges in terms of depth and reproducibility of proteomics analyses. Here, we present a multicenter study designed to evaluate long-term performance of LC-MS/MS platforms within the Spanish Proteomics Facilities Network (ProteoRed-ISCIII). The study was performed under well-established standard operating procedures, and demonstrated that it is possible to attain qualitative and quantitative reproducibility over time. Our study highlights the importance of deploying quality assessment metrics routinely in individual laboratories and in multi-laboratory studies. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD000205.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: HUPO 2014.

  18. Assessing Occupational Exposure Via the Unbalanced One-Way Random Models%不平衡单因素随机模型在职业接触评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A unbalanced one-way random model is considered for assessing the proportion of workers whose mean exposure exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) based on exposure measurements to the worker. Hypothesis testing for the relevant parameter of interest is proposed when the exposure data are unbalanced. The method is based on the generalize inference. A simulation study is conducted to compare it with that of Krishnamoorthy and Guo (2005). Simulation results suggest that the proposed method appears to be better, especially in very unbalanced design.%在职业接触评价中,单因素随机模型可用于评价工人接触均值超过职业接触限值的概率.当数据不平衡时,本文利用广义推断研究了关于此概率的假设检验,并对此方法与已有方法进行了模拟对比研究.模拟结果表明,本文所给方法优于已有方法,特别是在数据极不平衡时效果更优.

  19. 肺梗死的误诊分析与体会%To Analyze and Experience the Misdiagnose of Pulmonary Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的:肺梗死临床表现和影像表现复杂多样,误、漏诊率高.方法:本研究通过回顾性分析在笔者所在医院诊治的22例肺梗死患者的临床资料,总结其误诊原因,以对肺梗死及时、准确的诊断,减少误诊率和死亡率.结果:22例患者确诊后给予尿激酶溶栓及肝素、华法令抗凝治疗,然而由于开始阶段认识不足,未能采取积极的溶栓治疗,有7例死亡,死亡率高达31.8%,尸检证实均为肺梗死;其余住院治疗17~30 d,平均24 d,出院后继续抗凝治疗.结论:肺梗死误诊率高达79%,未经积极治疗病死率接近30%,而及时诊断治疗者病死率可降至2%~8%,因此及时准确诊断出肺梗死是关键.%Objective:Clinical and imaging performance of pulmonary infarction is complicated,mistakenly and missed diagnosis ratio is high. Methods:The clinical data of 22 cases with pulmonary infarction were retrospectively analyzed.We summed up the cause of misdiagnosis of this disease,to prompt the correct diagnosis in time,to reduce the misdiagnosis rate and death rate.Results:22 patients after diagnosis given urokinase and heparin,warfarin therapy,due to the lack of knowledge of the beginning,however,failed to take an active thrombolytic therapy,with 7 deaths,a mortality rate as high as 31.8%, the autopsy confirmed arepulmonary infarction;remaining hospitalized 17-30 d,average 24 d,continue anticoagulation therapy after discharge. Conclusion:Pulmonary infarction misdiagnosis rate as high as 79%,without aggressive treatment of the case fatality rate of nearly 30%,and timely diagnosis and treatment of mortality can be reduced to 2%-8%,therefore,timely and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary infarction is the key.

  20. Research on the phase-noise-induced error in dual one-way ranging%相位噪声引起的双向单程测距误差研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 王跃科; 张传胜


    为了研究时钟相位噪声引起的DOWR测距误差的特性,通过建立时标偏差与相位噪声耦合效应对测距误差的影响模型,得出了测距误差与相位噪声间的频域传递函数和定量关系.以使用时钟OCXO8607的DOWR系统为例,对测距误差进行了功率谱分析和误差水平估计,结果表明导致测距误差的并不是单颗卫星的时标偏差,而是两颗卫星时标偏差之间的差异,并且测距误差与双星时标偏差的差异之间存在近似线性的关系,在使用OCXO8607条件下0.1s的时标偏差差异将导致约500 μm的测距误差,并基于时域的仿真验证了频域分析的结果.%In order to study the characteristics of the clock phase-noise-induced ranging error in dual one-way ranging (DOWR), a model of the coupling effect of time-tag offset and phase noise on the ranging error was built, accordingly a frequency-domain transfer function and a quantitative relationship between ranging error and phase noise were derived. Power spectral analysis and level assessment of the ranging error, which were performed based on a DOWR system adopting OCXO8607, show that it is the discrepancy of the two satellites' time-tag offsets, rather than the individual time-tag offset causes the ranging error, and there is a nearly linear relationship between the ranging error and the discrepancy of the time-tag offsets, and a discrepancy of 0.1 s will induce a ranging error of about 500μm with the DOWR system using OCXO8607. The time-domain simulation verified the frequency-domain results.

  1. Study of Intestinal Absorption of Emodin in One-way Intestinal Perfusion Rat Model%在体单向肠灌流模型研究大黄素的大鼠肠吸收特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 王平; 王进荣; 于宜平; 孟宪丽


    目的 研究大黄素在大鼠不同肠段的吸收特性,以及P-糖蛋白(P-gp)和多药耐药相关蛋白(MRP2)对大黄素肠吸收的影响.方法 采用大鼠在体单向肠灌流模型,HPLC法测定肠灌流液中大黄素的浓度,计算不含抑制剂药物组及含抑制剂药物组大黄素的吸收速率常数(Ka)和表观吸收系数(Papp).结果 十二指肠段吸收能力显著强于其他肠段(P<0.05);大黄素在回肠、结肠、空肠段之间的吸收差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);加入P-gp 抑制剂后,大黄素肠吸收的Ka、Papp 值与不合抑制剂组比较差异也没有统计学意义(P>0.05);加入高、中浓度MRP2抑制剂后,大黄素肠吸收的Ka、Papp 值与不含抑制剂组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),且有剂量依赖性.结论 大黄素在大鼠体内的主要吸收部位为十二指肠.大黄素的肠吸收过程不受P-gp的外排影响,但受到MRP2的肠道外排转运影响,大黄素可能为MRP2的底物.%Objective To investigate the absorption characteristic of emodin in rats intestine and to observe the impact of P-glycoprotein(P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein( MRP2) on intestinal absorption of emodin. Methods The rat one-way intestinal perfusion model was used. The concentration of emodin was determined by RP-HPLC. The absorption rate constant(Kα) and the apparent absorption coefficient(Papp) in each intestinal section were calculated in rats with or without P-gp inhibilor(verapamil hydrochloride) or MRP2 inhibitor(indomethacin). Results The value of Ka and Papp in the duodenum was signifcantly higher than in other intestinal sections(P 0.05). Compared with the group without inhibitor, the value of Ka and Papp had signifcantly increased(P 0.05) affter adding the inhibitor of P-gp. Conclusion The main absorption position of emodin is in the duodenum of rats. P-gp has no effect on the intestinal absorption of emodin, but MRP2 can promote the intestinal absorption of

  2. Electrolyte Analyzer in Application of Hyperkalemia and Treat-ment Experiment%电解质分析仪在家兔高钾血症及救治实验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安英; 赵丽晶; 沈楠; 陈雪; 徐博


    Hyperkalemia and treatment experiment in this paper the rabbit as an example, the use of electrolyte analyzer are described in detail in the experimental methods, advantages and common problems processing equipment, is willing to provide a reference for the experimental teaching and help.%以家兔高钾血症及救治实验为例,详细介绍电解质分析仪在实验中的使用方法、仪器优点及常见问题处理等,期望对实验教学提供参考和帮助。

  3. Soft Decision Analyzer (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam


    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  4. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages (United States)

    Coupe, Alexander R.


    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  5. 相对差分单向测距(△DOR)技术在探月工程中的应用研究%Applications of Delta Differential One-way Ranging (△DOR) to Lunar Exploration Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁溯泉; 李海涛


    Delta Differential One-way Ranging (△DOR) is used for high precision angle measure- ment in many deep space exploration programs. The fundamentals of ADOR are introduced. Also, recommendations about ADOR of CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) are presented. According to the high precision and real-time navigation requirements, the ADOR measurement schemes are designed for China's lunar exploration program whose current object is soft-land on the moon. The angle measurement precisions are analyzed in terms of the current performances of on-board and ground TT&C equipments. The resolution of the cycle ambiguity is presented. Research results show that the angle measurement precision is 25 nrad, which corresponds to about 10 m on the moon. Further, the cycle ambiguity of DOR measurements can be resolved correctly.%相对差分单向测距(△DOR)是一种高精度测角技术,在深空探测任务的高精度测定轨方案中得到广泛应用.介绍了△DOR测量的基本原理及CCSDS(国际空间数据系统委员会)关于△测量的相关标准.针对中国探月工程月面软着陆任务提出的高精度测定轨要求,分析了△DOR测量的信号形式、工作模式以及测量精度,推导了解模糊过程.研究表明,△DOR测角精度达到25nrad,对应到月球上的距离约为10m.

  6. The Intermodulation Lockin Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, Erik A; Forchheimer, Daniel; Schuler, Vivien; Tholen, Mats O; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David B


    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lock-in analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  7. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P


    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  8. Analyzing in the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard


    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts...... of various interviews conveyed diverse significance to the listening researcher at different times became a method of continuously opening up the empirical material in a reflexive, breakdown-oriented process of analysis. We argue that situating analysis in the present of analyzing emphasizes and acknowledges...... the interdependency between researcher and researched. On this basis, we advocate an explicit “open-state-of mind” listening as a key aspect of analyzing qualitative material, often described only as a matter of reading transcribed empirical materials, reading theory, and writing. The article contributes...

  9. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B


    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  10. Analyzing Microarray Data. (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping


    Because there is no widely used software for analyzing RNA-seq data that has a graphical user interface, this protocol provides an example of analyzing microarray data using Babelomics. This analysis entails performing quantile normalization and then detecting differentially expressed genes associated with the transgenesis of a human oncogene c-Myc in mice. Finally, hierarchical clustering is performed on the differentially expressed genes using the Cluster program, and the results are visualized using TreeView.

  11. Fragment mass analyzer project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J. [and others


    The FMA is now in routine operation, with about half the ATLAS experiments using the instrument. The beam time is split equally between target and focal-plane experiments. New spectroscopy-grade electronics for the FMA implantation system were acquired. This consists of 96 charge-sensitive preamps, 192 Gaussian shaping amplifier/discriminators, 96 channels of high-resolution ADCs, and 96 channels of medium resolution ADCs. This system is currently undergoing commissioning tests, and will be used in future proton radioactivity experiments.

  12. 以北京故宫为例分析中国传统建筑中的“神性”体验%Taking The Forbidden City as example to analyze the divine experience of traditional Chinese architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    神性体验是建筑所传达的一种特殊氛围与感受,并不仅仅指狭义上对神权的敬畏,对于神权并不占统治地位的中国,其建筑的“神性”主要表现为宗教,礼制,精神体验三个方面。本文用建筑现象学的研究方法来观察,体验并总结中国传统建筑所独有的神性特征,选取北京故宫为主要案例分析各种类型的建筑层层围合,高远的空间特征,强烈的轴线感与中心感,色彩的对比性及秩序性等特点,揭示了中国传统建筑神性现象背后所蕴含的建筑原理。%The concept of divine experience is not only confined as the fear of theocracy, but also a special atmosphere and feeling conveyed by architectures. As theocracy was not dominant, the divinity of traditional Chinese architecture was ex-pressed mainly by religion, ritual system and spiri-tual experience. The unique characteristics that tra-ditional Chinese architecture had alone were observed, experienced and summarized in this pa-per by using the methods of architectural phenomenology. The Forbidden City was taken as an example to analyze the characteristics of various types of architecture, such as the enclosure and rise of space, strong feeling of axis and centre, contrast of colors and orderly construction. And the archi-tectonics hidden behind the divinity of traditional Chinese architecture was then revealed.

  13. Total organic carbon analyzer (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  14. Advances in hematology analyzers. (United States)

    DeNicola, Dennis B


    The complete blood count is one of the basic building blocks of the minimum database in veterinary medicine. Over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous advancement in the technology of hematology analyzers and their availability to the general practitioner. There are 4 basic methodologies that can be used to generate data for a complete blood count: manual methods, quantitative buffy coat analysis, automated impedance analysis, and flow cytometric analysis. This article will review the principles of these methodologies, discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages, and describe some of the hematology analyzers that are available for the in-house veterinary laboratory.

  15. Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer (United States)


    other transportation industries, such as trucking. The PFQA could also be used in fuel blending operations performed at petroleum, ethanol and biodiesel plants. ...JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Project Summary 3. DATES COVERED 29-07-2013 to 27-01-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PORTABLE FUEL QUALITY ANALYZER

  16. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media. (United States)

    Baker, Jackie


    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  17. Monolingual:One Way towards the Integrated Software Development Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The software development is considered as step wise abstract-implementation process in software life cycle.This paper presents a monolingual methodology and an embry of MONOL which uses a uniform scheme to describe software development process.

  18. Digital, One Way, Acoustic Communication in the Ocean (United States)


    phase is vital to the receiver in order to be able to detect the transmitted signal. For incoherent modulation schemes, only the knowledge of the carrier...34 -5 - c=0 , =0.2T -:10 , -10 0 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8 L2 1 20 Signol to Noise Ratio 1 9 ] Signo ] to Noise Poifo I 05 k=0.4 cc,, k=Oz 5 ’ _E 0 -5

  19. One-way quantum identity authentication based on public key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XingLan


    Based on public key, a quantum identity authenticated (QIA) system is proposed without quantum entanglement. The public key acts as the authentication key of a user. Following the idea of the classical public key infrastructure (PKI), a trusted center of authentication (CA) is involved. The user selects a public key randomly and CA generates a private key for the user according to his public key. When it is necessary to perform QIA, the user sends a sequence of single photons encoded with its private key and a message to CA. According to the corresponding secret key kept by CA, CA performs the unitary operations on the single photon sequence. At last, the receiver can judge whether the user is an impersonator.

  20. Sensing Audience Response - Beyond One Way Streaming of Live Performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Geelhoed, E.; Biscoe, I.; Stenton, P.


    During a live theatre performance, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 15 audience members was measured simultaneously and synchronized with video footage of performers and audience. Questionnaires explored emotions evoked during the play. The research is part of an EU Framework 7 program to support rem

  1. Dynamic one-way traffic control in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M; van der Zee, DJ


    In a project on underground freight transportation using Automated Guided Vehicles, single lanes for traffic in two directions are constructed to reduce infrastructure investment. Intelligent control rules are required to manage vehicle flows such, that collision is avoided and waiting times are min

  2. Loss tolerant one-way quantum computation -- a horticultural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Varnava, M; Rudolph, T; Varnava, Michael; Browne, Daniel E.; Rudolph, Terry


    We introduce a scheme for fault tolerantly dealing with losses in cluster state computation that can tolerate up to 50% qubit loss. This is achieved passively - no coherent measurements or coherent correction is required. We then use this procedure within a specific linear optical quantum computation proposal to show that: (i) given perfect sources, detector inefficiencies of up to 50% can be tolerated and (ii) given perfect detectors, the purity of the photon source (overlap of the photonic wavefunction with the desired single mode) need only be greater than 66.6% for efficient computation to be possible.

  3. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street? (United States)

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary


    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  4. Understanding one-way ANOVA using conceptual figures. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun


    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is one of the most frequently used statistical methods in medical research. The need for ANOVA arises from the error of alpha level inflation, which increases Type 1 error probability (false positive) and is caused by multiple comparisons. ANOVA uses the statistic F, which is the ratio of between and within group variances. The main interest of analysis is focused on the differences of group means; however, ANOVA focuses on the difference of variances. The illustrated figures would serve as a suitable guide to understand how ANOVA determines the mean difference problems by using between and within group variance differences.

  5. Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leite Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication.

  6. Mystery Solved: One Way To Motivate Middle Schoolers To Read. (United States)

    Herder, Deb Den


    Describes a project for middle school librarians to use to motivate students to read for pleasure. Explains activities based on the idea of a mystery at the school, and describes how clues were developed and linked to books in certain genres that students had to read. (LRW)

  7. Efficient Constructions for One-way Hash Chains (United States)


    Lecture Notes in Computer Science . International As- sociation for Cryptologic Research, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Germany...Bellare, J. Kilian, and P. Rogaway. The security of cipher block chaining. In Advances in Cryptology - Crypto ’94, pages 341–358, 1994. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume...editor, Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO ’96, volume 1109 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 1–15. International

  8. On-Line Learning: One Way to Bring People Together (United States)

    Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann


    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the benefits of on-line learning for adult learners and to further demystify three common misconceptions concerning on-line learning: students certainly do receive support from their on-line professors, the professor is pro-active rather than passive, and students may be more motivated to learn than in…

  9. Online referrals one way capitated groups gain efficiencies, reduce errors. (United States)


    An online referral system is just the latest money and time-saving tool in the e-commerce arsenal at Hill Physicians Medical Group. Using a modified version of Healinx Corp.'s secure e-mail messaging platform, Hill is testing a custom-made online referral system at two primary care practices that appear to be helping the practice boost its bottom line under capitation.

  10. One Way to Design a Valence-Skip Compound (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.


    Valence-skip compound is a good candidate with high T c and low anisotropy because it has a large attractive interaction at the site of valence-skip atom. However, it is not easy to synthesize such compound because of (i) the instability of the skipping valence state, (ii) the competing charge order, and (iii) that formal valence may not be true in some compounds. In the present study, we show several examples of the valence-skip compounds and discuss how we can design them by first principles calculations. Furthermore, we calculated the electronic structure of a promising candidate of valence skipping compound RbTlCl3 from first principles. We confirmed that the charge-density wave (CDW) is formed in this compound, and the Tl atoms in two crystallographic different sites take the valence Tl1+ and Tl3+. Structure optimization study reveals that this CDW is stable at the ambient pressure, while this CDW gap can be collapsed when we apply pressure with several gigapascals. In this metallic phase, we can expect a large charge fluctuation and a large electron-phonon interaction.

  11. Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

  12. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias


    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at ....

  13. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  14. Building and analyzing models from data by stirred tank experiments for investigation of matrix effects caused by inorganic matrices and selection of internal standards in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail:; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador; Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain)


    Interfering effects caused by inorganic matrices (inorganic acids as well as easily ionized elements) in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy have been modeled by regression analysis of experimental data obtained using the 'stirred tank method'. The main components of the experimental set-up were a magnetically-stirred container and two peristaltic pumps. In this way the matrix composition was gradually and automatically varied, while the analyte concentration remained unchanged throughout the experiment. An inductively coupled plasma spectrometer with multichannel detection based on coupled charge device was used to simultaneously measure the emission signal at several wavelengths when the matrix concentration was modified. Up to 50 different concentrations were evaluated in a period of time of 10 min. Both single interfering species (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, sodium and calcium) and different mixtures (aqua regia, sulfonitric mixture, sodium-calcium mixture and sodium-nitric acid mixture) were investigated. The dependence of the emission signal on acid concentration was well-fitted by logarithmic models. Conversely, for the easily ionized elements, 3-order polynomial models were more suitable to describe the trends. Then, the coefficients of these models were used as 'signatures' of the matrix-related signal variations and analyzed by principal component analysis. Similarities and differences among the emission lines were highlighted and discussed, providing a new insight into the interference phenomena, mainly with regards to the combined effect of concomitants. The combination of the huge amount of data obtained by the stirred tank method in a short period of time and the speed of analysis of principal component analysis provided a judicious means for the selection of the optimal internal standard in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

  15. Transient Enhancement ('Spike-on-Tail') Observed on Neutral-Beam-Injected Energetic Ion Spectra Using the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gorelenkov, N. N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    An increase of up to four-fold in the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak (δBrms < 75 mGauss) and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 – 1200 kHz) is robust. The feature exhibits a growth time of ~ 20 - 80 ms and occasionally develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods of 100's of milliseconds, a time scale long compared with the typical ~ 10's ms equilibration time of the NB injected particles. The HEF is observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected NB power of 4 MW or greater and in the field pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing (never trapped) energetic ions. The HEF is suppressed by vessel conditioning using lithium deposition at rates ~ 100 mg/shot, a level sufficient to suppress ELM activity. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy are observed to coincide with the feature along with broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles. However, TRANSP analysis shows that such increases are driven by plasma profile changes and not the HEF phenomenon itself. Though a definitive mechanism has yet to be developed, the HEF appears to be caused by a form of TAE/CAE wave-particle interaction that distorts of the NB fast ion distribution in phase space.

  16. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  17. Analyzing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian


    financial statement. Plumlee (2003) finds for instance that such information imposes significant costs on even expert users such as analysts and fund managers and reduces their use of it. Analysts’ ability to incorporate complex information in their analyses is a decreasing function of its complexity......, because the costs of processing and analyzing it exceed the benefits indicating bounded rationality. Hutton (2002) concludes that the analyst community’s inability to raise important questions on quality of management and the viability of its business model inevitably led to the Enron debacle. There seems...

  18. Mineral/Water Analyzer (United States)


    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  19. Analyzing Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.


    ASTROP2-LE is a computer program that predicts flutter and forced responses of blades, vanes, and other components of such turbomachines as fans, compressors, and turbines. ASTROP2-LE is based on the ASTROP2 program, developed previously for analysis of stability of turbomachinery components. In developing ASTROP2- LE, ASTROP2 was modified to include a capability for modeling forced responses. The program was also modified to add a capability for analysis of aeroelasticity with mistuning and unsteady aerodynamic solutions from another program, LINFLX2D, that solves the linearized Euler equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow. Using LINFLX2D to calculate unsteady aerodynamic loads, it is possible to analyze effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response. ASTROP2-LE can be used to analyze subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics and structural mistuning for rotors with blades of differing structural properties. It calculates the aerodynamic damping of a blade system operating in airflow so that stability can be assessed. The code also predicts the magnitudes and frequencies of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoils of a blade row from incoming wakes. This information can be used in high-cycle fatigue analysis to predict the fatigue lives of the blades.

  20. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C


    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  1. Analyzing the platelet proteome. (United States)

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P


    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  2. Analyzing architecture articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the present study, we express the quality, function, and characteristics of architecture to help people comprehensively understand what architecture is. We also reveal the problems and conflict found in population, land, water resources, pollution, energy, and the organization systems in construction. China’s economy is transforming. We should focus on the cities, architectural environment, energy conservation, emission-reduction, and low-carbon output that will result in successful green development. We should macroscopically and microscopically analyze the development, from the natural environment to the artificial environment; from the relationship between human beings and nature to the combination of social ecology in cities, and farmlands. We must learn to develop and control them harmoniously and scientifically to provide a foundation for the methods used in architecture research.

  3. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.


    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at

  5. Analyzing Impedance Spectroscopy Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoed Tsur; Sioma Baltianski


    In this contribution we briefly discuss several analysis techniques for impedance spectroscopy experiments. A number of different approaches, which differ even by the definition of the problem, are used in the literature. Some aimed towards finding an equivalent circuit. Others aimed towards finding directly dielectric properties of the material under an assumed model. Others towards finding distribution of relaxation times, either parametric or point-by point. No matter what the approach is, this will always be an ill-posed problem in the sense that there exist a large number of possible solutions that solve the problem (mathematically) equally well. Therefore some a-priori knowledge about the system must be used. In addition, we should remember that the ultimate goal is to get physical insight about the system.

  6. TEAMS Model Analyzer (United States)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.


    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  7. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  8. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric


    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  9. Bios data analyzer. (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Sugerman, A; Kovacevic, L; Kauffman, L; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Patel, M; Konecki, J


    The Bios Data Analyzer (BDA) is a set of computer programs (CD-ROM, in Sabelli et al., Bios. A Study of Creation, 2005) for new time series analyses that detects and measures creative phenomena, namely diversification, novelty, complexes, nonrandom complexity. We define a process as creative when its time series displays these properties. They are found in heartbeat interval series, the exemplar of bios .just as turbulence is the exemplar of chaos, in many other empirical series (galactic distributions, meteorological, economic and physiological series), in biotic series generated mathematically by the bipolar feedback, and in stochastic noise, but not in chaotic attractors. Differencing, consecutive recurrence and partial autocorrelation indicate nonrandom causation, thereby distinguishing chaos and bios from random and random walk. Embedding plots distinguish causal creative processes (e.g. bios) that include both simple and complex components of variation from stochastic processes (e.g. Brownian noise) that include only complex components, and from chaotic processes that decay from order to randomness as the number of dimensions is increased. Varying bin and dimensionality show that entropy measures symmetry and variety, and that complexity is associated with asymmetry. Trigonometric transformations measure coexisting opposites in time series and demonstrate bipolar, partial, and uncorrelated opposites in empirical processes and bios, supporting the hypothesis that bios is generated by bipolar feedback, a concept which is at variance with standard concepts of polar and complementary opposites.

  10. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.


    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  11. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level


    Tong, Wei


    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  12. One-way propagators coupled with reflection/transmission coefficients for seismogram synthesis in complex media%基于耦合反射/透射系数单程波传播算子的地震波模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟家; 符力耘; 姚振兴


    The one-way and one-return approximation is a multiple-forescattering-single-backscattering (MFSB) approximation. Compared with the full-waveform numerical methods, one-way approximation leads to a great saving of computing time and memory, which makes it possible to modelling wave propagation in long distances. In this article, we combine both the one-return and separation-of-variables approximations to develop a new one-way propagator coupled with reflection/transmission (R/T) coefficients for seismogram synthesis in complex media. The method is derived from establishing simultaneous generalized Lippmann-Schwinger equations in two adjoining heterogeneous layers followed by the separation-of-variables and one-return approximations. The resulting one-way propagator consists of two parts: the separation-of-variables screen propagator and the R/T operators that account for amplitude variations with incident angles across interfaces. The separation-of-variables screen propagator for one-way wave propagation accounts for wide angles in large-contrast media. The R/T coefficients are the implicit function of dip angle of geology subsurface, whose calculation is coupled with one-way propagation simulation in a natural manner. We benchmark the presented method against the full-waveform boundary element (BE) method for two numerical examples and a real geology structure, which shows that the presented method simulate the reflected waves well in travel time, amplitude, and waveform for various velocity contrasts across interfaces.%单程波近似实际上是一种多次前向散射和单次后向散射近似.利用单程波近似来描述波传播可以极大地节省地震数值模拟的计算时间和内存,实现地震波长距离传播模拟和三维地震模拟快速计算.本文基于单程波近似和波动积分方程的分离变量逼近,从广义Lippmann-Schwinger波动积分方程推导出耦合反射/透射系数的单程波传播算子.该算子由两部分构

  13. Rotational vibration modeling and optimization design of serpentine belt accessory drive system with one-way clutch%具有单向离合器的多楔带附件驱动系统旋转振动建模及参数优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少飞; 上官文斌; 曾祥坤


    A mathematical model for nonlinear rotational vibration analysis of a three pulley-serpentine belt accessory drive system (SBADs) with a one-way clutch was established. Gear's method was used to calculate the angle fluctuations of driven pulleys and tensioner arm. Calculation results show that, the dynamic indices of the SBADs, including angle fluctuations of driven pulleys and tensioner arm, tension of each belt span, and slip rate between belt and pulley decrease significantly as compared with those in the case of without the one-way clutch. Then, the dynamic properties of the SBADs were investigated under different spring stiffness of the one-way clutch, and different inertia ratio of the accessory shaft and driven pulley. Moreover, an optimization design model with the spring stiffness of the one-way clutch, and the inertia of the accessory shaft as two optimizing variables was established. In the optimization model, the minima of the angle fluctuation of tensioner arm, the spring torque of one-way clutch, and the slip ratio between belt and driven pulley were taken as objective functions. The optimization results were obtained by using fminimax function in the mat lab software. The analytical results show that the dynamic responses of the SBADs decrease significantly when using the optimization parameters. The methods of modeling, calculation and optimization design are instructive for the vibration control of an engine front end accessory drive (FEAD) system with one-way clutch.%建立有单向离合器装置的三轮-多楔带附件驱动系统的非线性旋转振动数学模型.用Gear数值算法求解从动轮与张紧臂的角度波动.计算结果表明,有单向离合器装置时从动轮与张紧臂的角度波动、各带段的动态张力、带-轮间的滑移率等系统动态特性均明显减小.计算、研究单向离合器弹簧刚度的大小、附件轴与从动轮转动惯量比的大小对系统动态特性的影响.以张

  14. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials (United States)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.


    NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University undergraduate research experience.

  15. Examining and Analyzing for the Measurement Error of Charge-mass Ratio of Electron by Zeeman Effect Experiment%塞曼效应实验测量电子荷质比的误差原因查找

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗剑峰; 兰勇; 康冬丽; 尹红伟


    The charge-mass ratio of electron can be measured from Zeeman effect experiment.In the experiment performed by the students,the measured value is 30~50% less than the standard value,and through detailedly studying we finally find that the main reason accounting for this big error is that the distance between the two pieces of reflecting mirror installed within Fabry-Perot standard device,offered by the paraphrastic list,is not correct.Moreover,in order to improve the measuring accuracy of charge-mass ratio of electron,the Tesla meter,which is used to measure the intensity of magnetic field,should be equipped for Zeeman effect experiment.%塞曼效应实验可以测量电子荷质比,实验中发现测量值比公认值小30%~50%,通过查找原因最终发现说明书所提供的法布里-珀罗标准具两块镜片的间距不准确是导致误差的主要原因。为提高测量准确性,应当为塞曼效应实验配备测量磁场强度的特斯拉仪。

  16. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang


    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  17. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method (United States)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)


    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  18. GSM Trace Quality Analyzer (TQA) software


    Blanchart Forne, Marc


    Connectivity is now the must-have service for enhancing passenger experience. To proof and also to show to the customers the quality of the connectivity system an user friendly mock-up has to be designed. A packet analyzer software designed to validate an existing SATCOM simulator and to improve future airline architecture networks.

  19. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...

  20. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika


    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  1. Experimental study on flexural behavior of fiber reinforced sandwich construction with only one-way webs%单向纤维腹板增强复合材料夹层结构的受弯性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周强; 刘伟庆; 方海


    Fiber reinforced sandwich composites with only one-way webs were fabricated by vacuum infusion molding process (VIMP). Test species with horizontal webs, different spaces between adjoining webs and web thicknesses were experimentally studied by four-point bending test. The failure mode and mechanism were observed and investigated. The flexural stiffness, ultimate bearing capacity and failure mode of sandwich composites were studied by classical sandwich beam theory and valid theoretical analysis model. Results of theoretical analysis are rather in agreement with the test results.%采用真空导入成型工艺,制备出单向纤维腹板增强复合材料夹层粱.对不同腹板间距、腹板厚度和增加横向腹板的试件进行了四点弯曲试验,研究其破坏模式和机理.基于经典夹层粱理论,采用有效的理论分析模型,预估了试件的抗弯刚度、破坏模式和受弯极限承载力,理论分析与试验结果较吻合.

  2. Detecting influenza outbreaks by analyzing Twitter messages

    CERN Document Server

    Culotta, Aron


    We analyze over 500 million Twitter messages from an eight month period and find that tracking a small number of flu-related keywords allows us to forecast future influenza rates with high accuracy, obtaining a 95% correlation with national health statistics. We then analyze the robustness of this approach to spurious keyword matches, and we propose a document classification component to filter these misleading messages. We find that this document classifier can reduce error rates by over half in simulated false alarm experiments, though more research is needed to develop methods that are robust in cases of extremely high noise.

  3. ANALYZE Users' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.


    This report is a reproduction of the visuals that were used in the ANALYZE Users' Guide lectures of the videotaped LLNL Continuing Education Course CE2018-H, State Space Lectures. The course was given in Spring 1982 through the EE Department Education Office. Since ANALYZE is menu-driven, interactive, and has self-explanatory questions (sort of), these visuals and the two 50-minute videotapes are the only documentation which comes with the code. More information about the algorithms contained in ANALYZE can be obtained from the IEEE book on Programs for Digital Signal Processing.

  4. Historiography taking issue : Analyzing an experiment with heroin abusers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T


    This article discusses the predicament of historians becoming part of the history they are investigating and illustrates the issue in a particular case. The case is that of the randomized controlled trial (RCT)-more specifically, its use for testing the effects of providing heroin to severe heroin a

  5. Discovering and Analyzing Deviant Communities: Methods and Experiments (United States)


    our botnet community analysis model which is based on k- clique constructs. In Section IV, we discuss our tool and evaluation results on both IRC members to overlap and it is the most studied method in the literature. It is based on k- clique percolation, which was introduced by Palla et. al...10]. This algorithm builds communities based on k- cliques and has been proven effective in identifying the semantics of many network communities such

  6. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong


    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology, and summarizes the analysis methods, experimental technologies, research developments, and so on in the four key fields of systems biology-systemic structures, dynamics, control methods, and design principles.

  7. 在高钾血症实验中电解质分析仪的应用对机能学整合课程作用的探讨%Hyperkalemia Electrolyte Analyzer Used in the Experiments to Explore the Role of Function to Integrate Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安英; 陈雪; 徐博; 赵丽晶; 沈楠


    机能学实验整合课程中高钾血症及救治实验是重要内容,在高钾血症及救治实验中电解质分析仪的应用,使学生摆脱了模型制备方法和血钾测定的束缚,能够更加直观的感受高钾血症对个体的影响以及救治诊疗过程,提升了实验教学效果.本文探讨电解质分析仪在机能学整合实验中的应用的重要性及及其在机能学整合课程教学效果提高中发挥的作用.%Function to the integration of high potassium hematic disease and treatment experiment is an important content, in hyperkalemia and treatment experiment, the application of electrolyte analyzer to make the students get rid of the preparation methods and models for the determination of potassium, can more intuitive feelings hyperkalemia impact on individuals as well as the treatment for diagnosis and treatment process, improve the experiment teaching effects. This paper discuss the application of electrolyte analyzer in function to integrate experiment and the importance of and its function to integrate the teaching effect to improve its role.

  8. An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J., E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å.

  9. C2Analyzer:Co-target-Co-function Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Aftabuddin; Chittabrata Mal; Arindam Deb; Sudip Kundu


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with their target mRNAs and regulate biological pro-cesses at post-transcriptional level. While one miRNA can target many mRNAs, a single mRNA can also be targeted by a set of miRNAs. The targeted mRNAs may be involved in different bio-logical processes that are described by gene ontology (GO) terms. The major challenges involved in analyzing these multitude regulations include identification of the combinatorial regulation of miR-NAs as well as determination of the co-functionally-enriched miRNA pairs. The C2Analyzer:Co-target-Co-function Analyzer, is a Perl-based, versatile and user-friendly web tool with online instructions. Based on the hypergeometric analysis, this novel tool can determine whether given pairs of miRNAs are co-functionally enriched. For a given set of GO term(s), it can also identify the set of miRNAs whose targets are enriched in the given GO term(s). Moreover, C2Analyzer can also identify the co-targeting miRNA pairs, their targets and GO processes, which they are involved in. The miRNA-miRNA co-functional relationship can also be saved as a .txt file, which can be used to further visualize the co-functional network by using other software like Cytoscape. C2Analyzer is freely available at

  10. A resource-efficient adaptive Fourier analyzer (United States)

    Hajdu, C. F.; Zamantzas, C.; Dabóczi, T.


    We present a resource-efficient frequency adaptation method to complement the Fourier analyzer proposed by Péceli. The novel frequency adaptation scheme is based on the adaptive Fourier analyzer suggested by Nagy. The frequency adaptation method was elaborated with a view to realizing a detector connectivity check on an FPGA in a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system, currently being developed for beam setup and machine protection of the particle accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The paper summarizes the Fourier analyzer to the extent relevant to this work and the basic principle of the related frequency adaptation methods. It then outlines the suggested new scheme, presents practical considerations for implementing it and underpins it with an example and the corresponding operational experience.

  11. On-Demand Urine Analyzer (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan


    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  12. Analyzing the Grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Teschner, Richard V


    Analyzing the Grammar of English offers a descriptive analysis of the indispensable elements of English grammar. Designed to be covered in one semester, this textbook starts from scratch and takes nothing for granted beyond a reading and speaking knowledge of English. Extensively revised to function better in skills-building classes, it includes more interspersed exercises that promptly test what is taught, simplified and clarified explanations, greatly expanded and more diverse activities, and a new glossary of over 200 technical terms.Analyzing the Grammar of English is the only English gram

  13. An update on chemistry analyzers. (United States)

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B


    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  14. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.


    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  15. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer (United States)

    Merwarth, P.


    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  16. Analyzing Classroom Instruction in Reading. (United States)

    Rutherford, William L.

    A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…

  17. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education. (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  18. Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes. (United States)

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P


    The study of visual signal design is gaining momentum as techniques for studying signals become more sophisticated and more freely available. In this paper we discuss methods for analyzing the color and form of visual signals, for integrating signal components into visual scenes, and for producing visual signal stimuli for use in psychophysical experiments. Our recommended methods aim to be rigorous, detailed, quantitative, objective, and where possible based on the perceptual representation of the intended signal receiver(s). As methods for analyzing signal color and luminance have been outlined in previous publications we focus on analyzing form information by discussing how statistical shape analysis (SSA) methods can be used to analyze signal shape, and spatial filtering to analyze repetitive patterns. We also suggest the use of vector-based approaches for integrating multiple signal components. In our opinion elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) is the most promising technique for shape quantification but we await the results of empirical comparison of techniques and the development of new shape analysis methods based on the cognitive and perceptual representations of receivers. Our manuscript should serve as an introductory guide to those interested in measuring visual signals, and while our examples focus on primate signals, the methods are applicable to quantifying visual signals in most taxa.

  19. Introduction: why analyze single cells? (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R


    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  20. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa; [Ukendt], editors


    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  1. Analyzing viewpoint diversity in twitter



    Information diversity has a long tradition in human history. Recently there have been claims that diversity is diminishing in information available in social networks. On the other hand, some studies suggest that diversity is actually quite high in social networks such as Twitter. However these studies only focus on the concept of source diversity and they only focus on American users. In this paper we analyze different dimensions of diversity. We also provide an experimental design in which ...

  2. Analyzing ion distributions around DNA. (United States)

    Lavery, Richard; Maddocks, John H; Pasi, Marco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna


    We present a new method for analyzing ion, or molecule, distributions around helical nucleic acids and illustrate the approach by analyzing data derived from molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis is based on the use of curvilinear helicoidal coordinates and leads to highly localized ion densities compared to those obtained by simply superposing molecular dynamics snapshots in Cartesian space. The results identify highly populated and sequence-dependent regions where ions strongly interact with the nucleic and are coupled to its conformational fluctuations. The data from this approach is presented as ion populations or ion densities (in units of molarity) and can be analyzed in radial, angular and longitudinal coordinates using 1D or 2D graphics. It is also possible to regenerate 3D densities in Cartesian space. This approach makes it easy to understand and compare ion distributions and also allows the calculation of average ion populations in any desired zone surrounding a nucleic acid without requiring references to its constituent atoms. The method is illustrated using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations for two different DNA oligomers in the presence of 0.15 M potassium chloride. We discuss the results in terms of convergence, sequence-specific ion binding and coupling with DNA conformation.

  3. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael


    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  4. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  5. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach. (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  6. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung


    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  7. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer (United States)

    Iceland, Charles


    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  8. Operating System Performance Analyzer for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzada Khayyam Nisar


    Full Text Available RTOS provides a number of services to an embedded system designs such as case management, memory management, and Resource Management to build a program. Choosing the best OS for an embedded system is based on the available OS for system designers and their previous knowledge and experience. This can cause an imbalance between the OS and embedded systems. RTOS performance analysis is critical in the design and integration of embedded software to ensure that limits the application meet at runtime. To select an appropriate operating system for an embedded system for a particular application, the OS services to be analyzed. These OS services are identified by parameters to establish performance metrics. Performance Metrics selected include context switching, Preemption time and interrupt latency. Performance Metrics are analyzed to choose the right OS for an embedded system for a particular application.

  9. An Investigation of the Effects of Authentic Science Experiences Among Urban High School Students (United States)

    Chapman, Angela

    Providing equitable learning opportunities for all students has been a persistent issue for some time. This is evident by the science achievement gap that still exists between male and female students as well as between White and many non-White student populations (NCES, 2007, 2009, 2009b) and an underrepresentation of female, African-American, Hispanic, and Native Americans in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related careers (NCES, 2009b). In addition to gender and ethnicity, socioeconomic status and linguistic differences are also factors that can marginalize students in the science classroom. One factor attributed to the achievement gap and low participation in STEM career is equitable access to resources including textbooks, laboratory equipment, qualified science teachers, and type of instruction. Extensive literature supports authentic science as one way of improving science learning. However, the majority of students do not have access to this type of resource. Additionally, extensive literature posits that culturally relevant pedagogy is one way of improving education. This study examines students' participation in an authentic science experience and argues that this is one way of providing culturally relevant pedagogy in science classrooms. The purpose of this study was to better understand how marginalized students were affected by their participation in an authentic science experience, within the context of an algae biofuel project. Accordingly, an interpretivist approach was taken. Data were collected from pre/post surveys and tests, semi-structured interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Data analysis used a mixed methods approach. The data from this study were analyzed to better understand whether students perceived the experience to be one of authentic science, as well as how students science identities, perceptions about who can do science, attitudes toward science, and learning of science practices

  10. Method for analyzing microbial communities (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou [Oak Ridge, TN


    The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

  11. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)


    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  12. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser


    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  13. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser


    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  14. Three Practical Methods for Analyzing Slope Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiguang; ZHANG Shitao; ZHU Chuanbing; YIN Ying


    Since the environmental capacity and the arable as well as the inhabitant lands have actually reached a full balance, the slopes are becoming the more and more important options for various engineering constructions. Because of the geological complexity of the slope, the design and thedecision-making of a slope-based engineering is still not ractical to rely solely on the theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, but mainly on the experience of the experts. Therefore, it hasimportant practical significance to turn some successful experience into mathematic equations. Basedupon the abundant typical slope engineering construction cases in Yunnan, Southwestern China, 3methods for yzing the slope stability have been developed in this paper. First of all, the corresponded analogous mathematic equation for analyzing slope stability has been established through case studies. Then, artificial neural network and multivariate regression analysis have alsobeen set up when 7 main influencing factors are adopted

  15. Thermal and evolved gas analyzer (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Boynton, W. V.; James, R. L.; Verts, W. T.; Bailey, S. H.; Hamara, D. K.


    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument will perform calorimetry and evolved gas analysis on soil samples collected from the Martian surface. TEGA is one of three instruments, along with a robotic arm, that form the Mars Volatile and Climate Survey (MVACS) payload. The other instruments are a stereo surface imager, built by Peter Smith of the University of Arizona and a meteorological station, built by JPL. The MVACS lander will investigate a Martian landing site at approximately 70 deg south latitude. Launch will take place from Kennedy Space Center in January, 1999. The TEGA project started in February, 1996. In the intervening 24 months, a flight instrument concept has been designed, prototyped, built as an engineering model and flight model, and tested. The instrument performs laboratory-quality differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range of Mars ambient to 1400K. Low-temperature volatiles (water and carbon dioxide ices) and the carbonates will be analyzed in this temperature range. Carbonates melt and evolve carbon dioxide at temperatures above 600 C. Evolved oxygen (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) is detected, and C02 and water vapor and the isotopic variations of C02 and water vapor are detected and their concentrations measured. The isotopic composition provides important tests of the theory of solar system formation.

  16. VOSA: A VO SED Analyzer (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Bayo, A.; Solano, E.


    VOSA (VO Sed Analyzer, is a public web-tool developed by the Spanish Virtual Observatory ( and designed to help users to (1) build Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) combining private photometric measurements with data available in VO services, (2) obtain relevant properties of these objects (distance, extinction, etc) from VO catalogs, (3) analyze them comparing observed photometry with synthetic photometry from different collections of theoretical models or observational templates, using different techniques (chi-square minimization, Bayesian analysis) to estimate physical parameters of the observed objects (teff, logg, metallicity, stellar radius/distance ratio, infrared excess, etc), and use these results to (4) estimate masses and ages via interpolation of collections of isochrones and evolutionary tracks from the VO. In particular, VOSA offers the advantage of deriving physical parameters using all the available photometric information instead of a restricted subset of colors. The results can be downloaded in different formats or sent to other VO tools using SAMP. We have upgraded VOSA to provide access to Gaia photometry and give a homogeneous estimation of the physical parameters of thousands of objects at a time. This upgrade has required the implementation of a new computation paradigm, including a distributed environment, the capability of submitting and processing jobs in an asynchronous way, the use of parallelized computing to speed up processes (˜ ten times faster) and a new design of the web interface.

  17. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer (United States)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)


    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  18. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry


    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  19. Analyzing and mining image databases. (United States)

    Berlage, Thomas


    Image mining is the application of computer-based techniques that extract and exploit information from large image sets to support human users in generating knowledge from these sources. This review focuses on biomedical applications, in particular automated imaging at the cellular level. An image database is an interactive software application that combines data management, image analysis and visual data mining. The main characteristic of such a system is a layer that represents objects within an image, and that represents a large spectrum of quantitative and semantic object features. The image analysis needs to be adapted to each particular experiment, so 'end-user programming' will be desirable to make the technology more widely applicable.

  20. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER


    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  1. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li


    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Rodrigues Prado


    Full Text Available objective of this work was to compare analyses of experiment strategies when there is a large number of clones and a reduced number of seedlings to be evaluated. Data from girth at breast height of two seasons of evaluation, 30 and 90 months, from a clonal test of Eucalyptus were analyzed in three locations. The experiments were carried out in the augmented block design with 400 regular clones distributed in 20 blocks and with four common clones (controls.  Each plot consisted of five plants spaced 3 x 3 meters. The individual statistic analyses were carried out by season and local, a combined one by local at each season and a combined one involving the three locals and the two seasons. Each analysis was carried out according to two models: augmented design (AD and one way classification (OWC. The variance components, the heritability, the Speaman’s rank correlation and the coincidence indexes in the clone selection at the two models were estimated. It was found that the augmented block design and the one way classification provide similar results in Eucalyptus clone evaluation. The coincidence indexes between the two models in the clone selection, in general, were high, showing values of 100% in the local combined analyses at 90 months. The Spearman’s rank

  3. Objects in Films: analyzing signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAMBARATO, Renira Rampazzo


    Full Text Available The focus of this essay is the analysis of daily objects as signs in films. Objects from everyday life acquire several functions in films: they can be solely used as scene objects or to support a particular film style. Other objects are specially chosen to translate a character’s interior state of mind or the filmmaker’s aesthetical or ethical commitment to narrative concepts. In order to understand such functions and commitments, we developed a methodology for film analysis which focuses on the objects. Object interpretation, as the starting point of film analysis, is not a new approach. For instance, French film critic André Bazin proposed that use of object interpretation in the 1950s. Similarly, German film theorist Siegfried Kracauer stated it in the 1960s. However, there is currently no existing analytical model to use when engaging in object interpretation in film. This methodology searches for the most representative objects in films which involves both quantitative and qualitative analysis; we consider the number of times each object appears in a film (quantitative analysis as well as the context of their appearance, i.e. the type of shot used and how that creates either a larger or smaller relevance and/or expressiveness (qualitative analysis. In addition to the criteria of relevance and expressiveness, we also analyze the functionality of an object by exploring details and specifying the role various objects play in films. This research was developed at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and was supported by the Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada (DFAIT.

  4. Analyzing Oscillations of a Rolling Cart Using Smartphones and Tablets (United States)

    Egri, Sandor; Szabo, Lorant


    It is well known that "interactive engagement" helps students to understand basic concepts in physics. Performing experiments and analyzing measured data are effective ways to realize interactive engagement, in our view. Some experiments need special equipment, measuring instruments, or laboratories, but in this activity we advocate…

  5. Mining Educational Data to Analyze Students' Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Baradwaj, Brijesh Kumar


    The main objective of higher education institutions is to provide quality education to its students. One way to achieve highest level of quality in higher education system is by discovering knowledge for prediction regarding enrolment of students in a particular course, alienation of traditional classroom teaching model, detection of unfair means used in online examination, detection of abnormal values in the result sheets of the students, prediction about students' performance and so on. The knowledge is hidden among the educational data set and it is extractable through data mining techniques. Present paper is designed to justify the capabilities of data mining techniques in context of higher education by offering a data mining model for higher education system in the university. In this research, the classification task is used to evaluate student's performance and as there are many approaches that are used for data classification, the decision tree method is used here. By this task we extract knowledge th...

  6. Modeling and analyzing architectural change with alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ingstrup, Mads


    to the uptake of reconfiguration techniques in industry. Using the Alloy language and associated tool, we propose a practical way to formally model and analyze runtime architectural change expressed as architectural scripts. Our evaluation shows the performance to be acceptable; our experience......Although adaptivity based on reconfiguration has the potential to improve dependability of systems, the cost of a failed attempt at reconfiguration is prohibitive in precisely the applications where high dependability is required. Existing work on formal modeling and verification of architectural...... reconfigurations partly achieve the goal of ensuring correctness, however the formalisms used often lack tool support and the ensuing models have uncertain relation to a concrete implementation. Thus a practical way to ensure with formal certainty that specific architectural changes are correct remains a barrier...

  7. Computer model for analyzing sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C C; Raue, D J


    A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions. The calculated pressure drop as a function of impurity mass content determines the capacity of the cold trap. The accuracy of the model was checked by comparing calculated mass distributions with experimentally determined mass distributions from literature publications and with results from our own cold trap experiments. The comparisons were excellent in all cases. A parametric study was performed to determine which design variables are most important in maximizing cold trap capacity.

  8. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Weigand, Willis A.


    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  9. Analyzing the spectrum of general, non-hermitian Dirac operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gattringer, C R; Gattringer, Christof; Hip, Ivan


    We discuss the computational problems when analyzing general, non-hermitian matrices and in particular the un-modified Wilson lattice Dirac operator. We report on our experiences with the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method. The eigenstates of the Wilson-Dirac operator which have real eigenvalues and correspond to zero modes in the continuum are analyzed by correlating the size of the eigenvalues with the chirality of the eigenstates.

  10. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ... (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  11. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.


    Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.

  12. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  13. Using Propensity Score Matching Methods to Improve Generalization from Randomized Experiments (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth


    The main result of an experiment is typically an estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE) and its standard error. In most experiments, the number of covariates that may be moderators is large. One way this issue is typically skirted is by interpreting the ATE as the average effect for "some" population. Cornfield and Tukey (1956)…

  14. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  15. Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.


    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  16. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.


    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  17. Student Modeling of Physical Phenomena as They Derive Integral Formulae: One Way To Reduce Proof Phobia. (United States)

    Dancis, Jerome


    Students in a freshmen calculus course should become fluent in modeling physical phenomena represented by integrals, in particular geometric formulas for volumes and arc length and physical formulas for work. Describes how to train students to became fluent in such modeling and derivation of standard integral formulas. Indicates that these lessons…

  18. Evaluating the one-way coupling of WRF-Hydro for flood forecasting (United States)

    Yucel, Ismail; Onen, Alper; Yilmaz, Koray; Gochis, David


    A fully-distributed, multi-physics, multi-scale hydrologic and hydraulic modeling system, WRF-Hydro, is used to assess the potential for skillful flood forecasting based on precipitation inputs derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the EUMETSAT Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimates (MPEs). Similar to past studies it was found that WRF model precipitation forecast errors related to model initial conditions are reduced when the three dimensional atmospheric data assimilation (3DVAR) scheme in the WRF model simulations is used. A comparative evaluation of the impact of MPE versus WRF precipitation estimates, both with and without data assimilation, in driving WRF-Hydro simulated streamflow is then made. The ten rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the Black Sea Region were used for testing and evaluation. With the availability of streamflow data across rainfall-runoff events, the cal- ibration is only performed on the Bartin sub-basin using two events and the calibrated parameters are then transferred to other neighboring three ungauged sub-basins in the study area. The rest of the events from all sub-basins are then used to evaluate the performance of the WRF-Hydro system with the cali- brated parameters. Following model calibration, the WRF-Hydro system was capable of skillfully repro- ducing observed flood hydrographs in terms of the volume of the runoff produced and the overall shape of the hydrograph. Streamflow simulation skill was significantly improved for those WRF model simula- tions where storm precipitation was accurately depicted with respect to timing, location and amount. Accurate streamflow simulations were more evident in WRF model simulations where the 3DVAR scheme was used compared to when it was not used. Because of substantial dry bias feature of MPE, as compared with surface rain gauges, streamflow derived using this precipitation product is in general very poor. Overall, root mean squared errors for runoff were reduced by 22.2% when hydrological model calibration is performed with WRF precipitation. Errors were reduced by 36.9% (above uncalibrated model performance) when both WRF model data assimilation and hydrological model calibration was utilized. Our results also indicated that when assimilated precipitation and model calibration is per- formed jointly, the calibrated parameters at the gauged sites could be transferred to ungauged neighbor- ing basins where WRF-Hydro reduced mean root mean squared error from 8.31 m3/s to 6.51 m3/s.

  19. Residual stresses analysis of friction stir welding using one-way FSI simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Wook; Jang, Beom Seon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ha Cheol [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)


    When certain mechanisms, such as plastic deformations and temperature gradients, occur and are released in a structure, stresses remain because of the shape of the structure and external constraints. These stresses are referred to as residual stresses. The base material locally expands during heating in the welding process. When the welding is completed and cooled to room temperature, the residual stresses are left at nearly the yield strength level. In the case of friction stir welding, the maximum temperature is 80% to 90% of the melting point of the materials. Thus, the residual stresses in the welding process are smaller than those in other fusion welding processes; these stresses have not been considered previously. However, friction stir welding residual stresses are sometimes measured at approximately 70% or above. These residual stresses significantly affect fatigue behavior and lifetime. The present study investigates the residual stress distributions in various welding conditions and shapes of friction stir welding. In addition, the asymmetric feature is considered in temperature and residual stress distribution. Heat transfer analysis is conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program Fluent, and results are used in the finite element structural analysis with the ANSYS Multiphysics software. The calculated residual stresses are compared with experimental values using the X-ray diffraction method.

  20. The DPSEEA model: one way to support the 'multiple narratives' of ecological Public Health


    Corincigh, GR


    This poster was presented at the UK Public Health Association Conference (UKPHA) in March 2009. Ecological Public Health highlights the impact of globalization & capitalism on our physical & human landscapes. A shift in the Public Health paradigm, is argued, to move from an ideological-laden "single narrative" of unsustainable "risk assessment" to "multiple narratives" of sustainability, considering ecological breakdown and climate change. Public Health, globally is a more blended commu...

  1. Using one-way communications in a market-based resource allocation system (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.


    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  2. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source (United States)

    Stein, S. J.


    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina Karjo


    Full Text Available Teaching English (TOEFL to a class of 50 students or more is a difficult task for a lecturer. Some problems will occur, for example, the improbability for all students to get equal teachers attention and equal chance for learning and studying in class. To overcome these problems, the writer conducts a quasi-experimental research involving 100 students in her two classes in Bina Nusantara University. In this research, the writer applies the group presentation method for teaching TOEFL for one semester. The research shows that group scores are slightly higher than individual students scores.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina Karjo


    Full Text Available Teaching English (TOEFL to a class of 50 students or more is a difficult task for a lecturer. Some problems will occur, for example, the improbability for all students to get equal teacher’s attention and equal chance for learning and studying in class. To overcome these problems, the writer conducts a quasi-experimental research involving 100 students in her two classes in Bina Nusantara University. In this research, the writer applies the group presentation method for teaching TOEFL for one semester. The research shows that group scores are slightly higher than individual students’ scores.Keywords:

  5. More than one way to be happy: a typology of marital happiness. (United States)

    Rauer, Amy; Volling, Brenda


    This study utilized observational and self-report data from 57 happily married couples to explore assumptions regarding marital happiness. Suggesting that happily married couples are not a homogeneous group, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three types of couples based on their observed behaviors in a problem-solving task: (1) mutually engaged couples (characterized by both spouses' higher negative and positive problem-solving); (2) mutually supportive couples (characterized by both spouses' higher positivity and support); and (3) wife compensation couples (characterized by high wife positivity). Although couples in all three clusters were equally happy with and committed to their marriages, these clusters were differentially associated with spouses' evaluations of their marriage. Spouses in the mutually supportive cluster reported greater intimacy and maintenance and less conflict and ambivalence, although this was more consistently the case in comparison to the wife compensation cluster, as opposed to the mutually engaged cluster. The implications of these typologies are discussed as they pertain to efforts on the part of both practitioners to promote marital happiness and repair marital relations when couples are faced with difficulties.

  6. Genes can disconnect the social brain in more than one way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, A; Kahn, RS


    Burns proposes an intriguing hypothesis by suggesting that the "schizophrenia genes" might not be regulatory genes themselves, but rather closely associated with regulatory genes directly involved in the proper growth of the social brain. We point out that this account would benefit from incorporati

  7. More than one way to spin a crystallite: multiple trajectories through liquid crystallinity to solid silk. (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Holland, Chris; Sutherland, Tara D


    Arthropods face several key challenges in processing concentrated feedstocks of proteins (silk dope) into solid, semi-crystalline silk fibres. Strikingly, independently evolved lineages of silk-producing organisms have converged on the use of liquid crystal intermediates (mesophases) to reduce the viscosity of silk dope and assist the formation of supramolecular structure. However, the exact nature of the liquid-crystal-forming-units (mesogens) in silk dope, and the relationship between liquid crystallinity, protein structure and silk processing is yet to be fully elucidated. In this review, we focus on emerging differences in this area between the canonical silks containing extended-β-sheets made by silkworms and spiders, and 'non-canonical' silks made by other insect taxa in which the final crystallites are coiled-coils, collagen helices or cross-β-sheets. We compared the amino acid sequences and processing of natural, regenerated and recombinant silk proteins, finding that canonical and non-canonical silk proteins show marked differences in length, architecture, amino acid content and protein folding. Canonical silk proteins are long, flexible in solution and amphipathic; these features allow them both to form large, micelle-like mesogens in solution, and to transition to a crystallite-containing form due to mechanical deformation near the liquid-solid transition. By contrast, non-canonical silk proteins are short and have rod or lath-like structures that are well suited to act both as mesogens and as crystallites without a major intervening phase transition. Given many non-canonical silk proteins can be produced at high yield in E. coli, and that mesophase formation is a versatile way to direct numerous kinds of supramolecular structure, further elucidation of the natural processing of non-canonical silk proteins may to lead to new developments in the production of advanced protein materials.

  8. More than one way to invade: lessons from genetic studies of Carcinus shore crabs (United States)

    The European green crab Carcinus maenas is one of the world's most widely recognized marine invaders. The success of this species has provided opportunities to explore genetic patterns associated with establishment and population expansion following independent introduction event...

  9. sRNA Antitoxins: More than One Way to Repress a Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wen


    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.

  10. 49 CFR 232.403 - Design standards for one-way end-of-train devices. (United States)


    ... FCC. (2) If power is supplied by one or more batteries, the operating life shall be a minimum of 36... brake pipe pressure of ±2 psig and at intervals of not greater than 70 seconds when the variation in the rear car brake pipe pressure over the 70-second interval is less than ±2 psig. (d)...

  11. Creating and Sharing Annotated Bibliographies: One Way to Become Familiar with Exemplary Multicultural Literature (United States)

    Richards, Janet C.


    Teachers who meet Common Core recommendations about teaching with multicultural literature need to recognize the traditions, values, and customs of various cultures so they can make sound decisions about the authenticity of the books they select for their students. Furthermore, teachers who support students' literacy achievements with exemplary…

  12. One Way Multimedia Broadcasting as a Tool for Education and Development in Developing Nations (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Venugopal, D.; Sebastian, M.; Chari, B.


    An improved quality of life through education and developmental communication is an important necessity of societal up-liftment in the new millennium, especially in the developing nations. The population explosion and the associated pressure on the scarce resources to meet the basic necessities have made it more or less impossible for most of the nations to invest reasonable resources in realizing adequate channels of formal education. Thanks to the developments in satellite communication and associated technologies, new vistas are available today to provide education and developmental communication opportunities to millions of people, spread across the globe. Satellite based Digital Audio and Multimedia Broadcasting is one such new development that is being viewed as an innovative space application in the coming decades. The potential of DAB technology to reach education, information and entertainment directly to the user through a specially designed receiver could be efficiently utilized by the developing nations to overcome their difficulties in realizing formal channels of education and information dissemination. WorldSpace plans to launch three geo-stationary satellites that would cover most of the developing economies in Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Apart from a variety of digital, high quality audio channels providing news, views, education and entertainment opportunities, the end users can also get a responsive multimedia. The multimedia is being planned as a specially packaged offering that can meet the demand of students, professionals as well as certain special groups who have certain specific data and information requirements. Apart from WorldSpace, renowned agencies/firms from different parts of the world shall provide the required content to meet these requirements. Though the Internet option is available, higher telephone charges and the difficulty in getting access have made this option less interesting and unpopular in most of the developing countries. The proposed digital audio and multimedia offering from WorldSpace to millions of consumers spread across more than 120 countries is considered as a unique tool for education and development, particularly in the developing nations. In this paper, an attempt is made to briefly describe the issues associated with education and development in developing countries, the WorldSpace offering and how a developing nation can benefit from this offering in the coming decades.

  13. 47 CFR 90.490 - One-way paging operations in the private services. (United States)


    ... directly from telephone positions in the public switched telephone network. When land stations are multiple licensed or otherwise shared by authorized users, arrangements for the telephone service must be made with...-shared basis. When telephone service costs are shared, at least one licensee participating in the...

  14. A novel method for one-way hash function construction based on spatiotemporal chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Haijun [College of Software Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Yong; Xie Qing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics of Chongqing, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Yang Huaqian [Department of Computer and Modern Education Technology, Chongqing Education of College, Chongqing 400067 (China)


    A novel hash algorithm based on a spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros if needed. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 32 bytes. In the hashing process, each block is partitioned into eight 32-bit values and input into the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Then, after iterating the system for four times, the next block is processed by the same way. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. The hash value is obtained from the final state value of the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high efficiency, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  15. Pairwise Comparison Procedures for One-Way Analysis of Variance Designs. Research Report. (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca

    Research in the behavioral and health sciences frequently involves the application of one-factor analysis of variance models. The goal may be to compare several independent groups of subjects on a quantitative dependent variable or to compare measurements made on a single group of subjects on different occasions or under different conditions. In…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Yan


    It is agreed that input plays a critical role in language acquisition.Without input the learner hasnothing.But the question is what kind,form and amount of input is most useful for language learners.Krashen(1980)has argued that the input given to the learners has to be comprehensible for acquisition tohappen.He defined it as input which is slightly beyond the learner’s current knowledge level(in his termI+1).Swain(1985)explained that comprehensible input means that"language directed to the learnersthat contains some new element in it but this is nevertheless understood by the learner because of linguis-tic,paralinguistie,or situational cues,or world knowledge backup."(p.245).She further argued that

  17. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D


    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  18. Design and analysis of experiments classical and regression approaches with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Onyiah, Leonard C


    Introductory Statistical Inference and Regression Analysis Elementary Statistical Inference Regression Analysis Experiments, the Completely Randomized Design (CRD)-Classical and Regression Approaches Experiments Experiments to Compare Treatments Some Basic Ideas Requirements of a Good Experiment One-Way Experimental Layout or the CRD: Design and Analysis Analysis of Experimental Data (Fixed Effects Model) Expected Values for the Sums of Squares The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table Follow-Up Analysis to Check fo

  19. Designing of Acousto-optic Spectrum Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan-zhi; SHAO Ding-rong; LI Shu-jian


    The structure of the acousto-optic spectrum analyzer was investigated including the RF amplifying circuit, the optical structures and the postprocessing circuit, and the design idea of the module was applied to design the spectrum analyzer. The modularization spectrum analyzer takes on the performance stabilization and higher reliability, and according to different demands, the different modules can be used. The spectrum analyzer had such performances as the detecting frequency error of 0.58MHz,detecting responsivity of 90 dBm and bandwidth of 50 Mhz.

  20. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum


    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  1. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng


    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  2. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  3. Analyzing metabolomics-based challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Wopereis, S.; Ommen, van B.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Challenge tests are used to assess the resilience of human beings to perturbations by analyzing responses to detect functional abnormalities. Well known examples are allergy tests and glucose tolerance tests. Increasingly, metabolomics analysis of blood or serum samples is used to analyze the biolog

  4. Analyzing machine noise for real time maintenance (United States)

    Yamato, Yoji; Fukumoto, Yoshifumi; Kumazaki, Hiroki


    Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed and applications of maintenance area are expected. However, IoT maintenance applications are not spread in Japan yet because of one-off solution of sensing and analyzing for each case, high cost to collect sensing data and insufficient maintenance automation. This paper proposes a maintenance platform which analyzes sound data in edges, analyzes only anomaly data in cloud and orders maintenance automatically to resolve existing technology problems. We also implement a sample application and compare related work.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ran; Shan Tao; Zhou Siyong; Wang Yue


    The phenomenon of frequency ambiguity may appear in radar or communication systems. S. Barbarossa(1991) had unwrapped the frequency ambiguity of single component undersampled signals by Wigner-Ville distribution(WVD). But there has no any effective algorithm to analyze multicomponent undersampled signals by now. A new algorithm to analyze multicomponent undersampled signals by high-order ambiguity function (HAF) is proposed hera HAF analyzes polynomial phase signals by the method of phase rank reduction, its advantage is that it does not have boundary effect and is not sensitive to the cross-items of multicomponent signals.The simulation results prove the effectiveness of HAF algorithm.

  6. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time (United States)


    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  7. Analyzing Oscillations of a Rolling Cart Using Smartphones and Tablets (United States)

    Egri, Sándor; Szabó, Lóránt


    It is well known that "interactive engagement" helps students to understand basic concepts in physics.1 Performing experiments and analyzing measured data are effective ways to realize interactive engagement, in our view. Some experiments need special equipment, measuring instruments, or laboratories, but in this activity we advocate student use of mobile phones or tablets to take experimental data. Applying their own devices and measuring simple phenomena from everyday life can improve student interest, while still allowing precise analysis of data, which can give deeper insight into scientific thinking and provide a good opportunity for inquiry-based learning.2

  8. A method for analyzing strategic product launch


    XIAO Junji


    This paper proposes a method to analyze how the manufacturers make product launch decisions in a multi-product oligopoly market, and how the heterogeneity in their products affects the manufacturers' decisions on model launch and withdrawal.

  9. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  10. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  11. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  12. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  13. Network analysis using organizational risk analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The tool system of the organizational risk analyzer (ORA) to study the network of East Turkistan terrorists is selected. The model of the relationships among its personnel, knowledge, resources and task entities is represented by the meta-matrix in ORA, with which to analyze the risks and vulnerabilities of organizational structure quantitatively, and obtain the last vulnerabilities and risks of the organization. Case study in this system shows that it should be a shortcut to destroy effectively the network...

  14. Analyzing storage media of digital camera


    Chow, KP; Tse, KWH; Law, FYW; Ieong, RSC; Kwan, MYK; Tse, H.; Lai, PKY


    Digital photography has become popular in recent years. Photographs have become common tools for people to record every tiny parts of their daily life. By analyzing the storage media of a digital camera, crime investigators may extract a lot of useful information to reconstruct the events. In this work, we will discuss a few approaches in analyzing these kinds of storage media of digital cameras. A hypothetical crime case will be used as case study for demonstration of concepts. © 2009 IEEE.

  15. The Information Flow Analyzing Based on CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhang; LI Hui


    The information flow chart within product life cycle is given out based on collaborative production commerce (CPC) thoughts. In this chart, the separated information systems are integrated by means of enterprise knowledge assets that are promoted by CPC from production knowledge. The information flow in R&D process is analyzed in the environment of virtual R&D group and distributed PDM. In addition, the information flow throughout the manufacturing and marketing process is analyzed in CPC environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hahanov


    Full Text Available Qubit models and methods for improving the performance of software and hardware for analyzing digital devices through increasing the dimension of the data structures and memory are proposed. The basic concepts, terminology and definitions necessary for the implementation of quantum computing when analyzing virtual computers are introduced. The investigation results concerning design and modeling computer systems in a cyberspace based on the use of two-component structure are presented.

  17. Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers.


    Sutton, A; Dawson, H; Hoff, B; Grift, E; Shoukri, M


    The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excel...

  18. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture neutron polarizers and analyzers (United States)

    Gilev, A. G.; Pleshanov, N. K.; Bazarov, B. A.; Bulkin, A. P.; Schebetov, A. F.; Syromyatnikov, V. G.; Tarnavich, V. V.; Ulyanov, V. A.


    Requirements on the field uniformity in neutron polarizers are analyzed in view of the fact that neutron polarizing coatings have been improved during the past decade. The design of magnetic systems that meet new requirements is optimized by numerical simulations. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture multichannel polarizers and analyzers are represented, including (a) the polarizer to be built at channel 4-4‧ of the reactor PIK (Gatchina, Russia) for high-flux experiments with a 100×150 mm2 beam of polarized cold neutrons; (b) the fan analyzer covering a 150×100 mm2 window of the detector at the Magnetism Reflectometer (SNS, ORNL, USA); (c) the polarizer and (d) the fan analyzer covering a 220×110 mm2 window of the detector at the reflectometer NERO, which is transferred to PNPI (Russia) from HZG (Germany). Deviations of the field from the vertical did not exceed 2°. The polarizing efficiency of the analyzer at the Magnetism Reflectometer reached 99%, a record level for wide-aperture supermirror analyzers.

  19. Analyzing high energy physics data using database computing: Preliminary report (United States)

    Baden, Andrew; Day, Chris; Grossman, Robert; Lifka, Dave; Lusk, Ewing; May, Edward; Price, Larry


    A proof of concept system is described for analyzing high energy physics (HEP) data using data base computing. The system is designed to scale up to the size required for HEP experiments at the Superconducting SuperCollider (SSC) lab. These experiments will require collecting and analyzing approximately 10 to 100 million 'events' per year during proton colliding beam collisions. Each 'event' consists of a set of vectors with a total length of approx. one megabyte. This represents an increase of approx. 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in the amount of data accumulated by present HEP experiments. The system is called the HEPDBC System (High Energy Physics Database Computing System). At present, the Mark 0 HEPDBC System is completed, and can produce analysis of HEP experimental data approx. an order of magnitude faster than current production software on data sets of approx. 1 GB. The Mark 1 HEPDBC System is currently undergoing testing and is designed to analyze data sets 10 to 100 times larger.

  20. College Student Environmental Activism: How Experiences and Identities Influence Environmental Activism Approaches (United States)

    King, Laura A. H.


    College student environmental activism is one way students civically engage in addressing social issues. This study explores the environmental activism of twelve college students and how their experiences outside of college and in college influenced their activism. In addition, how students' identities influenced their approach to activism was…

  1. Technology and Knowledge Transfer in the Graz Region Ten Years of Experience (United States)

    Hofer, Franz; Adametz, Christoph; Holzer, Franz


    Technology and knowledge transfer from universities to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is seen as one way to strengthen a region's innovation capability. But what if SMEs do not want to play along? Looking back at some 10 years' experience of supporting SMEs, the authors describe in detail the 'Active Knowledge Transfer' programme, which…

  2. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments (United States)

    Deloach, Richard


    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  3. A sidelobe suppression method with experiment for underwater acoustic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper,a sidelobe suppression method using nonuniformly spaced array with aperture apodization processing is proposed for underwater acoustic imaging in near field,which is studied both in theory and experiment.The focused beamforming based on spherical wave propagation theory is used in the method.Firstly,the nonuniform array with low sidelobe is designed for suppressing the sidelobe of one-way beam pattern by spacing perturbation.Then, applying the aperture apodization technique to underwater ac...

  4. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  5. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew


    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  6. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert


    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  7. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration (United States)


    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network? (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  9. Analyzing computer system performance with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Neil J


    This expanded second edition of Analyzing Computer System Performance with Perl::PDQ, builds on the success of the first edition. It contains new chapters on queues, tools and virtualization, and new Perl listing format to aid readability of PDQ models.

  10. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.


    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  11. Analyzing the Control Structure of PEPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    to PEPA programs, the approximating result is very precise. Based on the analysis, we also develop algorithms for validating the deadlock property of PEPA programs. The techniques have been implemented in a tool which is able to analyze processes with a control structure that more than one thousand states....

  12. Analyzing the Information Economy: Tools and Techniques. (United States)

    Robinson, Sherman


    Examines methodologies underlying studies which measure the information economy and considers their applicability and limitations for analyzing policy issues concerning libraries and library networks. Two studies provide major focus for discussion: Porat's "The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement" and Machlup's "Production and…

  13. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos


    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  14. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo


    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  15. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der


    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime sa

  16. 40 CFR 90.313 - Analyzers required. (United States)


    ... ionization (HFID) type. For constant volume sampling, the hydrocarbon analyzer may be of the flame ionization (FID) type or of the heated flame ionization (HFID) type. (ii) For the HFID system, if the temperature... drying. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from the sample. Water removal...

  17. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.


    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  18. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert


    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  19. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...... not propose a radical turn towards literary writing in anthropology. Rather, I suggest that we include the courage of imagination inherent to literature and the accompanying doubt into our existing endeavor, if not for anything else, then for the sake of a more human relationship with our so-called informants....

  20. Simulation of a Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lizardo, Angel


    Energy analyzers are important plasma diagnostic tools with applications in a broad range of disciplines including molecular spectroscopy, electron microscopy, basic plasma physics, plasma etching, plasma processing, and ion sputtering technology. The Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer (HFEA) is a novel device able to determine ion and electron energy spectra and temperatures. The HFEA is well suited for ion temperature and density diagnostics at those situations where ions are scarce. A simulation of the capacities of the HFEA to discriminate particles of a particular energy level, as well as to determine temperature and density is performed in this work. The electric field due the combination of the conical elements, collimator lens, and Faraday cup applied voltage was computed in a well suited three-dimensional grid. The field is later used to compute the trajectory of a set of particles with a predetermined energy distribution. The results include the observation of the particle trajectories inside the sens...

  1. Development of pulse neutron coal analyzer (United States)

    Jing, Shi-wie; Gu, De-shan; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Yu-ren; Liu, Lin-mao; Shi-wei, Jing


    This article introduced the development of pulsed neutron coal analyzer by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis technology in the Radiation Technology Institute of Northeast Normal University. The 14MeV pulse neutron generator and bismuth germanate detector and 4096 multichannel analyzer were applied in this system. The multiple linear regression method employed to process data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The prototype (model MZ-MKFY) had been applied in Changshan and Jilin power plant for about a year. The results of measuring the main parameters of coal such as low caloric power, whole total water, ash content, volatile content, and sulfur content, with precision acceptable to the coal industry, are presented.

  2. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts. (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En


    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  3. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements. (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I


    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  4. Methods of analyzing composition of aerosol particles (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.


    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  5. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated. (United States)

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R


    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  6. The analyzing of Dove marketing strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yaohui


    <正>1.Introduction In this report,I try to analyze the related information about DOVE chocolate.Firstly,I would like to introduce this product.Dove chocolate is one of a series of products launched by the world’s largest pet food and snack food manufacturers,U.S.multinational food company Mars(Mars).Entered China in 1989,It becomes China’s leading brand of chocolate in

  7. LEGAL-EASE:Analyzing Chinese Financial Statements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article,we will focus on under- standing and analyzing the typical accounts of Chinese financial statements,including the balance sheet and income statement. Accounts are generally incorrectly prepared. This can be due to several factors,incom- petence,as well as more serious cases of deliberate attempts to deceive.Regardless, accounts can be understood and errors or specific acts of misrepresentation uncovered. We will conduct some simple analysis to demonstrate how these can be spotted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zobnin


    Full Text Available The large part of the Russian National Corpus has automatic morphological markup. It is based on the morphological analyzer Mystem developed in Yandex with some postprocessing of the results (for example, all indeclinable nouns acquire the tag '0', verbs are divided into separate paradigms by aspect, etc.. Recently a new (third version of Mystem has been released (see  In this article we give an overview of its capabilities.

  9. Coordinating, Scheduling, Processing and Analyzing IYA09 (United States)

    Gipson, John; Behrend, Dirk; Gordon, David; Himwich, Ed; MacMillan, Dan; Titus, Mike; Corey, Brian


    The IVS scheduled a special astrometric VLBI session for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA09) commemorating 400 years of optical astronomy and 40 years of VLBI. The IYA09 session is the most ambitious geodetic session to date in terms of network size, number of sources, and number of observations. We describe the process of designing, coordinating, scheduling, pre-session station checkout, correlating, and analyzing this session.

  10. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations. (United States)

    Cors, W K


    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible.

  11. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur


    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  12. Miles Technicon H.2 automated hematology analyzer. (United States)


    Automated hematology analyzers are used in all large hospitals and most commercial laboratories, as well as in most smaller hospitals and laboratories, to perform complete blood counts (including white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts; hemoglobin concentration; and RBC indices) and white blood cell differential counts. Our objectives in this study are to provide user guidance for selecting, purchasing, and using an automated hematology analyzer, as well as to present an overview of the technology used in an automated five-part differential unit. Specifications for additional automated units are available in ECRI's Clinical Laboratory Product Comparison System. We evaluated the Miles Technicon H.2 unit and rated it Acceptable. The information in this Single Product Evaluation is also useful for purchasing other models; our criteria will guide users in assessing components, and our findings and discussions on some aspects of automated hematology testing are common to many available systems. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our rating of the Miles unit alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding automated hematology analyzers, which can be gained only by reading this report in its entirety. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in our studies and the knowledge they gain through participating lead to the development of better products. Readers should refer to the Guidance Section, "Selecting and Purchasing an Automated Hematology Analyzer," where we discuss factors such as standardization, training, human factors, manufacturer support, patient population, and special features that the laboratory must consider before obtaining any automated unit; we also provide an in-depth review of cost issues, including life-cycle cost analyses, acquisition methods and costs of hardware and supplies, and we describe the Hemacost and Hemexmpt cost worksheets for use with our PresValu and PSV Manager CAHDModel software

  13. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  14. Analyzing Malware Based on Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu


    Full Text Available To explain the necessity of comprehensive and automatically analysis process for volatile memory, this paper summarized ordinarily analyzing methods and their common points especially for concerned data source. Then, a memory analysis framework Volatiltiy-2.2 and statistical output file size are recommended. In addition, to address the limitation of plug-ins classification in analyzing procedure, a user perspective classify is necessary and proposed. Furthermore, according to target data source differences on the base of result data set volume and employed relational method is introduced for comprehensive analysis guideline procedure. Finally, a test demo including DLLs loading order list analyzing is recommend, in which DLL load list is regard as different kind of characteristics typical data source with process and convert into process behavior fingerprint. The clustering for the fingerprint is employed string similar degree algorithm model in the demo, which has a wide range applications in traditional malware behavior analysis, and it is proposed that these methods also can be applied for volatile memory

  15. Modular Construction of Shape-Numeric Analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Yuh Evan Chang


    Full Text Available The aim of static analysis is to infer invariants about programs that are precise enough to establish semantic properties, such as the absence of run-time errors. Broadly speaking, there are two major branches of static analysis for imperative programs. Pointer and shape analyses focus on inferring properties of pointers, dynamically-allocated memory, and recursive data structures, while numeric analyses seek to derive invariants on numeric values. Although simultaneous inference of shape-numeric invariants is often needed, this case is especially challenging and is not particularly well explored. Notably, simultaneous shape-numeric inference raises complex issues in the design of the static analyzer itself. In this paper, we study the construction of such shape-numeric, static analyzers. We set up an abstract interpretation framework that allows us to reason about simultaneous shape-numeric properties by combining shape and numeric abstractions into a modular, expressive abstract domain. Such a modular structure is highly desirable to make its formalization and implementation easier to do and get correct. To achieve this, we choose a concrete semantics that can be abstracted step-by-step, while preserving a high level of expressiveness. The structure of abstract operations (i.e., transfer, join, and comparison follows the structure of this semantics. The advantage of this construction is to divide the analyzer in modules and functors that implement abstractions of distinct features.

  16. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer. (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E


    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  17. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university



    Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from t...

  18. The DOE Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA) Beta-Gamma Coincidence Spectrometer Data Analyzer (United States)


    detected using the counting system given the daily fluctuations in Radon gas interference, the background counts, the memory effect of previous...THE DOE AUTOMATED RADIOXENON SAMPLER-ANALYZER (ARSA) BETA-GAMMA COINCIDENCE SPECTROMETER DATA ANALYZER T.R. Heimbigner, T.W. Bowyer, J.I...1830 ABSTRACT The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Comprehensive

  19. Knowledge retention in capstone experiences: An analysis of online and face-to-face courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Girard


    Full Text Available This research chronicles the development of a capstone experience by a regional comprehensive university. The process began with a multi-year project during which the faculty annually reviewed the results with a view to determining if the class provided the deep learning culminating experiences anticipated. A major measure of success was the desire to replicate the deep learning common in face-to-face classes in the online environment. The results of 166 students were analyzed, 82 online and 84 face-to-face, to determine if a difference existed. A one-way ANOVA tested the score differences among 10 sections and determined the students’ scores did not differ significantly. Finally, a two-sample t-test between proportions determined that there was not a significant difference between the online and face-to-face students with respect to the level of assessment scores earned. Given that online and face-to-face students demonstrate the same level of knowledge, does this beg the question, what value does face-to-face class time offer?

  20. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael


    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  1. Analyzing the BBOB results by means of benchmarking concepts. (United States)

    Mersmann, O; Preuss, M; Trautmann, H; Bischl, B; Weihs, C


    We present methods to answer two basic questions that arise when benchmarking optimization algorithms. The first one is: which algorithm is the "best" one? and the second one is: which algorithm should I use for my real-world problem? Both are connected and neither is easy to answer. We present a theoretical framework for designing and analyzing the raw data of such benchmark experiments. This represents a first step in answering the aforementioned questions. The 2009 and 2010 BBOB benchmark results are analyzed by means of this framework and we derive insight regarding the answers to the two questions. Furthermore, we discuss how to properly aggregate rankings from algorithm evaluations on individual problems into a consensus, its theoretical background and which common pitfalls should be avoided. Finally, we address the grouping of test problems into sets with similar optimizer rankings and investigate whether these are reflected by already proposed test problem characteristics, finding that this is not always the case.

  2. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  3. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI


    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  4. Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute


    A photonic instrument is proposed to boost the resolution for ultraviolet/ optical/infrared spectral analysis and spectral imaging allowing the detection of narrow (0.00007-to-0.07-picometer wavelength resolution range) optical spectral signatures of chemical elements in space and planetary atmospheres. The idea underlying the proposal is to exploit the advantageous spectral characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators to obtain spectral resolutions at least three orders of magnitude greater than those of optical spectrum analyzers now in use. Such high resolutions would enable measurement of spectral features that could not be resolved by prior instruments.

  5. Analyzing Engineered Nanoparticles using Photothermal Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko

    using redox activity measurements. With a new setup adapted to miniaturization, stable pH was achieved, platinum was found to be more suitable than gold for open circuit potential-time measurements, miniaturized platinum working electrodes and quasi silver/silver chloride reference electrodes were...... of design rules for the responsivity of the string-based photothermal spectrometer. Responsivity is maximized for a thin, narrow and long string irradiated by high power radiation. Various types of nanoparticles and binary mixtures of them were successfully detected and analyzed. Detection of copper...


    Tausworthe, R. C.


    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  7. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, A.P. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Informatica e Sistemistica; Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  8. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation (United States)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery


    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  9. Analyzing the flight of a quadcopter using a smartphone

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C


    Remotely-controlled helicopters and planes have been used as toys for decades. However, only recently, advances in sensor technologies have made possible to easily flight and control theses devices at an affordable price. Along with their increasing availability the educational opportunities are also proliferating. Here, a simple experiment in which a smartphone is mounted on a quadcopter is proposed to investigate the basics of a flight. Thanks to the smartphone's built-in accelerometer and gyroscope, take off, landing and yaw are analyzed.

  10. BRAMA, a Broad Range Atomic Mass Analyzer for the ISL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    An alternative to conventional on-line isotope separators for use in radioactive beam facilities is described. It consists of an analyzer with a static magnetic field that is capable of separating a wide mixture of (radioactive) ions into mass bins ranging from 6 to 240 u. If incorporated into the ISL, BRAMA would make several low-energy radioactive beams available for experiments simultaneously, in addition to the beam that is being delivered to the post-accelerator. A preliminary ion-optical geometry is discussed.

  11. Analyzing simple pendulum phenomena with a smartphone acceleration sensor (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen


    This paper describes a further experiment using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone. For a previous column on this topic, including the description of the operation and use of the acceleration sensor, see Ref. 1. In this contribution we focus on analyzing simple pendulum phenomena. A smartphone is used as a pendulum bob, and SPARKvue2 software is used in conjunction with an iPhone or an iPod touch, or the Accelogger3 app for an Android device. As described in Ref. 1, the values measured by the smartphone are subsequently exported to a spreadsheet application (e.g., MS Excel) for analysis.

  12. Analyzing covert social network foundation behind terrorism disaster

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu


    This paper addresses a method to analyze the covert social network foundation hidden behind the terrorism disaster. It is to solve a node discovery problem, which means to discover a node, which functions relevantly in a social network, but escaped from monitoring on the presence and mutual relationship of nodes. The method aims at integrating the expert investigator's prior understanding, insight on the terrorists' social network nature derived from the complex graph theory, and computational data processing. The social network responsible for the 9/11 attack in 2001 is used to execute simulation experiment to evaluate the performance of the method.

  13. Analyzing refractive index changes and differential bending in microcantilever arrays (United States)

    Huber, François; Lang, Hans Peter; Hegner, Martin; Despont, Michel; Drechsler, Ute; Gerber, Christoph


    A new microcantilever array design is investigated comprising eight flexible microcantilevers introducing two solid bars, enabling to subtract contributions from differences in refractive index in an optical laser read out system. Changes in the refractive index do not contribute undesirably to bending signals at picomolar to micromolar DNA or protein concentrations. However, measurements of samples with high salt concentrations or serum are affected, requiring corrections for refractive index artifacts. Moreover, to obtain a deeper understanding of molecular stress formation, the differential curvature of cantilevers is analyzed by positioning the laser spots along the surface of the levers during pH experiments.

  14. Inexpensive LED-based spectrophotometer for analyzing optical coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Hardie, Kayla; Kuntz, Katanya B; Jennewein, Thomas


    Optical coatings are widespread in everyday life, from camera lenses to glasses, to complex optics experiments. A simple, reliable device that can quickly and inexpensively analyze optical coatings is a valuable laboratory tool. Such a device can identify unknown or mislabelled optics, and characterize the transmission spectra of optical elements used in an experiment. We present the design and characterization of a LED-based spectrophotometer, and demonstrate its ability to identify different optical coatings. Our approach uses ten LEDs that cover a spectrum from 365 nm to 1000 nm. A small servomotor and microcontroller rotates a LED board to sequentially position each LED over an optical sample, and the transmitted light corresponding to each LED is measured with a silicon photodetector. The device is automated, portable, inexpensive, user-friendly and simple to build.

  15. Analyzing Enterprise Networks Needs: Action Research from the Mechatronics Sector (United States)

    Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo

    New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.

  16. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization of LaO2 (United States)

    Wu, Lu; Zhang, Changhua; Krasnokutski, Sergiy; Yang, Dong-Sheng


    Lanthanum oxide, LaO2, is produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization metal-cluster source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectrum, the adiabatic ionization energy of LaO2 is determined to be 40134 (5) Cm-1 or 4.976 (6) eV, and La+-O stretching and O-La+-O bending frequencies are measured as 656 and 120 Cm-1. The measured ionization energy is about 3.0 eV lower than the value predicted by recent high-level ab initio calculations. In this talk, we will discuss the discrepancy between the experiment and theory and the electronic transition observed in our experiment. T. K. Todorova, I. Infante, L. Gagliardi, and J. M. Dyke, J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7825 (2008).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu


    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).

  18. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution. (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M


    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution.

  19. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor


    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  20. Analyzing Network Coding Gossip Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Haeupler, Bernhard


    We give a new technique to analyze the stopping time of gossip protocols that are based on random linear network coding (RLNC). Our analysis drastically simplifies, extends and strengthens previous results. We analyze RLNC gossip in a general framework for network and communication models that encompasses and unifies the models used previously in this context. We show, in most settings for the first time, that it converges with high probability in the information-theoretically optimal time. Most stopping times are of the form O(k + T) where k is the number of messages to be distributed and T is the time it takes to disseminate one message. This means RLNC gossip achieves "perfect pipelining". Our analysis directly extends to highly dynamic networks in which the topology can change completely at any time. This remains true even if the network dynamics are controlled by a fully adaptive adversary that knows the complete network state. Virtually nothing besides simple O(kT) sequential flooding protocols was prev...

  1. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  2. Sentiment Analyzer for Arabic Comments System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dine Ali Hamouda


    Full Text Available Today, the number of users of social network is increasing. Millions of users share opinions on different aspects of life every day. Therefore social network are rich sources of data for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Also users have become more interested in following news pages on Facebook. Several posts; political for example, have thousands of users’ comments that agree/disagree with the post content. Such comments can be a good indicator for the community opinion about the post content. For politicians, marketers, decision makers …, it is required to make sentiment analysis to know the percentage of users agree, disagree and neutral respect to a post. This raised the need to analyze theusers’ comments in Facebook. We focused on Arabic Facebook news pages for the task of sentiment analysis. We developed a corpus for sentiment analysis and opinion mining purposes. Then, we used different machine learning algorithms – decision tree, support vector machines, and naive bayes - to develop sentiment analyzer. The performance of the system using each technique was evaluated and compared with others.

  3. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus


    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  4. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

  5. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri


    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  6. Priorización y análisis de problemas de salud con una mirada desde la equidad: experiencia en el nivel local en Venezuela Approaches to determine priorities and to analyze problems of health with a look from the equity: experience in the local level in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Heredia


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la aplicación del momento explicativo de la Planificación Estratégica Situacional (PES y el Análisis de la Situación de Salud (ASIS, como enfoques que conjugados permiten priorizar con una mirada desde la equidad problemas de salud en el nivel local factibles de intervención. A través del estudio de un caso desarrollado en la parroquia Zuata del Estado Aragua, Venezuela, se presenta la aplicación de ambos enfoques. Los actores claves de dicha parroquia priorizaron la baja cobertura de agua potable, como problema de salud. Al analizar el problema se seleccionaron las siguientes causas claves para elaborar la propuesta de acción: escasa participación comunitaria, debilidad de planes gubernamentales, ausencia de políticas urbanísticas, inadecuada administración de los recursos públicos y poca conciencia en el uso racional del agua. Al final se concluye que la articulación PES-ASIS contribuye a generar insumos que concretizados por los actores en un plan de acción, pueden contribuir en la reducción de inequidades. Asimismo, la participación activa de los actores permite evidenciar los problemas reales de la población y construir un plan de demandas.This article analyzes the application of the explanatory moment of the Strategic Situational Planning (SSP and the Analysis of the Situation of Health (ASIS, as approaches that together, allow to prioritize with a look from the equity problems of health in the local level feasible of intervention. By using the case study developed in the parish Zuata of Aragua State, Venezuela, it can be observed the application of both approaches The main actors of the above mentioned parish prioritized the low coverage of drinkable water, like a health problem. On having analyzed the problem, the following causes were selected to prepare the proposed action: scarce community participation, weakness of governmental plans, absence of political town-planning, inadequate

  7. Analyzing acoustic phenomena with a smartphone microphone (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik


    This paper describes how different sound types can be explored using the microphone of a smartphone and a suitable app. Vibrating bodies, such as strings, membranes, or bars, generate air pressure fluctuations in their immediate vicinity, which propagate through the room in the form of sound waves. Depending on the triggering mechanism, it is possible to differentiate between four types of sound waves: tone, sound, noise, and bang. In everyday language, non-experts use the terms "tone" and "sound" synonymously; however, from a physics perspective there are very clear differences between the two terms. This paper presents experiments that enable learners to explore and understand these differences. Tuning forks and musical instruments (e.g., recorders and guitars) can be used as equipment for the experiments. The data are captured using a smartphone equipped with the appropriate app (in this paper we describe the app Audio Kit for iOS systems ). The values captured by the smartphone are displayed in a screen shot and then viewed directly on the smartphone or exported to a computer graphics program for printing.

  8. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Puga


    Full Text Available Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from the first practical assessment to the second one, t(16=2.5, p=.02, d=0.83, 1-?=.63, unilateral contrast. Additionally, a survey was developed to analyse students’ opinions and attitudes about plagiarism. A sample of 64 students (15 boys and 49 girls with an average age of 22.69 (SD=2.8 filled in an electronic questionnaire. More than a half of the sample (56.92% admitted that they had plagiarised before but most of the students (83.08% agreed they would not like someone else plagiarising their reports. A preliminary short scale to measure attitude towards plagiarism in undergraduate students at university is provided. Finally, a set of recommendations are given based on this experience to prevent and to reduce the level of plagiarism in the university contex.

  9. Fully Analyzing an Algebraic Polya Urn Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morcrette, Basile


    This paper introduces and analyzes a particular class of Polya urns: balls are of two colors, can only be added (the urns are said to be additive) and at every step the same constant number of balls is added, thus only the color compositions varies (the urns are said to be balanced). These properties make this class of urns ideally suited for analysis from an "analytic combinatorics" point-of-view, following in the footsteps of Flajolet-Dumas-Puyhaubert, 2006. Through an algebraic generating function to which we apply a multiple coalescing saddle-point method, we are able to give precise asymptotic results for the probability distribution of the composition of the urn, as well as local limit law and large deviation bounds.

  10. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ


    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  11. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart


    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  12. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Lane; Kondakci, H Esat; Larson, Walker D; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A Nick; Atia, George K; Abouraddy, Ayman F


    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes -- a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication -- basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of `delay.' Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis -- exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a `delay' obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, rec...

  13. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry


    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  14. Analyzing Hydrological Sustainability Through Water Balance (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Folch, Albert; Mas-Pla, Josep


    The objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to assist in the development of management plans that will lead to the sustainable use of water resources in all EU member states. However, defining the degree of sustainability aimed at is not a straightforward task. It requires detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological characteristics of the basin in question, its environmental needs, the amount of human water demand, and the opportunity to construct a proper water balance that describes the behavior of the hydrological system and estimates available water resources. An analysis of the water balance in the Selva basin (Girona, NE Spain) points to the importance of regional groundwater fluxes in satisfying current exploitation rates, and shows that regional scale approaches are often necessary to evaluate water availability. In addition, we discuss the pressures on water resources, and analyze potential actions, based on the water balance results, directed towards achieving sustainable water management in the basin.

  15. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  16. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)


    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  17. Analyzing BSE transmission to quantify regional risk. (United States)

    de Koeijer, Aline A


    As a result of consumer fears and political concerns related to BSE as a risk to human health, a need has arisen recently for more sensitive methods to detect BSE and more accurate methods to determine BSE incidence. As a part of the development of such methods, it is important to be able to identify groups of animals with above-average BSE risk. One of the well-known risk factors for BSE is age, as very young animals do not develop the disease, and very old animals are less likely to develop the disease. Here, we analyze which factors have a strong influence on the age distribution of BSE in a population. Building on that, we develop a simple set of calculation rules for classifying the BSE risk in a given cattle population. Required inputs are data on imports and on the BSE control measures in place over the last 10 or 20 years.

  18. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão


    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  19. Complex networks theory for analyzing metabolic networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; YU Hong; LUO Jianhua; CAO Z.W.; LI Yixue


    One of the main tasks of post-genomic informatics is to systematically investigate all molecules and their interactions within a living cell so as to understand how these molecules and the interactions between them relate to the function of the organism,while networks are appropriate abstract description of all kinds of interactions. In the past few years, great achievement has been made in developing theory of complex networks for revealing the organizing principles that govern the formation and evolution of various complex biological, technological and social networks. This paper reviews the accomplishments in constructing genome-based metabolic networks and describes how the theory of complex networks is applied to analyze metabolic networks.

  20. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business...... as the software development and distribution by a set of actors dependent on each other and the ecosystem. We commence on the hypothesis that the establishment of a software ecosystem on the telemedicine services of Denmark would address these issues and investigate how a software ecosystem can foster...... the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...

  1. Analyzing Planck-Like Data with Wavelets (United States)

    Sanz, J. L.; Barreiro, R. B.; Cayón, L.; Martinez-González, E.; Ruiz, G. A.; Diaz, F. J.; Argüeso, F.; Toffolatti, L.

    Basics on the continuous and discrete wavelet transform with two scales are outlined. We study maps representing anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and the relation to the standard approach, based on the Cl's, is establised through the introduction of a wavelet spectrum. We apply this technique to small angular scale CMB map simulations of size 12.8 x 12.8 degrees and filtered with a 4'.5 Gaussian beam. This resolution resembles the experimental one expected for future high resolution experiments (e.g. the Planck mission). We consider temperature fluctuations derived from standard, open and flat-Lambda CDM models. We also introduce Gaussian noise (uniform and non-uniform) at different S/N levels and results are given regarding denoising.

  2. Sonic gas analyzer for microbiological metabolic measurements (United States)

    Horta, Miguel A.; Garrett, Steven


    A differential open-pipe resonator was built to track changes in gas-mixture concentration. A single miniature loudspeaker simultaneously drives two adjacent ducts at resonance and 180 deg out of phase. The resonant frequency is tracked with a phase-locked loop, using the difference signal from two electret microphones whose sensitivities are balanced by adjustment of the preamplifier gains to provide common-mode rejection of extraneous noise sources (for example, a magnetic stirrer) within the bioreactor. A small change of the gas concentration produces a proportional change of the driving frequency for a given binary mix of gases. This sensor is designed to measure the production of hydrogen or methane from metabolic processes of anaerobic bacteria. Results from an initial set of experiments using helium injection and hydrogen release from a HCl+Zn reaction will be presented. [For Engineering Acoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  3. Real-Time IPMI Protocol Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Kozak, T; Makowski, D


    The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Ar- chitecture (ATCA) is a modern platform, which gains popularity, not only in telecommunication, but also in others fields like High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Computing systems based on ATCA provide high performance and efficiency and are char- acterized by significant reliability, availability and serviceability. ATCA offers these features because of an integrated manage- ment system realized by the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) implemented on dedicated Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC). IPMC is required on each ATCA board to fulfill the ATCA standard and is responsible for many vital procedures performed to support proper operation of ATCA system. It covers, among others, activation and deactivations of modules, monitoring of actual parameters or controlling fans. The commercially available IPMI implementations are expensive and often not suited to demands of specific ATCA applications and available hardware. Thus, many r...

  4. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  5. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolhamid ebrahimi


    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  6. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer (United States)

    Prestage, John D.


    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  7. Comparison of two dry chemistry analyzers and a wet chemistry analyzer using canine serum. (United States)

    Lanevschi, Anne; Kramer, John W.


    Canine serum was used to compare seven chemistry analytes on two tabletop clinical dry chemistry analyzers, Boehringer's Reflotron and Kodak's Ektachem. Results were compared to those obtained on a wet chemistry reference analyzer, Roche Diagnostic's Cobas Mira. Analytes measured were urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and bilirubin. Nine to 12 canine sera with values in the low, normal, and high range were evaluated. The correlations were acceptable for all comparisons with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 for all analytes. Regression analysis resulted in significant differences for both tabletop analyzers when compared to the reference analyzer for cholesterol and bilirubin, and for glucose and AST on the Kodak Ektachem. Differences appeared to result from proportional systematic error occurring at high analyte concentrations.

  8. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer: a tool for analyzing data from hypertext navigation research. (United States)

    Brunstein, Angela; Naumann, Anja; Krems, Josef F


    Computer-based studies usually produce log files as raw data. These data cannot be analyzed adequately with conventional statistical software. The Chemnitz LogAnalyzer provides tools for quick and comfortable visualization and analyses of hypertext navigation behavior by individual users and for aggregated data. In addition, it supports analogous analyses of questionnaire data and reanalysis with respect to several predefined orders of nodes of the same hypertext. As an illustration of how to use the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer, we give an account of one study on learning with hypertext. Participants either searched for specific details or read a hypertext document to familiarize themselves with its content. The tool helped identify navigation strategies affected by these two processing goals and provided comparisons, for example, of processing times and visited sites. Altogether, the Chemnitz LogAnalyzer fills the gap between log files as raw data of Web-based studies and conventional statistical software.

  9. Signal processing and analyzing works of art (United States)

    Johnson, Don H.; Johnson, C. Richard, Jr.; Hendriks, Ella


    In examining paintings, art historians use a wide variety of physico-chemical methods to determine, for example, the paints, the ground (canvas primer) and any underdrawing the artist used. However, the art world has been little touched by signal processing algorithms. Our work develops algorithms to examine x-ray images of paintings, not to analyze the artist's brushstrokes but to characterize the weave of the canvas that supports the painting. The physics of radiography indicates that linear processing of the x-rays is most appropriate. Our spectral analysis algorithms have an accuracy superior to human spot-measurements and have the advantage that, through "short-space" Fourier analysis, they can be readily applied to entire x-rays. We have found that variations in the manufacturing process create a unique pattern of horizontal and vertical thread density variations in the bolts of canvas produced. In addition, we measure the thread angles, providing a way to determine the presence of cusping and to infer the location of the tacks used to stretch the canvas on a frame during the priming process. We have developed weave matching software that employs a new correlation measure to find paintings that share canvas weave characteristics. Using a corpus of over 290 paintings attributed to Vincent van Gogh, we have found several weave match cliques that we believe will refine the art historical record and provide more insight into the artist's creative processes.

  10. Analyzing modified unimodular gravity via Lagrange multipliers (United States)

    Sáez-Gómez, Diego


    The so-called unimodular version of general relativity is revisited. Unimodular gravity is constructed by fixing the determinant of the metric, which leads to the trace-free part of the equations instead of the usual Einstein field equations. Then a cosmological constant naturally arises as an integration constant. While unimodular gravity turns out to be equivalent to general relativity (GR) at the classical level, it provides important differences at the quantum level. Here we extend the unimodular constraint to some extensions of general relativity that have drawn a lot of attention over the last years—f (R ) gravity (or its scalar-tensor picture) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The corresponding unimodular version of such theories is constructed as well as the conformal transformation that relates the Einstein and Jordan frames for these nonminimally coupled theories. From the classical point of view, the unimodular versions of such extensions are completely equivalent to their originals, but an effective cosmological constant arises naturally, which may provide a richer description of the evolution of the Universe. Here we analyze the case of Starobisnky inflation and compare it with the original one.

  11. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

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    Vlahoviček Kristian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  12. Alzheimer's disease: analyzing the missing heritability.

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    Perry G Ridge

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex disorder influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Recent work has identified 11 AD markers in 10 loci. We used Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis to analyze >2 million SNPs for 10,922 individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium to assess the phenotypic variance explained first by known late-onset AD loci, and then by all SNPs in the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium dataset. In all, 33% of total phenotypic variance is explained by all common SNPs. APOE alone explained 6% and other known markers 2%, meaning more than 25% of phenotypic variance remains unexplained by known markers, but is tagged by common SNPs included on genotyping arrays or imputed with HapMap genotypes. Novel AD markers that explain large amounts of phenotypic variance are likely to be rare and unidentifiable using genome-wide association studies. Based on our findings and the current direction of human genetics research, we suggest specific study designs for future studies to identify the remaining heritability of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Methodological considerations in analyzing Twitter data. (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hansen, Heather M; Murphy, Joe; Richards, Ashley K; Duke, Jennifer; Allen, Jane A


    Twitter is an online microblogging tool that disseminates more than 400 million messages per day, including vast amounts of health information. Twitter represents an important data source for the cancer prevention and control community. This paper introduces investigators in cancer research to the logistics of Twitter analysis. It explores methodological challenges in extracting and analyzing Twitter data, including characteristics and representativeness of data; data sources, access, and cost; sampling approaches; data management and cleaning; standardizing metrics; and analysis. We briefly describe the key issues and provide examples from the literature and our studies using Twitter data to understand public health issues. For investigators considering Twitter-based cancer research, we recommend assessing whether research questions can be answered appropriately using Twitter, choosing search terms carefully to optimize precision and recall, using respected vendors that can provide access to the full Twitter data stream if possible, standardizing metrics to account for growth in the Twitter population over time, considering crowdsourcing for analysis of Twitter content, and documenting and publishing all methodological decisions to further the evidence base.

  14. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

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    Abdullah Tanriverdi


    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  15. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

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    Full Text Available The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, increasing women workforce and income growth. In this research, original data collected through face-to-face interview from 385 respondents which are located in Istanbul. Different Socio-Economic Status (SES groups‟ ratio for Istanbul was forming sampling distribution. Consumers prefer closest food retailers which are mainly purchasing food products. Consumers purchase more than their planned what their needs; especially C SES group average comes first for the spending money for unplanned shopping. Chain stores and hypermarkets are the most preferred retailers in food purchasing. Moreover, consumer responses to judgments related to retailing are being investigating with factor analysis.

  16. Qualitative Methodology in Analyzing Educational Phenomena

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    Antonio SANDU


    Full Text Available Semiological analysis of educational phenomena allow researchers access to a multidimensional universe of meanings that is represented by the school, not so much seen as an institution, but as a vector of social action through educational strategies. We consider education as a multidimensional phenomenon since its analysis allows the researcher to explore a variety of research hypotheses of different paradigmatic perspectives that converge in an educational finality. According to the author Simona Branc one of the most appropriate methods used in qualitative data analysis is Grounded Theory; this one assumes a systematic process of generating concepts and theories based on the data collected. Specialised literature defines Grounded Theory as an inductive approach that starts with general observations and during the analytical process creates conceptual categories that explain the theme explored. Research insist on the role of the sociologic theory of managing the research data and for providing ways of conceptualizing the descriptions and explanations.Qualitative content analysis is based on the constructivist paradigm (constructionist in the restricted sense that we used previously. It aims to create an “understanding of the latent meanings of the analyzed messages”. Quantitative content analysis involves a process of encoding and statistical analysis of data extracted from the content of the paper in the form of extractions like: frequencies, contingency analysis, etc

  17. Analyzing planar cell polarity during zebrafish gastrulation. (United States)

    Jessen, Jason R


    Planar cell polarity was first described in invertebrates over 20 years ago and is defined as the polarity of cells (and cell structures) within the plane of a tissue, such as an epithelium. Studies in the last 10 years have identified critical roles for vertebrate homologs of these planar cell polarity proteins during gastrulation cell movements. In zebrafish, the terms convergence and extension are used to describe the collection of morphogenetic movements and cell behaviors that contribute to narrowing and elongation of the embryonic body plan. Disruption of planar cell polarity gene function causes profound defects in convergence and extension creating an embryo that has a shortened anterior-posterior axis and is broadened mediolaterally. The zebrafish gastrula-stage embryo is transparent and amenable to live imaging using both Nomarski/differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. This chapter describes methods to analyze convergence and extension movements at the cellular level and thereby connect embryonic phenotypes with underlying planar cell polarity defects in migrating cells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Abuleil


    Full Text Available The Web considers one of the main sources of customer opinions and reviews which they are represented in two formats; structured data (numeric ratings and unstructured data (textual comments. Millions of textual comments about goods and services are posted on the web by customers and every day thousands are added, make it a big challenge to read and understand them to make them a useful structured data for customers and decision makers. Sentiment analysis or Opinion mining is a popular technique for summarizing and analyzing those opinions and reviews. In this paper, we use natural language processing techniques to generate some rules to help us understand customer opinions and reviews (textual comments written in the Arabic language for the purpose of understanding each one of them and then convert them to a structured data. We use adjectives as a key point to highlight important information in the text then we work around them to tag attributes that describe the subject of the reviews, and we associate them with their values (adjectives.

  19. Extraction of Root Words using Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari Script

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    Sharvari S. Govilkar


    Full Text Available In India, more than 300 million people use Devanagari script for documentation. In Devanagari script, Marathi and Hindi are mainly used as primary language of Maharashtra state and national language of India respectively. As compared with English script, Devanagari script is reach of morphemes. Thus the lemmatization of Devanagari script is quite complex than that of English script. There is lack of resources for Devanagari script such as WordNet, ontology representation, parsing the keywords and their part of speech. Thus the overall task of information retrieval becomes complex and time consuming. Devanagari script document always carries suffixes which may cause problem in accurate information retrieval. We propose a method of extracting root words from Devanagari script document which can be used for information retrieval, text summarization, text categorization, ontology building etc. An attempt is made to design the Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari script. We have designed CORPUS containing more than 3000 possible stop words and suffixes for Marathi language. Morphological Analyzer can acts as a preliminary stage for developing any information retrieval application in Devanagari script. We have conducted the experiments on randomly selected Marathi documents and we found the accuracy of designed morphological analyzer is up to 96%.

  20. Analyzing Math and Science Pre-Service Teachers School Experience Course Journals Shared in Web-Based Platforms [Web Destekli Ortamlarda Fen ve Matematik Öğretmen Adaylarının Paylaştıkları Öğretmenlik Uygulaması Günlüklerinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem İnel Ekici


    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate pre-service math and science teachers during teaching practicum course by analyzing daily journals shared in a web-based environment. 65 seniors participated in the study (41 pre-service math teachers and 24 pre-service science teachers. Within qualitative case study approach, the study focused on descriptive and content analysis during the data analysis. By looking at the findings of the study, pre-service math teachers provided more details in discussing the teaching methods and emphasizing on lesson preparations compared to pre-service science teachers. On the other hand, pre-service science teachers included more specific activity examples than did pre-service math teachers in their daily journal entries. Another important finding of the study showed that pre-service teachers tended to evaluate themselves and their friends positively, but negatively criticized their teachers. In light of these findings, we recommend offering teaching practicum course when pre-service teachers take their theoretical courses. [Bu araştırmada fen ve matematik öğretmen adaylarının “öğretmenlik uygulaması” dersi kapsamında web destekli ortamlarda paylaştıkları günlüklerin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya dördüncü sınıfta öğrenim görmekte olan 65 öğretmen adayı katılmıştır (24 Fen öğretmen adayı ve 41 Matematik öğretmen adayı. Nitel verilere dayalı bir durum çalışması olan araştırma verilerinin analizinde betimsel analiz ve içerik analizi yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları incelendiğinde, öğrenme sürecinde kullanılan öğretim yöntemlerini değerlendirme ve ders öncesi hazırlıkları vurgulama konularında matematik öğretmen adaylarının günlüklerinde, fen öğretmen adaylarından daha detaylı bilgiler sundukları belirlenmiştir. Buna karşılık fen öğretmen adayları günlüklerinde, matematik öğretmen adaylarından daha fazla

  1. Analyzing cancer samples with SNP arrays. (United States)

    Van Loo, Peter; Nilsen, Gro; Nordgard, Silje H; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lingjærde, Ole Christian


    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are powerful tools to delineate genomic aberrations in cancer genomes. However, the analysis of these SNP array data of cancer samples is complicated by three phenomena: (a) aneuploidy: due to massive aberrations, the total DNA content of a cancer cell can differ significantly from its normal two copies; (b) nonaberrant cell admixture: samples from solid tumors do not exclusively contain aberrant tumor cells, but always contain some portion of nonaberrant cells; (c) intratumor heterogeneity: different cells in the tumor sample may have different aberrations. We describe here how these phenomena impact the SNP array profile, and how these can be accounted for in the analysis. In an extended practical example, we apply our recently developed and further improved ASCAT (allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors) suite of tools to analyze SNP array data using data from a series of breast carcinomas as an example. We first describe the structure of the data, how it can be plotted and interpreted, and how it can be segmented. The core ASCAT algorithm next determines the fraction of nonaberrant cells and the tumor ploidy (the average number of DNA copies), and calculates an ASCAT profile. We describe how these ASCAT profiles visualize both copy number aberrations as well as copy-number-neutral events. Finally, we touch upon regions showing intratumor heterogeneity, and how they can be detected in ASCAT profiles. All source code and data described here can be found at our ASCAT Web site (

  2. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.


    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  3. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  4. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification. (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M


    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  5. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

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    Varmuza Kurt K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  6. Experiments in computing: a survey. (United States)

    Tedre, Matti; Moisseinen, Nella


    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general.

  7. A Theoretical Diagnosis on Light Speed Anisotropy from GRAAL Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lingli, Zhou


    The light speed anisotropy, i.e., the variation of the light speed with respect to direction in an "absolute" reference frame, is a profound issue in physics. The one-way experiment, performed at the GRAAL facility of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, reported results on the light speed anisotropy by Compton scattering of laser photons on high-energy electrons. We show in this paper that the azimuthal distribution of the GRAAL experiment data can be elegantly reproduced by a new theory of Lorentz invariance violation or space-time anisotropy, based on a general principle of physical independence of the mathematical background manifold.

  8. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.


    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  9. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova


    summarize the information there is a mechanism of data grouping, which provides general data of the number of entries, maximum, minimum, average values for different groups of records.Results. This technology has been tested in the monitoring requirements of the services of additional professional education and the definition of the educational needs of teachers and executives of educational organizations of the Irkutsk region. The survey has involved 2,780 respondents in 36 municipalities. Creating the data model took several hours. The survey was conducted during the month.Conclusion. The proposed technology allows a short time to collect the information in relational form, and then analyze it without the need for programming with flexible assignment of the operating logic for form.

  10. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  11. Evaluation and performance characteristics of the Q Hemostasis Analyzer, an automated coagulation analyzer. (United States)

    Toulon, Pierre; Fischer, Florence; Appert-Flory, Anny; Jambou, Didier


    The Q Hemostasis Analyzer (Grifols, Barcelona, Spain) is a fully-automated random-access multiparameter analyzer, designed to perform coagulation, chromogenic and immunologic assays. It is equipped with a cap-piercing system. The instrument was evaluated in a hemostasis laboratory of a University Hospital with respect to its technical features in the determination of coagulation i.e. prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen and single coagulation factors V (FV) and VIII (FVIII), chromogenic [antithrombin (AT) and protein C activity] and immunologic assays [von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) concentration], using reagents from the analyzer manufacturer. Total precision (evaluated as the coefficient of variation) was below 6% for most parameters both in normal and in pathological ranges, except for FV, FVIII, AT and vWF:Ag both in the normal and pathological samples. No carryover was detected in alternating aPTT measurement in a pool of normal plasma samples and in the same pool spiked with unfractionated heparin (>1.5 IU/mL). The effective throughput was 154 PT, 66 PT/aPTT, 42 PT/aPTT/fibrinogen, and 38 PT/aPTT/AT per hour, leading to 154 to 114 tests performed per hour, depending of the tested panel. Test results obtained on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer were well correlated with those obtained on the ACL TOP analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory), with r between 0.862 and 0.989. In conclusion, routine coagulation testing can be performed on the Q Hemostasis Analyzer with satisfactory precision and the same apply to more specialized and specific tests.

  12. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants (United States)


    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  13. Using Simulation to Analyze Acoustic Environments (United States)

    Wood, Eric J.


    One of the main projects that was worked on this semester was creating an acoustic model for the Advanced Space Suit in Comsol Multiphysics. The geometry tools built into the software were used to create an accurate model of the helmet and upper torso of the suit. After running the simulation, plots of the sound pressure level within the suit were produced, as seen below in Figure 1. These plots show significant nulls which should be avoided when placing microphones inside the suit. In the future, this model can be easily adapted to changes in the suit design to determine optimal microphone placements and other acoustic properties. Another major project was creating an acoustic diverter that will potentially be used to route audio into the Space Station's Node 1. The concept of the project was to create geometry to divert sound from a neighboring module, the US Lab, into Node 1. By doing this, no new audio equipment would need to be installed in Node 1. After creating an initial design for the diverter, analysis was performed in Comsol in order to determine how changes in geometry would affect acoustic performance, as shown in Figure 2. These results were used to produce a physical prototype diverter on a 3D printer. With the physical prototype, testing was conducted in an anechoic chamber to determine the true effectiveness of the design, as seen in Figure 3. The results from this testing have been compared to the Comsol simulation results to analyze how closely the Comsol results are to real-world performance. While the Comsol results do not seem to closely resemble the real world performance, this testing has provided valuable insight into how much trust can be placed in the results of Comsol simulations. A final project that was worked on during this tour was the Audio Interface Unit (AIU) design for the Orion program. The AIU is a small device that will be used for as an audio communication device both during launch and on-orbit. The unit will have functions

  14. Analyzing profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions. (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A; Masyn, Katherine E


    Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 12,760 students attending public high schools in the United States, this study used latent class analysis (LCA) to analyze profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions. A student engagement disposition is an umbrella concept. It encompasses students' identification with school together with their academic competencies and overall educational aspirations. Six subpopulation profiles of engagement dispositions were culled from the data using LCA. These profiles included students who possessed "model student" attributes as well as others whose school experiences reflected ambivalence and disidentification. Where practice and policy are concerned, findings regarding the characteristics and consequences of each profile can be used by researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to facilitate tailored intervention planning as well as more nuanced policy development.

  15. Radioactive uranium measurement in vivo using a handheld interfaced analyzer. (United States)

    Ly, Suw Young; Lee, Jin-Hui; Jung, Dong Ho


    A trace uranium (U) detection method was developed with a handheld voltammetric analyzer that was the size of a mobile phone, with working sensors made of simple graphite pencil electrode (PE). The optimum stripping voltammetric conditions were sought, and the following results were obtained: 0.0 to 0.08 ng/L working ranges and a statistically relative standard deviation of 1.78% (RSD; n=15) at a 10.0 microg/L U spike. The experiment accumulation time used was only 150 s. Under this condition, the diagnostic detection limit approached 0.007 ng/L. The method was applied to soil of a natural rock in a radioactive mineralogy site. Earthworms that resided at this site were assayed. The method was found to be applicable in biological diagnosis or in real-time in vivo survey.

  16. Analyzing the User Behavior toward Electronic Commerce Stimuli. (United States)

    Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel


    Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e., navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus) versus non-verbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli). Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies -which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website- on shopping human behavior (i.e., users' internal states -affective, cognitive, and satisfaction- and behavioral responses - approach responses, and real shopping outcomes-) within the retail online store created by computer, taking into account some mediator variables (i.e., involvement, atmospheric responsiveness, and perceived risk). A 2 ("free" versus "hierarchical" navigational structure) × 2 ("on" versus "off" music) × 2 ("moving" versus "static" images) between-subjects computer experimental design is used to test empirically this research. In addition, an integrated methodology was developed allowing the simulation, tracking and recording of virtual user behavior within an online shopping environment. As main conclusion, this study suggests that the positive responses of online consumers might increase when they are allowed to freely navigate the online stores and their experience is enriched by animate gifts and music background. The effect caused by mediator variables modifies relatively the final shopping human behavior.

  17. Analyzing the user behavior towards Electronic Commerce stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Lorenzo-Romero


    Full Text Available Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response paradigm this research analyzes the main differences between the effects of two types of web technologies: Verbal web technology (i.e. navigational structure as utilitarian stimulus versus nonverbal web technology (music and presentation of products as hedonic stimuli. Specific webmosphere stimuli have not been examined yet as separate variables and their impact on internal and behavioral responses seems unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research consists in analyzing the impact of these web technologies –which constitute the web atmosphere or webmosphere of a website– on shopping human bebaviour (i.e. users’ internal states -affective, cognitive, and satisfaction- and behavioral responses - approach responses, and real shopping outcomes- within the retail online store created by computer, taking into account some mediator variables (i.e. involvement, atmospheric responsiveness, and perceived risk. A 2(free versus hierarchical navigational structure x2(on versus off music x2(moving versus static images between-subjects computer experimental design is used to test empirically this research. In addition, an integrated methodology was developed allowing the simulation, tracking and recording of virtual user behavior within an online shopping environment. As main conclusion, this study suggests that the positive responses of online consumers might increase when they are allowed to freely navigate the online stores and their experience is enriched by animate gifts and music background. The effect caused by mediator variables modifies relatively the final shopping human behavior.

  18. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX (United States)

    Liu, D.; Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.; Cecil, F. E.; Heidbrink, W. W.


    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure the energy distribution of charge exchange fast neutral particles. The array consists of four Si diode detectors on chords with fixed tangency radii (60, 90, 100, and 120 cm), which view across the three co-injection neutral beam (NB) lines. The calibrated energy range is 40 120KeV and its energy resolution is about 10KeV. Time resolved measurements have been obtained and compared with the E//B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) results. It is observed that particle fluxes increase strongly and then decay rapidly to a steady level just after NB injection commences. Though this temporal behavior is also observed in the E//B NPA, it is not predicted in TRANSP simulations. In addition, the increase and decay rates in the two NPA systems are different. Example data from plasma discharges will be presented with explanations of these differences.

  19. A Simple and Objective Method for Analyzing a Gymnastics Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena W.J. Khong


    Full Text Available The traditional approach to evaluate gymnastics by subjective rating requires an experienced eye, posing challenges to teachers and coaches who may not have the necessarypersonal experience. This study presented a simple and objective method for analyzing a dynamic, asymmetrical and multi-planar gymnastics skill (cartwheel. Two studies were conducted to analyze videos of cartwheel performances by quantifying ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and torso angles using an open source freeware. Study 1 tested whether the method could differentiate between highly trained gymnasts and novices, and assessed the reliability of the method. Study 2 evaluated whether the method could track the progression of novice learners: Performances of an experimental and a control groups were compared before and after a 20-minute intervention. Results showed excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation > 0.90, standard error of measurement < 5°. Highly trained gymnasts displayed better forms than novices at the ankle, knee, shoulder and torso (all p < 0.05.After brief practice, novel learners showed improvements at the knees (p = 0.007 and ankles (group × time p = 0.05 when performing a cartwheel. In conclusion, the proposed video analysis method demonstrated good potential for assessing the cartwheel in a simple and objective way.

  20. Analyzing Multimode Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Network Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Jin


    Full Text Available The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N-MM models each node as a multimode component. We prove that the maximum delay bound computed by the method A-MM is tighter than or equal to that computed by the method N-MM. Experiments show that our proposed methods can significantly decrease the analytical delay bound comparing with the separate flow analysis method. For the large-scale wireless sensor network with 32 thousands of sensor nodes, our proposed methods can decrease about 70% of the analytical delay bound.