Sample records for analyze solar-sail space-environment

  1. Ground Deployment Demonstration and Material Testing for Solar Sail (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqi; Cheng, Zhengai; Liu, Yufei; Wang, Li


    Solar Sail is a kind of spacecraft that can achieve extremely high velocity by light pressure instead of chemical fuel. The great accelerate rely on its high area-to-mass ratio. So solar sail is always designed in huge size and it use ultra thin and light weight materials. For 100-meter class solar sail, two key points must be considered in the design process. They are fold-deployment method, and material property change in space environment. To test and verify the fold-deployment technology, a 8*8m principle prototype was developed. Sail membrane folding in method of IKAROS, Nanosail-D , and new proposed L-shape folding pattern were tested on this prototype. Their deployment properties were investigated in detail, and comparisons were made between them. Also, the space environment suitability of ultra thin polyimide films as candidate solar sail material was analyzed. The preliminary test results showed that membrane by all the folding method could deploy well. Moreover, sail membrane folding by L-shape pattern deployed more rapidly and more organized among the three folding pattern tested. The mechanical properties of the polyimide had no significant change after electron irradiation. As the preliminary research on the key technology of solar sail spacecraft, in this paper, the results of the study would provide important basis on large-scale solar sail membrane select and fold-deploying method design.

  2. Solar Sail: Materials and Space Environmental Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya


    Theoretical aspects of a solar sail material degradation are presented when the solar electromagnetic and corpuscular forms of radiation were considered as sources of degradation. The analysis of the interaction of two components of solar radiation, the electromagnetic radiation and radiation of low- and high-energy electrons, protons, and helium ions emitted by the Sun with the solar-sail materials is discussed. The physical processes of the interactions of photons, electrons, protons and alpha-particles with sail material atoms and nuclei, leading to the degradation and ionization of solar sail materials are analyzed. The dependence of reflectivity and absorption for solar sail materials on temperature and on wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum of solar radiation is investigated. It is shown that the temperature of a solar sail increases approximately as T r^(-2/5), with the decrease of the heliocentric distance r, when are taking into account the temperature dependence of optical parameters of the s...

  3. Advances in solar sailing

    CERN Document Server

    Third International Symposium on Solar Sailing


    Hosted by the Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory within the department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of the University of Strathclyde, the third International Symposium on Solar Sailing was held in McCance Building at 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow, between 11 and 13 June 2013. The symposium attracted over 90 delegates from19 different counties, bringing together international experts from across the globe to discuss funded solar sail flight programs alongside on-going technology development and testing programs. The symposium also provided a forum for the discussion of enabling technologies, new application concepts, materials and structural concepts, space environmental effects, dynamics, navigation, control, and much more. This volume contains the unabridged symposium proceedings, in the gathered experts own words. As symposium chair, I thank our partners at Scottish Enterprise and L’Garde, Inc., the symposium’s gold sponsor, for their support in realising this symposium.

  4. Comprehensive Solar Sail Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails as a propulsive device have several potential applications: providing access to previously inaccessible orbits, longer mission times, and increased...

  5. Solar Sail Muensingen; Sonnensegel Muensingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormann, S.


    The Solar Sail in Muensingen, Switzerland, between Berne and Thun, is a solar art project and one of the most spectacular solar power plants in the world. The sail is 22 meters high with a surface of 90 m{sup 2}. The aim was to build an extraordinary plant to show people the beauties of solar energy. Starting in the psychiatric center of Muensingen, the project got the support of the community of Muensingen. The canton of Berne and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy were also persuaded to support the project. Additionally, three big Swiss companies and more than 30 private persons support the project financially. The opening ceremony took place on August 15th, 2000. Since then, the power plant perfectly works. You have to visit the Solar Sail to get the right impression - when you stand in front of it, you realise how big it is. Take your time to see how the colors of the PV panels change during the day. And when the sun sets, you can see the deep blue panels against the evening sky. It's a quiet place - the Solar Sail place. And while you are admiring the architecture, you have a lot of time to read the well designed information board and to follow the electronic display. You probably also have time to think about our energy consumption and the beautiful alternatives we do have today. Wouldn't be a nicer world with a billion solar sails producing our energy? Without noise, without pollution, without risk. Visit the Solar Sail and tell us what you think about it. You might agree with one of our friends who said: 'It's just gorgeous'. (author)

  6. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission (United States)

    Price, H. W.


    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  7. Solar sail on the track (United States)

    Prado, Jean-Yves; Perret, Alain; Ozcariz, Ignazio

    Since the last IAF Congress in Malaga, where it has been stated by the IAF Education Committee that a Solar Sail Race to the Moon is worth to be recommended to IAF organization, the situation has evolved in a favorable way with respect to the U3P objectives to promote a race to the Moon with solar sails and be an entry. As the year 92 will be of great importance for Spain with the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona, the International Exhibition of Sevilla and the celebration of the Castela sponsored Columbus odyssey, a unique opportunity for fund raising exists. A Spanish association, named Comision Vela Solar, has recently joined U3P to design and build a solar sail, ready for a launch in 1992, together with American and Japanese entries. This agreement between French and Spanish associations has given birth to an industrial cooperation between French firms, lead by MATRA-ESPACE and Spanish firms. In our paper, we describe the mission, give an update version of the rules of the race, draw the main features of the U3P-CVS sail and highlight the technological and educational benefits of this challenging project.

  8. IKAROS太阳帆的关键技术分析与启示%Key Technology Analysis and Enlightenment of IKAROS Solar Sail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈自才; 张帆; 赵春晴; 刘宇明; 丁义刚; 牟永强


    In this paper,the development of solar sail is analyzed firstly,and then the IKAROS solar sail,which is interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the sun and is the world's first solar sail successfully used in deep space spacecraft,and its key technologies are analyzed.The key technologies for Chinese solar sail or inflatable deployment structure such as system design,attitude control,deployment in space and space environment durability and so on are discussed.Finally,the suggestions that the large-scale light-weight deployment structure such as solar sail should be researched and developed as soon as possible are presented.%分析了国外太阳帆的发展现状,重点论述了世界上首次成功飞行的太阳帆——太阳辐射驱动星际风筝航天器(IKAROS)的总体设计、材料设计、空间展开和姿态控制等关键技术,以及中国开展太阳帆和空间大型展开结构的总体设计、空间展开、姿态控制、空间环境适应性等关键技术,提出了系统开展以太阳帆为代表的大型轻质展开结构研制与应用的建议。

  9. Solar Sail Propulsion for Interplanetary Cubesats (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Sobey, Alex; Sykes, Kevin


    NASA is developing two small satellite missions as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, both of which will use a solar sail to enable their scientific objectives. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high (Delta)V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. Solar sail technology is rapidly maturing for space propulsion applications within NASA and around the world.

  10. Utilization of an H-reversal trajectory of a solar sail for asteroid deflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Ping Gong; Jun-Feng Li; Xiang-Yuan Zeng


    Near Earth Asteroids have a possibility of impacting the Earth and always represent a threat.This paper proposes a way of changing the orbit of the asteroid to avoid an impact.A solar sail evolving in an H-reversal trajectory is utilized for asteroid deflection.Firstly,the dynamics of the solar sail and the characteristics of the H-reversal trajectory are analyzed.Then,the attitude of the solar sail is optimized to guide the sail to impact the target asteroid along an H-reversal trajectory.The impact velocity depends on two important parameters:the minimum solar distance along the trajectory and lightness number of the solar sail.A larger lightness number and a smaller solar distance lead to a higher impact velocity.Finally,the deflection capability of a solar sail impacting the asteroid along the H-reversal trajectory is discussed.The results show that a 10 kg solar sail with a lead-time of one year can move Apophis out of a 600-m keyhole area in 2029 to eliminate the possibility of its resonant return in 2036.

  11. High Speed AB-Solar Sail


    Bolonkin, A.


    The Solar sail is a large thin film used to collect solar light pressure for moving of space apparatus. Unfortunately, the solar radiation pressure is very small about 9 mkN/sq.m at Earth's orbit. However, the light force significantly increases up to 0.2 - 0.35 N/sq.m near the Sun. The author offers his research on a new revolutionary highly reflective solar sail which flyby (after special maneuver) near Sun and attains velocity up to 400 km/sec and reaching far planets of the Solar system i...

  12. Solar sails: Modeling, estimation, and trajectory control (United States)

    Rios-Reyes, Leonel

    There has been great interest in developing solar sail technology and missions by several international space agencies in recent years. However, at present there is no consensus on how one can mathematically model forces and moments acting on a solar sail. Traditional analytical models and finite element methods are not feasible for integration into a precise navigation system. This dissertation takes a step toward resolving this issue by developing tools and concepts that can be integrated into a precise solar sail navigation system. These steps are the derivation of a generalized sail model, a linear estimation method for estimating and predicting forces and moments acting on a solar sail, and a new trajectory control methodology for tracking a nominal trajectory when the sail performance exceeds the nominal design performance. The main contributions of this dissertation follow. First, the generalized sail model (GSM) is defined to analytically describe the forces and moments acting on a solar sail of arbitrary shape. The GSM is derived by performing an integration, of all the differential forces and moments acting on the sail, over the sail surface. Next, the GSM is applied to several examples to illustrate the use of the GSM's analytic equations. These examples allow comparisons of forces and moments generated by different solar sails, the computation of force derivatives, and the application of the model to orbital mechanics problems. Since it is difficult to model the sail geometry based on ground measurements; errors in the sail model are expected once the sail is deployed in space. Due to this difficulty; a least-squares estimation method for the force and moment coefficients of the GSM is derived. For realistic implementation of a sail trajectory, the deployed sail must have an excess thrust capacity. We develop and implement a control methodology for flying a nominal mission profile with such an excess capacity. Control laws for maintaining a flat, ideal

  13. Active Solar Sail Designs for Chip-Scale Spacecraft


    Weis, Lorraine; Peck, Mason


    Centimeter-scale spacecraft, known as ”Chipsats,” have very high surface-area-to-mass ratios, which accentuates solar radiation pressure (SRP) effects. In contrast to traditional. large solar sails, chip-scale solar sails have the potential to be highly agile in terms of attitude because of their structural rigidity and low moments of inertia. This ability to easily reorient a solar sail greatly expands the orbits that a solar-sail spacecraft can achieve. Solar sail actuation through electroc...

  14. Solar sail technology-A state of the art review (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Sperber, Evan; Eke, Fidelis


    In this paper, the current state of the art of solar sail technology is reviewed. Solar sail research is quite broad and multi-disciplinary; this paper focuses mainly on areas such as solar sail dynamics, attitude control, design and deployment, and mission and trajectory analysis. Special attention is given to solar radiation pressure force modeling and attitude dynamics. Some basics of solar sailing which would be very useful for a new investigator in the area are also presented. Technological difficulties and current challenges in solar sail system design are identified, and possible ideas for future research in the field are also discussed.

  15. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using Nascap-2k (United States)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.; Davis, Victoria; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara


    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design task. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  16. Consideration of puncture by micrometeors in the equations of motion of a solar-sail vehicle (United States)

    Poliakhova, E. N.; Sharifkulova, G. A.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    The problem of the motion of a degrading solar sail is analyzed with allowance for the irreversible changes in the solar sail material (a metallized polymer film), including both erosion of the sail surface and puncture of the sail by micrometeors. The minimum mass and diameter of particles capable of puncturing the sail are estimated as a function of sail density, relative collision velocity, sail thickness, and its strength characteristic. The contribution of erosion due to collisions with micrometeor particles to the degradation of the sail is also estimated.

  17. Design of optimal cyclers using solar sails


    Stevens, Robert E.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Ongoing interest in establishing a base on Mars has spurred a need for regular and repeated visits to the red planet using a cycling shuttle to transport supplies, equipment and to retrieve surface samples. This thesis presents an approach to designing an optimal heliocentric cycling orbit, or cycler, using solar sa ils. Results show that solar sails can be used to significantly reduce s VÃ at Mars and Earth. For example, using a rea...

  18. Solar sail propulsion: enabling new capabilities for heliophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, L; Alhorn, D; Heaton, A; Vansant, T; Campbell, B; Pappa, R; Keats, W; Liewer, P C; Alexander, D; Ayon, J; Wawrzyniak, G; Burton, R; Carroll, D; Matloff, G; Kezerashvili, R Ya


    Solar sails can play a critical role in enabling solar and heliophysics missions. Solar sail technology within NASA is currently at 80% of TRL-6, suitable for an in-flight technology demonstration. It is conceivable that an initial demonstration could carry scientific payloads that, depending on the type of mission, are commensurate with the goals of the three study panels of the 2010 Heliophysics Survey. Follow-on solar sail missions, leveraging advances in solar sail technology to support Heliophysics Survey goals, would then be feasible. This white paper reports on a sampling of missions enabled by solar sails, the current state of the technology, and what funding is required to advance the current state of technology such that solar sails can enable these missions.

  19. Solar sails a novel approach to interplanetary travel

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Matloff, Gregory


    Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world's space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. This book provides an accessible introduction to solar sails. It details how they work and what they will be used for in the exploration of space as well as current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Coverage shows how solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and demonstrates how acc

  20. The solar sail and the mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, T


    The radiation pressure exerted by incoherent light on diverse surfaces is examined. The thermodynamic rule, first given by Carnot in 1824, describes the limitation to the amount of free energy that can be obtained from a source of thermal energy, and he gave the compelling reason for this rule, that if more free energy than he had prescribed could ever be extracted, then a heat pump could use that free energy and re-create all the heat energy that had been consumed. A perpetual motion machine could then be constructed. Now, 179 years later, it is proposed to fly a spacecraft that is expected to gain velocity from the radiation pressure the sunlight is expected to exert on solar sails, panels of thin plastic sheets, mirror surfaced on the side facing the sun. However a detailed examination of this proposal shows it to be in direct conflict with Carnot's rule, and no such pressure can be expected. Either Carnot's accepted rule is in error, or the solar sail proposal will not work at all.

  1. 太阳帆悬浮轨道的动力学特性分析%Analyzing dynamic characteristics of the displaced orbit above a planet with solar sail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠红; 和兴锁; 宋明


    研究了太阳帆悬浮轨道的动力学特性,主要分析了稳定性条件.首先建立垂直于太阳-行星连线的悬浮轨道模型,在柱坐标系下,依据Hamilton原理得到悬浮轨道角动量与太阳光压的关系.然后,针对小扰动情况运动方程,分析悬浮轨道线性与非线性稳定性条件.最后,运用Hamilton-Jacobi理论进行变量分离,得到物理意义明显的动力学方程.仿真结果表明,选取合适的初始值,可以实现稳定的太阳帆悬浮轨道.%This article studies kinetic characteristic of solar sail displaced orbit and analyses stability conditions. Firstly,by establishing displaced orbit model which is normal to sun-planet and assuming solar radiation pressure as constant,the relationship between displaced orbit angular momentum and solar radiation pressure can be derived through Hamilton dynamics method. Considering small perturbations of motion equation,the stability condition of linear and nonlinear displaced orbit can be derived. Finally,u-sing Hamilton-Jacobi theory,the kinetic equation with significance physical meaning can be derived by variable separation. Simulation results show that stable solar sail displaced orbit can be realized by choosing proper initial value.

  2. MESSENGER's use of solar sailing for cost and risk reduction (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Daniel J.; McAdams, James V.; Bedini, Peter D.; Calloway, Andrew B.; Williams, Kenneth E.; Page, Brian R.


    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission used six planetary gravity assists in order to enable capture into orbit about Mercury. A key element of MESSENGER's successful trajectory was achieving the proper gravity assist from each planetary flyby. The criticality of the MESSENGER gravity assists levied tight accuracy requirements on the planetary-flyby targeting. Major errors could have precluded Mercury orbit insertion or required modifications to the trajectory that increased mission complexity, cost, and risk by requiring additional Mercury flybys and extending mission duration. Throughout the mission, MESSENGER modified its strategy for achieving accurate planetary flybys. By using solar sailing, the MESSENGER team was able to eliminate all of the flyby approach maneuvers without sacrificing flyby accuracy, thereby saving mission ΔV margin. The elimination of these approach maneuvers also markedly reduced mission risk, as these approach maneuvers were nominally planned during a time of heightened sensitivity to errors and precluded unique flyby science opportunities. The paradigm shift used by MESSENGER may be useful for other interplanetary missions, particularly if their trajectories require gravity assists in the inner solar system.

  3. Fast Solar Sailing for Solar System Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Practical spinning solar sail architectures will be needed to meet low areal densities and large areas required for the most challenging science and exploration...

  4. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace and its University of Illinois teammate propose the design, sub-component fabrication and preliminary test of an UltraSail "Cubesat" 20 m2 solar sail...

  5. Trajectory optimization and applications using high performance solar sails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The high performance solar sail can enable fast missions to the outer solar system and produce exotic non-Keplerian orbits.As there is no fuel consumption,mission trajectories for solar sail spacecraft are typically optimized with respect to flight time.Several investigations focused on interstellar probe missions have been made,including optimal methods and new objective functions. Two modes of interstellar mission trajectories,namely "direct flyby" and "angular momentum reversal trajectory",are compare...

  6. Orbital dynamics of a solar sail accelerated by thermal desorption of coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, Elena


    In this study we considered a solar sail coated with materials that undergo thermal desorption at a specific temperature, as a result of heating by solar radiation at a particular heliocentric distance. Three different scenarios, that only differ in the way the sail approaches the Sun, were analyzed and compared. In every case once the perihelion is reached, the sail coat undergoes thermal desorption. When the desorption process ends, the sail then escapes the Solar System having the conventional acceleration due to solar radiation pressure. Thermal desorption here comes as an additional source of solar sail acceleration beside traditional propulsion systems for extrasolar space exploration. The compared scenarios are the following: i. Hohmann transfer plus thermal desorption. In this scenario the sail would be carried as a payload to the perihelion with a conventional propulsion system by an Hohmann transfer from Earth's orbit to an orbit very close to the Sun (almost at 0.1 AU) and then be deployed there. i...

  7. Displaced orbits generated by solar sails for the hyperbolic and degenerated cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xu; Shi-Jie Xu


    Displaced non-Keplerian orbits above planetary bodies can be achieved by orientating the solar sail normal to the sun line.The dynamical systems techniques are employed to analyze the nonlinear dynamics of a displaced orbit and different topologies of equilibria are yielded from the basic configurations of Hill's region,which have a saddlenode bifurcation point at the degenerated case.The solar sail near hyperbolic or degenerated equilibrium is quite unstable.Therefore,a controller preserving Hamiltonian structure is presented to stabilize the solar sail near hyperbolic or degenerated equilibrium,and to generate the stable Lissajous orbits that stay stable inside the stabilizing region of the controller.The main contribution of this paper is that the controller preserving Hamiltonian structure not only changes the instability of the equilibrium,but also makes the modified elliptic equilibrium become unique for the controlled system.The allocation law of the controller on the sail's attitude and lightness number is obtained,which verifies that the controller is realizable.

  8. An Update to the NASA Reference Solar Sail Thrust Model (United States)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra B.


    An optical model of solar sail material originally derived at JPL in 1978 has since served as the de facto standard for NASA and other solar sail researchers. The optical model includes terms for specular and diffuse reflection, thermal emission, and non-Lambertian diffuse reflection. The standard coefficients for these terms are based on tests of 2.5 micrometer Kapton sail material coated with 100 nm of aluminum on the front side and chromium on the back side. The original derivation of these coefficients was documented in an internal JPL technical memorandum that is no longer available. Additionally more recent optical testing has taken place and different materials have been used or are under consideration by various researchers for solar sails. Here, where possible, we re-derive the optical coefficients from the 1978 model and update them to accommodate newer test results and sail material. The source of the commonly used value for the front side non-Lambertian coefficient is not clear, so we investigate that coefficient in detail. Although this research is primarily designed to support the upcoming NASA NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight solar sail missions, the results are also of interest to the wider solar sail community.

  9. Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble...

  10. Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism (United States)

    Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell


    The 6U (approx.10 cm x 20 cm x 30 cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System, will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approx.3-year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.

  11. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a 10-Meter Solar Sail (United States)

    Meyer, Chris G.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Pappa, Richard S.


    In July 2004, a 10-meter solar sail structure developed by L Garde, Inc. was tested in vacuum at the NASA Glenn 30-meter Plum Brook Space Power Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The three main objections of the test were to demonstrate unattended deployment from a stowed configuration, to measure the deployed shape of the sail at both ambient and cryogenic room temperatures, and to measure the deployed structural dynamic characteristics (vibration modes). This paper summarizes the work conducted to fulfill the second test objective. The deployed shape was measured photogrammetrically in vacuum conditions with four 2-megapixel digital video cameras contained in custom made pressurized canisters. The canisters included high-intensity LED ring lights to illuminate a grid of retroreflective targets distributed on the solar sail. The test results closely matched pre-test photogrammetry numerical simulations and compare well with ABAQUS finite-element model predictions.

  12. Fast Solar Sailing Astrodynamics of Special Sailcraft Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni


    The range of solar sailing is very vast; it is a fully in-space means of propellantless propulsion that should allow us to accomplish various mission classes that are unviable using near or medium-term rocket propulsion, no matter if nuclear or electric. Fast and very fast solar sailings are special classes of sailcraft missions, initially developed only in the first half of the 1990s and still evolving, especially after the latest advances in nanotechnology.   This book describes how to plan, compute and optimize the trajectories of sailcraft with speeds considerably higher than the Earth’s orbital speed (30 km/s); such sailcraft would be able to explore the outer heliosphere, the near interstellar medium and the solar gravitational lens (550-800 astronomical units) in times significantly shorter than the span of an average career (~ 35 years), just to cite a few examples. The scientific interest in this type of exploration is huge.

  13. General conceptual design problems of a parabolic solar sail structure


    Potes, Filipe Couceiro


    Solar sails represent a promising and practicable solution for future long-duration space missions involving deep space travel. Since their source of propulsive thrust derives from the energy exerted by solar radiation pressure, they do not depend on any on-board propellant, which thus minimizes energy consumption during a mission and consequently its final costs. However, because in Earth´s vicinity solar pressure presents a very low intensity, and in order to provide the necessary amount of...

  14. Solar sails a novel approach to interplanetary travel

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Matloff, Gregory L


    The reality of sunlight-based sailing in space began in May 2010,  and solar sail technology and science have continued to evolve rapidly through new space missions. Using the power of the Sun's light for regular travel propulsion will be the next major leap forward in our journey to other worlds. This book is the second edition of the fascinating explanation of solar sails, how they work and how they will be used in the exploration of space. Updated with 35% new material, this second edition includes three new chapters on missions operated by Japan and the US, as well as projects that are in progress. The remainder of the book describes the heritage of exploration in water-borne sailing ships and the evolution to space-vehicle propulsion; as well as nuclear, solar-electric, nuclear-electric and antimatter rocket devices. It also discusses various sail systems that may use either sunlight or solar wind, and the design, fabrication and steering challenges associated with solar sails. The first edition was me...

  15. Solar sailing trajectory optimization with planetary gravity assist (United States)

    Cai, XingShan; Li, JunFeng; Gong, ShengPing


    Significant propellant mass saving can be obtained with the use of complex multiple intermediate flyby maneuvers for conventional propulsion systems, and trip time also decreases for a portion of the proper solar sail missions. This paper discusses the performance of gravity assist (GA) in the time-optimal control problem of solar sailing with respect to sail lightness number and the energy difference between the initial and final orbit in the rendezvous problem in a two-body model, in which the GA is modeled as a substantial change in the velocity of the sailcraft at the GA time. In addition, this paper presents a method to solve the time-optimal problem of solar sailing with GA in a full ephemeris model, which introduces the third body's gravity in a dynamic equation. This study builds a set of inner constraints that can describe the GA process accurately. Finally, this study presents an example for evaluating the accuracy and rationality of the two-body model's simplification of GA by comparison with the full ephemeris model.

  16. Analysis of surface charging for a candidate solar sail mission using Nascap-2k


    Parker, L. F. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Gardner, B M


    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design tasks. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar ...

  17. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Ping Gong; Yun-Feng Gao; Jun-Feng Li


    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable.A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel.Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design.This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius.The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization.An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables,which are normalized within a unit sphere.The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit.A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories.For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist,first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions.The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration.For a solar sail with a small lightness number,the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory.The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results.The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  18. Fabrication end Deployment Testing of Meter Solar Sail Quadrants for a Scaleable Square Solar Sail Ground Test System (United States)

    Laue, Greg; Case, David; Moore, Jim


    In order for solar sail propulsion technologies to be considered as a viable option for a wide range of near term practical missions a predictable, stable, reliable, manufactureable, scaleable, and cost effective system must be developed and tested first on earth and then on orbit. The design and development of a Scaleable Square Solar Sail System (S^4) is well underway a t AEC-Able Engineering Co. Inc., and the design and production of the Solar Sails for this system is being carried out by SRS Technologies. In April and May of 2004 a single quadrant 10-meter system was tested at NASA LARC's vacuum chamber and a four quadrant 20-meter system has been designed and built for deployment and testing in the Spring of 2005 at NASA/Glenn Research Center's Plumb Brook Facility. SRS has developed an effective and efficient design for triangular sail quadrants that are supported are three points and provide a flat reflective surface with a high fill factor. This sail design is robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment and incorporates several advanced features including adhesiveless seaming of membrane strips, compliant edge borders to allow for film membrane cord strain mismatch without causing wrinkling and low mass (3% of total sail mass) ripstop. This paper will outline the sail design and fabrication process, the lessons learned and the resulting mature production, packaging and deployment processes that have been developed. It will also highlight the scalability of the equipment and processes that were developed to fabricate and package the sails. Based on recent experience, SRS is confidant that flight worthy solar sails in the 40-120-meter size range with areal density in the 4-5g/sq m (sail minus structure) range can be produced with existing technology. Additional film production research will lead to further reductions in film thickness to less than 1 micron enabling production of sails with areal densities as low as 20 g/sq m

  19. Parametric Studies of Square Solar Sails Using Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Muheim, Danniella M.


    Parametric studies are performed on two generic square solar sail designs to identify parameters of interest. The studies are performed on systems-level models of full-scale solar sails, and include geometric nonlinearity and inertia relief, and use a Newton-Raphson scheme to apply sail pre-tensioning and solar pressure. Computational strategies and difficulties encountered during the analyses are also addressed. The purpose of this paper is not to compare the benefits of one sail design over the other. Instead, the results of the parametric studies may be used to identify general response trends, and areas of potential nonlinear structural interactions for future studies. The effects of sail size, sail membrane pre-stress, sail membrane thickness, and boom stiffness on the sail membrane and boom deformations, boom loads, and vibration frequencies are studied. Over the range of parameters studied, the maximum sail deflection and boom deformations are a nonlinear function of the sail properties. In general, the vibration frequencies and modes are closely spaced. For some vibration mode shapes, local deformation patterns that dominate the response are identified. These localized patterns are attributed to the presence of negative stresses in the sail membrane that are artifacts of the assumption of ignoring the effects of wrinkling in the modeling process, and are not believed to be physically meaningful. Over the range of parameters studied, several regions of potential nonlinear modal interaction are identified.

  20. AOCS Performance and Stability Validation for a 160-m Solar Sail with Control-Structure Interactions (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Murphy, David


    Future solar sail missions, such as NASA's Solar Polar Imager Vision, will require sails with dimensions on the order of 50-500 m. We are examining a square sail design with moving mass (trim control mass, TCM) and quadrant rotation primary actuators plus pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) at the mast tips for backup attitude control. Quadrant rotation is achieved via roll stabilizer bars (RSB) at the mast tips. At these sizes, given the gossamer nature of the sail supporting structures, flexible modes may be low enough to interact with the control system, especially as these actuators are located on the flexible structure itself and not on the rigid core. This paper develops a practical analysis of the flexible interactions using state-space systems and modal data from finite element models of the system. Torsion and bending of the masts during maneuvers could significantly affect the function of the actuators while activation of the membrane modes could adversely affect the thrust vector direction and magnitude. Analysis of the RSB and TCM dynamics for developing high-fidelity simulations is included. For control analysis of the flexible system, standard finite-element models of the flexible sail body are loaded and the modal data is used to create a modal coordinate state-space system. Key parameters include which modes to include, which nodes are of interest for force inputs and displacement outputs, connecting nodes through which external forces and torques are applied from the flex body to the core, any nominal momentum in the system, and any steady rates. The system is linearized about the nominal attitude and rate. The state-space plant can then be analyzed with a state-space controller, and Bode, Nyquist, step and impulse responses generated. The approach is general for any rigid core with a flexible appendage. This paper develops a compensator for a simple two-mass flex system and extrapolates the results to the solar sail. A finite element model of the 20 m

  1. Extension of Earth-Moon libration point orbits with solar sail propulsion (United States)

    Heiligers, Jeannette; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.


    This paper presents families of libration point orbits in the Earth-Moon system that originate from complementing the classical circular restricted three-body problem with a solar sail. Through the use of a differential correction scheme in combination with a continuation on the solar sail induced acceleration, families of Lyapunov, halo, vertical Lyapunov, Earth-centred, and distant retrograde orbits are created. As the solar sail circular restricted three-body problem is non-autonomous, a constraint defined within the differential correction scheme ensures that all orbits are periodic with the Sun's motion around the Earth-Moon system. The continuation method then starts from a classical libration point orbit with a suitable period and increases the solar sail acceleration magnitude to obtain families of orbits that are parametrised by this acceleration. Furthermore, different solar sail steering laws are considered (both in-plane and out-of-plane, and either fixed in the synodic frame or fixed with respect to the direction of Sunlight), adding to the wealth of families of solar sail enabled libration point orbits presented. Finally, the linear stability properties of the generated orbits are investigated to assess the need for active orbital control. It is shown that the solar sail induced acceleration can have a positive effect on the stability of some orbit families, especially those at the L2 point, but that it most often (further) destabilises the orbit. Active control will therefore be needed to ensure long-term survivability of these orbits.

  2. Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco; West, John


    A document presents computational-simulation studies of a concept for stabilizing the attitude of a spacecraft during deployment of such structures as a solar sail or other structures supported by inflatable booms. Specifically, the solar sail considered in this paper is a square sail with inflatable booms and attitude control vanes at the corners. The sail inflates from its stowed configuration into a square sail with four segments and four vanes at the tips. Basically, the concept is one of controlling the rates of inflation of the booms to utilize in mass-distribution properties to effect changes in the system s angular momentum. More specifically, what was studied were the effects of staggering inflation of each boom by holding it at constant length for specified intervals between intervals of increasing length until full length is reached. The studies included sensitivity analyses of effects of variations in mass properties, boom lengths, rates of increase in boom length, initial rates of rotation of the spacecraft, and several asymmetries that could arise during deployment. The studies led to the conclusion that the final attitude of the spacecraft could be modified by varying the parameters of staggered inflation. Computational studies also showed that by feeding back attitude and attitude-rate measurements so that corrective action is taken during the deployment, the final attitude can be maintained very closely to the initial attitude, thus mitigating the attitude changes incurred during deployment and caused by modeling errors. Moreover, it was found that by optimizing the ratio between the holding and length-increasing intervals in deployment of a boom, one could cause deployment to track a desired deployment profile to place the entire spacecraft in a desired attitude at the end of deployment.

  3. Attitude and Translation Control of a Solar Sail Vehicle (United States)

    Singh, Gurkirpal


    A report discusses the ability to control the attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom of a solar sail vehicle by changing its center of gravity. A movement of the spacecraft s center of mass causes solar-pressure force to apply a torque to the vehicle. At the compact core of the solar-sail vehicle lies the spacecraft bus which is a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. In this concept, the bus is attached to the spacecraft by two single degree-of-freedom linear tracks. This allows relative movement of the bus in the sail plane. At the null position, the resulting solar pressure applies no torque to the vehicle. But any deviation of the bus from the null creates an offset between the spacecraft center of mass and center of solar radiation pressure, resulting in a solar-pressure torque on the vehicle which changes the vehicle attitude. Two of the three vehicle degrees of freedom can be actively controlled in this manner. The third, the roll about the sunline, requires a low-authority vane/propulsive subsystem. Translation control of the vehicle is achieved by directing the solar-pressure-induced force in the proper inertial direction. This requires attitude control. Attitude and translation degrees-of-freedom are therefore coupled. A guidance law is proposed, which allows the vehicle to stationkeep at an appropriate point on the inertially-rotating Sun-Earth line. Power requirements for moving the bus are minimal. Extensive software simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.

  4. DAPHNE: Energy Generation and storage, using Solar Sails (United States)

    Argelagós Palau, Ana Maria; Savio Bradford, Brandon

    Space travel is still in it's adolescent stages. Having embarked beyond the limit of our atmosphere for a mere 50 years, it is easy to imagine how much is yet to be discovered, in other solar systems and our own. One of the main factors that slow us down is the need for Energy. Long distance space travel requires a lot of energy, both for propulsion and operations alike. The principle of solar sails shows that the momentum of solar energy can be used beneficially, as can be seen in NASA's Sun-Jammer project. So, why not generate energy from this system? The DAPHNE system will utilize the simple principle of wind mills that is used here on Earth; using the force created by Solar wind to rotate an axle that in turn, generates energy. And this mill can be used to recharge spacecraft that need to fly further than it's own initial energy system will allow. Another benefit to developing this system is the fact that it is an alternative to nuclear energy generation for space, that a lot of modern research is being done on. The DAPHNE system can be considered a solution to long term propellant storage in space for interplanetary and interstellar travel. This paper proposes the design of an energy recharge technology, we called DAPHNE, which will utilize Nanotechnology, using solar sails to generate and store energy for future long-distance space craft to dock with, recharge and continue on their journey/mission. Examples of spacecraft in development that might benefit from a recharging station are the LISA Pathfinder, terrestrial exploration missions and eventually, the long interstellar missions that will be launched in the distant future. Thereby, allowing mankind to push the boundaries of our solar system and accelerate our ability to know what's out there. This technology would help the future generations of Space researchers move further than we can.

  5. Status of Solar Sail Propulsion Within NASA - Moving Toward Interstellar Travel (United States)

    Johnson, Les


    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for two near-term missions and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space and interstellar precursor missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high (Delta)V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, managed by MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. Lunar Flashlight, managed by JPL, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed Lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic mirror to steer sunlight into the shaded craters. The Lunar Flashlight spacecraft will also use the propulsive solar sail to maneuver into a lunar polar orbit. Both missions use a 6U cubesat architecture, a common an 85 sq m solar sail, and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. Both missions will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight will serve as important milestones in the development of solar sail propulsion technology for future, more ambitious missions including the Interstellar Probe - a mission long desired by the space science community which would send a robotic probe beyond the edge of the solar system to a distance of 250 Astronomical Units or more. This paper will summarize the development status of NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight and describe the next steps required to enable an interstellar solar sail capability.

  6. Hybrid solar sail and SEP propulsion for novel Earth observation missions


    M. Ceriotti; C.R. McInnes


    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is a flight proven technology. Despite the high specific impulse typical of modern SEP, the life of the spacecraft is limited by the mass of propellant available on-board. Mission duration could be extended by adding a propellant-less form of propulsion, such as a solar sail. Solar sails have been investigated in the past, but have never been successfully demonstrated, mainly due to technological difficulties in deployment. Moreover, an intrinsic restriction of...

  7. Variable-geometry solar sailing: the possibilities of the quasi-rhombic pyramid


    Ceriotti, Matteo; Harkness, Patrick; McRobb, Malcolm


    Variable geometry solar sailing potentially offers enhanced delta-V capabilities and new orbital solutions. We propose a device with such capabilities, based upon an adjustable quasi-rhombic pyramid sail geometry, and examine the benefits that can be derived from this additional flexibility. The enabling technology for this concept is the bevel crux drive, which can maintain tension in the solar sail across a wide range of apex angles. This paper explores the concept of such a device, discuss...

  8. Evaluation of transient response of spinning solar sail with flexible membrane by eigenfunction analysis and continuum analysis (United States)

    Chujo, Toshihiro; Kawaguchi, Junichiro


    This study evaluates the transient response of large spinning membrane structures in space - especially spinning solar sails - by two different methods. A flexible sail membrane is easily deformed when a spacecraft changes its attitude, such as when using thrusters, and the control response including membrane vibration must be estimated in advance of operation. In order to estimate the motion of the membrane, numerical simulations using a multi-particle model (MPM) are conducted, where the membrane is modeled with masses, spring, and dampers. Usually, force propagation is calculated directly in this model and the position and velocity of each particle represent the membrane motion, which is referred to as a continuum analysis in this study. This method is useful for the analysis of membrane vibration because it replaces the complex dynamics with simple equations of motion. However, the computational cost is high and the calculations require a considerable amount of time. This study introduces an eigenfunction analysis to solve this problem. In this method, natural vibration modes and natural frequencies for the entire spacecraft are derived and used for dynamics computation, which reduces the computational cost dramatically compared to the conventional continuum analysis. In this study, the transient response of a spinning solar sail is analyzed using both methods, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that the eigenfunction analysis provides a suitable method for acquiring approximate solutions in a very low computation time.

  9. Solar Sailing Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) Mission for Impacting/Deflecting Near-Earth Asteroids (United States)

    Wie, Bong


    A solar sailing mission architecture, which requires a t least ten 160-m, 300-kg solar sail spacecraft with a characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/sqs, is proposed as a realistic near- term option for mitigating the threat posed by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Its mission feasibility is demonstrated for a fictional asteroid mitigation problem created by AIAA. This problem assumes that a 200-m asteroid, designated 2004WR, was detected on July 4, 2004, and that the expected impact will occur on January 14, 2015. The solar sailing phase of the proposed mission for the AIAA asteroid mitigation problem is comprised of the initial cruise phase from 1 AU t o 0.25 AU (1.5 years), the cranking orbit phase (3.5 years), and the retrograde orbit phase (1 year) prior to impacting the target asteroid at its perihelion (0.75 AU from the sun) on January 1, 2012. The proposed mission will require at least ten kinetic energy interceptor (KEI) solar sail spacecraft. Each KEI sailcraft consists of a 160- m, 150-kg solar sail and a 150-kg microsatellite impactor. The impactor is to be separated from a large solar sail prior to impacting the 200-m target asteroid at its perihelion. Each 150-kg microsatellite impactor, with a relative impact velocity of at least 70 km/s, will cause a conservatively estimated AV of 0.3 cm/s in the trajectory of the 200-m target asteroid, due largely to the impulsive effect of material ejected from the newly-formed crater. The deflection caused by a single impactor will increase the Earth-miss-distance by 0.45Re (where Re denotes the Earth radius of 6,378 km). Therefore, at least ten KEI sailcraft will be required for consecutive impacts, but probably without causing fragmentation, to increase the total Earth-miss-distance by 4.5Re. This miss-distance increase of 29,000 km is outside of a typical uncertainty/error of about 10,000 km in predicting the Earth-miss- distance. A conventional Delta I1 2925 launch vehicle is capable of injecting at least two KEI

  10. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy


    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  11. Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry Methods for Solar Sails and Other Gossamer Structures (United States)

    Black, Jonathan T.; Pappa, Richard S.


    Ultra-lightweight and inflatable gossamer space structures are designed to be tightly packaged for launch, then deploy or inflate once in space. These properties will allow for in-space construction of very large structures 10 to 1000 meters in size such as solar sails, inflatable antennae, and space solar power stations using a single launch. Solar sails are of particular interest because of their potential for propellantless propulsion. Gossamer structures do, however, have significant complications. Their low mass and high flexibility make them very difficult to test on the ground. The added mass and stiffness of attached measurement devices can significantly alter the static and dynamic properties of the structure. This complication necessitates an alternative approach for characterization. This paper discusses the development and application of photogrammetry and videogrammetry methods for the static and dynamic characterization of gossamer structures, as four specific solar sail applications demonstrate. The applications prove that high-resolution, full-field, non-contact static measurements of solar sails using dot projection photogrammetry are possible as well as full-field, noncontact, dynamic characterization using dot projection videogrammetry.

  12. Effect of the Radiation Component of Space Environment on Materials and Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space materials have to survive in extreme conditions such as ionizing radiation, severe temperatures, low gravity, reduced pressure, meteorites, and space debris. The effects of the radiation component of the space environment and of the competition between ionizing radiation and extreme temperatures on polymers and composites based on polymeric matrices are critically reviewed. The changes induced by the radiation component of the space environment (electrons, protons, and accelerated heavy ions) in polymers used for various space applications such as thermal management, radiation shielding, structural materials, insulators, antistatic films, and inflatable structures is briefly reviewed. The review focuses on high performance polymers such as polyimides, fluorinated polymers, polycarbonates, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and ultra high density polyethylene. The effect of the competition between the extreme temperatures encountered in the space environment and radiation is analyzed in detail. The analysis concentrates on the radiation-induced modifications in polymers, around and across the glass transition temperatures. An important section of the review aims to a better understanding of the degradation of materials subjected to the Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Orbit environments. Most satellites are exposed to such rough conditions that include a competition between radiation-induced degradation of polymeric components (mainly due to electrons and protons) and the atomic oxygen ram of polymers. The weakness of fluorinated polymers and copolymers are demonstrated. Compelling evidence regarding the fast degradation of such polymers in LEO and GEO orbits as obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy is provided. The complex competition between polymer thickness, temperature, radiation-induced modifications in polymers, and glass transition temperature are succinctly explored and connected with the potential applications of such polymers within solar

  13. Displaced orbits for solar sail equipped with reflectance control devices in Hill's restricted three-body problem with oblateness (United States)

    Song, Ming; He, Xingsuo; He, Dongsheng


    We investigate solar sail displaced orbits in the Hill's restricted three-body problem, where the larger primary is an oblate spheroid in the system. Firstly, the model of solar sail equipped with a new version of reflectance control device is introduced. Next, dynamical model of the system with the larger primary an oblate spheroid is established and the Hill's restricted three-body problem with oblateness is built through appropriate simplifications. The collinear equilibrium points of the Hill's system varying with the variations of areas of absorption and thermal radiation of reflectance control devices in the solar sail, or the dimensionless characteristic acceleration of solar sail, or the oblateness of the larger primary are also investigated. Then, Linearization near the collinear equilibria of the system is applied. A linear quadratic regulator is used to stabilize the nonlinear system. The simulation reveals that solar sail displaced orbits in this system are doable and asymptotically stable by means of adjusting the pitch angle of solar sail and the area of absorption in reflectance control devices.

  14. Modeling the Multi-Body System Dynamics of a Flexible Solar Sail Spacecraft (United States)

    Kim, Young; Stough, Robert; Whorton, Mark


    Solar sail propulsion systems enable a wide range of space missions that are not feasible with current propulsion technology. Hardware concepts and analytical methods have matured through ground development to the point that a flight validation mission is now realizable. Much attention has been given to modeling the structural dynamics of the constituent elements, but to date an integrated system level dynamics analysis has been lacking. Using a multi-body dynamics and control analysis tool called TREETOPS, the coupled dynamics of the sailcraft bus, sail membranes, flexible booms, and control system sensors and actuators of a representative solar sail spacecraft are investigated to assess system level dynamics and control issues. With this tool, scaling issues and parametric trade studies can be performed to study achievable performance, control authority requirements, and control/structure interaction assessments.

  15. Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry Methods Development for Solar Sail Structures. Masters Thesis awarded by George Washington Univ. (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S. (Technical Monitor); Black, Jonathan T.


    This report discusses the development and application of metrology methods called photogrammetry and videogrammetry that make accurate measurements from photographs. These methods have been adapted for the static and dynamic characterization of gossamer structures, as four specific solar sail applications demonstrate. The applications prove that high-resolution, full-field, non-contact static measurements of solar sails using dot projection photogrammetry are possible as well as full-field, non-contact, dynamic characterization using dot projection videogrammetry. The accuracy of the measurement of the resonant frequencies and operating deflection shapes that were extracted surpassed expectations. While other non-contact measurement methods exist, they are not full-field and require significantly more time to take data.

  16. An analysis of the orbital Evolution of a solar sail around Mercury (United States)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Prado, Antonio; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Treasaco, Eva


    Solar sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that uses solar radiation pressure to generate acceleration: this way the sail experiences a small but unlimited and continuous acceleration. This work presents a method for finding initial conditions for frozen orbits for a solar sail around Mercury Frozen orbits are those whose orbital elements remain constant on average. Thus, at a given latitude, the satellite always passes at the same altitude. The orbital dynamics of the solar sail is governed by the potential attraction of the main body and the Sun. Besides the J2, J3 and C22 of Mercury gravity field, the dynamical model also includes the eccentricity and inclination of the orbit of the third body (Sun) and the solar acceleration pressure. In order to remove short-period terms of the dynamical system, a double averaging technique is applied to the disturbig potential. This algorithm is a two-fold process which firstly averages over the period of the satellite and secondly averages with respect to the period of the third body. The double-averaged potential is introduced in the Lagrange Planetary equations. Thus, frozen orbits are characterized by a surface depending on three variables: the orbital semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. These surfaces determine orbits ranging in altitude from 300 to 1000 km, which include the altitude values considered in future scientific missions around Mercury such as BepiColombo. Finally, this work delves into the influence on the dynamics of the spacecraft for different values of the sail area-to-mass ratio, which is a parameter related to the efficiency of the solar sail Sponsored by CNPq - Brazil. The author is grateful to CNPq- Brazil for contract 306953/2014-5.

  17. Recent Advances in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics, Stability, and Control Research (United States)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Warren, Jerry E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Lyle, Karen H.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Gibbs, S. Chad; Dowell, Earl H.; Guerrant, Daniel V.; Lawrence, Dale


    Results from recent NASA sponsored research on the structural dynamics, stability, and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, and solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment. Recent results from terrestrial 1-g blade dynamics and control experiments on "rope ladder" membrane blade analogs, and small-scale in vacuo system identification experiments with hanging and spinning high-aspect ratio membranes will also be presented. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept is used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, and is also described. Blade torsional dynamic response and control are also shown to be significantly improved through the use of edge stiffening structural features or inclusion of modest tip masses to increase centrifugal stiffening of the blade structure. An output-only system identification procedure suitable for on-orbit blade dynamics investigations is also developed and validated using ground tests of spinning sub-scale heliogyro blade models. Overall, analytical and experimental investigations to date indicate no intractable stability or control issues for the heliogyro solar sail concept.

  18. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.


    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  19. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a Ten-Meter Square Solar Sail (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Meyer, Christopher G.


    Solar sailing is a promising, future in-space propulsion method that uses the small force of reflecting sunlight to accelerate a large, reflective membrane without expendable propellants. One of two solar sail configurations under development by NASA is a striped net approach by L'Garde, Inc. This design uses four inflatably deployed, lightweight booms supporting a network of thin strings onto which four quadrants of ultrathin aluminized membranes are attached. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provided both experimental and analytical support to L'Garde for validating the structural characteristics of this unique, ultralightweight spacecraft concept. One of LaRC's responsibilities was to develop and apply photogrammetric methods to measure sail shape. The deployed shape provides important information for validating the accuracy of finite-element modeling techniques. Photogrammetry is the science and art of calculating 3D coordinates of targets or other distinguishing features on structures using images. A minimum of two camera views of each target is required for 3D determination, but having four or more camera views is preferable for improved reliability and accuracy. Using retroreflective circular targets typically provides the highest measurement accuracy and automation. References 3 and 4 provide details of photogrammetry technology, and reference 5 discusses previous experiences with photogrammetry for measuring gossamer spacecraft structures such as solar sails. This paper discusses the experimental techniques used to measure a L Garde 10-m solar sail test in vacuum with photogrammetry. The test was conducted at the NASA-Glenn Space Power Facility (SPF) located at Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest vacuum chamber in the United States, measuring 30 m in diameter by 37 m in height. High vacuum levels (10(exp -6) torr) can be maintained inside the chamber, and cold environments (-195 C) are possible using variable

  20. New applications of the H-reversal trajectory using solar sails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Yuan Zeng; Hexi Baoyin; Jun-Feng Li; Sheng-Ping Gong


    Advanced solar sailing has been an increasingly attractive propulsion system for highly non-Keplerian orbits. Three new applications of the orbital angular momentum reversal (H-reversal) trajectories using solar sails are presented: space observation, heliocentric orbit transfer and collision orbits with asteroids. A theoretical proof for the existence of double H-reversal trajectories (referred to as ‘H2RTs') is given, and the characteristics of the H2RTs are introduced before a discussion of the mission applications. A new family of H2RTs was obtained using a 3D dynamic model of the two-body frame. In a time-optimal control model, the minimum period H2RTs both inside and outside the ecliptic plane were examined using an ideal solar sail. Due to the quasi-heliostationary property at its two symmetrical aphelia, the H2RTs were deemed suitable for space observation. For the second application, the heliocentric transfer orbit was able to function as the time-optimal H-reversal trajectory, since its perihelion velocity is a circular or elliptic velocity. Such a transfer orbit can place the sailcraft into a clockwise orbit in the ecliptic plane, with a high inclination or displacement above or below the Sun. The third application of the H-reversal trajectory was simulated impacting an asteroid passing near Earth in a head-on collision. The collision point can be designed through selecting different perihelia or different launch windows. Sample orbits of each application were presented through numerical simulation. The results can serve as a reference for theoretical research and engineering design.

  1. An unconditionally stable method for numerically solving solar sail spacecraft equations of motion (United States)

    Karwas, Alex

    Solar sails use the endless supply of the Sun's radiation to propel spacecraft through space. The sails use the momentum transfer from the impinging solar radiation to provide thrust to the spacecraft while expending zero fuel. Recently, the first solar sail spacecraft, or sailcraft, named IKAROS completed a successful mission to Venus and proved the concept of solar sail propulsion. Sailcraft experimental data is difficult to gather due to the large expenses of space travel, therefore, a reliable and accurate computational method is needed to make the process more efficient. Presented in this document is a new approach to simulating solar sail spacecraft trajectories. The new method provides unconditionally stable numerical solutions for trajectory propagation and includes an improved physical description over other methods. The unconditional stability of the new method means that a unique numerical solution is always determined. The improved physical description of the trajectory provides a numerical solution and time derivatives that are continuous throughout the entire trajectory. The error of the continuous numerical solution is also known for the entire trajectory. Optimal control for maximizing thrust is also provided within the framework of the new method. Verification of the new approach is presented through a mathematical description and through numerical simulations. The mathematical description provides details of the sailcraft equations of motion, the numerical method used to solve the equations, and the formulation for implementing the equations of motion into the numerical solver. Previous work in the field is summarized to show that the new approach can act as a replacement to previous trajectory propagation methods. A code was developed to perform the simulations and it is also described in this document. Results of the simulations are compared to the flight data from the IKAROS mission. Comparison of the two sets of data show that the new approach

  2. Formation control of multi-robots for on-orbit assembly of large solar sails (United States)

    Hu, Quan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jingrui; Hu, Haiyan


    This study focuses on the formation control of four robots used for the on-orbit construction of a large solar sail. The solar sail under consideration is non-spinning and has a 1 km2 area. It includes a hub as the central body and four large booms supporting the lightweight films. Four formation operating space robots capable of walking on the boom structure are utilized to deploy the sail films. Because of the large size and mass of the sail, the robots should remain in formation during the sail deployment to avoid dramatic changes in the system properties. In this paper, the formation control issue of the four robots is solved by an adaptive sliding mode controller. A disturbance observer with finite-time convergence is embedded to improve the control performance. The proposed controller is capable of resisting the strong uncertainties in the operation and do not require the accurate parameters of the system. The stability is proven, and numerical simulations are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  3. Attitude and orbital dynamics modeling for an uncontrolled solar-sail experiment in low-Earth orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirovano, L.; Seefeldt, P.; Dachwald, B.; Noomen, R.


    Gossamer-1 is the first project of the three-step Gossamer roadmap, the purpose of which is to develop, prove and demonstrate that solar-sail technology is a safe and reliable propulsion technique for long-lasting and high-energy missions. This paper firstly presents the structural analysis performe

  4. Solar-sail attitude control based on moving masses and roll stabilizer bars%采用滑块和RSB的太阳帆姿态控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 郑建华


    本文研究以滑块和滚转轴稳定条RSB(Roll Stabilizer Bars)作为执行机构的太阳帆航天器的姿态控制,分析了姿态控制机构的物理模型,利用欧拉方程建立了太阳帆的姿态动力学模型.针对此类模型,设计了太阳帆航天器三轴姿态控制系统,通过数值仿真研究了三轴姿态控制的短期响应特性.最后以中科院空间中心提出的SPORT(Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope)任务为背景,研究了在轨道转移过程中太阳帆的姿态控制效果.仿真结果表明,基于滑块和滚转轴稳定条控制的太阳帆能够满足大角度快速的姿态机动要求,从而实现任务要求的目标轨道.%In this paper, solar-sail attitude control system which employed moving masses for pitch/yaw trim control and roll stabilizer bars for roll control was studied. Physical model of solar-sail attitude control system had been analyzed, and the dynamical model was establishe d using Euler' s attitude dynamical equations. According to the model, a nonlinear PID controller was found to control the three-axis attitudes. Finally, a series of simulations, including the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope misson' s trajectory transfer, were run to determine the effectiveness of the attitude controller and characterize the behavior of attitude control method using moving masses and RSB.

  5. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control (United States)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.


    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  6. Space Environment Modeling (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  7. A solar sail inverse periodic orbit%太阳帆新型逆向周期轨道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥远; 宝音贺西; 李俊峰; 龚胜平


    太阳帆航天器以其连续推力、不消耗燃料的特点而广受关注。该文提出一种太阳帆新型逆向周期轨道。采用太阳帆理想光压模型,在二体模型下给出了太阳帆逆向日心轨道的动力学特性,分析得出了能够形成平面逆向日心轨道的条件。由于该逆向周期轨道的对称性,该文以轨道的半周期为例,详细说明了逆向周期轨道的特点。该周期轨道位于黄道面内太阳的一侧,1个周期内角动量的符号变化2次。为了求解该轨道控制过程中所需要的姿态角,引入了粒子群差分进化(PSODE)优化算法。最后通过仿真计算,得出了一种简单控制律的逆向周期轨道,该轨道周期为4.26a,在一个周期内姿态角只变化1次。%Deep space exploration solar sail spacecraft have great potential due to their continuous thrust without propellant.This paper describes an inverse periodic orbit.A two-body frame and an ideal sail model are used to analyze the dynamic conditions needed to produce an inverse orbit and constraints for the inverse periodic orbit.Due to the symmetry in the inverse periodic orbit,the orbital characteristics were introduced based on a semi-periodic orbit.The orbit is located by one side of the sun in the ecliptic plane.However,during each period the sign of the orbital angular momentum changed twice.The particle swarm optimization and differential evolution(PSODE) method was used to optimize control of the sail cone angle.Numerical simulations produced an inverse periodic orbit using a simple control law where the cone angle changed only once in 4.26 years.

  8. Development of Space Environment Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jiancun; XUE Bingsen; HUANG Jianguo; SHI Liqin


    Abstract This paper presents the recent research progress on space environment in China. The space environment here includes space environment models, forecast methodology and space environment effects on spacecrafts. Finally the development trends of China's space environment research are discussed.

  9. 太阳帆绕地球周期轨道研究%Solar Sail Periodical Orbits around Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚胜平; 李俊峰; 宝音贺西; 罗镇


    Earth-synchronous orbits and Sun-synchronous orbits can be applied in all kinds of fields. Geostationary orbit is a special Earth-synchronous orbit and geostationary orbit resource is limited. Utilization of chemical propulsion or electrical propulsion can generate stationary orbits of different orbit altitudes, which will consume unbearable propellant in engineer practice. A solar sail is proposed to implement Earth-synchronous orbits and Sun-synchronous orbits in this paper. The solar sail is aligned to guarantee that the orbit plane rotates synchronously with the sunlight. The results show that this is possible by designing the solar sail and selecting the orbit parameters. With the assumption that the sunlight is in the Earth equator, the solar sail can evolve in a quasi-stationary orbit with its ground track moving around a point. In fact, the sunlight is in the ecliptic plane. Considering the angle included between the Earth equator and ecliptic plane, the ground track of solar sail will be an area suitable for long time observation.%地球同步和太阳同步卫星在各个领域有着广泛的应用.静止轨道是一种特殊的地球同步轨道,轨道资源有限.利用化学推进或电推进可以实现轨道高度不同的同步轨道,如悬挂轨道,但需要消耗较多的燃料,工程上无法承受.本文考虑利用太阳帆实现地球同步和太阳同步轨道.太阳光压力在轨道平面内沿拱线方向,选择光压力与平面的夹角使得轨道平面的旋转速率与太阳光同步.研究表明,设计合适的半长轴和偏心率可以使得轨道旋转速率与地球自转速率一致.假设太阳光与赤道平面平行,可以得到准静止轨道,太阳帆将在传统静止轨道的附近运动,星下点的经度将在一个固定值附近振动.实际上太阳光是与黄道面平行,黄道面与赤道面之间存在夹角.考虑黄赤交角的情况下,太阳帆将在一定纬度和经度范围内运动.适合于对某个区域进行长期观测任务.

  10. Roll stabilizer bars' design for solar-sail spacecraft attitude control%太阳帆航天器姿态控制滚转轴稳定机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 杨萱; 杨辰; 钱航; 郑龙飞


    Two kinds of solar-sail attitude control mechanism were described in this paper, one was the centroid offet class, the other was the sail plane rotating class. Advantages and disadvantages of these two kinds of attitude control mechanism were analyzed. An attitude control roll stabilizer barsis was designed which was suitable for a kind of square solar sail which had extension boom and square sail surface. The boom's length of roll stabilizer bars is the key parameter, it was optimized under some constraints such as: configuration design, material strength, structural strength, quality optimization and control accuracy, it was calculated and verified through geometry relations and nonlinear static finite element simulation. The simulation result wa s 1.2 m. The rotate speed limit was obtained by power and speed relation formula according to the result of the boom's length, which was 20.83 (.)/s. In this paper, an optimization design idea of roll stabilizer bars boom's length was given. The calculation and simulation results provide the key design parameters and design conditions for the solar-sail spacecraft attitude control system design, and the optimization results have reference value for practical engineering applications.%针对一种具体的由支撑臂支撑、方形帆面形式的太阳帆航天器,介绍了质心偏移类、帆面转动类两大类姿态控制机构,并分析了其优缺点,对其适用的姿态控制滚转轴稳定机进行了设计。在构型设计、材料强度、结构强度、质量优化、控制精度等设计约束条件下,围绕滚转轴稳定机转杆长度关键设计参数,通过分析长度角度制约关系、几何计算、帆面有限元非线性静态建模仿真验证、伸展臂弯曲受力有限元建模仿真验证给出了转杆长度值的优化设计结果为1.2 m,并以此为依据结合功率、转速公式计算选取了合理的极限转速取值为20.83(。)/s。给出了一种滚转轴稳定

  11. Roll stabilizer bars' design for solar-sail spacecraft attitude control%太阳帆航天器姿态控制滚转轴稳定机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 杨萱; 杨辰; 钱航; 郑龙飞


    针对一种具体的由支撑臂支撑、方形帆面形式的太阳帆航天器,介绍了质心偏移类、帆面转动类两大类姿态控制机构,并分析了其优缺点,对其适用的姿态控制滚转轴稳定机进行了设计。在构型设计、材料强度、结构强度、质量优化、控制精度等设计约束条件下,围绕滚转轴稳定机转杆长度关键设计参数,通过分析长度角度制约关系、几何计算、帆面有限元非线性静态建模仿真验证、伸展臂弯曲受力有限元建模仿真验证给出了转杆长度值的优化设计结果为1.2 m,并以此为依据结合功率、转速公式计算选取了合理的极限转速取值为20.83(。)/s。给出了一种滚转轴稳定机转杆长度优化设计思路,为太阳帆航天器姿态控制方案设计提供了关键设计参数与设计约束条件,优化设计结果对实际工程应用具有一定参考价值。%Two kinds of solar-sail attitude control mechanism were described in this paper, one was the centroid offet class, the other was the sail plane rotating class. Advantages and disadvantages of these two kinds of attitude control mechanism were analyzed. An attitude control roll stabilizer barsis was designed which was suitable for a kind of square solar sail which had extension boom and square sail surface. The boom's length of roll stabilizer bars is the key parameter, it was optimized under some constraints such as: configuration design, material strength, structural strength, quality optimization and control accuracy, it was calculated and verified through geometry relations and nonlinear static finite element simulation. The simulation result wa s 1.2 m. The rotate speed limit was obtained by power and speed relation formula according to the result of the boom's length, which was 20.83 (.)/s. In this paper, an optimization design idea of roll stabilizer bars boom's length was given. The calculation and simulation results provide the

  12. Space Environment Deteation of Chinese Meteorological Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Shijin; ZHU Guangwu; LIANG Jinbao


    This paper presents the space environment detection of Chinese geosynchronous and sun-synchronous meteorological satellites and gives a short perspective of space environment observations on board meteorological satellites.

  13. Hovering Flight over Elongated Asteroids by Using Solar Sails%应用太阳帆悬停探测哑铃形小行星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥远; 龚胜平; 李俊峰; 蒋方华; 宝音贺西


    研究了太阳帆航天器在哑铃形小行星引力场内的悬停探测可行性问题。哑铃形小行星代表了一类细长形的小行星,文中首先建立哑铃形小行星的简化动力学模型。针对可变反射面积的太阳帆,给出其在小行星引力场内的悬停动力学方程,并仿真求解了哑铃形小行星附近的太阳帆可行悬停探测区域。%The feasibility of hovering flight over elongated asteroids by using solar sails is investigated in this study.Elongated asteroids represent a family of natural elongated bodies.A simple approximate model is first constructed for these elongated asteroids.Dynamic equations of hovering flight are obtained for solar sails with the ability of active sail area control.Numerical simulations are made to illustrate the feasible area of hovering flight in the gravitational field of elongated asteroids.

  14. Life activities in space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)


    This review summarized biological life activities in space environment for investigating which many experiments had been done in spacecraft's. The space is characterized by a good view, high vacuum, scarce gravity and cosmic ray of which exposure dose in the craft at 4,000 km height is around 1,000 times higher than the dose on the ground. In humans, reductions of bone content, muscle strength, immune function are known as well as space intoxication and eye-flash. Authors carried out 17 experiments in American and Russian space stations from 1992. The experiments concerned DNA breakage by cosmic ray where they first visualized the DNA damage by the ray with autoradiographic method with [{sup 3}H]dATP in HMV1 cells; cell differentiation and morphogenesis in the space with the use of radio-sensitive cellular slime mold of {gamma}s13 strain; influences of the scarce gravity on the repair of broken artificially prepared double-strand DNA and on the induced-mutation in E. coli and yeast; and stress proteins which were shown to be accumulated in the space. The space experiments are concluded to be useful for radiation biology further in future. (K.H.)

  15. Organic polymer materials in the space environment (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ding, Nengwen; Li, Zhifeng; Wang, Wei


    The space environment is a complex environment full of microgravity, high vacuum, high and low temperature, strong radiation and plasma. Polymers used in the space environment will inevitably experience aging and degradation which result in changes of the material mechanics, physics and chemical properties, until they lose usefulness. To make a material that can be used for a long time and whose performance is not changed in the space environment, its ability to resist environmental factors must be excellent. Therefore, this paper provides an introduction to the harmful conditions in the space environment and their effects on the polymers, also it reviews the aging mechanisms of the adhesives used in the space environment and the effect of thermal cycling, stress, electromagnetic radiation and ionizing particles on the properties of polymers and optical devices, to provide the reference basis for selection, modification and reliability analysis of materials used in the space environment.

  16. Space Environment Prediction for SZ-4 and SZ-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Siqing; LIU Jing; SHI Liqin; HAN Jianwei; ZANG Zhenqun


    The Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) of the Center for Space Science and Applied Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CSSAR, CAS)took on the mission of offering the space environment parameters which may be of use to the safety of manned spacecraft. In order to complete the space environment safety guarantee mission for SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC improved the space environment monitoring system, database system, prediction result display system, prediction implementation system, etc. For guaranteeing the safety of the airship and cosmonaut in the first manned SZ-5, flying experiment mission,SEPC developed the software for analyzing radiation dose and early-warning software for large debris collision with SZ-5. Three months before the flights of SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC began to predict the safe launch period in view of the space environment, and offered timely and valid reference opinions for selecting the safety period. Especially during the mission of SZ-5, SEPC analyzed the space high-energy environment in a pre-arranged orbit and abnormal orbit andevaluated the radiation dose which cosmonauts may encounter in space. The evaluation offered an important reference for cosmonaut safety and decisionmaking in the SZ-5 mission. The calculation of the distribution of large debris and the collision risk assessment at different orbit entry times for SZ-5 provided an important base for the superior department to make flight decisions.

  17. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.


    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  18. The Sun and Earth's Space Environment (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.


    Earth's space environment is closely controlled by solar variability over various time scales. Solar variability is characterized by its output in the form of mass and electromagnetic output. Solar mass emission also interacts with mass entering into the heliosphere in the form of cosmic rays and neutral material. This paper provides an overview of how the solar variability affects Earth's space environment.

  19. 利用绳系太阳帆减缓小行星自转的技术研究%Research on the Technology of Slowing Down the Rotation of an Asteroid with a Tethered Solar Sail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬静云; 高有涛


    A method of slowing down the rotation of an asteroid with a tethered solar sail is proposed in this paper. With no change of the length of the tether, the solar radiation pressure suffered by the solar sail will keep it on the synchronous orbit of the asteroid. It can prevent the tether from twining around the asteroid caused by the rotation of the asteroid. By controlling the solar sail, the tether can be tightened. The force in the tether will continually provide a torque opposite to the rotation direction of the asteroid. Then the rotation rate of the asteroid can decrease. The results show that when the area of the solar sail is 106 m2, the rotation of the asteroid can be eliminated after about 86 days. It verifies the effectiveness of this method.%提出一种利用太阳帆绳系系统逐渐减小小行星自转速率的方法。在系绳长度不变的情况下,利用太阳帆受到的太阳光压力使其始终保持与小行星同步,避免了由于小行星自转而引起的系绳缠绕问题。通过控制太阳帆使系绳始终拉紧,系绳中的拉力便可以持续提供一个与小行星自转方向相反的力矩,从而减小其自转速率。仿真结果表明,面积106 m2的太阳帆,经过约86天可将小行星的自转消除,验证了该方法的有效性。

  20. Space Environment and Effects System (SEES) (United States)

    Higashio, Nana; Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu; Koshiishi, Hideki

    Space environment group in JAXA has installed insturments to measure space environment on eleven satellites. In the last year, the biggest instrument called SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquision equipment -Attached Paylod) was atteched to the palette of JEM (ISS). On the other hand, we have a web site, "Space Environment and Effects System(SEES)". This system consisits of four parts. First part is to provide data that were obtained from these insturments. There are 18 kinds of mesurments, for example, radiation, magnetic field and so on. In 1994, Anik E-1 and Anik E-2 were broken by solar storm and we could catch the abnormal data from our instrument. Second part is a warning system. Many Japanese satellites are working around the earth and they are always exposed to radioactivity in space. So we predict the the radiation data in two days and if the expected value is over the threshold of safety, we inform a warning massage to users who want to keep their satellites safe. And we also provide the warning massage for Japanese astronauts who stay at ISS. Third part is the tool of the space environment /satellite environment models. There are 12 kinds of environment models which are constructed from 90 space environment models, for example, radiation model, solar activity model and so on. If you register your infomation in the SEES web site, you can simulate space environment by using them. Fourth part is providing the 2D and 3D infomations of satellite's orvits. This show the satelllite's position on the world map at a paticular time. If you want to use this system, please visit our SEES page at ( ).

  1. Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed (United States)

    Barth, Janet


    Summary of activities: (1) FYO1 NRA - Model development and data mining. (2) FY03 NRA - Flight investigations. (3) SET carrier development. (4) Study for accommodation of SET carrier to support advanced detectors. (5) Collaboration with other programs: LWS TR&T to maximize synergy between TR&T space environment research and SET space environment effects research. LWS Data System to optimize dissemination of SET data. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program to leverage ground testing of technologies. Defense Threat Reduction Agency to leverage ground testing and common interests in advanced detectors. and Air Force Research Laboratory to leverage flight opportunities. (6) Education and Public Outreach.

  2. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  3. Stress proteins are induced by space environment (United States)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences such as space radiations and microgravity. Almost all organisms possess essential recognition and response systems for environmental changes. The famous one of cellular stress responses is the gene induction of heat shock protein (HSP). HSP expression is increased under elevated temperatures, and also increased by other sources of cellular stress, including ionizing radiation, oxidative injury, osmotic stress and the unfolded protein response. HSPs assist in the folding and maintenance of newly translated proteins, the refolding of denatured proteins and the further unfolding of misfolded or destabilized proteins to protect the cell from crisis. Based on our space experiment, we report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of HSP expression after exposure to space environment.

  4. Dielectric material in the space environment (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.


    The irradiation encountered in space environments causes high insulation materials to discharge, either through electrical breakdown or surface voltage effect mechanisms. Attention is presently given to polymers which, serving as 'leaky' insulators, avoid this problem by means of conduction mechanisms that are acceptable in space applications. The class of conductive polymers encompasses polyvinylcarbazole, polyacrylonitrile, Kapton, and polythiazil. A testing procedure useful in the qualification of such polymers is outlined.

  5. Solar sail heliocentric transfer orbit control based on analytical control laws%基于解析控制律的太阳帆星际转移轨道控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓宁; 郭继峰; 荣思远; 崔乃刚


    Solar sail spacecrafts can provide motivation rely on reflecting the sun photons, so that it is suitable for long distance interstellar transfer task. Aiming at the problem of solar sail interstellar transfer orbit control, a new analytical control law is presented. This control law can realize the combination control of each orbit elements by setting the blending weights. The modified equinoctial orbital elements are introduced to the optimal derivation of the analytical optimal control law, and numerical simulations for the method are performed based on mercury exploration mission. Simulation results show that, the proposed control law has higher computational speed and the capability of realizing the combination control of each orbit elements, thus the solar sail interstellar transfer orbit can be obtained, which can satisfy the requirements of the project.%太阳帆航天器可依靠反射太阳光子提供动力,因此较适用于远距离的星际转移任务.针对太阳帆航天器星际转移轨道控制问题,提出一种新的解析最优控制律,通过设定混合权重对各轨道根数进行联合控制.引入改进春分点轨道根数对解析控制律进行了优化推导,并以水星探测任务为背景进行了相应的仿真分析.仿真结果表明,该控制律计算速度较快,可对各个轨道根数进行联合控制,从而得到满足工程要求的太阳帆航天器星际转移轨道.

  6. Space environment's effect on MODIS calibration (United States)

    Dodd, J. L.; Wenny, B. N.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.


    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer flies on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua in a sun-synchronous orbit that crosses the equator at 10:30 AM and 2:30 PM, respectively, at a low earth orbit (LEO) altitude of 705 km. Terra was launched on December 18,1999 and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. As the MODIS instruments on board these satellites continue to operate beyond the design lifetime of six years, the cumulative effect of the space environment on MODIS and its calibration is of increasing importance. There are several aspects of the space environment that impact both the top of atmosphere (TOA) calibration and, therefore, the final science products of MODIS. The south Atlantic anomaly (SAA), spacecraft drag, extreme radiative and thermal environment, and the presence of orbital debris have the potential to significantly impact both MODIS and the spacecraft, either directly or indirectly, possibly resulting in data loss. Efforts from the Terra and Aqua Flight Operations Teams (FOT), the MODIS Instrument Operations Team (IOT), and the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) prevent or minimize external impact on the TOA calibrated data. This paper discusses specific effects of the space environment on MODIS and how they are minimized.

  7. Advances in Research and Service of Space Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Liqin; GONG Jiancun; LIU Siqing; HU Xiong; LIU Jing; HUANG Wengeng


    This paper presents the recent progress of space environment research and service in China.During the past two years,many models of space environment forecast and analysis methods of space environment effects have been developed for tailored space environment service for Chinese space mission.A new Re-locatable Atmospheric Observatory(RAO)for monitoring atmospheric wind,temperature,density and pressure of the near space from 20 km up to 120 km altitudes is being constructed.In space environment service space environment safety was provided to ensure the safety of CE-1 for its launch and operation in 2007.

  8. Combined space environment on spacecraft engineering materials (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Susan


    Spacecraft structures and surface materials exposed to the space environment for extended periods, up to thirty years, have increased potential for damage from long term exposure to the combined space environment including solar ultraviolet radiation, electrons, and protons and orbiting space debris. The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/cm(sup 2)/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/cm(sup 2)/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the vacuum ultraviolet (less than 200 nm wavelength) is more difficult to characterize at this time. Very little data is available in the literature which can be used for determining the life cycle of a material placed in space for extended durations of time. In order to obtain critical data for planning and designing of spacecraft systems, use of a small vacuum system at the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC, which can be used for these purposes was used. A special effort was made to build up this capability during the course of this research effort and perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. A description of the apparatus and the procedure devised to process potential spacecraft materials is included.

  9. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) (United States)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.


    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  10. Space Environment Effects on Silicone Seal Materials (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, Christopher C.; Dever, Joyce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.


    A docking system is being developed by the NASA to support future space missions. It is expected to use redundant elastomer seals to help contain cabin air during dockings between two spacecraft. The sealing surfaces are exposed to the space environment when vehicles are not docked. In space, the seals will be exposed to temperatures between 125 to -75 C, vacuum, atomic oxygen, particle and ultraviolet radiation, and micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). Silicone rubber is the only class of space flight-qualified elastomeric seal material that functions across the expected temperature range. NASA Glenn has tested three silicone elastomers for such seal applications: two provided by Parker (S0899-50 and S0383-70) and one from Esterline (ELA-SA-401). The effects of atomic oxygen (AO), UV and electron particle radiation, and vacuum on the properties of these three elastomers were examined. Critical seal properties such as leakage, adhesion, and compression set were measured before and after simulated space exposures. The S0899-50 silicone was determined to be inadequate for extended space seal applications due to high adhesion and intolerance to UV, but both S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 seals were adequate.

  11. YingHuo-1——Martian Space Environment Exploration Orbiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua


    This paper gives a brief introduction of YingHuo-1 (YH-1), a Chinese Martian Space Environment Exploration Orbiter. YH-1 is a micro-satellite developed by Chinese Aerospace Industry,and will be launched together with Russian spacecraft, Phobos-Grunt, to orbit Mars in September,2009. Four payloads are selected for the mission, plasma package, including of electron analyzer, ion energy and mass analyzer; sat-sat occultation receiver; flux-gate magnetometer; and optical monitor.YH-1 mission focus on the investigation of the characteristics and its evolution of the Martian space Environment, and identifying major plasma processes, which provide channels for Martian volatiles escaping.

  12. EnviroNET - The Space Environment Information Service (United States)

    Lauriente, Michael


    The recent development of EnviroNET, the Space Environment Information Service, is discussed. The activities pursued by the Space Shuttle Working Group to establish a user-friendly database of current information on the Space Shuttle environment are described.

  13. The space environment monitor aboard FY-2 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guangwu; LI; Baoquan; WANG; Shijin; LIN; Hua'an; LIAN


    The space environment monitor (SEM) aboard FY-2 satellite consists of the high energy particle detector (HEPD) and the solar X-ray flux detector (SXFD). The SEM can provide real-time monitoring of flare and solar proton event for its operation at geostationary orbit and is also the first Chinese space system for monitoring and alerting solar proton event. During the 23rd solar maximum cycle, almost all the solar proton events that took place in this period are monitored and some of them are predicted successfully by analyzing the characteristics of X-ray flare monitored by the SEM. Some basic variation characteristics of particle at geostationary orbit are found such as day-night periodic variation of particle flux, the electron flux with energy >1.4 MeV in the scope from 10 to 200/cm2.s-sr and the proton flux with energy >1.1 MeV in the scope from 600 to 8000/ during the time with no magnetic storm and solar eruption.

  14. Cytological Effects of Space Environment on Different Genotype of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li-jun; QIAN Yu; YANG Qian; XU Jian-long; WANG Jun-min; SUN Ye-qing


    For exploring the biological effect of space environment on different genotype of rice seeds, the cytological effects of M1 generation after space flight were studied.Twelve different genotypes of rice seeds which belong to different climate ecotype (early, medium and late) of indica and japonica were onboard "Shenzhou 4" spaceship for 162 h.After recovered the total number of mitosis cells and chromosomal aberration were observed.In all the lines the mitotic index (MIs) of space flight are much higher than control, which indicates the stimulate effect of space environment.The cell rate of chromosomal aberration (CRCA) of space flight is also much higher than control, but varies from line to line.It indicates that biological effect of space environment on rice seed dependents not only on flight duration but also on rice genotype.The radiosensitivities of different lines were also discussed according to CRCAs.

  15. The Space Environment Monitors of Shenzhou Manned Spacecrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; WANG Chunqin; YE Haihua; JING Guiru; ZHU Guangwu; WANG Shijin; QIN Guotai; LIANG Jinbao; SUN Yueqiang; HUANG Xiuying; YANG Xiaochao; WANG Yue


    For the purpose of ensuring normal operations of Shenzhou (SZ) series of manned spacecrafts and cosmonauts' safety, Space Environment Monitors (SEM)are mounted on board SZ-2, 3, 4, 5. SEMs aim to detect the high energy particles, the low energy particles, charging potential, atmospheric desity and composition. Detection of SEMs enable us to understand better the space environment in the manned spacecraft's orbit, and to provide a good space environment services for the spacecraft and cosmonauts. In addition, by using the data from SEMs, we have achieved some scientific accomplishments, such as the energy spectra of precipitating electrons, the abnormal variety of atmospheric density and composition during geomagnetic disturbances, the electron angle distribution in the low orbit and so on.

  16. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles (United States)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev


    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  17. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Program (United States)

    Barth, Janet; LaBel, Kenneth; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affects life and society. The Program Architecture includes science missions, theory and modeling and Space Environment Testbeds (SET). This current paper discusses the Space Environment Testbeds. The goal of the SET program is to improve the engineering approach to accomodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The SET Program will infuse new technologies into the space programs through collection of data in space and subsequent design and validation of technologies. Examples of these technologies are cited and discussed.

  18. Protection of the Space Environment: The First Small Steps (United States)

    Williamson, M.

    The exploration of the space environment - by robotic and manned missions - is a natural extension of mankind's desire to explore his own planet. Likewise, the development of the space environment - for industry, commerce and tourism - is a natural extension of our current business and domestic environment. Unfortunately, it appears that our ability to pollute, degrade and even destroy aspects of the space environment is also an extension of an ability we have developed and practised here on Earth. This paper reviews the evidence of mankind's pollution of the space environment - which includes the planetary bodies - in the first 45 years of the Space Age, and extrapolates the potential for further degradation into its second half-century. It considers the future development of both scientific exploration and commercial exploitation - in orbit and on the surface of the planetary bodies - and the possible detrimental effects. In presenting the case for protection of the space environment, the paper makes recommendations concerning the first steps towards a solution to the problem. Among other things, it calls for the formation of an international consultative body, to consider the issues relevant to `Protection of the Space Environment' and to raise awareness of the subject among the growing body of space professionals and practitioners. It also recommends consideration of a `set of guidelines' or `code of practice' as a precursor to more formal policies or legislation. In doing so, however, it is careful to recognise the need to strike a balance between unbridled exploration and development, and a stifling regime of rules and regulations. The discussion of this subject requires a good deal more collective knowledge, understanding and maturity than has been evident in similar discussions regarding the Earth's environment. At present, that knowledge resides largely within the professional space community. Thus there is also a need for promulgation, both within and

  19. Passive Space Environment Effect Measurement on JEM/MPAC&SEED (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki

    A space materials exposure experiment was conducted on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The MPAC&SEED experiments were aboard both the Russian Service Module (SM/MPAC&SEED) and the exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposed Facility (JEM/MPAC&SEED). The JEM/MPAC&SEED was attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP).

  20. Optimization of application execution in the GridSpace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Malawski; J. Kocot; I. Ryszka; M. Bubak; M. Wieczorek; T. Fahringer


    This paper describes an approach to optimization of execution of applications in the GridSpace environment. In this environment operations are invoked on special objects which reside on Grid resources what requires a specific approach to optimization of execution. This approach is implemented in the

  1. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbeds (United States)

    Brewer, D.; Barth, J.; Label, K.

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET) are a series of projects that contain investigations that collect data in space and use it to provide products that improve the engineering approach to accommodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The improvements reduce requirements for design and operations margins to account for the uncertainties in the space environment and its effects. Reducing the requirements will increase the payload fraction, permit the use of a smaller launch vehicle (thereby reducing mission cost), and/or enable routine operations in new segments of the environment (such as middle Earth orbit, the region from 2000 km to 10,000 km) at costs similar to those for operations below 2000 km. A new SET project starts about very two years when investigations are selected. Five categories of investigations included in SET projects are: (1) Characterization of the space environment in the presence of a spacecraft; (2) Definition of the mechanisms for materials' degradation and the performance characterization of materials designed for shielding from ionizing radiation; (3) Accommodation and/or mitigation of space environment effects for detectors/sensors; (4) Performance improvement methodology for microelectronics used in space; and, (5) Accommodation and/or mitigation of charging/discharging effects on spacecraft and spacecraft components. All SET projects use secondary access to space and partnering to leverage resources. An overview of the SET segment of the LWS program will be presented.

  2. System Engineering Issues for Avionics Survival in the Space Environment (United States)

    Pavelitz, Steven


    This paper examines how the system engineering process influences the design of a spacecraft's avionics by considering the space environment. Avionics are susceptible to the thermal, radiation, plasma, and meteoroids/orbital debris environments. The environment definitions for various spacecraft mission orbits (LEO/low inclination, LEO/Polar, MEO, HEO, GTO, GEO and High ApogeeElliptical) are discussed. NASA models and commercial software used for environment analysis are reviewed. Applicability of technical references, such as NASA TM-4527 "Natural Orbital Environment Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development" is discussed. System engineering references, such as the MSFC System Engineering Handbook, are reviewed to determine how the environments are accounted for in the system engineering process. Tools and databases to assist the system engineer and avionics designer in addressing space environment effects on avionics are described and usefulness assessed.

  3. Space environment induced mutations prefer to occur at polymorphic sites of rice genomes (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, M.; Cheng, Z.; Sun, Y.

    To explore the genomic characteristics of rice mutants induced by space environment, space-induced mutants 971-5, 972-4, and R955, which acquired new traits after space flight such as increased yield, reduced resistance to rice blast, and semi-dwarfism compared with their on-ground controls, 971ck, 972ck, and Bing95-503, respectively, together with other 8 japonica and 3 indica rice varieties, 17 in total, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. We chose 16 AFLP primer-pairs which generated a total of 1251 sites, of which 745 (59.6%) were polymorphic over all the genotypes. With the 16 pairs of primer combinations, 54 space-induced mutation sites were observed in 971-5, 86 in 972-4, and 5 in R955 compared to their controls, and the mutation rates were 4.3%, 6.9% and 0.4%, respectively. Interestingly, 75.9%, 84.9% and 100% of the mutation sites identified in 971-5, 972-4, and R955 occurred in polymorphic sites. This result suggests that the space environment preferentially induced mutations at polymorphic sites in rice genomes and might share a common mechanism with other types of mutagens. It also implies that polymorphic sites in genomes are potential "hotspots" for mutations induced by the space environment.

  4. Space Ethics and Protection of the Space Environment (United States)

    Williamson, Mark


    The construction of the International Space Station in low Earth orbit and the formulation of plans to search for life on Mars - one day by means of manned missions - indicate that mankind is intent on making the space environment part of its domain. Publicity surrounding space tourism, in-space `burials' and the sale of lunar `real estate' suggests that, some time in the 21st century, the space environment will become an extraterrestrial extension of our current business and domestic environment. This prompts the question of our collective attitude towards the space environment and the degree to which we should regulate its use and protect it for future generations. What, indeed, are the ethical considerations of space exploration and development? Ethics can be defined as "the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct, and of the rules or principles that ought to govern it". More practically, it represents "an approved code of behaviour" adopted, for example, by a group or profession. If a set of ethics is to be developed for space, it is important that what we refer to as the `space community', or `space profession', is intimately involved. Indeed, if it is not, the profession risks having the job done for it, for example by politicians and members of the general public, who for their own reasons may wish to place restrictions on space development, or ban it altogether. The terrestrial nuclear power industry, for example, has already suffered this fate, while widespread ignorance of the subject has led to a moratorium on the use of RTGs in spacecraft. However, there is a danger in the discussion of ethics that consideration is confined to the philosophical aspects, thus excusing those involved from providing practical solutions to the problems that emerge. The fact that mankind has already affected, and arguably damaged, the space environment transports the discussion beyond the philosophical realm. This paper offers a pragmatic analysis of one

  5. Investigation into suitability of geopolymers (illite & metakaolin) for the space environment (United States)

    Cesul, Brandon T.

    the outgassing performance, and analyzing the materials for damage following exposure to typical radiation and atomic oxygen levels seen in a short duration LEO mission. The results of the test campaign showed promising results. Curing shrinkage was controlled using pressure as a primary variable, but a cracking failure mode was present due to thermal shock effects. Neither geopolymer emitted significant organic volatiles during outgassing, but water emission and re-absorption during test, qualification, and pre-launch storage associated with launch cycles may be an issue. Finally, space environmental exposure of ultraviolet radiation, high energy particles, and atomic oxygen bombardment resulted in only minor surface changes to the bulk material with structural performance maintained throughout the rest of the material. Overall, geopolymers show great promise as a spacecraft material due to their resistance to space environment effects, but specific caveats need to be considered for application development.

  6. The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

  7. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.


    The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

  8. A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons (United States)

    Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.


    A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  9. The Identification of Scientific Programs to Utilize the Space Environment (United States)

    Kulacki, F. A.; Nerem, R. M.


    A program to identify and develop ideas for scientific experimentation on the long duration exposure facility (LDEF) was completed. Four research proposals were developed: (1) Ultra pure germanium gamma ray radiation detectors in the space environment, intended to develop and demonstrate an X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy system incorporating a temperature cyclable high-purity germanium detector and diode heat pipe cryogenic system for cooling, (2) growth, morphogenesis and metabolism of plant embryos in the zero-gravity environment, to investigate if the space environment induces mutations in the embryogenic cells so that mutants of commercial significance with desirable attributes may be obtained, (3) effect of zero gravity on the growth and pathogenicity of selected zoopathic fungi. It is possible that new kinds of treatment for candidiasis, and tichophytosis could eventuate from the results of the proposed studies, and (4) importance of gravity to survival strategies of small animals. Gravitational effects may be direct or mediate the selection of genetic variants that are preadapted to weightlessness.

  10. Using EPSAT to analyze high power systems in the space environment. [Environment Power System Analysis Tool (United States)

    Kuharski, Robert A.; Jongeward, Gary A.; Wilcox, Katherine G.; Rankin, Tom R.; Roche, James C.


    The authors review the Environment Power System Analysis Tool (EPSAT) design and demonstrate its capabilities by using it to address some questions that arose in designing the SPEAR III experiment. It is shown that that the rocket body cannot be driven to large positive voltages under the constraints of this experiment. Hence, attempts to measure the effects of a highly positive rocket body in the plasma environment should not be made in this experiment. It is determined that a hollow cathode will need to draw only about 50 mA to ground the rocket body. It is shown that a relatively small amount of gas needs to be released to induce a bulk breakdown near the rocket body, and this gas release should not discharge the sphere. Therefore, the experiment provides an excellent opportunity to study the neutralization of a differential charge.

  11. Seals Having Textured Portions for Protection in Space Environments (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher (Inventor); Garafolo, Nicholas (Inventor)


    A sealing construct for a space environment includes a seal-bearing object, a seal on the seal-bearing object, and a seal-engaging object. The seal includes a seal body having a sealing surface, and a textured pattern at the sealing surface, the textured pattern defining at least one shaded channel surface. The seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object through the seal. The seal-engaging object has a sealing surface, wherein, when the seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object, the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object engages the sealing surface of the seal, and the seal is compressed between the seal-bearing object and the seal-engaging object such that at least one shaded channel surface engages the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object.

  12. Space Environment Simulation for Material Processing by Acoustic Levitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解文军; 魏炳波


    Single-axis acoustic levitation of four polymer samples has been realized in air under the ground-based laboratory conditions for the purpose of space environment simulation of containerless processing. The levitation capabilities are investigated by numerical calculations based on a model of the boundary element method corresponding to our levitator and following Gor'kov and Barmatz's method. The calculated results, such as the resonant distance between the reflector and the vibrating source and the positions of levitated samples, agree well with experimental observation, and the effect of gravity on the time-averaged potential for levitation force is also revealed. As an application, the containerless melting and solidification of a liquid crystal, 4-Pentylphenyl-4'-methybenzoate, is successfully accomplished, in which undercooling up to 16 K is obtained and the rotation and oscillation of the sample during solidification may result in fragmentation of the usual radiating surface growth morphology.

  13. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit (United States)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.


    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  14. Charged dust phenomena in the near-Earth space environment (United States)

    Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.


    Dusty (or complex) plasmas in the Earth’s middle and upper atmosphere ultimately result in exotic phenomena that are currently forefront research issues in the space science community. This paper presents some of the basic criteria and fundamental physical processes associated with the creation, evolution and dynamics of dusty plasmas in the near-Earth space environment. Recent remote sensing techniques to probe naturally created dusty plasma regions are also discussed. These include ground-based experiments employing high-power radio wave interaction. Some characteristics of the dusty plasmas that are actively produced by space-borne aerosol release experiments are discussed. Basic models that may be used to investigate the characteristics of such dusty plasma regions are presented.

  15. On Orbit Control of Spacecrafts with Solar Sail around the Earth-Moon Collinear Libration Point%利用太阳帆定点探测器在地一月系共线平动点附近的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯锡云; 刘林


    共线平动点附近的运动仅仅是条件稳定的,探测器的轨道需要经过控制才能维持在其附近.以地-月系11点和12点附近大振幅晕轨道的控制为例,探讨了太阳帆在定点这类探测器中的应用.首先,考虑了月球轨道的偏心率和太阳辐射的影响,给出了太阳帆对日定向的探测器轨道的低阶分析解,并在此基础上构造了在太阳系真实引力模型下一段时间内维持在共线平动点附近的拟周期轨道.然后,给出了两种利用太阳帆的控制方案,一是固定面质比而改变太阳帆法线的方向,另一是固定太阳帆对日定向而改变面质比,并对两种方案分别作了数值模拟.最后,文章探讨了测控误差及地、月影对轨道控制的影响.%Collinear libration points of the Earth-Moon system are unstable, so spacecrafts need orbit control to stay around them.Thking large amphtude halo orbits around L1 and L2 points of the Farth-Moon system as an example, orbit control with solar sail was studied. First, low-order analytical solution considering moon's eccentricity and solar radiation was given out, and quasi-periodic orbits in the real solar system based on this analytical solution were computed. Then, two control strategies with solar sail were proposed.One is to change the direction of the solar sail keeping the area fixed, and the other is opposite. Numefical simulations were. made. At last,the effects of measurement and control error were studied, along with effects of earth's "and moon's shadows.

  16. Development, validation and application of numerical space environment models (United States)

    Honkonen, Ilja


    Currently the majority of space-based assets are located inside the Earth's magnetosphere where they must endure the effects of the near-Earth space environment, i.e. space weather, which is driven by the supersonic flow of plasma from the Sun. Space weather refers to the day-to-day changes in the temperature, magnetic field and other parameters of the near-Earth space, similarly to ordinary weather which refers to changes in the atmosphere above ground level. Space weather can also cause adverse effects on the ground, for example, by inducing large direct currents in power transmission systems. The performance of computers has been growing exponentially for many decades and as a result the importance of numerical modeling in science has also increased rapidly. Numerical modeling is especially important in space plasma physics because there are no in-situ observations of space plasmas outside of the heliosphere and it is not feasible to study all aspects of space plasmas in a terrestrial laboratory. With the increasing number of computational cores in supercomputers, the parallel performance of numerical models on distributed memory hardware is also becoming crucial. This thesis consists of an introduction, four peer reviewed articles and describes the process of developing numerical space environment/weather models and the use of such models to study the near-Earth space. A complete model development chain is presented starting from initial planning and design to distributed memory parallelization and optimization, and finally testing, verification and validation of numerical models. A grid library that provides good parallel scalability on distributed memory hardware and several novel features, the distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (DCCRG), is designed and developed. DCCRG is presently used in two numerical space weather models being developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The first global magnetospheric test particle simulation based on the

  17. Mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to simulated space environment (United States)

    Munakata, N.; Natsume, T.; Takahashi, K.; Hieda, K.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.

    Bacterial spores can endure in a variety of extreme earthly environments. However, some conditions encountered during the space flight could be detrimental to DNA in the spore, delimiting the possibility of transpermia. We investigate the genetic consequences of the exposure to space environments in a series of preflight simulation project of EXPOSE. Using Bacillus subtilis spores of repair-proficient HA101 and repair-deficient TKJ6312 strains, the mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin were detected, isolated and sequenced. Most of the mutations were located in a N-terminal region of the rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase beta-subunit. Among several potentially mutagenic factors, high vacuum, UV radiation, heat, and accelerated heavy ions induced mutations with varying efficiencies. A majority of mutations induced by vacuum exposure carried a tandem double-base change (CA to TT) at a unique sequence context of TCAGC. Results indicate that the vacuum and high temperature may act synergistically for the induction of mutations.

  18. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa (Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.).

  19. Characteristics of Elastomer Seals Exposed to Space Environments (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; deGroh, Henry, III; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Oswald, Jay J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.


    A universal docking and berthing system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support all future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. The Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) is being designed to operate using a seal-on-seal configuration in numerous space environments, each having unique exposures to temperature, solar radiation, reactive elements, debris, and mission duration. As the LIDS seal is likely to be manufactured from an elastomeric material, performance evaluation of elastomers after exposure to atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) was conducted, of which the work presented herein was a part. Each of the three candidate silicone elastomer compounds investigated, including Esterline ELA-SA-401, and Parker Hannifin S0383-70 and S0899-50, was characterized as a low outgassing compound, per ASTM E595, having percent total mass loss (TML) less than 1.0 percent and collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) less than 0.1 percent. Each compound was compatible with the LIDS operating environment of -50 to 50 C. The seal characteristics presented include compression set, elastomer-to-elastomer adhesion, and o-ring leakage rate. The ELA-SA-401 compound had the lowest variation in compression set with temperature. The S0383-70 compound exhibited the lowest compression set after exposure to AO and UV. The adhesion for all of the compounds was significantly reduced after exposure to AO and was further decreased after exposure to AO and UV. The leakage rates of o-ring specimens showed modest increases after exposure to AO. The leakage rates after exposure to AO and UV were increased by factors of up to 600 when compared to specimens in the as-received condition.

  20. Diversity and Stability Study on Rice Mutants Induced in Space Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Lu; Xin-Zhu Wang; Qi Zheng; Shuang-Hong Guan; Ping Xin; Ye-Qing Sun


    To further study the characteristics of changes on the molecular level of rice mutants induced in space environment, we analyzed proteins in leaves and seeds of four rice mutants (two high-tillering and two low-tillering) in the 8th and 9th generations after a 15-day spaceflight, and compared with their ground controls by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). In addition, the albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin, and amylose of the mutant seeds were analyzed by RPLC and ultra-violet spectrometry. The results showed that the low-abundance proteins of leaves in the peak tillering stage are more likely to be induced compared with their corresponding controls. The albumin, globulin, and prolamine of the mutant seeds revealed changes when compared with their controls, and the characteristics of changes in different mutants were stably inherited in the 8th and 9th generations, suggesting that they can be used as biomarkers to identity the mutants induced by spaceflight. Moreover, two proteins (SSP9111 and SSP6302) were found to be expressed with high intensity (two-fold change) in different mutants, which were both correlated with photosystem according to mass spectrometry and database searching.

  1. Space Environment Data Acquisition with KIBO Exposed Facility on the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Obara, Takahiro

    Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment with attached payload (SEDA-AP) which was mounted on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, also known as “Kibo”) on the International Space Station (ISS) started to measure the space environment along the orbit of ISS from Sept. 2009. This paper reports the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  2. Study of Ice Particle Formation and Lifetime in Space Environment (United States)

    Jeng, D.


    The ice particles are formed when liquid and/or humid gases vent to the space. These submicroscopic ice particles are potential contamination sources of the environments during Skylab operations. The critical size of ice particle and its nucleation rate based on the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation by sublimation are analyzed. The equations which are pertinent for studying the growth and evaporation of the ice particles are formulated. The mechanisms affecting the lifetime of ice particle are discussed. The gas dynamic techniques for experimental study of ice particle formation are proposed.

  3. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo


    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  4. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Contamination Engineering Technology Development (United States)

    Pearson, Steven D.; Clifton, K. Stuart


    ABSTRACT The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, etc. and data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and will present SEE contamination engineering technology development and risk mitigation for future spacecraft design.

  5. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) (United States)

    Koga, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Obara, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Muraki, Y.


    To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire the space environmental data which causes the degradation of space parts and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. Space Environment Data Acquisition - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) measures the space environment around the International Space Station (ISS) by being attached to the Exposed Facility(EF) of the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo"). The Neutron Monitor (NEM) is one of the detectors in SEDA-AP. This instrument was developed to measure the solar neutrons which are produced by solar flare event. The solar neutron is a good indicator to clarify the acceleration mechanism of charged particles at the solar flare. Because of the energy of solar neutron is not influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field, it has the information of the energy of the accelerated charged particle directly. We have been analyzing the neutron data at several M or X class solar flare from September 2009. The mission objectives, instrumentation and measurement status of the neutron monitor are reported.

  6. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials (United States)


    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. An Overview of the Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Garrett, Henry B.; Miller, Sharon K.; Peddie, Darilyn; Porter Ron; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore our Earth, and the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge on the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments fields that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environment and spacecraft effects (SESE) organization. This SESE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems, and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Environment effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system, and system-level response to the space environment and include the selection and testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with

  8. TIROS-N/NOAA A-J space environment monitor subsystem. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which is incorporated as a subsystem in the TIROS-N and NOAA A-J satellites, is described. The SEM consists of a Total Energy Detector (TED), a Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), a High Energy Proton and Alpha Detector (HEPAD) and a Data Processing Unit (DPU). The detectors are intended to provide near-real-time particle data for use in the Space Environment Service Center of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and to provide a long-term scientific data base. Telemeter codes, data reduction, and test instructions are given

  9. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  10. Research on early warning technology for spacecraft in-orbit fault influenced by space environment (United States)

    Zhenyan, Zhao; Ping, Yang; Wendong, Li; Xi, Chen; Peng, Liu; Zhihui, Wang; Zhen, Wu


    The number of China's current satellite on orbit is nearly 150. Satellites are often influenced by space environment, and the on-orbit operation tasks are interrupted. Analysis of relevant data and looking for the right warning method become one of the important means, which can ensure the safety of satellite in orbit. Firstly, the data of satellite on-orbit from 2008 to 2015 and space environment are studied. Through the methods of correlation analysis and ratio analysis, we select the sensitive parameters which are more affected by the environment change. Through the analysis of the satellite fault which often happens, we get the location distribution, time distribution of the fault and the characteristic data such as environmental changes. Using the comprehensive factor calculation method, according to environment data and sensitive parameters, data information such as failure characteristics, we calculate the early warning value, which can provide the basis for the spacecraft operation management when the space environment changes. At the same time, we put forward the possible suggestion for space-based early warning information application, and the further suggestion of using sensitive parameter study on space environment change.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;


    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  12. Study on the effects of the space environment on laser transmission characteristics (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Peng; Tong, Shoufen; Zhang, Peng


    Laser space communication has obvious advantages in interstellar transmission - but the space environment will have a direct impact on laser communication system. The function of the analysis of space environment identity effectively could reduce and avoid the bug and invalidation produced by the overload to prolong the using span of effective load and increase the credibility of effective load, meanwhile it is also the main principle to design and research .This article summarizes the characteristics of vacuum space environment(Effect of vacuum outlet, Molecular contamination effect, Vacuum Mount, Cold welding effect, Heat radiation effect under vacuum), low temperature environment, background radiation (including space background radiation caused by thermal radiation, space background radiation caused by light noise). Space background radiation for the performance of space laser communication load is two aspects: one is the background of space radiation caused by thermal radiation, it mainly affects the satellite platform and payload of the thermal control design; Background spectrum caused by radiation and space, it will affect the space laser communication of the signal-to-noise ratio of the receiving unit, which affect the acquisition probability, tracking accuracy and error rate of communication, and particle radiation environment (Including total dose effects, single event effect), the plasma environment in five areas from the characteristics of space environment, for the problem of Space channel Influence the laser communication system performance. On this basis ,this article analysis the influence of space environment on the laser communication system with some examples, which will lay the foundation for the application of space laser communication system of our country.

  13. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Terada

    Full Text Available Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  14. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station. (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J; Sudoh, Masamichi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki


    Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS) astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  15. Space weather circulation model of plasma clouds as background radiation medium of space environment. (United States)

    Kalu, A. E.

    A model for Space Weather (SW) Circulation with Plasma Clouds as background radiation medium of Space Environment has been proposed and discussed. Major characteristics of the model are outlined and the model assumes a baroclinic Space Environment in view of observed pronounced horizontal electron temperature gradient with prevailing weak vertical temperature gradient. The primary objective of the study is to be able to monitor and realistically predict on real- or near real-time SW and Space Storms (SWS) affecting human economic systems on Earth as well as the safety and Physiologic comfort of human payload in Space Environment in relation to planned increase in human space flights especially with reference to the ISS Space Shuttle Taxi (ISST) Programme and other prolonged deep Space Missions. Although considerable discussions are now available in the literature on SW issues, routine Meteorological operational applications of SW forecast data and information for Space Environment are still yet to receive adequate attention. The paper attempts to fill this gap in the literature of SW. The paper examines the sensitivity and variability in 3-D continuum of Plasmas in response to solar radiation inputs into the magnetosphere under disturbed Sun condition. Specifically, the presence of plasma clouds in the form of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is stressed as a major source of danger to Space crews, spacecraft instrumentation and architecture charging problems as well as impacts on numerous radiation - sensitive human economic systems on Earth. Finally, the paper considers the application of model results in the form of effective monitoring of each of the two major phases of manned Spaceflights - take-off and re-entry phases where all-time assessment of spacecraft transient ambient micro-incabin and outside Space Environment is vital for all manned Spaceflights as recently evidenced by the loss of vital information during take-off of the February 1, 2003 US Columbia

  16. Living with a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET), Mission Carrier Overview and Capabilities (United States)

    Patschke, Robert; Barth, Janet; Label, Ken; Mariano, Carolyn; Pham, Karen; Brewer, Dana; Cuviello, Michael; Kobe, David; Wu, Carl; Jarosz, Donald


    NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The three program elements of the LWS Program are Science Missions; Targeted Research and Technology; and Space Environment Testbeds (SETS). SET is an ideal platform for small experiments performing research on space environment effects on technologies and on the mitigation of space weather effects. A short description of the LWS Program will be given, and the SET will be described in detail, giving the mission objectives, available carrier services, and upcoming flight opportunities.

  17. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment


    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  18. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.


    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  19. Plutos interaction with its space environment: Solar Wind, Energetic Particles & Dust


    Bagenal, F.; Horányi, M.; McComas, D. J.; McNutt, JR; Elliott, H. A.; Hill, M. E.; Brown, L. E.; Delamere, P. A.; Kollmann, P.; S. M. Krimigis; Kusterer, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Piquette, M.; Poppe, A. R.


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) observations suggested ions are acce...

  20. A compression algorithm for field programmable gate arrays in the space environment


    Humberd, Caleb J.


    The focus of this thesis is a lossy Fourier-transform-based compression algorithm for implementation on field programmable gate arrays in the space environment. The algorithm computes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a real input signal, determines the energy in user-defined time and frequency ranges of interest, and transmits only those frequency domain portions of the signal that exceed the predefined thresholds. Error detection against single event upsets for the FFT is implemented by c...

  1. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.


    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  2. Space environment utilization and chemical engineering; Uchu kankyo riyo to kagaku kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaishi, N.; Shiraishi, F. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] Suzuki, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)


    Construction of a giant international space station on an orbit of 460 km distant from the earth will be begun since 1998, JEM (Japanese Experimental Module) will also be launched on 2001, and various experiments using the space environment under a condition of staying 2 to 4 members in the JEM will be planned after the end of that year. Characteristics of the space environment are microgravity, super high vacuum at surrounding apace, superior vision and so forth. In order to utilize the space environment different from the earth environment, it is necessary to consider extremely many things. The chemical engineers who have conducted a lot of complex systems on the earth hitherto shares some large roles in the fields of planning and executing scientific and engineering researches conducted in JEM, utilization of lunar surface and space for materials and energy production base in future, and so forth. In this paper, the Closed Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) essential to specific phenomena and long-term manned space flight under microgravity environment were introduced. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  3. 航天器空间环境协和效应研究%Study on Synergistic Effect of Space Environments on Spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家稳; 沈自才; 肖林


    The necessity of study on synergistic effect of space environments is analyzed. Some synergistic effects between space environments such as electron, proton and ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen and space debris, space debris induced discharge and space environment induced contamination are discussed. Some advice and counter-measures of systemic study on mechanism, simulation, test method, forecasting technique are given.%对空间多因素环境协和效应及研究必要性进行了梳理和分析;从航天器舱外、舱内环境两个方面,对不同空间环境因素间的协和效应,如带电粒子与太阳电磁辐射、原子氧与紫外、原子氧与空间碎片、空间碎片诱导放电及空间环境诱导污染效应等进行了论述;提出了系统开展空间多因素环境协和效应机理、模拟技术、试验方法、仿真及预示技术研究的建议.

  4. Study on the Humanization of Urban Streets’ Space Environment from the Behavior Psychology Perspective%从行为心理视角探讨城市街道空间环境的人性化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    People created urban street space environment according to their own needs, which, in turn, urban street space environment also affects human behavior, humanistic environment of street space is closely related to human behavior psychology. This article focusing on the reality of the street features, analyzed human behavior psychological traits in the space environment, proposed framework for humanistic street space environment, which made a number of recommendations for urban street space environment design practice.%  人们根据自身的需求创造了城市街道空间环境,反过来,城市街道空间环境也影响着人的行为,人性化的街道空间环境与人的行为、心理息息相关。本文针对街道的现实功能,通过分析人在空间环境中的行为心理特性,提出人性化街道空间环境构建框架,为城市街道空间环境设计实践提出一些建议。

  5. Degradation of thermal control materials under a simulated radiative space environment (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Sridhara, N.


    A spacecraft with a passive thermal control system utilizes various thermal control materials to maintain temperatures within safe operating limits. Materials used for spacecraft applications are exposed to harsh space environments such as ultraviolet (UV) and particle (electron, proton) irradiation and atomic oxygen (AO), undergo physical damage and thermal degradation, which must be considered for spacecraft thermal design optimization and cost effectiveness. This paper describes the effect of synergistic radiation on some of the important thermal control materials to verify the assumptions of beginning-of-life (BOL) and end-of-life (EOL) properties. Studies on the degradation in the optical properties (solar absorptance and infrared emittance) of some important thermal control materials exposed to simulated radiative geostationary space environment are discussed. The current studies are purely related to the influence of radiation on the degradation of the materials; other environmental aspects (e.g., thermal cycling) are not discussed. The thermal control materials investigated herein include different kind of second-surface mirrors, white anodizing, white paints, black paints, multilayer insulation materials, varnish coated aluminized polyimide, germanium coated polyimide, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). For this purpose, a test in the constant vacuum was performed reproducing a three year radiative space environment exposure, including ultraviolet and charged particle effects on North/South panels of a geostationary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Reflectance spectra were measured in situ in the solar range (250-2500 nm) and the corresponding solar absorptance values were calculated. The test methodology and the degradations of the materials are discussed. The most important degradations among the low solar absorptance materials were found in the white paints whereas the rigid optical solar reflectors remained quite

  6. Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment -Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) on the ISS -"Kibo" Exposed Facility (United States)

    Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kimoto, Yugo; Obara, Takahiro; Goka, Tateo

    To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire space environmental data related to space radiation degradation of space parts and materials and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. On several satellite of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) since the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V), Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) and Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) have been installed for obtaining the data described above. SEDA-Attached Payload (AP) was mounted on Japanese experimental module, "Kibo" , at International Space Station (ISS) to take continuous measurements of the 400 kilometres altitude space station's tra-jectory for a period of around 3 years. SEDA-AP comprises common bus equipment supporting launch, RMS handling, the power/communication interface with JEM-EF, an extendible mast that extends the neutron monitor sensor 1 m separate from the bus structure, and equipment that measures space environment data. SEDA-AP has been fitted with 8 kinds of instruments. It will continuously and simultaneously measure neutrons, heavy ions, plasma, high-energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, space debris and dusts, etc. Furthermore, by exposing electronic devices and materials directory to the space environment, it will examine how they are affected by the environment. SEDA-AP was lanced on July 16 in 2009, and attached to EF of "Kibo" on July 25 using the robot arm of "Kibo". Initial checkout was started on Au-gust 4 and successfully ended on September 17. This paper will report the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  7. Steering of Solar Sails Using Optical Lift Force Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study seeks to look beyond the use of radiation pressure for thrust, and to explore a means of solar navigation whereby a solar craft would be steered by use...

  8. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  9. Predicting Material Performance in the Space Environment from Laboratory Test Data, Static Design Environments, and Space Weather Models (United States)

    Minow, Josep I.; Edwards, David L.


    Qualifying materials for use in the space environment is typically accomplished with laboratory exposures to simulated UV/EUV, atomic oxygen, and charged particle radiation environments with in-situ or subsequent measurements of material properties of interest to the particular application. Choice of environment exposure levels are derived from static design environments intended to represent either mean or extreme conditions that are anticipated to be encountered during a mission. The real space environment however is quite variable. Predictions of the on orbit performance of a material qualified to laboratory environments can be done using information on 'space weather' variations in the real environment. This presentation will first review the variability of space environments of concern for material degradation and then demonstrate techniques for using test data to predict material performance in a variety of space environments from low Earth orbit to interplanetary space using historical measurements and space weather models.

  10. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.


    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  11. Carrier Plus: A sensor payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET) (United States)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana


    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTR4) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating to develop the Carrier Plus sensor experiment platform as a capability of the Space Environments Testbed (SET). The Space Environment Testbed (SET) provides flight opportunities for technology experiments as part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Carrier Plus will provide new capability to characterize sensor technologies such as state-of-the-art visible focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a natural space radiation environment. The technical objectives include on-orbit validation of recently developed FPA technologies and performance prediction methodologies, as well as characterization of the FPA radiation response to total ionizing dose damage, displacement damage and transients. It is expected that the sensor experiment will carry 4-6 FPAs and associated radiation correlative environment monitors (CEMs) for a 2006-2007 launch. Sensor technology candidates may include n- and p-charge coupled devices (CCDs), active pixel sensors (APS), and hybrid CMOS arrays. The presentation will describe the Carrier Plus goals and objectives, as well as provide details about the architecture and design. More information on the LWS program can be found at Business announcements for LWS/SET and program briefings are posted at

  12. Influence of simulated space environment on the performance of optical solar reflector (United States)

    Hu, Bingsen; Qiu, Jiawen; Wang, Bin; Chang, Tianhai


    The inf1ere of simulated space environment on the prcpert ies of the satel 1 i te temperature-control coat ing --- Optical Sol ar Ref1etor (OSR) is discussed. I kinds of CSR sample are tested in the simu1at1 space environment . The simulat ion i tens include vacuum US? irradi at on, electron and proton i rradiat ion . The surface charge/discharge test is carried out tcx . After the ecron, proton and UV accelerat ive irradiat ion of total dosage equivalent to 7 years at the south or north pale of geosyixthrcrx,us satellite, the solar aI:sorptaire increases from 0 .068 to 0 . 078 for cczxkt ive C , and from 0 . 066 to 0 . 085 for ncn-oonduct ive OSR; the normal ni ttance decreases from 0 .83 to 0.72 for conditive OSR, and from 0.82 to 0.76 for non-conductive OSR. Also, it is shown from the charge/discharge test that the surface charge potential is only I5--40 V for conduct ive CSR, and about 1 --1 0 Ky for non-conduct ive CSR.

  13. Gene expression of rice seeds surviving 13- and 20-month exposure to space environment (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Oono, Youko; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Gusev, Oleg; Maekawa, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Natalia; Grigoriev, Anatoly


    Rice seeds were exposed outside of the international space station to assess the risk of space environment exposure on gene expression associated with seed germination. The germination percentages of the space-stored and ground-stored seeds exposed for 13 months were 48 and 96% respectively. Those for 20 months were 7 and 76%, respectively. Germination was defined 3 days after imbibition, except for the space-stored seeds exposed for 20 months, which germinated 5 days after imbibition. Subsequent RNA-seq analyses of the dry seeds, germinated seeds, and roots and shoots of seedlings revealed that the mutation rates of mRNA sequences were not significantly different between space-stored and ground-stored samples exposed for 13 months and 20 months. In all, 4 and 16 transcripts of glycolysis-related genes were increased in the germinated seeds after 13-month and 20-month exposure, respectively. Also, 2 and 39 transcripts of long-lived mRNA required for germination were decreased more than 2-fold in the dry seeds after 13-month and 20-month exposure, respectively. These results suggest that damage to long-lived mRNA in seeds by a space environment delays and reduces germination.

  14. Plutos interaction with its space environment: Solar Wind, Energetic Particles & Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Bagenal, F; McComas, D J; McNutt,, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) observations suggested ions are accelerated and-or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes about one tenth the flux in the interplanetary medium, increasing with distance downstream. The Student Dust Counter, which measures radius greater than 1.4 um grains, detected 1 candidate impact from 5days before to 5 days after closest approach, indicating an upper limit for the dust density in the Pluto system of 4.6 per cubic km.

  15. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio


    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  16. Analysis of the Thermo-Elastic Response of Space Reflectors to Simulated Space Environment (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Ivagnes, M. M.; Marchetti, M.; Poscente, F.


    The evaluation of space environment effects on materials and structures is a key matter to develop a proper design of long duration missions: since a large part of satellites operating in the earth orbital environment are employed for telecommunications, the development of space antennas and reflectors featured by high dimensional stability versus space environment interactions represents a major challenge for designers. The structural layout of state of the art space antennas and reflectors is very complex, since several different sensible elements and materials are employed: particular care must be placed in evaluating the actual geometrical configuration of the reflectors operating in the space environment, since very limited distortions of the designed layout can produce severe effects on the quality of the signal both received and transmitted, especially for antennas operating at high frequencies. The effects of thermal loads due to direct sunlight exposition and to earth and moon albedo can be easily taken into account employing the standard methods of structural analysis: on the other hand the thermal cycling and the exposition to the vacuum environment produce a long term damage accumulation which affects the whole structure. The typical effects of the just mentioned exposition are the outgassing of polymeric materials and the contamination of the exposed surface, which can affect sensibly the thermo-mechanical properties of the materials themselves and, therefore, the structural global response. The main aim of the present paper is to evaluate the synergistic effects of thermal cycling and of the exposition to high vacuum environment on an innovative antenna developed by Alenia Spazio S.p.a.: to this purpose, both an experimental and numerical research activity has been developed. A complete prototype of the antenna has been exposed to the space environment simulated by the SAS facility: this latter is constituted by an high vacuum chamber, equipped by

  17. Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)


    The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.

  18. Preliminary analysis of WL experiment number 701: Space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems (United States)

    Taylor, E. W.; Padden, R. J.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Chapman, S. P.


    A brief overview of the analysis performed on WL Experiment number 701 is presented, highlighting the successful operation of the first know active fiber optic links orbited in space. Four operating fiber optic links were exposed to the space environment for a period exceeding five years, situated aboard and external to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Despite the prolonged space exposure to radiation, wide temperature extremums, atomic oxygen interactions, and micrometeorite and debris impacts, the optical data links performed well within specification limits. Early Phillips Laboratory tests and analyses performed on the experiment and its recovered magnetic tape data strongly indicate that fiber optic application in space will have a high success rate.

  19. Preserving the Near-Earth Space Environment with Green Engineering and Operations (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Green engineering and operations are essential to preserving the near-Earth space environment for future generations. The U.S. and the international aerospace community have been proactive in addressing the threat of the increasing orbital debris population and the risks to people and property from reentering debris. NASA has led this activity first by devoting resources to thoroughly understand the technical issues and then by developing effective and acceptable policies and guidelines. NASA also worked closely with the international community to ensure that the US aerospace industry was not placed at an economic disadvantage. In the long term, the removal of large orbital debris will be essential to the sustainability of space operations.

  20. Space environment effect on cell cycle of proliferating FRTL-5 cells (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Meli, Antonella; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria

    The space environment is a unique laboratory to study the response of living organisms to microgravity and cosmic radiation at the molecular and cellular levels. Significant results obtained by us during the Eneide Mission (Soyuz 9S and 10S 2005) showed a different sensitivity to space environment of cells in proliferative state as compared to those in physiological stand-by. The main object of our investigation was to validate these important findings and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. To this purpose, a cell model of normal cells derived from rat thyroids which can be kept unattended for up to 20 days in a proliferative medium and at room temperature (FRTL-5) were used in a 10 days experiment on a FOTON satellite and in a 15 days experiment in the STS-120 shuttle mission. Experimental design for both flights was planned on the basis of the "ENEIDE" mission results. Microarray analysis has been performed on the samples from Foton M3 and STS-120. Background subtraction, quality assessment and normalization as well as the definition of specific evaluation algorithms have been performed. Based on the hyper G Test function we computed the Hyper geometric p-values for over representation of genes at all Gene Ontology (GO) terms in the induced GO graphs; this test was performed for each GO category and applied also to KEGG pathways. Results show the good quality of the experiment and our data show that the pathways mostly affected by the flight are: a) the cell cycle, b) the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, c) the repair mechanisms, d) the adherens junction and e) the pyrimidine metabolism. The patways studied indicate that the cells suffer a slowing of cell cycle as well as upregulation of the DNA and RNA repair processes and even further corroborate the validity of using the FRTL5 cells as biosensors for monitoring the effectiveness of countermeasures to damage caused by the Space.

  1. Dynamics of multibody systems in space environment; Lagrangian vs. Eulerian approach (United States)

    Santini, P.; Gasbarri, P.


    The paper describes the motion of a multibody in space environment: by space environment we mean space-varying gravity, gradient forces, control forces, if any. In the Eulerian approach, the motion of each individual member is described through kinematic parameters: (a) position of its CM with respect to the inertial frame; (b) rotation of the members with respect to the inertial frame; amplitude of the elastic modes (free-free). The said parameters are of different order of magnitudes, and therefore an adequate separation of them is highly desirable. Therefore, individual positions are replaced by overall position of the system (of the order of Earth's radius), and by the motion of each bar relative to it (of the order of members dimension), and for modes amplitudes modal equations are used.It should be noted, however, that the above-described motion parameters are redundant, and we must introduce: (a) reactions between members, (b) equations of compatibility of the same number of reactions.In summary, (i) the set of unknowns is: motion parameters, reactions, control forces; (ii) the equations are equilibrium, compatibility, control. Control is introduced by prescribing the motion of some members, produced by control moments of forces. By simple matrix algebra, it is reduced to a system with motion parameters (overall + local) only. In the Lagrangian approach, motion parameters are selected which are already consistent with compatibility conditions. In this case, as customarily, the expression of kinetic, potential, elastic energy is written, and the application of Lagrangian techniques provides directly the solving system. No reactions and compatibility equations appear here, however; for control purpose, prescribed motion law must again be introduced. Comparison of the two approaches shows perfect agreement (as one should have expected), since they are both exact models referring to the same physical system. In general, however, the Eulerian approach lends

  2. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy


    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  3. The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

  4. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust. (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. PMID:26989259

  5. On HMI solar oblateness during solar cycle 24 and impact of the space environment on results (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bush, R. I.; Irbah, A.


    Solar oblateness is a fundamental parameter of the Sun, which provides indirect information on the inner rotation profile and on the distribution of matter. It also puts constraints on General Relativity. But this quantity is difficult to measure due to its very small value where the solar equator-to-pole radius difference is less than 10 milli-arcsecond (mas). Indeed, the measurements can be affected by magnetic activity and by instrumental effects linked to the space environment. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has produced accurate determinations of the solar oblateness from 2010 to 2015. The HMI measurements of the solar shape are obtained during special roll maneuvers of the spacecraft by 11.25 degrees steps around the spacecraft to the Sun line. HMI roll maneuver has been repeated ten times after the commissioning phase from October 2010 to July 2015. From HMI data, we observed a slight anti-correlation between solar oblateness and solar activity. From a new correction method, we found a mean solar equator-to-pole radius difference of 8.36 ± 0.49 mas (i.e. 6.06 ± 0.35 km at one σ) at 617.3 nm during the period 2010-2015.

  6. LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on (United States)


    LDEF (Postflight), AO175 : Evaluation of Long-Duration Exposure to the Natural Space Environment on Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties, Tray A01 The Graphite-Polyimide and Graphite-Epoxy Mechanical Properties experiment postflight photograph was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility during the period when the LDEF was being transferred from the Orbiter cargo bay to the KSC Payload Transporter. The photograph shows considerably more detail than the flight photograph. The horizontal lines on the honeycomb panel that appear to be cracks from space exposure are instead fine lines of excess epoxy resin formed during the bagging and curing process. The harsh white color of the epoxy adhesive along the rivet lines is from the lighting conditions in the OPF. The brown discoloration on the paint dots and the stain on the aluminum mounting strips appear to have changed little from the flight photograph. The greater detail does show that a stain exists at most composite and mounting strip interfaces.

  7. Pluto' interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust (United States)

    Bagenal, F.; Horányi, M.; McComas, D. J.; McNutt, R. L.; Elliott, H. A.; Hill, M. E.; Brown, L. E.; Delamere, P. A.; Kollmann, P.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kusterer, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Piquette, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J. R.; Valek, P.; Vandegriff, J.; Weidner, S.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Stern, S. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C. B.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Grundy, W. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Moore, J. M.; Spencer, J. R.; Andert, T.; Andrews, J.; Banks, M.; Bauer, B.; Bauman, J.; Barnouin, O. S.; Bedini, P.; Beisser, K.; Beyer, R. A.; Bhaskaran, S.; Binzel, R. P.; Birath, E.; Bird, M.; Bogan, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Bray, V. J.; Brozovic, M.; Bryan, C.; Buckley, M. R.; Buie, M. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Bushman, S. S.; Calloway, A.; Carcich, B.; Cheng, A. F.; Conard, S.; Conrad, C. A.; Cook, J. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Custodio, O. S.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Deboy, C.; Dischner, Z. J. B.; Dumont, P.; Earle, A. M.; Ercol, J.; Ernst, C. M.; Finley, T.; Flanigan, S. H.; Fountain, G.; Freeze, M. J.; Greathouse, T.; Green, J. L.; Guo, Y.; Hahn, M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hamilton, S. A.; Hanley, J.; Harch, A.; Hart, H. M.; Hersman, C. B.; Hill, A.; Hinson, D. P.; Holdridge, M. E.; Howard, A. D.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jackman, C.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Kammer, J. A.; Kang, H. K.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Kusnierkiewicz, D.; Lauer, T. R.; Lee, J. E.; Lindstrom, K. L.; Linscott, I. R.; Lunsford, A. W.; Mallder, V. A.; Martin, N.; Mehoke, D.; Mehoke, T.; Melin, E. D.; Mutchler, M.; Nelson, D.; Nimmo, F.; Nunez, J. I.; Ocampo, A.; Owen, W. M.; Paetzold, M.; Page, B.; Parker, A. H.; Parker, J. W.; Pelletier, F.; Peterson, J.; Pinkine, N.; Porter, S. B.; Protopapa, S.; Redfern, J.; Reitsema, H. J.; Reuter, D. C.; Roberts, J. H.; Robbins, S. J.; Rogers, G.; Rose, D.; Runyon, K.; Retherford, K. D.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Schenk, P.; Schindhelm, E.; Sepan, B.; Showalter, M. R.; Singer, K. N.; Soluri, M.; Stanbridge, D.; Steffl, A. J.; Stryk, T.; Summers, M. E.; Tapley, M.; Taylor, A.; Taylor, H.; Throop, H. B.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Tyler, G. L.; Umurhan, O. M.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Versteeg, M. H.; Vincent, M.; Webbert, R.; Weigle, G. E.; White, O. L.; Whittenburg, K.; Williams, B. G.; Williams, K.; Williams, S.; Woods, W. W.; Zangari, A. M.


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers-3 for the dust density in the Pluto system.

  8. Preliminary analyses of WL experiment No. 701, space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems (United States)

    Taylor, E. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.


    A brief overview of the analyses performed to date on WL Experiment-701 is presented. Four active digital fiber optic links were directly exposed to the space environment for a period of 2114 days. The links were situated aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with the cabled, single fiber windings atop an experimental tray containing instrumentation for exercising the experiment in orbit. Despite the unplanned and prolonged exposure to trapped and galactic radiation, wide temperature extremes, atomic oxygen interactions, and micro-meteorite and debris impacts, in most instances the optical data links performed well within the experimental limits. Analysis of the recorded orbital data clearly indicates that fiber optic applications in space will meet with success. Ongoing tests and analysis of the experiment at the Phillips Laboratory's Optoelectronics Laboratory will expand this premise, and establish the first known and extensive database of active fiber optic link performance during prolonged space exposure. WL Exp-701 was designed as a feasibility demonstration for fiber optic technology in space applications, and to study the performance of operating fiber systems exposed to space environmental factors such as galactic radiation, and wide temperature cycling. WL Exp-701 is widely acknowledged as a benchmark accomplishment that clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that fiber optic technology can be successfully used in a variety of space applications.

  9. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust. (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system.

  10. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti


    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  11. Genomic polymorphism and protein changes of soybean mutant induced by space environment (United States)

    He, J.; Gao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    Soybean 194 4126 of excellent agricultural qualities such as high yield and rounder and wider leaf was selected in six generation after abroad recoverable satellite 15 days in 1996 from Soybean 72163 featured with long-leaf white-blossom grey-hair and infinitude-poding To explore the mechanisms of plant mutation induced by space environment we have experimented at genome and proteome level on Soybean 194 4126 and its control Soybean 72163 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism AFLP was used to identify mutated sits and the result shows that 36 polymorphic bands varying between 100 and 900 bp in 2022 DNA bands varying between 100 and 1500 bp have been amplified out of 64 pairs of primer combinations between mutant Soybean 194 4126 and the control plant So the mutation degree of DNA is 3 56 The protein two-dimensional electrophoresis 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprint PMF assays were used to investigate the difference of proteins in fruits and leaves between Soybean 194 4126 and its control Results indicate that 62 protein dots specially appear in Soybean 72163 and 39 dots specially in the mutant Soybean 194 4126 by image analysis software PDQuest in the 2-DE maps of soybean seeds Using PMF assay and protein data-base searching to investigate two distinct protein dots we found that the protein specially expressed in the seed of mutant Soybean 194 4126 may be Dehydrin and the other protein specially expressed in the seed of the control Soybean 72163 may be maturation-associated protein MAT1 Because Dehydrin and MAT1 are

  12. Space environment data storage and access: lessons learned and recommendations for the future (United States)

    Evans, Hugh; Heynderickx, Daniel


    With the ever increasing volume of space environment data available at present and planned for the near future, the demands on data storage and access methods are increasing as well. In addition, continued access to historical, archived data remains crucial. On the basis of many years of experience, the authors identify the following issues as important for continued and efficient handling of datasets now and in the future: The huge data volumes currently or very soon avaiable from a number of space missions will limi direct Internet download access to even relatively short epoch ranges of data. Therefore, data providers should establish or extend standardised data (post-) processing services so that only data query results should be downloaded. Although a single standardised data format will in all likelihood remain utopia, data providers should at least include extensive metadata with their data products, according to established standards and practices (e.g. ISTP, SPASE). Standardisation of (sets of) metadata greatly facilitates data mining and querying. The use of SQL database storage should be considered instead of, or in parallel with, classic storage of data files. The use of SQL does away with having to handle file parsing and processing, while at the same time standard access protocols can be used to (remotely) connect to such data repositories. Many data holdings are still lacking in extensive descriptions of data provenance (e.g. instrument description), content and format. Unfortunately, detailed data information is usually rejected by scientific and technical journals. Re-processing of historical archived datasets into modern formats, making them easily available and usable, is urgently required, as knowledge is being lost. A global data directory has still not been achieved; policy makers should enforce stricter rules for "broadcasting" dataset information.

  13. Research on the Color in U rban Space Environment%城市空间环境中的色彩研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章指出了目前城市空间环境中色彩运用所呈现出的问题及其影响因素,分析了欧美国家在城市色彩控制方面的实践成果,提出了适合中国城市空间环境色彩的营造策略,以期为今后的城市色彩规划和控制提供借鉴。%This paper points out the problems and the influencing factors of the color in urban space en‐vironment .Then the practical results of urban color control in European and American countries are analyzed .Finally ,a color strategy for the urban space environment in China is proposed in order to provide a scientific method for the urban color planning and control in the future .

  14. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) (United States)

    Koga, K.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Kawano, H.; Yumoto, K.


    To support future space activities, it is crucial to acquire space environmental data related to the space-radiation degradation of space parts and materials, and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. SEDA-AP was mounted on 'Kibo' of the ISS (International Space Station) to measure the space environment at a 400-kilometer altitude. Neutrons are very harmful radiation, with electrical neutrality that makes them strongly permeable. SEDA-AP measures the energy of neutrons from thermal to 100 MeV in real time using a Bonner Ball Detector (BBND) and a Scintillation Fiber Detector (FIB). BBND detects neutrons using He-3 counters, which have high sensitivity to thermal neutrons. Neutron energy is derived using the relative response function of polyethylene moderators of 6 different thicknesses. FIB measures the tracks of recoil protons caused by neutrons within a cubic arrayed sensor of 512 scintillation fibers. The charged particles are excluded using an anti-scintillator which surrounds the cube sensor, and the neutron energy is obtained from the track length of a recoil proton. There are three sources of neutrons in space; 1. Albedo Neutrons Produced by reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with the atmosphere 2. Local Neutrons Produced by the reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with spacecraft 3. Solar Neutrons Produced by accelerated particles in solar flares An accurate energy spectrum of the solar neutrons includes important information on high-energy particle generation mechanism in a solar flare, because neutrons are unaffected by interplanetary magnetic fields. These data will become useful to forecast solar energetic particles in future. Some candidate events involving solar neutrons were found as a result of analyzing data of the solar flare of M>2 since September 2009. Moreover, it is important to measure albedo neutrons, since protons generated by neutron

  15. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications (United States)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara


    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  16. Oxygen analyzer (United States)

    Benner, William H.


    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  17. Theory of Closed Space Environment Control and Philosophical Thought%封闭空间环境控制理论与哲学思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Closed environment and closed environment control technology ( such as building space, airplane space, and indus- trial low-temperature space) mean the artificial technology for serving the human production and human life. The harmony and unity of human, the external environment, environment control system and closed environment can be realized by the comforta- ble, energy-saving, environment protecting and healthy closed environment control technology, and under the guidance of cor- rect philosophical thought. Such philosophical concepts as harmony between heaven and man, being people-oriented, recogniz- ing the inner value of nature and understanding the natural beauty can effectively guide the concept design of environment control technology. On the basis of analyzing closed space environment control and of basic natural philosophical view point, this article summarizes the philosophical thoughts related to closed space environment control, the core of which is the unity of heaven and man,%封闭环境与封闭环境控制技术(如建筑空间、飞机空间、工业低温空间)是指人工创造的,为人类生产生活服务的技术,其在现代社会中有不可替代的地位。舒适、节能、环保、健康的封闭环控技术只有在正确的哲学观念引领下才有可能实现人、外部环境、环控系统、封闭环境的和谐统一。天人和谐,以人为本,承认大自然的内在价值,认识自然美等哲学观念可以有效指导封闭环控技术的概念设计。在分析封闭空间环控,基本自然哲学观基础上,总结了同封闭空间环控有关的哲学思想,思想核心是天人统一。

  18. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  19. Analysis of transient temperature field of the laminate composite membrane in space environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The on-orbit transient temperature of reflector laminate film was analyzed by using finite element method (FEM) . Numerical simulation was used by FEM software ANSYS. Results reveal that the temperature levels of the laminate composite membrane alternate greatly in the orbital period, which is about ±80℃. This range exceeds the material's operating temperature level. So it is necessary to put effective thermal control into effect to the laminate composite membrane. There is temperature gradient in the thickness direction of the laminate composite membrane: there is a light change in Kevlar/Epoxy layer. The temperature of the laminate composite membrane is obviously lower than the seam's temperature. Results provide reference to the thermal control of the inflatable reflector with high precision requirement.

  20. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; Christiansen, Eric; Schneider, Todd; Edwards, Dave


    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  1. The influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system: conception, methods, and risk analysis (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy; Falchenko, Iurii; Fedorchuk, Viktor; Petrushynets, Lidiia


    This report focuses on the results of the EU project "Superlight-weight thermal protection system for space application (LIGHT-TPS)". The bottom line is an analysis of influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system (TPS). This report focuses on new methods that based on the following models: synergetic, physical, and computational. This report concentrates on four approaches. The first concerns the synergetic approach. The synergetic approach to the solution of problems of self-controlled synthesis of structures and creation of self-organizing technologies is considered in connection with the super-problem of creation of materials with new functional properties. Synergetics methods and mathematical design are considered according to actual problems of material science. The second approach describes how the optimization methods can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties. This technique enables one to find unexpected microstructures with exotic behavior (e.g., negative thermal expansion coefficients). The third approach concerns the dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of TPS l elements with complex characterizations for damages using a physical model of TPS system and a predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. Focusing is given mainly on the TPS model, mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment and software for the modeling and prediction of the influence of the free space environment. The probabilistic risk assessment method for TPS is presented considering some deterministic and stochastic factors. The last approach concerns results of experimental research of the temperature distribution on the surface of the honeycomb sandwich panel size 150 x 150 x 20 mm at the diffusion welding in vacuum are considered. An equipment, which provides alignment of temperature fields in a product for the formation of equal strength of welded joints is

  2. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury (United States)


    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  3. Development of GFP fusions for examination of the effects of the space environment on gene expression in Escherichia coli (United States)

    Mancinelli, R.; Fahlen, T.

    The goal of the In situ Space Gene Expression on Nano-satillites (ISGEN) program is to be ready to fly technology that can support a fully automated experiment to quantify changes in model organisms in situ in low earth orbit in a free flyer platform in less than two years. A straightforward gene expression assay that meets the ISGEN flight objective for testing flight hardware as well as return data regarding the effects of microgravity on gene expression has been developed. Escherichia coli K-12, a bacterium that exhibits changes in its growth pattern when flown in micro-gravity on the Space Shuttle, was used. The scientific objective of this work is to determine if there is a discernable change in metabolic and stress pathway gene expression due to growth in the space environment. To that end, we have linked the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gfp to phoP, a gene that responds to extracellular Mg2+ levels, and pykF, a gene involved in the glycolytic pathway that responds to changes in intracellular pyruvate. These genes respond to the metabolic needs of the cell and may be altered in the micro-gravity environment. E. coli cells containing a plasmid encoding the phoP-gfp-mut3 reporter construct were grown with or without MgSO_4. The effect of the added MgSO_4 is the repression of the expression of GFP. This is the expected result if GFP expression were under the control of a magnesium-regulated promoter such as phoP. Consistent with the negative feedback loop, we observe repression of GFP production in cells containing our pykF-gfp plasmid construct, when grown in the presence of excess glucose. Thus, the pykF-gfp fusion functions as a glucose sensor.

  4. Design Analysis about Visual Perception of "Natural Light" in Architectural Space Environment%建筑空间环境的“自然光”视觉设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    视觉不是对元素的机械复制,而是对有意义的整体结构式样的把握.在建筑形态与空间环境设计中,光线的概念应该是由眼睛直接提供的,它与科学家对光线的物理解释有着本质的不同.人对光线现象的反应是有选择的注意,人对光的特性的直觉体验结果是:轻、透、亮.同时,“光”与“影”是相伴相随的,而且光与影的具象视觉效果暗示着抽象的时间的流逝.建筑空间环境中的光视觉反应对人的行为有导向和暗示作用.基于这种观点,结合典型建筑设计案例,分析建筑空间环境的“光”视觉设计问题.%Visual perception is not the mechanical reproduction of the elements, but meaningful integration of the overall structural pattern. In the design of architectural form and space environment, the concept of light is directly formed by the perception of the eyes, which is entirely different from the physical interpretation by scientists. Our response to the light phenomenon is selective attention, and our intuitive experience of the characteristics of light is its lightness, transparency, and brightness. On the other hand, the "light" and "shadow" go hand in hand, and the specific visual effect of light and shadow suggests an abstract passage of time. The visual response to the light in the architectural space environment has the effects of orientation and hint on human behavior. Based on this viewpoint, combined with the typical architectural design cases, this paper analyzes the visual design of the "light" in the architectural space environment.

  5. 空间生物学研究的地面模拟技术进展%Progress of Technologies Stimulating Space Environment for Biology Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The study of space biology becomes significant and requires the advanced technologies for stimulating space environment considering the rare opportunity and the high costs of space experiments.In this article,the characteristics and applications of the existing technologies for stimulating the microgravity environment are systematically analyzed.Based on the research tendency of the coupling effects of multi-factors,laser trap is proposed to be the next generation technology for the simulation.This technology has the great advantages for manipulating cells without contact,manipulating intra-cell particles and fixing cell position,which is valuable for producing the good simulation effect.The well compatibility and complementation between the technologies of laser trap and thesingle ion radiation will be very useful for the study of coupling effects of the microgravity and radiation.%空间生命科学研究日益重要,但是由于受到稀少空间实验机会和高昂实验成本等条件制约,目前对空间环境的地面模拟技术要求更加迫切.在较系统地分析现有微重力环境模拟技术的技术特点和适用范围的基础上,结合未来多因素耦合研究的发展趋势,提出了采用激光光阱技术模拟微重力环境的建议.激光光阱操纵生物细胞的非接触性、光穿透性和定位性有助于获得较好的模拟效果.激光光阱技术与单细胞定点单离子辐射技术良好的相容性和互补性有助于开展微重力与辐射的耦合影响研究.

  6. New-Measurement Techniques to Diagnose Charged Dust and Plasma Layers in the Near-Earth Space Environment Using Ground-Based Ionospheric Heating Facilities


    Mahmoudian, Alireza


    Recently, experimental observations have shown that radar echoes from the irregularitysource region associated with mesospheric dusty space plasmas may be modulated by radio wave heating with ground-based ionospheric heating facilities. These experiments show great promise as a diagnostic for the associated dusty plasma in the Near-Earth Space Environment which is believed to have links to global change. This provides an alternative to more complicated and costly space-based observational app...

  7. Fiber-Optic Shape Sensing for Intelligent Solar Sail Deployment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations proposes to develop a distributed fiber-optic shape sensor to provide a control system for the deployment of ultra-lightweight inflatable support...

  8. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  9. Ground-Based Testing of TiB2 and Al2O3/TiB2 Response to Space Environment (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Logan, Kathryn V.


    Two materials, titanium diboride and an alumina/titanium diboride composite, exhibit characteristics favorable for use in multiple space applications. These characteristics include low mass (4.52 gm/cc), high strain rate impact resistance, high temperature use (3000oC M.P.), thermal and electrical conductivity, thermal shock resistance, and high visible-range reflectivity. Additionally, the presence of boron in these materials gives them the potential to shield against neutron radiation as well as charged radiation. These materials are flying on MISSE 6 to assess material changes resulting from exposure to the space environment. This study provides a preliminary, ground-based examination of these materials' interactions with individual components of the space environment, in particular atomic oxygen (AO) and neutron radiation, in order to better predict and understand post-flight results. Individual specimens are exposed to ground state AO and surface oxidation is measured. Equivalent exposures of up to 13 months show no rapid oxidation, however evidence indicates some surface oxidation occurring. Other samples are placed near a polyethylene moderated, one Ci Am/Be neutron source to determine their shielding capability. Comparisons between exposed and shielded indium foil, which is activated by transmitted neutrons, measure each material's ability to shield neutrons. Preliminary results indicate a significant shielding benefit provided by both materials.

  10. Mechanical analysis of carbon fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composite for self-deployable structure in space environment (United States)

    Hong, Seok Bin; Ahn, Yong San; Jang, Joon Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Gyun; Goo, Nam Seo; Yu, Woong-Ryeol


    Shape memory polymer (SMP) is one of smart polymers which exhibit shape memory effect upon external stimuli. Reinforcements as carbon fiber had been used for making shape memory polymer composite (CF-SMPC). This study investigated a possibility of designing self-deployable structures in harsh space condition using CF-SMPCs and analyzed their shape memory behaviors with constitutive equation model.CF-SMPCs were prepared using woven carbon fabrics and a thermoset epoxy based SMP to obtain their basic mechanical properties including actuation in harsh environment. The mechanical and shape memory properties of SMP and CF-SMPCs were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and universal tensile machine (UTM) with an environmental chamber. The mechanical properties such as flexural strength and tensile strength of SMP and CF-SMPC were measured with simple tensile/bending test and time dependent shape memory behavior was characterized with designed shape memory bending test. For mechanical analysis of CF-SMPCs, a 3D constitutive equation of SMP, which had been developed using multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and shape memory strains, was used with material parameters determined from CF-SMPCs. Carbon fibers in composites reinforced tensile and flexural strength of SMP and acted as strong elastic springs in rheology based equation models. The actuation behavior of SMP matrix and CF-SMPCs was then simulated as 3D shape memory bending cases. Fiber bundle property was imbued with shell model for more precise analysis and it would be used for prediction of deploying behavior in self-deployable hinge structure.

  11. Spacecraft failures and anomalies related with space environment%归因于空间环境的航天器故障与异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The effect of the natural space environment on the design, development and operation of spacecraft is discussed by a series of NASA reports compiled by Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Among these reports, NASA RP-1390 contains a detailed discussion of seven major environmental issues, including their definitions, related design concerns, and their influence on spacecraft subsystems. Typical cases of more than one hundred spacecraft failures and anomalies that took place during 1974-1994 related with natural space environment are provided in NASA RP-1390, with statistic analyses which may help spacecraft designers and managers to minimize the risk and optimize the design in reduced cost to better accomplish the target flight mission.%天然空间环境对航天器设计、研制和运行的影响是NASA马歇尔空间飞行中心系统分析和集成实验室电磁与航空宇宙环境部组织编写的一系列NASA RP报告的主题.其中,NASA RP-1390详细概述了天然空间环境7个主要环境因素,包括它们的简单定义、相关的型号计划事项以及对各种航天器分系统的影响.该报告提供100多个从1974~1994年间发生的归因于天然空间环境的航天器故障和异常的案例,统计分析天然空间环境及其对航天器的影响.文章是对这篇报告的介绍与点评.

  12. The Intermodulation Lockin Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, Erik A; Forchheimer, Daniel; Schuler, Vivien; Tholen, Mats O; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David B


    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lock-in analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  13. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B


    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  14. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene


    the interdependency between researcher and researched. On this basis, we advocate an explicit “open-state-of mind” listening as a key aspect of analyzing qualitative material, often described only as a matter of reading transcribed empirical materials, reading theory, and writing. The article contributes......The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts...... of various interviews conveyed diverse significance to the listening researcher at different times became a method of continuously opening up the empirical material in a reflexive, breakdown-oriented process of analysis. We argue that situating analysis in the present of analyzing emphasizes and acknowledges...

  15. Analyzing binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R


    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  16. Software Design Analyzer System (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.


    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  17. Total organic carbon analyzer (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.


    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  18. Analyzing radioligand binding data. (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard


    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  19. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  20. Physics of the Space Environment (United States)

    Vasyliünas, Vytenis M.

    This book, one in the Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series, joins a growing list of advanced-level textbooks in a field of study and research known under a variety of names: space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial or solar-planetary relations, space weather, or (the official name of the relevant AGU section) space physics and aeronomy. On the basis of graduate courses taught by the author in various departments at the University of Michigan, complete with problems and with appendices of physical constants and mathematical identities, this is indeed a textbook, systematic and severe in its approach. The book is divided into three parts, in length ratios of roughly 6:4:5. Part I, “Theoretical Description of Gases and Plasmas,” starts by writing down Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz transformation (no nonsense about any introductory material of a descriptive or historical nature) and proceeds through particle orbit theory, kinetics, and plasma physics with fluid and MHD approximations to waves, shocks, and energetic particle transport. Part II, “The Upper Atmosphere,” features chapters on the terrestrial upper atmosphere, airglow and aurora, and the ionosphere. Part III, “Sun-Earth Connection,” deals with the Sun, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the terrestrial magnetosphere. The book thus covers, with two exceptions, just about all the topics of interest to Space Physics and Aeronomy scientists, and then some (the chapter on the Sun, for instance, briefly discusses also topics of the solar interior: thermonuclear energy generation, equilibrium structure, energy transfer, with a page or two on each). One exception reflects a strong geocentric bias: there is not one word in the main text on magnetospheres and ionospheres of other planets and their interaction with the solar wind (they are mentioned in a few problems). The other exception: the chapter on the terrestrial magnetosphere lacks a systematic exposition of the theory of magnetosphereionosphere coupling.

  1. Next generation Space Environment Monitor (SEM) for FY-2 satellite series%风云二号03批卫星空间环境监测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦飞; 王世金; 梁金宝; 王月; 张申毅; 荆涛; 张焕新; 张斌全; 冷双


    风云二号卫星以自旋稳定方式工作于地球静止轨道,自1997年以来,01批与02批卫星空间环境监测器成功的业务运行获得了大量重要探测成果;在继承01批与02批产品研制技术的基础上,提高了03批空间环境监测器的探测性能指标和技术设计,更好地满足空间天气预警业务发展的新需求.本文对风云二号03批卫星空间环境监测器的新设计、关键技术研制和发射前的定标试验结果进行分析和讨论.%FY-2 satellites have been observing the terrestrial weather as well as monitoring many aspects of the space environment since 1997. In the past 14 years, the observations obtained by FY-2 satellites have provided plenty data to study space weather about how the solar X ray and energetic charged particles, both proton and electron, affect the earth and its atmospheric environment. For the next series of FY-2 satellites, named series 03 beginning with the first satellite given to the number 07 on the ground and converted to F after being successfully launched, the space environment monitor package will have new instrument design to the solar X-ray detector and energetic particle detectors, which are respectively named the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SXRS), High Energy Proton and Heavy Ion Detector (HEPHID) and High Energy Electron Detector (HEED). This paper presents the special technologies applied, such as silicon drift detector (SDD) for the Solar X-ray Spectrometer, and the first pre-flight calibration results for the new instruments.

  2. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph. (United States)

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  3. List mode multichannel analyzer (United States)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.


    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  4. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  5. Analyzing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian


    , because the costs of processing and analyzing it exceed the benefits indicating bounded rationality. Hutton (2002) concludes that the analyst community’s inability to raise important questions on quality of management and the viability of its business model inevitably led to the Enron debacle. There seems...

  6. Lear CAN analyzer


    Peiró Ibañez, Felipe


    Since it was introduced in the automotive industry, the protocol CAN (Controller Area Network) has been widely used for its benefits. This has led many companies to offer several hardware and software solutions in order to monitor the communications that gives this protocol. The current master thesis presents the Lear CAN Analyzer as a software tool developed within the company LEAR Corporation. It is designed to be used in the automobile industry as a complement or substitute for other co...

  7. Analyzing business process management


    Skjæveland, Børge


    Within the Oil & Gas Industry, the market is constantly growing more competitive, forcing companies to continually adapt to changes. Companies need to cut costs and improve the business efficiency. One way of successfully managing these challenges is to implement business process management in the organization. This thesis will analyze how Oceaneering Asset Integrity AS handled the implementation of a Business Process Management System and the effects it had on the employees. The main goal...

  8. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  10. Selection of a Data Acquisition and Controls System Communications and Software Architecture for Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory Thermal and Vacuum Test Facilities (United States)

    Jordan, Eric A.


    Upgrade of data acquisition and controls systems software at Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) involved the definition, evaluation and selection of a system communication architecture and software components. A brief discussion of the background of the SESL and its data acquisition and controls systems provides a context for discussion of the requirements for each selection. Further framework is provided as upgrades to these systems accomplished in the 1990s and in 2003 are compared to demonstrate the role that technological advances have had in their improvement. Both of the selections were similar in their three phases; 1) definition of requirements, 2) identification of candidate products and their evaluation and testing and 3) selection by comparison of requirement fulfillment. The candidates for the communication architecture selection embraced several different methodologies which are explained and contrasted. Requirements for this selection are presented and the selection process is described. Several candidates for the software component of the data acquisition and controls system are identified, requirements for evaluation and selection are presented, and the evaluation process is described.

  11. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin (United States)

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry


    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  12. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  13. Ring Image Analyzer (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.


    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  14. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C


    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  15. NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight: Two NearTerm Interplanetary CubeSat Missions (United States)

    Johnson, Les


    NASA is developing two small satellite missions as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, both of which will use a solar sail to enable their scientific objectives. Solar sails reflect sunlight from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material to provide thrust. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers in space. Lunar Flashlight, managed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic mirror to steer sunlight into them, then examine the reflected light with a spectrometer. The Lunar Flashlight spacecraft will also use the solar sail to maneuver into a lunar polar orbit. The mission will demonstrate a low-cost capability to explore, locate and estimate the size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, managed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will survey and image a Near Earth Asteroid for possible future human exploration using a smallsat propelled by a solar sail. Detections of NEAs are expected to grow in the near future, offering increasing target opportunities. Obtaining and analyzing relevant data about these bodies via robotic precursors before committing a crew to visit them is essential. The NEA Scout spacecraft is nearly identical to the one being developed for Lunar Flashlight, with the science instrument package being the primary difference. The NEA Scout solar sail will provide the primary propulsion taking the 6U cubesat from near the Earth to its final asteroid destination and the Lunar Flashlight sail will provide the propulsion necessary for its spacecraft to enter lunar orbit. Both projects will use an 85 m2 solar sail developed by NASA MSFC. The NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight flight systems are based on a 6U cubesat form factor, with a stowed envelope of 10 x 20 x 30 cm and a mass of less

  16. Residual gas analyzer calibration (United States)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.


    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  17. Analyzing architecture articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the present study, we express the quality, function, and characteristics of architecture to help people comprehensively understand what architecture is. We also reveal the problems and conflict found in population, land, water resources, pollution, energy, and the organization systems in construction. China’s economy is transforming. We should focus on the cities, architectural environment, energy conservation, emission-reduction, and low-carbon output that will result in successful green development. We should macroscopically and microscopically analyze the development, from the natural environment to the artificial environment; from the relationship between human beings and nature to the combination of social ecology in cities, and farmlands. We must learn to develop and control them harmoniously and scientifically to provide a foundation for the methods used in architecture research.

  18. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at

  19. GOES-R Space Environment In-Situ Suite: instruments overview, calibration results, and data processing algorithms, and expected on-orbit performance (United States)

    Galica, G. E.; Dichter, B. K.; Tsui, S.; Golightly, M. J.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.


    The space weather instruments (Space Environment In-Situ Suite - SEISS) on the soon to be launched, NOAA GOES-R series spacecraft offer significant space weather measurement performance advances over the previous GOES N-P series instruments. The specifications require that the instruments ensure proper operation under the most stressful high flux conditions corresponding to the largest solar particle event expected during the program, while maintaining high sensitivity at low flux levels. Since the performance of remote sensing instruments is sensitive to local space weather conditions, the SEISS data will be of be of use to a broad community of users. The SEISS suite comprises five individual sensors and a data processing unit: Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-Low (0.03-30 keV electrons and ions), Magnetospheric Particle Sensor-High (0.05-4 MeV electrons, 0.08-12 MeV protons), two Solar And Galactic Proton Sensors (1 to >500 MeV protons), and the Energetic Heavy ion Sensor (10-200 MeV for H, H to Fe with single element resolution). We present comparisons between the enhanced GOES-R instruments and the current GOES space weather measurement capabilities. We provide an overview of the sensor configurations and performance. Results of extensive sensor modeling with GEANT, FLUKA and SIMION are compared with calibration data measured over nearly the entire energy range of the instruments. Combination of the calibration results and model are used to calculate the geometric factors of the various energy channels. The calibrated geometric factors and typical and extreme space weather environments are used to calculate the expected on-orbit performance.

  20. Temporal changes in the skin Malassezia microbiota of members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE): A case study in Antarctica as a pseudo-space environment. (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yamada, Shin; Takeoka, Hajime; Cho, Otomi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Ohno, Giichiro; Watanabe, Kentaro; Makimura, Koichi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki


    The International Space Station (ISS) is located approximately 400 km above the Earth. Astronauts staying at the ISS are under microgravity and are thus unable to bathe or shower; instead, they wash their bodies using wet tissues. For astronauts, skin hygiene management is important to maintain the quality of life during long-term stays on the ISS. In Antarctica, members of a Japanese geological investigation team negotiate their way over land using snowmobiles. During their 3-month stay, they are subject to a "pseudo-space" environment similar to that experienced by ISS astronauts, including the inability to bathe or shower. In this study, temporal changes in the colonization levels of skin lipophilic fungi, Malassezia were investigated in 16 team members. Compared to the levels before their trip to Antarctica, the fold changes in Malassezia colonization levels during the researchers' stay in Antarctica were in the range of 3.0 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 7.5 in cheek samples, 8.9 ± 10.6 to 22.2 ± 40.0 in anterior chest samples, 6.2 ± 5.4 to 16.9 ± 25.5 in behind-the-ear samples, and 1.7 ± 0.9 to 17.4 ± 33.4 in sole-of-the-foot samples. On the scalp, the level of Malassezia colonization increased dramatically, by 96.7 ± 113.8 to 916.9 ± 1251.5 fold. During their stay in Antarctica, the team members experienced itchy scalps and produced a large number of scales. The relative proportions of Malassezia globosa and M. restricta shifted to seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff types. These results provide useful information for the development of skin hygiene management plans for astronauts staying at the ISS. PMID:26129888

  1. Pseudostupidity and analyzability. (United States)

    Cohn, L S


    This paper seeks to heighten awareness of pseudostupidity and the potential analyzability of patients who manifest it by defining and explicating it, reviewing the literature, and presenting in detail the psychoanalytic treatment of a pseudostupid patient. Pseudostupidity is caused by an inhibition of the integration and synthesis of thoughts resulting in a discrepancy between intellectual capacity and apparent intellect. The patient's pseudostupidity was determined in part by his need to prevent his being more successful than father, i.e., defeating his oedipal rival. Knowing and learning were instinctualized. The patient libidinally and defensively identified with father's passive, masochistic position. He needed to frustrate the analyst as he had felt excited and frustrated by his parents' nudity and thwarted by his inhibitions. He wanted to cause the analyst to feel as helpless as he, the patient, felt. Countertransference frustration was relevant and clinically useful in the analysis. Interpretation of evolving relevant issues led to more anxiety and guilt, less pseudostupidity, a heightened alliance, and eventual working through. Negative therapeutic reactions followed the resolution of pseudostupidity. PMID:2708771

  2. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  3. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric


    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  4. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.


    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  5. Crew Activity Analyzer (United States)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander


    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  6. Soft Decision Analyzer (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam


    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  7. Total Plasma Density Determination In The Earth's Space Environment From The Active and Passive Measurements of The Cluster/whisper Experiment (United States)

    Trotignon, J. G.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Darrouzet, F.; Décréau, P. M. E.; Hitier, R.; Le Guirriec, E.; Lemaire, J.; Rauch, J. L.; Rème, H.

    The WHISPER experiment that is onboard the four CLUSTER satellites is a classical relaxation sounder. It therefore sends short pulses (0.5 ms or 1 ms) at given frequen- cies in the surrounding medium. The answer from the probed plasma is subsequently received and analysed onboard. A fast Fourier transform is applied to the received sig- nal and the calculated frequency spectrum transmitted to the ground. The frequency at which the pulse is transmitted varies step by step, 1 kHz or 2 kHz in width, from 2 kHz to 80 kHz, i.e., in a frequency range that includes the plasma frequency expected in the Earth's space environment from the plasmapause to the solar wind. In active (sounding) mode, plasma resonances are thus triggered by WHISPER at characteris- tic frequencies from which the total plasma density and, possibly, the magnetic field modulus are derived. Whenever the transmitter is switched off, the WHISPER behaves like a simple wave receiver. The electric field component of natural waves are then recorded, its frequency spectrum determined onboard and fed into the telemetry. The objective of the presentation is to show how the total plasma density is derived from the active and passive measurements of the WHISPER. Different types of plasma res- onances are actually excited depending on the nature of the encountered plasma. Once the resonances are identified, their frequency locations are used for plasma density determinations. The characteristic frequencies of the plasma being known from the active measurements, natural waves (passive measurements) may be identified more easily. Their characteristics, such as cut-off or maximum-intensity frequencies, may be used for plasma density measurement purposes, which allows the gaps between active sequences to be filled in. Some examples in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the plasmapause are shown. A particular attention is paid to the latter. The hot to cold electron density ratio may indeed be estimated, and

  8. 窗帘织物与室内空间环境的配套设计%Matching design of curtain and interior space environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽霞; 李月; 姚佳; 张声诚; 张红霞


    According to analysis on matching design of curtain and interior space environment, this thesis concludes the matching design of curtain concentrated on color matching method, the matching method of patterns and the matching method uniform styles. In addition, it also discusses the methods and skills of each matching design of curtain. After mastering and applying patterns of textiles flexibly, color as well as the matching design law of structures, this thesis designs coordinated, uniform and changeable products, which helps to meet demands for fashionable rhythm and diversification of home textiles in modern market and provided customers with one-stop service of home textiles with integrity, coherence and matching property. Meanwhile, it designs two sets of curtain fabric matching with the bedroom environment, which are suitable for the use of spring and summer, autumn and winter, providing reference for the development of curtain matching design for the companies.%通过对窗帘织物与室内空间环境配套设计方法的分析,将窗帘织物的配套设计重点归纳为色彩配套法、图案配套法和款式统一配套法.探讨了窗帘织物的各类配套设计方法与技巧,通过掌握并灵活运用纺织品图案、色彩及结构的配套设计规律,设计出协调统一而又不失变化的产品,有助于适应现代市场整体家纺时尚化的节奏和多元化的需求,给消费者提供整体、连贯、配套的家用纺织品一站式服务.同时,设计开发了春夏季、秋冬季两个系列的窗帘配套设计方案,为窗帘生产企业进行配套开发提供参考.

  9. 模拟空间环境下射流雾化特性实验%Experimental Study on Atomization Characteristics of Liquid Injection in Simulated Space Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪流; 池保华; 李龙飞; 徐云飞; 陈鹏飞


    To investigate the atomization characteristics of liquid injection in space,a simulated vacuum system was built, and the influence of saturated vapor pressure, nozzle diameter, Rcynold number and dissolved gas on flash evaporation was studied. The experimental results show that the intensity of flashing which is the dominant breakup mechanism in vacuum, is determined by saturated vapor pressure. Nozzle diameter has an important effect on the atomization. The influence of diameter on liquid injection in vacuum can be divided into several aspects: the state of flow, the turbulence intensity and the period of bubble growth. Reynold number of the jet affects atomization under space environment from three aspects : outlet velocity, flow state and flash evaporation. Dissolved gas considerably influenced the spray characteristic of liquid jet in vacuum via the unsta- ble growth and micro-explosion of bubbles.%为了深入研究空间环境下液体工质的喷射雾化特性,搭建了空间环境模拟实验系统,综合研究了真空环境下饱和蒸汽压、喷嘴直径、雷诺数和溶气等对液体射流雾化特性的影响。试验结果表明:闪蒸是真空环境下射流雾化的主要因素,射流雾化过程中闪蒸强度主要由工质饱和蒸汽压决定;喷嘴直径主要通过三方面的影响对射流雾化起作用:流动状态、湍流强度和气泡生长周期;雷诺数对真空雾化的影响主要涵盖以下三点:出口速度、流动状态和闪蒸过程;溶气对射流雾化有明显的影响作用,影响途径是通过气泡的不稳定生长和微爆作用。

  10. The production of ultrathin polyimide films for the solar sail program and Large Space Structures Technology (LSST): A feasibility study (United States)

    Forester, R. H.


    Polyimide membranes of a thickness range from under 0.01 micron m to greater than 1 micron m can be produced at an estimated cost of 50 cents per sq m (plus the cost of the polymer). The polymer of interest is dissolved in a solvent which is solube in water. The polymer or casting solution is allowed to flow down an inclined ramp onto a water surface where a pool of floating polymer develops. The solvent dissolves into the water lowering the surface tension of the water on equently, the contact angle of the polymer pool is very low and the edge of the pool is very thin. The solvent dissolves from this thin region too rapidly to be replenished from the bulk of the pool and a solid polymer film forms. Firm formation is rapid and spontaneous and the film spreads out unaided, many feet from the leading edge of the pool. The driving force for this process is the exothermic solution of the organic solvent from the polymer solution into the water.

  11. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...... commensurable entities (animal, embryo, mating) and the impacts of these valuation and qualifications on government of living entities....

  12. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika


    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  13. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer (United States)

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Willey, Melvin G.


    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties.

  14. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  15. Analyzing the Grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Teschner, Richard V


    Analyzing the Grammar of English offers a descriptive analysis of the indispensable elements of English grammar. Designed to be covered in one semester, this textbook starts from scratch and takes nothing for granted beyond a reading and speaking knowledge of English. Extensively revised to function better in skills-building classes, it includes more interspersed exercises that promptly test what is taught, simplified and clarified explanations, greatly expanded and more diverse activities, and a new glossary of over 200 technical terms.Analyzing the Grammar of English is the only English gram


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The new large heat flow simulator in profiling for space environment simulation equipment is introduced. The heater of the simulator is made of graphite. Commonly used quartz lamp array infrared simulator, the metal heated cage infrared simulator, solar simulator, and the graphite simulator were compared.%介绍了一种新型的采用石墨作为发热体的空间环境模拟设备--大热流内仿形模拟器,并与空间环境模拟设备通常所采用的石英灯阵红外模拟器、金属加热笼红外模拟器和太阳模拟器进行了比较.

  17. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.


    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  18. Software-Design-Analyzer System (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.


    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  19. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer (United States)

    Merwarth, P.


    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  20. Discussion on Variety of Art Deco Architecture Style in Time and Space Environment%浅析Art Deco建筑风格在时空环境下的流变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 李国庆; 刘芳


    The same architecture style shows different characteristics in different time and space environment. In 1930s, with the time stepping and space varying, the global popular Art Deco architecture style shows a certain degree of style differences in its 20-year periods of the prevalence. This paper explores what is Art Deco architectural style first, then investigates the origin of Art Deco, and finally disserts on variety of Art Deco architecture style in time and space environment. By understanding Art Deco architectural style more profoundly, it contains very rich kind of design techniques to inspire our design work.%同一种建筑风格,在不同的时空环境下会呈现出不同的特征.20世纪30年代,风靡全球的Art Deco建筑风格在其盛行的20年期间,随着时间推进和空间的变化表现出一定的风格差异.该文首先探讨什么是Art Deco建筑风格,其次讨论Art Deco建筑风格形成的思想源泉,再次论述Art Deco建筑风格在发展过程中随着时空环境变化的流变.从而更深刻地认识Art Deco这种包含有非常丰富设计手法的建筑风格,以对我们的设计工作有所启发.

  1. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa


    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  2. Introduction: why analyze single cells? (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R


    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  3. The Statistical Loop Analyzer (SLA) (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.


    The statistical loop analyzer (SLA) is designed to automatically measure the acquisition, tracking and frequency stability performance characteristics of symbol synchronizers, code synchronizers, carrier tracking loops, and coherent transponders. Automated phase lock and system level tests can also be made using the SLA. Standard baseband, carrier and spread spectrum modulation techniques can be accomodated. Through the SLA's phase error jitter and cycle slip measurements the acquisition and tracking thresholds of the unit under test are determined; any false phase and frequency lock events are statistically analyzed and reported in the SLA output in probabilistic terms. Automated signal drop out tests can be performed in order to trouble shoot algorithms and evaluate the reacquisition statistics of the unit under test. Cycle slip rates and cycle slip probabilities can be measured using the SLA. These measurements, combined with bit error probability measurements, are all that are needed to fully characterize the acquisition and tracking performance of a digital communication system.

  4. Satellite-based interference analyzer (United States)

    Varice, H.; Johannsen, K.; Sabaroff, S.


    System identifies terrestrial sources of radiofrequency interference and measures their frequency spectra and amplitudes. Designed to protect satellite communication networks, system measures entire noise spectrum over selected frequency band and can raster-scan geographical region to locate noise sources. Once interference is analyzed, realistic interference protection ratios are determined and mathematical models for predicting ratio-frequency noise spectra are established. This enhances signal-detection and locates optimum geographical positions and frequency bands for communication equipment.

  5. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach. (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  6. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne


    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  7. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung


    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  8. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer (United States)

    Iceland, Charles


    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  9. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)


    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  10. [Examination of the olfactory analyzer]. (United States)

    Domrachev, A A; Afon'kin, V Iu


    A method of threshold olfactometry is proposed consisting in the use of three olfactive substances (tincture of valerian, acetic acid, liquid ammonia) in selected concentrations. This allows to investigate the thresholds of certain modality. Each concentration of the olfactive substance is placed into a glass bottle (100 ml) and stored at the temperature 18-20 degrees C. The examination of the state of the olfactory analyzer within a 24-h working day showed stability of threshold olfactometry when the organism is tired. Utilization of threshold olfactometry in some diagnostic areas is shown. PMID:12056163

  11. Managing healthcare information: analyzing trust. (United States)

    Söderström, Eva; Eriksson, Nomie; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze two case studies with a trust matrix tool, to identify trust issues related to electronic health records. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative research approach is applied using two case studies. The data analysis of these studies generated a problem list, which was mapped to a trust matrix. Findings - Results demonstrate flaws in current practices and point to achieving balance between organizational, person and technology trust perspectives. The analysis revealed three challenge areas, to: achieve higher trust in patient-focussed healthcare; improve communication between patients and healthcare professionals; and establish clear terminology. By taking trust into account, a more holistic perspective on healthcare can be achieved, where trust can be obtained and optimized. Research limitations/implications - A trust matrix is tested and shown to identify trust problems on different levels and relating to trusting beliefs. Future research should elaborate and more fully address issues within three identified challenge areas. Practical implications - The trust matrix's usefulness as a tool for organizations to analyze trust problems and issues is demonstrated. Originality/value - Healthcare trust issues are captured to a greater extent and from previously unchartered perspectives. PMID:27477934


    Aiello, R. A.


    The COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer) program is a pre- and post-processor that facilitates the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades, as well as composite wind turbine blades. COBSTRAN combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with a data base of fiber and matrix properties. As a preprocessor for NASTRAN or another Finite Element Method (FEM) program, COBSTRAN generates an FEM model with anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from the FEM program is provided as input to the COBSTRAN postprocessor. The postprocessor then uses the composite mechanics and laminate theory routines to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. COBSTRAN is designed to carry out the many linear analyses required to efficiently model and analyze blade-like structural components made of multilayered angle-plied fiber composites. Components made from isotropic or anisotropic homogeneous materials can also be modeled as a special case of COBSTRAN. NASTRAN MAT1 or MAT2 material cards are generated according to user supplied properties. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 and was implemented on a CRAY X-MP with a UNICOS 5.0.12 operating system. The program requires either COSMIC NASTRAN or MSC NASTRAN as a structural analysis package. COBSTRAN was developed in 1989, and has a memory requirement of 262,066 64 bit words.

  13. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solid state detectors with pulse height discrimination measure proton, alpha-particle, and electron fluxes. E1 and I1 channels are responding primarily to trapped...

  14. POES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The TIROS/NOAA satellite series, also known as POES, is designed to meet the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's need for operational, remote sensing...

  15. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  16. Two implementations of shared virtual space environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disz, T. L.


    While many issues in the area of virtual reality (VR) research have been addressed in recent years, the constant leaps forward in technology continue to push the field forward. VR research no longer is focused only on computer graphics, but instead has become even more interdisciplinary, combining the fields of networking, distributed computing, and even artificial intelligence. In this article we discuss some of the issues associated with distributed, collaborative virtual reality, as well as lessons learned during the development of two distributed virtual reality applications.

  17. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.


    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  18. Gravity Sensor Plasticity in the Space Environment (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.


    The ability of the brain to learn from experience and to adapt to new environments is recognized to be profound. This ability, called 'neural plasticity,' depends directly on properties of neurons (nerve cells) that permit them to change in dimension, sprout new parts called spines, change the shape and/or size of existing parts, and to generate, alter, or delete synapses. (Synapses are communication sites between neurons.) These neuronal properties are most evident during development, when evolution guides the laying down of a general plan of the nervous system. However, once a nervous system is established, experience interacts with cellular and genetic mechanisms and the internal milieu to produce unique neuronal substrates that define each individual. The capacity for experience-related neuronal growth in the brain, as measured by the potential for synaptogenesis, is speculated to be in the trillions of synapses, but the range of increment possible for any one part of the nervous system is unknown. The question has been whether more primitive endorgans such as gravity sensors of the inner ear have a capacity for adaptive change, since this is a form of learning from experience.

  19. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T.


    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  20. The Waiting Space Environment: Perception by Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuziah Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The waiting space is the first point of perception and reality that users would encounter when they visit any health institution. The users’ experience in the waiting area is very crucial in determining their preference. The study explored the physical environment of the waiting area which affects the people’s anxiety and perception. The physical environment which links with the interior semantics and is part of the language of space speaks volume about the users’ needs and preferences. The study discussed the spatial contents within the environment which give comfort to the users. How health care is delivered particular in the first meeting point between the patients and the institution are interpreted. Approach: Combinations of physical observation on sites and in-depth interviews were conducted to find out the real situation of users experience. Results: The physical waiting area characteristics contributed to the comfort or discomfort of the immediate users. The waiting time appears to be the main concern of the users. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the adult patrons are quite happy with the seat design that is the seat affordances the adult users. The seating arrangement could be further enhance for better affordances.

  1. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER


    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  2. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang


    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  3. Research on the Present State and Future Development of the Urban Architectural Space Environment of l-lengshui City%衡水市城市建筑空间环境现状与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    现代城市高层建筑越来越多.但城市轮廓线和城市建筑艺术空间与环境却并没有变得更美.需要在城市建筑空间和环境方面加强设计。介绍衡水城市建筑空间环境的现状并分析存在的主要问题,提出衡水市城市街道空间环境发展的对策。%There are more and more high-rise buildings in modem cities. Yet the city contour line and urban architecture and the urban environment have not been changed to the better, which indicates that great efforts are needed to strengthen the design in this respect. This article examines the major problems existent in Hengshui in this respect and puts forward solutions to make better development for its street space environment.

  4. City Urban Renewal in the Green Road Area of Energy and the Regioal Space Environment Research%城市旧城更新中绿道空间环境活力与地域化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志元; 陈刚; 王珊珊


    With the development of society, people improve the quality of urban life,the green open space is an increasing need, Green Road construction will be born.The article focused on China's Green Road planning and construction from the space environment,energy and regional culture analysis and study,made a reference of the recommendations to prevent future greenway development occurs monotonous,chaotic phenomena,meet the growing recreation needs,promote healthy development of society.%伴随着社会的发展,人们城市生活品质的提高,对绿色休憩空间的需求越来越迫切,绿道建设随之诞生。文中主要针对中国的绿道规划建设从空间环境活力和地域文化进行分析研究,提出一个参考性建议,防止在以后的绿道建设中发生千篇一律、杂乱无章的现象,满足人们日益增长的游憩需求,推动社会的良性发展。

  5. Designing of a risk assessment architecture to analyze potential risks from space weather to space and ground based assets (United States)

    Sattar, Erum


    Today's world is more vulnerable to space weather due to ever increased advance and costly space technology deployed in space and on ground. The space weather has a natural potential of posing harmful effects on space and ground based assets and on astronaut's life. This global challenge of space weather essentially demands global and regional preparedness to develop its situational awareness, analyzing risks and devise possible mitigation procedures. Considering risk mitigation architecture as inevitable for all scientific missions, this paper focuses to develop a risk assessment architecture for the space environment and to map its utility in identifying and analyzing potential risks to space and ground based assets from space weather in the South Asia region. Different risk assessment tools will be studied and would conclude in the most effective tool or strategy that may help to develop our capability in identifying, protecting and mitigating from the devastating effects of the space weather.

  6. A Solution of Displacement Damage Evaluation on Silicon Chip Under Space Environment%一种评估空间环境下半导体材料损伤的模拟方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于颢; 王治强; 王文彬; 刘薇


    A method of displacement damage simulation under space environment is presented. This simulation of silicon lattice displacement damage rate is used for low Earth orbit satellite application. In this application, altitude was set for 375 km as a typical variable. Through the simulation, displacement damage rates of different geomagnetic latitude orbital positions were given, which is useful for evaluating reliability of semiconductor devices on spacecraft. And displacement damage rates of different geomagnetic latitude orbital positions were compared, which is useful for orbit design. Diverse particles caused displacement damage are concerned, such as Gamma, electron, positron, pi+, pi-, proton, deuterium, tritium, helium and aluminum. The main displacement damage source is proton, which is part of cosmic ray or secondary particle from the shell of spacecraft. Compared with None Ionizing Energy Lost (NIEL), this result is given by "density of displacement damage in silicon crystal", which is a useful way to evaluate defects of semiconductor device or solar cells, in turn more helpful for engineers.%提出了一种模拟空间环境下半导体材料晶格损伤速率的方法,计算了375km轨道高度不同纬度空间位置的飞行器模型中硅片产生晶格损伤的速率.本方法考虑了宇宙射线的质子、正负电子、中子和γ射线成分,建立了简单的多层飞行器结构模型,并通过模拟给出了芯片上氕、氘、氚、氦、正负电子、正负π介子、γ射线及中子的损伤结果.相比给出材料中的非电离能量损失,更进一步给出了晶格损伤的产生速率,为半导体器件的可靠性评估提供了进一步的参考数据.

  7. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  9. Solar Sail Trajectory Design for Transferring Heliocentric Fixed Displaced Orbit%太阳帆日心定点悬浮转移轨道设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 郑建华


    研究了太阳帆航天器日心定点悬浮轨道(HFDO)的转移轨道设计问题,以球坐标形式建立了太阳帆的动力学模型,基于该模型给出在日心悬浮轨道基础上实现定点悬浮的条件,提出了一种实现日心定点悬浮的转移轨道设计方法.首先,确定定点悬浮的位置;然后,设计经过该位置的绕日极轨轨道;最后,实施轨道减速实现定点悬浮,并给出了解析形式的轨道控制律.结合太阳极地观测任务,设计了定点悬浮在太阳北极1 AU处的太阳帆转移轨道.仿真结果表明:该轨道转移方案总耗时3.5年,太阳帆定点到黄北极距日心1 AU处,此后只要保持太阳光垂直照射帆面,即可维持稳定的悬浮状态.

  10. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D


    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  11. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum


    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  12. Designing of Acousto-optic Spectrum Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan-zhi; SHAO Ding-rong; LI Shu-jian


    The structure of the acousto-optic spectrum analyzer was investigated including the RF amplifying circuit, the optical structures and the postprocessing circuit, and the design idea of the module was applied to design the spectrum analyzer. The modularization spectrum analyzer takes on the performance stabilization and higher reliability, and according to different demands, the different modules can be used. The spectrum analyzer had such performances as the detecting frequency error of 0.58MHz,detecting responsivity of 90 dBm and bandwidth of 50 Mhz.

  13. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  14. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time (United States)


    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  15. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  17. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  18. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  19. Analyzing IS User Requirements using Organizational Semiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Raissifar


    Full Text Available In recent years, lack of appropriate understanding of IS user requirements, has been one of the most important causes of IS development failure. Therefore, many methods were introduced for better analyzing user requirements; some of them were philosophically different. Organizational semiotics (OS is one of these methods, which with phenomenological and action-oriented view, tries to get better system requirement analysis. In this research, first, organizational semiotics and SSADM was compared, with focus on their ability to elicit and analyze IS user requirements, and then, OS was applied in analyzing an IS requirement analysis case. Research findings show that OS in many dimensions is superior to SSADM; although SSADM has superiority in few dimensions too. Therefore using OS can help analyzing IS user requirements more appropriately.

  20. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining


    Marius Mihut


    Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices) create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  1. Network analysis using organizational risk analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The tool system of the organizational risk analyzer (ORA) to study the network of East Turkistan terrorists is selected. The model of the relationships among its personnel, knowledge, resources and task entities is represented by the meta-matrix in ORA, with which to analyze the risks and vulnerabilities of organizational structure quantitatively, and obtain the last vulnerabilities and risks of the organization. Case study in this system shows that it should be a shortcut to destroy effectively the network...

  2. The Information Flow Analyzing Based on CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhang; LI Hui


    The information flow chart within product life cycle is given out based on collaborative production commerce (CPC) thoughts. In this chart, the separated information systems are integrated by means of enterprise knowledge assets that are promoted by CPC from production knowledge. The information flow in R&D process is analyzed in the environment of virtual R&D group and distributed PDM. In addition, the information flow throughout the manufacturing and marketing process is analyzed in CPC environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hahanov


    Full Text Available Qubit models and methods for improving the performance of software and hardware for analyzing digital devices through increasing the dimension of the data structures and memory are proposed. The basic concepts, terminology and definitions necessary for the implementation of quantum computing when analyzing virtual computers are introduced. The investigation results concerning design and modeling computer systems in a cyberspace based on the use of two-component structure are presented.

  4. Detecting influenza outbreaks by analyzing Twitter messages

    CERN Document Server

    Culotta, Aron


    We analyze over 500 million Twitter messages from an eight month period and find that tracking a small number of flu-related keywords allows us to forecast future influenza rates with high accuracy, obtaining a 95% correlation with national health statistics. We then analyze the robustness of this approach to spurious keyword matches, and we propose a document classification component to filter these misleading messages. We find that this document classifier can reduce error rates by over half in simulated false alarm experiments, though more research is needed to develop methods that are robust in cases of extremely high noise.

  5. Progresses in analyzing 26Al with SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai Mini-Cyclotron based Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS) was especially designed for analyzing 14C. In order to accelerate and analyze 26Al the accelerated orbit and beam optics in injection system were calculated and harmonic number and acceleration turns was optimized. Preliminary experiment was carried out. In which a beam current of 1.15 x 10-9A for 27Al- and 0.038 CPS background for 26Al were measured. The limited sensitivity of 26Al/27Al is 5.25 x 10-12. (authors)

  6. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut


    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  7. Analyzing the Information Economy: Tools and Techniques. (United States)

    Robinson, Sherman


    Examines methodologies underlying studies which measure the information economy and considers their applicability and limitations for analyzing policy issues concerning libraries and library networks. Two studies provide major focus for discussion: Porat's "The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement" and Machlup's "Production and…

  8. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications. (United States)


    ... comparable results to an HFID not using this procedure. These data must be submitted to the Administrator for... consistent with the general requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart I, for sampling and analysis of... NO2 to NO converter. (ii) For high vacuum CL analyzers with heated capillary modules, supplying...

  9. Portable peltier-cooled X RF analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent development of semiconductor detectors has made it possible to design portable battery operated XRF-analyzers. Energy resolution and good peak to background ratio are close to liquid nitrogen cooled detector values. Application examples are given and a comparison of the new device between old ones is made. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 90.313 - Analyzers required. (United States)


    ... ionization (HFID) type. For constant volume sampling, the hydrocarbon analyzer may be of the flame ionization (FID) type or of the heated flame ionization (HFID) type. (ii) For the HFID system, if the temperature... drying. Chemical dryers are not an acceptable method of removing water from the sample. Water removal...

  11. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der


    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime sa

  12. Miniature retarding grid ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.W.; Sawin, H.H.


    A retarding grid analyzer intended for use as a high-density ({approximately}10{sup 12}/cc) plasma diagnostic has been designed, built and tested. The analyzer`s external dimensions are 0.125 inch x0.125 inch x0.050 inch which are smaller than macroscopic plasma scale lengths, thus allowing it to be stalk mounted and moved throughout the plasma. The grids are 2000 line/inch nickel mesh so that the linear dimension of grid open area is less than the debye length for plasmas with 10 eV electrons and 10{sup 12}/cc densities. Successive grids are separated by 0.01 inch in order to avoid space charge effects between grids and thus allow unprecedented energy resolution. Also, because the linear dimension normal to the grid is small compared to the ion mean free path in high pressure (>100 mTorr) discharges, it can be used without the differential pumping required of larger GEA`s in such discharges. The analyzer has been tested on a plasma beam source (a modified ASTeX Compact ECR source) and on an ASTeX S1500ECR source, and has been used as an edge diagnostic on the VERSATOR tokamak at M.I.T. Ion energy distribution functions as narrow as 5 eV have been measured.

  13. Consideration Regarding Diagnosis Analyze of Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ciopi OPREA


    Full Text Available Diagnosis management aims to identify critical situations and positive aspectsof corporate management. An effective diagnosis made by a team with thestatus of independence from the organization’s management is for managers auseful feedback necessary to improve performance. The work presented focuseson the methodology to achieve effective diagnosis, considering multitudecriteria and variables to be analyzed.

  14. Analyzing computer system performance with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Neil J


    This expanded second edition of Analyzing Computer System Performance with Perl::PDQ, builds on the success of the first edition. It contains new chapters on queues, tools and virtualization, and new Perl listing format to aid readability of PDQ models.

  15. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  16. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert


    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  17. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo


    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  18. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew


    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  19. Quantum Key Distribution with Screening and Analyzing

    CERN Document Server

    Kye, W H


    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme by using screening angles and analyzing detectors which enable to notice the presence of Eve who eavesdrops the quantum channel. We show the security of the proposed quantum key distribution against impersonation, photon number splitting, Trojan Horse, and composite attacks.

  20. Quantum Key Distribution with Screening and Analyzing


    Kye, Won-Ho


    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme by using screening angles and analyzing detectors which enable to notice the presence of Eve who eavesdrops the quantum channel, as the revised protocol of the recent quantum key distribution [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040501 (2005)]. We discuss the security of the proposed quantum key distribution against various attacks including impersonation attack and Trojan Horse attack.

  1. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network? (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  2. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.


    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  3. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  4. An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J., E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å.

  5. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated. (United States)

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R


    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  6. Simulation of a Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lizardo, Angel


    Energy analyzers are important plasma diagnostic tools with applications in a broad range of disciplines including molecular spectroscopy, electron microscopy, basic plasma physics, plasma etching, plasma processing, and ion sputtering technology. The Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer (HFEA) is a novel device able to determine ion and electron energy spectra and temperatures. The HFEA is well suited for ion temperature and density diagnostics at those situations where ions are scarce. A simulation of the capacities of the HFEA to discriminate particles of a particular energy level, as well as to determine temperature and density is performed in this work. The electric field due the combination of the conical elements, collimator lens, and Faraday cup applied voltage was computed in a well suited three-dimensional grid. The field is later used to compute the trajectory of a set of particles with a predetermined energy distribution. The results include the observation of the particle trajectories inside the sens...

  7. An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å

  8. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore


    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector.

  9. SACO: Static analyzer for concurrent objects


    Albert Albiol, Elvira; Arenas Sánchez, Purificación; Flores Montoya, A.; Genaim, Samir; Gómez-Zamalloa Gil, Miguel; Martín Martín, Enrique; Puebla, G.; Román Díez, Guillermo


    We present the main concepts, usage and implementation of SACO, a static analyzer for concurrent objects. Interestingly, SACO is able to infer both liveness(namely termination and resource boundedness) and safety properties (namely deadlock freedom) of programs based on concurrent objects. The system integrates auxiliary analyses such as points-to and may-happen-in-parallel, which are essential for increasing the accuracy of the aforementioned more complex properties. SACO provides accurate ...

  10. LEGAL-EASE:Analyzing Chinese Financial Statements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article,we will focus on under- standing and analyzing the typical accounts of Chinese financial statements,including the balance sheet and income statement. Accounts are generally incorrectly prepared. This can be due to several factors,incom- petence,as well as more serious cases of deliberate attempts to deceive.Regardless, accounts can be understood and errors or specific acts of misrepresentation uncovered. We will conduct some simple analysis to demonstrate how these can be spotted.

  11. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations. (United States)

    Cors, W K


    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  12. A gas filter correlation analyzer for methane (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.


    A fast-response instrument for monitoring CH4 was designed and tested using a modified nondispersive infrared technique. An analysis of the single-beam rotating-cell system is presented along with the signal processing circuit. A calibration of the instrument shows that the technique can be used to measure CH4 concentrations as small as 5 ppm-m and the effects of interfering gases are analyzed.

  13. Information Theory for Analyzing Neural Networks


    Sørngård, Bård


    The goal of this thesis was to investigate how information theory could be used to analyze artificial neural networks. For this purpose, two problems, a classification problem and a controller problem were considered. The classification problem was solved with a feedforward neural network trained with backpropagation, the controller problem was solved with a continuous-time recurrent neural network optimized with evolution.Results from the classification problem shows that mutual information ...

  14. Firms’ Innovation Strategies Analyzed and Explained


    Tavassoli, Sam; Karlsson, Charlie


    This paper analyzes various innovation strategies of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a ten-year period, i.e. between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between sixteen innovation strategies, which compose of Schumpeterian four types of innovations (process, product, marketing, and organizational) plus various combinations of these four types. First, we find that firms are not homogenous in choosing innovatio...

  15. The analyzing of Dove marketing strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Yaohui


    <正>1.Introduction In this report,I try to analyze the related information about DOVE chocolate.Firstly,I would like to introduce this product.Dove chocolate is one of a series of products launched by the world’s largest pet food and snack food manufacturers,U.S.multinational food company Mars(Mars).Entered China in 1989,It becomes China’s leading brand of chocolate in

  16. Coordinating, Scheduling, Processing and Analyzing IYA09 (United States)

    Gipson, John; Behrend, Dirk; Gordon, David; Himwich, Ed; MacMillan, Dan; Titus, Mike; Corey, Brian


    The IVS scheduled a special astrometric VLBI session for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA09) commemorating 400 years of optical astronomy and 40 years of VLBI. The IYA09 session is the most ambitious geodetic session to date in terms of network size, number of sources, and number of observations. We describe the process of designing, coordinating, scheduling, pre-session station checkout, correlating, and analyzing this session.

  17. Analysis of Fluorinated Polyimides Flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (United States)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Rodman, L.; Farmer, B.


    This Technical Memorandum documents the results from the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) series involving fluorinated polyimide films analyzed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. These films may be used in thermal control, sunshield, solar sail, solar concentrator, and other lightweight polymer film applications. Results include postflight structural integrity, visual observations, determination of atomic oxygen erosion yield, and optical property changes as compared to preflight values.

  18. Modular Construction of Shape-Numeric Analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Yuh Evan Chang


    Full Text Available The aim of static analysis is to infer invariants about programs that are precise enough to establish semantic properties, such as the absence of run-time errors. Broadly speaking, there are two major branches of static analysis for imperative programs. Pointer and shape analyses focus on inferring properties of pointers, dynamically-allocated memory, and recursive data structures, while numeric analyses seek to derive invariants on numeric values. Although simultaneous inference of shape-numeric invariants is often needed, this case is especially challenging and is not particularly well explored. Notably, simultaneous shape-numeric inference raises complex issues in the design of the static analyzer itself. In this paper, we study the construction of such shape-numeric, static analyzers. We set up an abstract interpretation framework that allows us to reason about simultaneous shape-numeric properties by combining shape and numeric abstractions into a modular, expressive abstract domain. Such a modular structure is highly desirable to make its formalization and implementation easier to do and get correct. To achieve this, we choose a concrete semantics that can be abstracted step-by-step, while preserving a high level of expressiveness. The structure of abstract operations (i.e., transfer, join, and comparison follows the structure of this semantics. The advantage of this construction is to divide the analyzer in modules and functors that implement abstractions of distinct features.

  19. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  20. Analyzing Malware Based on Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu


    Full Text Available To explain the necessity of comprehensive and automatically analysis process for volatile memory, this paper summarized ordinarily analyzing methods and their common points especially for concerned data source. Then, a memory analysis framework Volatiltiy-2.2 and statistical output file size are recommended. In addition, to address the limitation of plug-ins classification in analyzing procedure, a user perspective classify is necessary and proposed. Furthermore, according to target data source differences on the base of result data set volume and employed relational method is introduced for comprehensive analysis guideline procedure. Finally, a test demo including DLLs loading order list analyzing is recommend, in which DLL load list is regard as different kind of characteristics typical data source with process and convert into process behavior fingerprint. The clustering for the fingerprint is employed string similar degree algorithm model in the demo, which has a wide range applications in traditional malware behavior analysis, and it is proposed that these methods also can be applied for volatile memory

  1. Aliasing Errours in Parallel Signature Analyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; YashwantK.Malaiya


    A Linear Feedback Shift Register(LFSR)can be used to compress test response data as a Signature Analyzer(SA).Parallel Signature Analyzers(PSAs)implemented as multiple input LFSRs are faster and require less hardware overhead than Serial Signature Analyzers(SSAs) for compacting test response data for Built-In Self-Test(BIST)in IC of boare-testing environments.However,the SAs are prone to aliasing errors because of some specific types of error patterns.An alias is a faulty output signature that is identical to the fault-free signature.A penetrating analysis of detecting capability of SAs depends strongly on mathematical manipulations,instead of being aware of some special cases of examples.In addition,the analysis should not be restricted to a particular structure of LFSR,but be appropriate for various structures of LFSRs.This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for aliasing errors based on a complete mathematical description of various types of SAs.An LFSR reconfiguration scheme is suggested which will prevent any aliasing double errors.Such a prevention cannot be obtained by any extension of an LFSR.

  2. Method of stabilizing single channel analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the apparatus to reduce the drift of single channel analyzers are described. Essentially, this invention employs a time-sharing or multiplexing technique to insure that the outputs from two single channel analyzers (SCAS) maintain the same count ratio regardless of variations in the threshold voltage source or voltage changes, the multiplexing technique is accomplished when a flip flop, actuated by a clock, changes state to switch the output from the individual SCAS before these outputs are sent to a ratio counting scalar. In the particular system embodiment disclosed that illustrates this invention, the sulfur content of coal is determined by subjecting the coal to radiation from a neutron producing source. A photomultiplier and detector system equates the transmitted gamma radiation to an analog voltage signal and sends the same signal after amplification, to a SCA system that contains the invention. Therein, at least two single channel analyzers scan the analog signal over different parts of a spectral region. The two outputs may then be sent to a digital multiplexer so that the output from the multiplexer contains counts falling within two distinct segments of the region. By dividing the counts from the multiplexer by each other, the percentage of sulfur within the coal sample under observation may be determined. (U.S.)

  3. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser


    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  4. A computer program for analyzing channel geometry (United States)

    Regan, R.S.; Schaffranek, R.W.


    The Channel Geometry Analysis Program (CGAP) provides the capability to process, analyze, and format cross-sectional data for input to flow/transport simulation models or other computational programs. CGAP allows for a variety of cross-sectional data input formats through use of variable format specification. The program accepts data from various computer media and provides for modification of machine-stored parameter values. CGAP has been devised to provide a rapid and efficient means of computing and analyzing the physical properties of an open-channel reach defined by a sequence of cross sections. CGAP 's 16 options provide a wide range of methods by which to analyze and depict a channel reach and its individual cross-sectional properties. The primary function of the program is to compute the area, width, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius of cross sections at successive increments of water surface elevation (stage) from data that consist of coordinate pairs of cross-channel distances and land surface or channel bottom elevations. Longitudinal rates-of-change of cross-sectional properties are also computed, as are the mean properties of a channel reach. Output products include tabular lists of cross-sectional area, channel width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, average depth, and cross-sectional symmetry computed as functions of stage; plots of cross sections; plots of cross-sectional area and (or) channel width as functions of stage; tabular lists of cross-sectional area and channel width computed as functions of stage for subdivisions of a cross section; plots of cross sections in isometric projection; and plots of cross-sectional area at a fixed stage as a function of longitudinal distance along an open-channel reach. A Command Procedure Language program and Job Control Language procedure exist to facilitate program execution on the U.S. Geological Survey Prime and Amdahl computer systems respectively. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  6. FOMA: A Fast Optical Multichannel Analyzer (United States)

    Haskovec, J. S.; Bramson, G.; Brooks, N. H.; Perry, M.


    A Fast Optical Multichannel Analyzer (FOMA) was built for spectroscopic measurements with fast time resolution on the DIII-D tokamak. The FOMA utilizes a linear photodiode array (RETICON RL 1024 SA) as the detector sensor. An external recharge switch and ultrafast operational amplifiers permit a readout time per pixel of 300 ns. In conjunction with standard CAMAC digitizer and timing modules, a readout time of 500 microns is achieved for the full 1024-element array. Data acquired in bench tests and in actual spectroscopic measurements on the DIII-D tokamak is presented to illustrate the camera's capability.

  7. Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute


    A photonic instrument is proposed to boost the resolution for ultraviolet/ optical/infrared spectral analysis and spectral imaging allowing the detection of narrow (0.00007-to-0.07-picometer wavelength resolution range) optical spectral signatures of chemical elements in space and planetary atmospheres. The idea underlying the proposal is to exploit the advantageous spectral characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators to obtain spectral resolutions at least three orders of magnitude greater than those of optical spectrum analyzers now in use. Such high resolutions would enable measurement of spectral features that could not be resolved by prior instruments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method, which is called image manipulation,is introduced to analyze the cavitation of flow field for the first time. As the complexity of the cavitation development must be considering,only the method of image manipulation can calculate the strength of the cavitation more accurately. This method based on wavelet transform is used to eliminate the noise. The area of the cavitations is deduced to serve as the strength of cavitation. The method is applied in an example of inducer's rotating cavitation. The results show that using image manipulation can get the accurate date of cavitation with ease,and the reason of the inducer shaft's vibration is uncovered clearly.

  9. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tong


    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology, and summarizes the analysis methods, experimental technologies, research developments, and so on in the four key fields of systems biology-systemic structures, dynamics, control methods, and design principles.

  10. Analyzing Ever Growing Datasets in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkenburg, C.; PHENIX Collaboration


    After 10 years of running, the PHENIX experiment has by now accumulated more than 700 TB of reconstructed data which are directly used for analysis. Analyzing these amounts of data efficiently requires a coordinated approach. Beginning in 2005 we started to develop a system for the RHIC Atlas Computing Facility (RACF) which allows the efficient analysis of these large data sets. The Analysis Taxi is now the tool which allows any collaborator to process any data set taken since 2003 in weekly passes with turnaround times of typically three to four days.


    Tausworthe, R. C.


    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  12. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, A.P. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Informatica e Sistemistica; Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  13. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation (United States)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery


    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  14. Analyzing and Mining Ordered Information Tables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAI Ying (赛英); Y. Y. Yao


    Work in inductive learning has mostly been concentrated on classifying. However,there are many applications in which it is desirable to order rather than to classify instances. For modelling ordering problems, we generalize the notion of information tables to ordered information tables by adding order relations in attribute values. Then we propose a data analysis model by analyzing the dependency of attributes to describe the properties of ordered information tables.The problem of mining ordering rules is formulated as finding association between orderings of attribute values and the overall ordering of objects. An ordering rules may state that "if the value of an object x on an attribute a is ordered ahead of the value of another object y on the same attribute, then x is ordered ahead of y". For mining ordering rules, we first transform an ordered information table into a binary information table, and then apply any standard machine learning and data mining algorithms. As an illustration, we analyze in detail Maclean's universities ranking for the year 2000.

  15. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus


    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  16. Analyzing Network Coding Gossip Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Haeupler, Bernhard


    We give a new technique to analyze the stopping time of gossip protocols that are based on random linear network coding (RLNC). Our analysis drastically simplifies, extends and strengthens previous results. We analyze RLNC gossip in a general framework for network and communication models that encompasses and unifies the models used previously in this context. We show, in most settings for the first time, that it converges with high probability in the information-theoretically optimal time. Most stopping times are of the form O(k + T) where k is the number of messages to be distributed and T is the time it takes to disseminate one message. This means RLNC gossip achieves "perfect pipelining". Our analysis directly extends to highly dynamic networks in which the topology can change completely at any time. This remains true even if the network dynamics are controlled by a fully adaptive adversary that knows the complete network state. Virtually nothing besides simple O(kT) sequential flooding protocols was prev...

  17. Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer: Demonstration of feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, E.J.; Olivares, J.; Kok, G.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry Analyzer (AACA) that will provide a continuous, real-time analysis of the elemental (major, minor and trace) composition of atmospheric aerosols. The AACA concept is based on sampling the atmospheric aerosol through a wet cyclone scrubber that produces an aqueous suspension of the particles. This suspension can then be analyzed for elemental composition by ICP/MS or collected for subsequent analysis by other methods. The key technical challenge was to develop a wet cyclone aerosol sampler suitable for respirable particles found in ambient aerosols. We adapted an ultrasonic nebulizer to a conventional, commercially available, cyclone aerosol sampler and completed collection efficiency tests for the unit, which was shown to efficiently collect particles as small as 0.2 microns. We have completed the necessary basic research and have demonstrated the feasibility of the AACA concept.

  18. Analyzing Interoperability of Protocols Using Model Checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In practical terms, protocol interoperability testing is still laborious and error-prone with little effect, even for those products that have passed conformance testing. Deadlock and unsymmetrical data communication are familiar in interoperability testing, and it is always very hard to trace their causes. The previous work has not provided a coherent way to analyze why the interoperability was broken among protocol implementations under test. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to analyzing these problems from a viewpoint of implementation structures. Sequential and concurrent structures are both representative implementation structures, especially in event-driven development model. Our research mainly discusses the influence of sequential and concurrent structures on interoperability, with two instructive conclusions: (a) a sequential structure may lead to deadlock; (b) a concurrent structure may lead to unsymmetrical data communication. Therefore, implementation structures carry weight on interoperability, which may not gain much attention before. To some extent, they are decisive on the result of interoperability testing. Moreover, a concurrent structure with a sound task-scheduling strategy may contribute to the interoperability of a protocol implementation. Herein model checking technique is introduced into interoperability analysis for the first time. As the paper shows, it is an effective way to validate developers' selections on implementation structures or strategies.

  19. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk


    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  20. The Solar Wind Ion Analyzer for MAVEN (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Taylor, E. R.; Dalton, G.; Johnson, G.; Curtis, D. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Jakosky, B. M.


    The Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) on the MAVEN mission will measure the solar wind ion flows around Mars, both in the upstream solar wind and in the magneto-sheath and tail regions inside the bow shock. The solar wind flux provides one of the key energy inputs that can drive atmospheric escape from the Martian system, as well as in part controlling the structure of the magnetosphere through which non-thermal ion escape must take place. SWIA measurements contribute to the top level MAVEN goals of characterizing the upper atmosphere and the processes that operate there, and parameterizing the escape of atmospheric gases to extrapolate the total loss to space throughout Mars' history. To accomplish these goals, SWIA utilizes a toroidal energy analyzer with electrostatic deflectors to provide a broad 360∘×90∘ field of view on a 3-axis spacecraft, with a mechanical attenuator to enable a very high dynamic range. SWIA provides high cadence measurements of ion velocity distributions with high energy resolution (14.5 %) and angular resolution (3.75∘×4.5∘ in the sunward direction, 22.5∘×22.5∘ elsewhere), and a broad energy range of 5 eV to 25 keV. Onboard computation of bulk moments and energy spectra enable measurements of the basic properties of the solar wind at 0.25 Hz.

  1. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution. (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M


    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution.

  2. Sentiment Analyzer for Arabic Comments System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dine Ali Hamouda


    Full Text Available Today, the number of users of social network is increasing. Millions of users share opinions on different aspects of life every day. Therefore social network are rich sources of data for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Also users have become more interested in following news pages on Facebook. Several posts; political for example, have thousands of users’ comments that agree/disagree with the post content. Such comments can be a good indicator for the community opinion about the post content. For politicians, marketers, decision makers …, it is required to make sentiment analysis to know the percentage of users agree, disagree and neutral respect to a post. This raised the need to analyze theusers’ comments in Facebook. We focused on Arabic Facebook news pages for the task of sentiment analysis. We developed a corpus for sentiment analysis and opinion mining purposes. Then, we used different machine learning algorithms – decision tree, support vector machines, and naive bayes - to develop sentiment analyzer. The performance of the system using each technique was evaluated and compared with others.

  3. Research of Space Environment Design of the New Type of Urban Villages by Internal and External Users%内外使用者并重的新型城中村空间环境设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    西安市的城中村改造工作正在如火如荼地进行中,本文以新型城中村为研究对象,将改造后的城中村社区分为三类,提出各类城中村社区的特点,分析新型城中村社区的现状和问题,为以后城中村设计提出理论性的构想。%Reconstruction of urban vil age in Xi’an City is being carried out in ful swing, this paper takes new type of urban village as the research object, divides the vil age in city community after the transformation into three categories, puts forward the characteristics of al kinds of urban vil age com-munity, analyzes the current situation and problems of the new vil age community, puts forward the concept of the theory of vil age in city for the future design.

  4. Research on Two Types of Buffer Zone Impact on Surrounding Office Space Environment in Winter in Cold Climate Zone-a Fieldwork in Architectural Design Institute Building of Tsinghua University, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ShiMeng Hao


    Building buffer zone space is not only one of essential approaches for better mental quality of interior building space, but also an important factor that may influence interior thermal comfort and energy consumption. This study aims to analyze regulative advantages of buffer zone to the surrounding functional spaces. Based on a fieldwork test in a typical office building in cold climate zone in Beijing, China, the monitor data show interior physical performance in the Winter. The research selects two types of different buffer zones in the same building. One is a south⁃faced greenhouse which has large dimension with plenty of vegetation, and the other is a simple atrium in the middle of five floor building with mount of skylights. The factors and their influence to surrounding functional spaces and the whole building are found out from the comparisons of collected data by floor to floor monitor test on both buffer zones at the same time. The comparisons of two types of buffer zones conclude that the greenhouse is more effective to air quality regulation but not so clearly well⁃performed to thermal buffering as expected due to the dominate active central heating in the Winter. This fieldwork test results for building performance can be helpful for both architects and engineers in the early phase of sustainable design.

  5. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)


    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  6. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng


    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social......), and stochastic actor-oriented models. We focus most attention on ERGMs by providing an illustrative example of a model for a strategic information network within a local government. We draw inferences about the structural role played by individuals recognized as key innovators and conclude that such an approach...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  7. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... structures, supporting actor involvement in the ecosystem, and (v) proper orchestration and governance of the ecosystem to promote and support the changes and the health of the ecosystem. Our work contributes to Net4Care, a platform to serve as the common platform in the software ecosystem under...... establishment. In addition, it contributes by providing input and guidelines on the role and activity of 4S organization, an organization to serve as an orchestrator in the ecosystem with the aim of managing the platform, supporting actor and software interactions, and promoting the ecosystem health...

  8. Fully Analyzing an Algebraic Polya Urn Model

    CERN Document Server

    Morcrette, Basile


    This paper introduces and analyzes a particular class of Polya urns: balls are of two colors, can only be added (the urns are said to be additive) and at every step the same constant number of balls is added, thus only the color compositions varies (the urns are said to be balanced). These properties make this class of urns ideally suited for analysis from an "analytic combinatorics" point-of-view, following in the footsteps of Flajolet-Dumas-Puyhaubert, 2006. Through an algebraic generating function to which we apply a multiple coalescing saddle-point method, we are able to give precise asymptotic results for the probability distribution of the composition of the urn, as well as local limit law and large deviation bounds.

  9. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry


    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  10. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  11. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  12. Complex networks theory for analyzing metabolic networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; YU Hong; LUO Jianhua; CAO Z.W.; LI Yixue


    One of the main tasks of post-genomic informatics is to systematically investigate all molecules and their interactions within a living cell so as to understand how these molecules and the interactions between them relate to the function of the organism,while networks are appropriate abstract description of all kinds of interactions. In the past few years, great achievement has been made in developing theory of complex networks for revealing the organizing principles that govern the formation and evolution of various complex biological, technological and social networks. This paper reviews the accomplishments in constructing genome-based metabolic networks and describes how the theory of complex networks is applied to analyze metabolic networks.

  13. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ


    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  14. Composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) user's manual (United States)

    Aiello, Robert A.


    The installation and use of a computer code, COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctrual ANalyzer), developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades was described. This code combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with an internal data base of fiber and matrix properties. Inputs to the code are constituent fiber and matrix material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, composite geometry and blade geometry. COBSTRAN performs the micromechanics, macromechanics and laminate analyses of these fiber composites. COBSTRAN generates a NASTRAN model with equivalent anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from NASTRAN is used to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. Curved panel structures may be modeled providing the curvature of a cross-section is defined by a single value function. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. Composite Blade Structural Analyzer (COBSTRAN) demonstration manual (United States)

    Aiello, Robert A.


    The input deck setup is described for a computer code, composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) which was developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades. This manual is intended for use in conjunction with the COBSTRAN user's manual. Seven demonstration problems are described with pre- and postprocessing input decks. Modeling of blades which are solid thru-the-thickness and also aircraft wing airfoils with internal spars is shown. Corresponding NASTRAN and databank input decks are also shown. Detail descriptions of each line of the pre- and post-processing decks is provided with reference to the Card Groups defined in the user's manual. A dictionary of all program variables and terms used in this manual may be found in Section 6 of the user's manual.

  16. Three Practical Methods for Analyzing Slope Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiguang; ZHANG Shitao; ZHU Chuanbing; YIN Ying


    Since the environmental capacity and the arable as well as the inhabitant lands have actually reached a full balance, the slopes are becoming the more and more important options for various engineering constructions. Because of the geological complexity of the slope, the design and thedecision-making of a slope-based engineering is still not ractical to rely solely on the theoretical analysis and numerical calculation, but mainly on the experience of the experts. Therefore, it hasimportant practical significance to turn some successful experience into mathematic equations. Basedupon the abundant typical slope engineering construction cases in Yunnan, Southwestern China, 3methods for yzing the slope stability have been developed in this paper. First of all, the corresponded analogous mathematic equation for analyzing slope stability has been established through case studies. Then, artificial neural network and multivariate regression analysis have alsobeen set up when 7 main influencing factors are adopted

  17. A calibration free vector network analyzer (United States)

    Kothari, Arpit

    Recently, two novel single-port, phase-shifter based vector network analyzer (VNA) systems were developed and tested at X-band (8.2--12.4 GHz) and Ka-band (26.4--40 GHz), respectively. These systems operate based on electronically moving the standing wave pattern, set up in a waveguide, over a Schottky detector and sample the standing wave voltage for several phase shift values. Once this system is fully characterized, all parameters in the system become known and hence theoretically, no other correction (or calibration) should be required to obtain the reflection coefficient, (Gamma), of an unknown load. This makes this type of VNA "calibration free" which is a significant advantage over other types of VNAs. To this end, a VNA system, based on this design methodology, was developed at X-band using several design improvements (compared to the previous designs) with the aim of demonstrating this "calibration-free" feature. It was found that when a commercial VNA (HP8510C) is used as the source and the detector, the system works as expected. However, when a detector is used (Schottky diode, log detector, etc.), obtaining correct Gamma still requires the customary three-load calibration. With the aim of exploring the cause, a detailed sensitivity analysis of prominent error sources was performed. Extensive measurements were done with different detection techniques including use of a spectrum analyzer as power detector. The system was tested even for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) which may have contributed to this issue. Although desired results could not be obtained using the proposed standing-wave-power measuring devices like the Schottky diode but the principle of "calibration-free VNA" was shown to be true.

  18. Comparison of two dry chemistry analyzers and a wet chemistry analyzer using canine serum. (United States)

    Lanevschi, Anne; Kramer, John W.


    Canine serum was used to compare seven chemistry analytes on two tabletop clinical dry chemistry analyzers, Boehringer's Reflotron and Kodak's Ektachem. Results were compared to those obtained on a wet chemistry reference analyzer, Roche Diagnostic's Cobas Mira. Analytes measured were urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol and bilirubin. Nine to 12 canine sera with values in the low, normal, and high range were evaluated. The correlations were acceptable for all comparisons with correlation coefficients greater than 0.98 for all analytes. Regression analysis resulted in significant differences for both tabletop analyzers when compared to the reference analyzer for cholesterol and bilirubin, and for glucose and AST on the Kodak Ektachem. Differences appeared to result from proportional systematic error occurring at high analyte concentrations.

  19. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  20. Toward Integrated μNetwork Analyzer (United States)

    Kmec, M.; Helbig, M.; Herrmann, R.; Rauschenbach, P.; Sachs, J.; Schilling, K.

    The article deals with recent development steps toward monolithically integrated micro-Network Analyzer (μNA). The device will deploy M-Sequence-based single-chip transceivers with a built-in ultra-wideband wave separation unit in the receiver chains. The introduced on-chip wideband wave separation is realized using an optimized resistive directional coupler combined with a customized differential LNA as detector. The wave separation works almost down to DC, and its upper frequency limit is determined by the performance of the implemented technology (i.e., bridge resistors, transistors, etc.), the selected circuit topology, and the wirings of particular coupler components but also by the IC packaging itself. Even though the upper limit is designed to be compatible with the analog input bandwidth of the receiver circuit [which is about 18 GHz for naked die (Kmec et al., M-Sequence based single chip UWB-radar sensor. ANTEM/AMEREM 2010 Conference, Ottawa, 2010)], the packaged IC is intended for use up to 8 GHz. Finally, the discussed transceiver is a further development of the mother SiGe System-on-Chip (SoC) presented in the work cited above.

  1. Analyzing Music Services Positioning Through Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado


    Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.

  2. The model JSR-12 neutron coincidence analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that one of the ways in which non-destructive assays for nuclear materials is made involved counting the neutron signatures which result from spontaneous or induced fissions in fissile materials. A major problem in determining the number of fission neutrons is trying to separate them from the background of neutrons arising from alpha particle interactions with lighter nuclei in the matrix materials of the samples being assayed. The JSR-12 neutron coincidence analyzer operates on the principle that fission neutrons occur in multiples of two or more, whereas background neutrons occur randomly as single events. By exploiting this time correlation difference, the JSR-12 can determine the fission neutron signal. This instrument represents a considerable upgrade from the industry standard JSR-11, by doubling the response speed and adding complete computer control of all functions, as well as employing non-volatile memory for data storage. Operation has been simplified for field use by using an LCD display to guide the operator in setting up assay parameters, and by time-date tagging all assays for later retrieval

  3. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  4. NRC plant-analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program is to develop an LWR engineering plant analyzer capable of performing realistic and accurate simulations of plant transients and Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents at real-time and faster than real-time computing speeds and at low costs for preparing, executing and evaluating such simulations. The program is directed toward facilitating reactor safety analyses, on-line plant monitoring, on-line accident diagnosis and mitigation and toward improving reactor operator training. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International, Ann Arbor, MI, a special-purpose peripheral processor for high-speed systems simulation, is programmed through a PDP-11/34 minicomputer and carries out digital simulations with analog hardware in the input/output loop (up to 256 channels). Analog signals from a control panel are being used now to activate or to disable valves and to trip pump drive motors or regulators without interrupting the simulation. An IBM personal computer with multicolor graphics capabilities and a CRT monitor are used to produce on-line labelled diagrams of selected plant parameters as functions of time

  5. Qualitative Methodology in Analyzing Educational Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU


    Full Text Available Semiological analysis of educational phenomena allow researchers access to a multidimensional universe of meanings that is represented by the school, not so much seen as an institution, but as a vector of social action through educational strategies. We consider education as a multidimensional phenomenon since its analysis allows the researcher to explore a variety of research hypotheses of different paradigmatic perspectives that converge in an educational finality. According to the author Simona Branc one of the most appropriate methods used in qualitative data analysis is Grounded Theory; this one assumes a systematic process of generating concepts and theories based on the data collected. Specialised literature defines Grounded Theory as an inductive approach that starts with general observations and during the analytical process creates conceptual categories that explain the theme explored. Research insist on the role of the sociologic theory of managing the research data and for providing ways of conceptualizing the descriptions and explanations.Qualitative content analysis is based on the constructivist paradigm (constructionist in the restricted sense that we used previously. It aims to create an “understanding of the latent meanings of the analyzed messages”. Quantitative content analysis involves a process of encoding and statistical analysis of data extracted from the content of the paper in the form of extractions like: frequencies, contingency analysis, etc

  6. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang


    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  7. Signal processing and analyzing works of art (United States)

    Johnson, Don H.; Johnson, C. Richard, Jr.; Hendriks, Ella


    In examining paintings, art historians use a wide variety of physico-chemical methods to determine, for example, the paints, the ground (canvas primer) and any underdrawing the artist used. However, the art world has been little touched by signal processing algorithms. Our work develops algorithms to examine x-ray images of paintings, not to analyze the artist's brushstrokes but to characterize the weave of the canvas that supports the painting. The physics of radiography indicates that linear processing of the x-rays is most appropriate. Our spectral analysis algorithms have an accuracy superior to human spot-measurements and have the advantage that, through "short-space" Fourier analysis, they can be readily applied to entire x-rays. We have found that variations in the manufacturing process create a unique pattern of horizontal and vertical thread density variations in the bolts of canvas produced. In addition, we measure the thread angles, providing a way to determine the presence of cusping and to infer the location of the tacks used to stretch the canvas on a frame during the priming process. We have developed weave matching software that employs a new correlation measure to find paintings that share canvas weave characteristics. Using a corpus of over 290 paintings attributed to Vincent van Gogh, we have found several weave match cliques that we believe will refine the art historical record and provide more insight into the artist's creative processes.

  8. Analyzing modified unimodular gravity via Lagrange multipliers (United States)

    Sáez-Gómez, Diego


    The so-called unimodular version of general relativity is revisited. Unimodular gravity is constructed by fixing the determinant of the metric, which leads to the trace-free part of the equations instead of the usual Einstein field equations. Then a cosmological constant naturally arises as an integration constant. While unimodular gravity turns out to be equivalent to general relativity (GR) at the classical level, it provides important differences at the quantum level. Here we extend the unimodular constraint to some extensions of general relativity that have drawn a lot of attention over the last years—f (R ) gravity (or its scalar-tensor picture) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The corresponding unimodular version of such theories is constructed as well as the conformal transformation that relates the Einstein and Jordan frames for these nonminimally coupled theories. From the classical point of view, the unimodular versions of such extensions are completely equivalent to their originals, but an effective cosmological constant arises naturally, which may provide a richer description of the evolution of the Universe. Here we analyze the case of Starobisnky inflation and compare it with the original one.

  9. Complete denture analyzed by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Podoleanu, Adrian G.


    The complete dentures are currently made using different technologies. In order to avoid deficiencies of the prostheses made using the classical technique, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Thus, at the present time, there are several injecting systems and technologies on the market, that use chemoplastic materials, which are heat cured (90-100°C), in dry or wet environment, or cold cured (below 60°C). There are also technologies that plasticize a hard cured material by thermoplastic processing (without any chemical changes) and then inject it into a mold. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existence of possible defects in several dental prostheses using a non invasive method, before their insertion in the mouth. Different dental prostheses, fabricated from various materials were investigated using en-face optical coherence tomography. In order to discover the defects, the scanning was made in three planes, obtaining images at different depths, from 0,01 μm to 2 mm. In several of the investigated prostheses we found defects which may cause their fracture. These defects are totally included in the prostheses material and can not be vizualised with other imagistic methods. In conclusion, en-face OCT is an important investigative tool for the dental practice.

  10. Analyzing Contents of a Computer Cache (United States)

    Beahan, John; Khanoyan, Garen; Some, Raphael; Callum, Leslie


    The Cache Contents Estimator (CCE) is a computer program that provides information on the contents of level-1 cache of a PowerPC computer. The CCE is configurable to enable simulation of any processor in the PowerPC family. The need for CCE arises because the contents of level-1 caches are not available to either hardware or software readout mechanisms, yet information on the contents is crucial in the development of fault-tolerant or highly available computing systems and for realistic modeling and prediction of computing- system performance. The CCE comprises two independent subprograms: (1) the Dynamic Application Address eXtractor (DAAX), which extracts the stream of address references from an application program undergoing execution and (2) the Cache Simulator (CacheSim), which models the level-1 cache of the processor to be analyzed, by mimicking what the cache controller would do, in response to the address stream from DAAX. CacheSim generates a running estimate of the contents of the data and the instruction subcaches of the level-1 cache, hit/miss ratios, the percentage of cache that contains valid or active data, and time-stamped histograms of the cache content.

  11. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, increasing women workforce and income growth. In this research, original data collected through face-to-face interview from 385 respondents which are located in Istanbul. Different Socio-Economic Status (SES groups‟ ratio for Istanbul was forming sampling distribution. Consumers prefer closest food retailers which are mainly purchasing food products. Consumers purchase more than their planned what their needs; especially C SES group average comes first for the spending money for unplanned shopping. Chain stores and hypermarkets are the most preferred retailers in food purchasing. Moreover, consumer responses to judgments related to retailing are being investigating with factor analysis.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.


    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  13. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  14. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  15. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.


    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  16. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.


    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  17. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce


    Sayalee Narkhede; Tripti Baraskar


    In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes ...

  18. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants (United States)


    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  19. Using Simulation to Analyze Acoustic Environments (United States)

    Wood, Eric J.


    One of the main projects that was worked on this semester was creating an acoustic model for the Advanced Space Suit in Comsol Multiphysics. The geometry tools built into the software were used to create an accurate model of the helmet and upper torso of the suit. After running the simulation, plots of the sound pressure level within the suit were produced, as seen below in Figure 1. These plots show significant nulls which should be avoided when placing microphones inside the suit. In the future, this model can be easily adapted to changes in the suit design to determine optimal microphone placements and other acoustic properties. Another major project was creating an acoustic diverter that will potentially be used to route audio into the Space Station's Node 1. The concept of the project was to create geometry to divert sound from a neighboring module, the US Lab, into Node 1. By doing this, no new audio equipment would need to be installed in Node 1. After creating an initial design for the diverter, analysis was performed in Comsol in order to determine how changes in geometry would affect acoustic performance, as shown in Figure 2. These results were used to produce a physical prototype diverter on a 3D printer. With the physical prototype, testing was conducted in an anechoic chamber to determine the true effectiveness of the design, as seen in Figure 3. The results from this testing have been compared to the Comsol simulation results to analyze how closely the Comsol results are to real-world performance. While the Comsol results do not seem to closely resemble the real world performance, this testing has provided valuable insight into how much trust can be placed in the results of Comsol simulations. A final project that was worked on during this tour was the Audio Interface Unit (AIU) design for the Orion program. The AIU is a small device that will be used for as an audio communication device both during launch and on-orbit. The unit will have functions


    Murthy, P. L.


    The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics


    Murthy, P. L.


    The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics

  2. Noise and Analyzer-Crystal Angular Position Analysis for Analyzer-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging


    Majidi, Keivan; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.


    The analyzer-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the...

  3. Environet: An interactive space-environment information resource (United States)

    Vampola, A. L.; Hall, William N.; Lauriente, Michael


    EnviroNET is an interactive menu-driven system set up as an information resource for experimenters, program managers, and design and test engineers who are involved in space missions. Its basic use is as a fundamental single-source of data for the environment encountered by Shuttle and Space Station payloads, but is also has wider applicability in that it includes information on environments encountered by other satellites in both low altitude and high altitude (including geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates both a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. The system is maintained on the ENVNET and MicroVAX computer at NASA/Goddard. It's services are available at no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and a dial-up port. It is a tail-node on SPAN and so it is accessible either directly or through BITNET, ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS.

  4. EnviroNET - An interactive space-environment information resource (United States)

    Vampola, A. L.; Hall, William N.; Lauriente, Michael


    EnviroNET is an interactive menu-driven system set up as an information resource for experimenters, program managers, and design and test engineers involved in space missions. Its basic use is as a fundamental single source of data for the environment encountered by Shuttle and Space Station payloads, but is also has wider applicability in that it includes information on environments encountered by other satellites in both low altitude and high altitude (including geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates both a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. The system is maintained on the ENVET MicroVAX computer at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its services are available at no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and modem. It is a tail-node on SPAN, and so it is accessible either directly or through BITNET, ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS.

  5. The Influence of Space Environment on the Evolution of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Orsini, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Turrini, Diego; Massetti, Stefano; Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina


    Mercury, due to its close location to the Sun, is surrounded by an environment whose conditions may be considered as "extreme" in the entire Solar System. Both solar wind and radiation are stronger with respect to other Solar System bodies, so that their interactions with the planet cause high emission of material from its surface. Moreover, the meteoritic precipitation plays a significant role in surface emission processes. This emitted material is partially lost in space. Although under the present conditions the surface particles loss rate does not seem to be able to produce significant erosion of the planetary mass and volume, the long-term effects over billions of years should be carefully considered to properly understand the evolution of the planet. In the early stages, under even more extreme conditions, some of these processes were much more effective in removing material from the planet's surface. This study attempts to provide a rough estimation of the material loss rate as a function of time, in o...

  6. Super Lightweight, Metal Rubber Fabric for Extreme Space Environments Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has fabricated revolutionary nanostructured, yet macroscale, multifunctional Metal RubberTM films via layer-by-layer, molecular self-assembly, which...

  7. Radiation damage of electronic components in space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscherini, M. E-mail:; Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Bonechi, L.; Castellini, G.; D' Alessandro, R.; Gabbanini, A.; Grandi, M.; Menn, W.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.B.; Simon, M.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Taccetti, F.; Tesi, M.; Vannuccini, E


    The PAMELA apparatus is dedicated to study cosmic rays on board of a satellite mission scheduled to start at the beginning of 2004. All the electronics components of such a mission have to be chosen carefully, because no replacement is possible after launch. Irradiation tests have been performed in order to study effects of highly ionizing particles on chips and to evaluate thresholds for Single Event Upset and Latch-up. The first effect, observed in digital components, is a radiation-induced change of state in a memory cell and gives rise to loss of the stored information. The second one, present also in analog components, happens when a parasitic conduction channel opens through the chip: this can fuse the component unless a protection circuit limits the current flow. Estimates of on-orbit fluxes and results of dedicated beam tests are reported.

  8. Effects of space environment on the lunar regolith. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.; Langevin, Y.


    The effects of the interplanetary medium on lunar dust grains were studied using a computer program for determining the complex movement of these grains in the lunar regolith due to meteoritic impact. This program was adapted to calculate several effects depending on the grains' depth in the regolith, resulting from their exposure to the solar wind and solar cosmic rays. The program was compared to an existing similar program in the U.S., resulting in an improvement of both. In particular, spallation effects in the lunar soil by galactic cosmic rays are now accounted for. Also, new methods have been proposed to obtain a better use of solar wind and solar cosmic ray effects in lunar dust grains.

  9. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program will leverage recent advances in striction materials and coupled striction devices as to enable highly isolated (analog) voltage and current flow...

  10. Electrical behaviour of a silicone elastomer under simulated space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical behavior of a space-used silicone elastomer was characterized using surface potential decay and dynamic dielectric spectroscopy techniques. In both cases, the dielectric manifestation of the glass transition (dipole orientation) and a charge transport phenomenon were observed. An unexpected linear increase of the surface potential with temperature was observed around Tg in thermally-stimulated potential decay experiments, due to molecular mobility limiting dipolar orientation in one hand, and 3D thermal expansion reducing the materials capacitance in the other hand. At higher temperatures, the charge transport process, believed to be thermally activated electron hopping with an activation energy of about 0.4 eV, was studied with and without the silica and iron oxide fillers present in the commercial material. These fillers were found to play a preponderant role in the low-frequency electrical conductivity of this silicone elastomer, probably through a Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars relaxation phenomenon. (paper)

  11. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg


    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller form factor was designed to surround or be at the actuator. Communication with the slave controllers is accomplished by a bus, thus limiting the number of wires that must be routed to the extremity locations. Efforts have also been made to increase the power capability of these electronics for the ability to power and control actuators up to 2.5KW and still meet the environmental challenges. For commutation and control of the actuator, a resolver was integrated and tested with the actuator. Testing of this resolver demonstrated temperature limitations. Subsequent failure analysis isolated the low temperature failure mechanism and a design solution was negotiated with the manufacturer. Several years of work have resulted in specialized electro-mechanical hardware to meet extreme space exploration environments, a test history that verifies and finds limitations of the designs and a growing knowledge base that can be leveraged by future space exploration missions.

  12. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  13. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.


    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  14. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model calculations and risk assessment estimates indicate that secondary neutrons, with energies ranging between 0.5 to >150 MeV, make a significant contribution...

  15. Potential vascular damage from radiation in the space environment (United States)

    Griem, M. L.; Robotewskyj, A.; Nagel, R. H.


    Cultured endothelial cells of blood vessels have a Do of 2 Gy for X-rays. A dose of 0.5 Gy of X-rays has an acute effect on vessel diameter. The vessels may show other acute effects such as change in permeability including a change in the blood brain barrier. Changes occurring from late effects of chronic exposure in vascular architecture include telangiectasia and decrease in vascular density. Changes in the perivascular connective tissue particularly collagen may play a role in these changes. After charged particle exposure of 15 and 30 Gy, radiation changes in the blood brain barrier and vascular changes are noted in the nervous system. These long term changes are recorded by PET, MRI, and CT imaging. Chronic exposure to alpha particles causes vascular damage in compact bone resulting in bone infarcts. Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy in-situ imaging of the capillaries and collagen of the papillary dermis provides a non-invasive method of serial recording of changes in irradiated microvasculature.

  16. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Secondary neutrons make a significant contribution to the total absorbed dose received by space crews during long duration space missions However, only a limited...

  17. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  18. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayalee Narkhede


    Full Text Available In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes of log data in a day.These datasets are huge. In order to analyze such large datasets we need parallel processing system andreliable data storage mechanism. Virtual database system is an effective solution for integrating the databut it becomes inefficient for large datasets. The Hadoop framework provides reliable data storage byHadoop Distributed File System and MapReduce programming model which is a parallel processingsystem for large datasets. Hadoop distributed file system breaks up input data and sends fractions of theoriginal data to several machines in hadoop cluster to hold blocks of data. This mechanism helps toprocess log data in parallel using all the machines in the hadoop cluster and computes result efficiently.The dominant approach provided by hadoop to “Store first query later”, loads the data to the HadoopDistributed File System and then executes queries written in Pig Latin. This approach reduces the responsetime as well as the load on to the end system. This paper proposes a log analysis system using HadoopMapReduce which will provide accurate results in minimum response time.

  19. Teflon FEP Analyzed After Retrieval From the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Wang, Len; He, Charles


    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission, 6.8 years after the telescope was deployed in low Earth orbit, degradation of unsupported Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer (see the photograph) was retrieved during the second servicing mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. Also retrieved was a Teflon FEP radiator surface from a cryogen vent cover that was exposed to the space environment on the aft bulkhead of the HST. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included determining the FEP degradation mechanisms. As part of the investigations into the degradation mechanisms, specimens retrieved from the first and second HST servicing missions, 3.6 and 6.8 years after launch, respectively, were characterized through exhaustive mechanical, optical, and chemical testing. Testing led by Goddard included scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, tensile testing, solar absorptance measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (m-FTIR), attenuated total reflectance infrared microscopy (ATR/FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The NASA Lewis Research Center contributed significantly to the analysis of the retrieved HST materials by leading efforts and providing results of bend testing, surface microhardness measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density measurements. Other testing was conducted by Nano Instruments, Inc., and the University of Akron.

  20. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Rashed


    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.  

  1. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi


    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.

  2. Lab-on-a-chip Astrobiology Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The analyzer...

  3. ARC Code TI: Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers (IKOS) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IKOS is a C++ library designed to facilitate the development of sound static analyzers based on Abstract Interpretation. Specialization of a static analyzer for an...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5680 - Automated heparin analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated heparin analyzer. 864.5680 Section 864....5680 Automated heparin analyzer. (a) Identification. An automated heparin analyzer is a device used to determine the heparin level in a blood sample by mixing the sample with protamine (a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  6. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quench checks; NOX analyzer. 86.327-79... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum... capillary, and if used, dilution capillary. (c) Quench check as follows: (1) Calibrate the NOX analyzer...

  7. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (United States)


    ...) Record the CO2 calibration gas concentration in ppm. (4) Record the analyzers' response (AR) in ppm to...) of this section. (iv) Record the response of calibration gases having nominal concentrations of 15... room temperature directly to the analyzer. (3) Determine and record the analyzer operating pressure...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1325-94 - Methane analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methane analyzer calibration. 86.1325... Procedures § 86.1325-94 Methane analyzer calibration. Prior to introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the methane analyzer shall be calibrated: (a) Follow the manufacturer's instructions...

  9. 40 CFR 86.125-94 - Methane analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methane analyzer calibration. 86.125... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.125-94 Methane analyzer calibration. Prior to introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the methane analyzer shall be calibrated: (a) Follow...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1640 - Helium gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Helium gas analyzer. 868.1640 Section 868.1640...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1640 Helium gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A helium gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of helium in a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  12. 21 CFR 862.2500 - Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. 862.2500 Section... Instruments § 862.2500 Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An enzyme analyzer for clinical use is a device intended to measure enzymes in plasma or serum by nonkinetic or kinetic measurement...

  13. Analyzer of energy spectra of a magnetized relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzer of magnetized REB instant energy spectrum is described. The analyzer operation principle is based on the application of a sharp change of the direction of force lines of a magnetic field which is non-adiabatic for the beam electrons. The analyzer design is described, the main factors effecting the energy resolution are considered. The analyzer serviceability is examined in the course of experiments on plasma heating using a heavy-current microsecond REB at the GOL-3 device. The analyzer energy resolution which does not exceed 10% at 0.8 MeV energy and 20% at 0.3 MeV is determined. Beam energy spectra are obtained in one of the regimes of beam interaction with plasma. The efficiency of beam interaction with plasma determined using the analyzer achieves 30%. 10 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Digital signal processing in the radio science stability analyzer (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.


    The Telecommunications Division has built a stability analyzer for testing Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments. The low-frequency part of the analyzer operates by digitizing wave signals with bandwidths between 80 Hz and 45 kHz. Processed outputs include spectra of signal, phase, amplitude, and differential phase; time series of the same quantities; and Allan deviation of phase and differential phase. This article documents the digital signal-processing methods programmed into the analyzer.

  15. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. (United States)

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S


    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  16. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells. (United States)

    Meyer, R M


    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  17. An Examination of Radiation Induced Tensile Failure of Stressed and Unstressed Polymer Films Flown on MISSE-6 (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.


    Thin film polymers are used in many spacecraft applications for thermal control (multilayer insulation and sunshields), as lightweight structural members (solar array blankets, inflatable/deployable structures) and have been proposed for propulsion (solar sails). Polymers in these applications are often under a tensile load and are directly exposed to the space environment, therefore it is important to understand the effect of stress in combination with the environment on the durability of these polymer films. The purpose of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment, flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6), was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. This paper describes the results of post flight tensile testing of these samples.

  18. A Novel Analyzer Control System for Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (United States)

    Rhoades, Glendon; Belev, George; Rosenberg, Alan; Chapman, Dean


    Diffraction Enhanced Imaging is an imaging modality that derives contrast from x-ray refraction, an extreme form of scatter rejection (extinction) and absorption which is common to conventional radiography. A critical part of the imaging system is the "analyzer crystal" which is used to re-diffract the beam after passing through the object being imaged. The analyzer and monochromator crystals form a matched parallel crystal set. This analyzer needs to be accurately aligned and that alignment maintained over the course of an imaging session. Typically, the analyzer needs to remain at a specific angle within a few tens of nanoradians to prevent problems with image interpretation. Ideally, the analyzer would be set to a specific angle and would remain at that angle over the course of an imaging session which might be from a fraction of a second to several minutes or longer. In many instances, this requirement is well beyond what is possible by relying on mechanical stability alone and some form of feedback to control the analyzer setting is required. We describe a novel analyzer control system that allows the analyzer to be set at any location in the analyzer rocking curve, including the peak location. The method described is extensible to include methods to extend the range of analyzer control to several Darwin widths away from the analyzer peaked location. Such a system is necessary for the accurate implementation of the method and is intended to make the use of the method simpler without relying on repeated alignment during the imaging session.

  19. 带移动滑块太阳帆航天器姿态控制技术研究及仿真%Attitude Control and ADAMS-MATLAB United Simulation of Moving-Mass Based Solar Sail Spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震亚; 韩艳铧; 贾杰



  20. 21 CFR 868.1720 - Oxygen gas analyzer. (United States)


    ... gases by techniques such as mass spectrometry, polarography, thermal conductivity, or gas chromatography... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen gas analyzer. 868.1720 Section 868.1720...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1720 Oxygen gas analyzer....

  1. Control of a pulse height analyzer using an RDX workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National laboratory is in the midst of upgrading its radiation counting facilities to automate data acquisition and quality control. This upgrade requires control of a pulse height analyzer (PHA) from an interactive LSI-11/23 workstation running RSX-11M. The PHA is a micro-computer based multichannel analyzer system providing data acquisition, storage, display, manipulation and input/output from up to four independent acquisition interfaces. Control of the analyzer includes reading and writing energy spectra, issuing commands, and servicing device interrupts. The analyzer communicates to the host system over a 9600-baud serial line using the Digital Data Communications link level Protocol (DDCMP). We relieved the RSX workstation CPU from the DDCMP overhead by implementing a DEC compatible in-house designed DMA serial line board (the ISL-11) to communicate with the analyzer. An RSX I/O device driver was written to complete the path between the analyzer and the RSX system by providing the link between the communication board and an application task. The I/O driver is written to handle several ISL-11 cards all operating in parallel thus providing support for control of multiple analyzers from a single workstation. The RSX device driver, its design and use by application code controlling the analyzer, and its operating environment will be discussed

  2. 40 CFR 89.318 - Analyzer interference checks. (United States)


    ...) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response... check. A CO2 span gas having a concentration of 80 percent to 100 percent of full scale of the maximum operating range used during testing shall be passed through the CO2 NDIR analyzer and the value recorded...

  3. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer... monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow the manufacturer's... carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and...

  4. 40 CFR 91.325 - Analyzer interference checks. (United States)


    ... room temperature a CO2 span gas having a concentration of between 80 percent and 100 percent inclusive... expected concentrations experienced during testing. (1) NOX analyzer CO2 quench check. (i) Pass a CO2 span... used during testing through the CO2 NDIR analyzer and record the value as “a.” (ii) Dilute the CO2...

  5. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... vapor and CO2. (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arjen van der Schoot


    @@ Fig. 1 shows a newly developed analyzer (Ankersmid CIS-100) that brings together two different measurement channels for accurate size and shape measurement of spherical and non-spherical particles. The size of spherical particles is measured by a HeNe Laser Beam; the size of non-spherical particles is analyzed by Dynamic Video Analysis of the particles' shape.

  7. Development of parallel/serial program analyzing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing 'KMtool', a parallel/serial program analyzing tool, in order to promote the parallelization of the science and engineering computation program. KMtool analyzes the performance of program written by FORTRAN77 and MPI, and it reduces the effort for parallelization. This paper describes development purpose, design, utilization and evaluation of KMtool. (author)

  8. Empirical Validity of Ertl's Brain-Wave Analyzer (BWA02). (United States)

    Fischer, Donald G.; And Others


    The empirical validity of Ertl's brain wave analyzer was investigated by the known contrasted groups method. Thirty-two academically talented and 16 academically handicapped were compared on four Primary Mental Abilities tests, two Sequential Tests of Educational Progress measures, and seven Brain Wave Analyzer measures. (Author/JKS)

  9. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Mohammed, Aaron


    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output.

  10. 21 CFR 868.1120 - Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration... Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer is a photoelectric device used to measure, in vivo, the oxygen-carrying capacity...

  11. 40 CFR 90.318 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... at any point, use the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data to within two percent of... been set to the most common operating range. (4) Introduce into the NOX generator analyzer-system an NO... off the NOX generator but maintain gas flow through the system. The oxides of nitrogen analyzer...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID... methanol-fueled vehicles shall be operated at 235° ±15 °F (113° ±8 °C)). Analyzers used with gasoline-fuel...-fuel may be optimized using methane, or if calibrated using propane the FID response to methane...

  13. Experimental analysis of a new retarding field energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu-Xiang [Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, No. 3888, Yuanjiang Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 201109 (China); Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, North 4th Ring Road West, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Shu-Qing; Li, Xian-Xia; Shen, Hong-Li; Huang, Ming-Guang [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, North 4th Ring Road West, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Pu-Kun, E-mail: [School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, No. 5, Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China)


    In this paper, a new compact retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) is designed for diagnosing electron beams of a K-band space travelling-wave tube (TWT). This analyzer has an aperture plate to sample electron beams and a cylindrical electrode to overcome the defocusing effects. The front end of the analyzer constructed as a multistage depression collector (MDC) structure is intended to shape the field to prevent electrons from being accelerated to escape. The direct-current (DC) beams of the K-band space TWTs with the removing MDC can be investigated on the beam measurement system. The current density distribution of DC beams is determined by the analyzer, while the anode voltage and helix voltage of the TWTs are 7000 V and 6850 V, respectively. The current curve’s slope effect due to the reflection of secondary electrons on the copper collector of the analyzer is discussed. The experimental analysis shows this RFEA has a good energy resolution to satisfy the requirement of beam measurement. - Highlights: • A new retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) is designed to diagnose the electron beam of a K-band space TWT. • The current density distribution of direct-current beam is determined. • The reflection effect of secondary electrons on the copper collector of the analyzer is discussed.

  14. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris


    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  15. Emergency response training with the BNL plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in the experience in the use of the BNL plant analyzer for NRC emergency response training to simulated accidents in a BWR. The unique features of the BNL Plant Analyzer that are important for the emergency response training are summarized. A closed-loop simulation of all the key systems of a power plant in question was found essential to the realism of the emergency drills conducted at NRC. The faster than real-time simulation speeds afforded by the BNL Plant Analyzer have demonstrated its usefulness for the timely conduct of the emergency response training

  16. Mini Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (miniTOCA) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers function by converting (oxidizing) all organic compounds (contaminants) in the water sample to carbon dioxide gas (CO2), then...

  17. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

  18. Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to employ Off-Axis ICOS to develop triple-isotope water analyzers for lunar and other extraplanetary exploration. This instrument...

  19. Analyzing the next-generation catalog a library technology report

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Andrew


    his issue of ""Library Technology Reports"" analyzes five different academic libraries to better understand their investments, detailing the outcome thus far and drawing conclusions about the next-generation catalog.

  20. Mars & Multi-Planetary Electrical Environment Spectrum Analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to develop MENSA as a highly integrated planetary radio and digital spectrum analyzer cubesat payload that can be deployed as a satellite...

  1. Lab-on-a-chip astrobiology analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an astrobiology analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The...

  2. Proteomics: an efficient tool to analyze nematode proteins (United States)

    Proteomic technologies have been successfully used to analyze proteins structure and characterization in plants, animals, microbes and humans. We used proteomics methodologies to separate and characterize soybean cyst nematode (SCN) proteins. Optimizing the quantity of proteins required to separat...

  3. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.


    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  4. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  5. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for eddy flux covariance...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.250 - Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. (United States)


    ... analyzer that has compensation algorithms that are functions of other gaseous measurements and the engine's known or assumed fuel properties. The target value for any compensation algorithm is 0.0% (that is,...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.272 - Nondispersive ultraviolet analyzer. (United States)


    ... in § 1065.307. You may use a NDUV analyzer that has compensation algorithms that are functions of... compensation algorithm is 0.0% (that is, no bias high and no bias low), regardless of the uncompensated...

  8. PICARD - A PIpeline for Combining and Analyzing Reduced Data (United States)

    Gibb, Andrew G.; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie

    PICARD is a facility for combining and analyzing reduced data, normally the output from the ORAC-DR data reduction pipeline. This document describes an introduction to using PICARD for processing instrument-independent data.

  9. Online Spectral Fit Tool for Analyzing Reflectance Spectra (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.


    The Online Spectral Fit Tool is developed for analyzing Vis-NIR spectral behavior of asteroids and meteorites. Implementation is done using JavaScript/HTML. Fitted spectra consist of spline continuum and gamma distributions for absorption bands.

  10. Airspace Analyzer for Assessing Airspace Directional Permeability Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build a software tool which enables the user (airline or Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP)) the ability to analyze the flight-level-by-flight-level...

  11. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)


    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  12. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  13. Development of hydrazine analyzer for high concentration of ethanolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polarographic electrode method has been conventionally used for monitoring hydrazine concentrations in feedwater of pressurized water reactor (PWR) to control the secondary water chemistry. Measurements of hydrazine concentrations of the high pH controlled feedwater with ethanolamine (ETA) by this existing hydrazine analyzer were not stable on some occasions when the plant was in power operation. To solve this problem we developed a new hydrazine analyzer using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DABA) colorimetry and flow injection analysis (FIA) methods. (author)

  14. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  15. Momentum analyzers DCBA for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nobuhiro.ishihara@kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    Momentum analyzers called Drift Chamber Beta-ray Analyzer (DCBA) are being developed at KEK in order to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of nuclei. A test prototype, DCBA-T2, has been constructed to confirm the principle detecting electron tracks in a uniform magnetic field. Another prototype, DCBA-T3, is now under construction to improve the energy resolution. The test results and the present statuses of these prototypes are presented.

  16. DendrometeR: Analyzing the pulse of trees in R


    Ernst van der Maaten; Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen; Marko Smiljanić; Sergio Rossi; Sonia Simard; Martin Wilmking; Annie Deslauriers; Patrick Fonti; Georg von Arx; Olivier Bouriaud


    Dendrometers are measurement devices proven to be useful to analyze tree water relations and growth responses in relation to environmental variability. To analyze dendrometer data, two analytical methods prevail: (1) daily approaches that calculate or extract single values per day, and (2) stem-cycle approaches that separate high-resolution dendrometer records into distinct phases of contraction, expansion and stem-radius increment. Especially the stem-cycle approach requires complex algorith...

  17. Analyzing competitiveness of automotive industry through cumulative belief degrees


    Kabak, Özgür; Ülengin, Füsun; Önsel, Şule; Özaydin, Özay; Aktaş, Emel


    Copyright @ 2012 The European Mathematical Society This study aims to analyze the automotive industry from competitiveness perspective using a novel cumulative belief degrees (CBD) approach. For this purpose, a mathematical model based on CBD is proposed to quantify the relations among the variables in a system. This model is used to analyze the Turkish Automotive Industry through scenario analysis. This research is supported by SEDEFED (Federation of Industrial Associations), REF (TÜSİ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezeanu Ramona


    The purpose of our work is to analyze travel web-sites, more exactly, whether the criteria used to analyze virtual stores are also adequate for the Romanian tourism product. Following the study, we concluded that the Romanian online tourism web-sites for the Romanian market have the features that we found listed on similar web-sites of France, England, Germany, etc. In conclusion, online Romanian tourism can be considered one of the factors of economic growth.

  19. Real-Time, Polyphase-FFT, 640-MHz Spectrum Analyzer (United States)

    Zimmerman, George A.; Garyantes, Michael F.; Grimm, Michael J.; Charny, Bentsian; Brown, Randy D.; Wilck, Helmut C.


    Real-time polyphase-fast-Fourier-transform, polyphase-FFT, spectrum analyzer designed to aid in detection of multigigahertz radio signals in two 320-MHz-wide polarization channels. Spectrum analyzer divides total spectrum of 640 MHz into 33,554,432 frequency channels of about 20 Hz each. Size and cost of polyphase-coefficient memory substantially reduced and much of processing loss of windowed FFTs eliminated.

  20. A New Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Stochastic Global Optimization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework by means of the absorbing Markov process theory for analyzing some stochastic global optimization algorithms. Applying the framework to the pure random search, we prove that the pure random search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has geometry distribution. We also analyze the pure adaptive search by this framework and turn out that the pure adaptive search converges to the global minimum in probability and its time has Poisson distribution.

  1. Seasonal cycle of cloud cover analyzed using Meteosat images


    Massons, J.; Domingo, D.; Lorente, J.


    A cloud-detection method was used to retrieve cloudy pixels from Meteosat images. High spatial resolution (one pixel), monthly averaged cloud-cover distribution was obtained for a 1-year period. The seasonal cycle of cloud amount was analyzed. Cloud parameters obtained include the total cloud amount and the percentage of occurrence of clouds at three altitudes. Hourly variations of cloud cover are also analyzed. Cloud properties determined are coherent with those obtained in previous studies....

  2. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture neutron polarizers and analyzers (United States)

    Gilev, A. G.; Pleshanov, N. K.; Bazarov, B. A.; Bulkin, A. P.; Schebetov, A. F.; Syromyatnikov, V. G.; Tarnavich, V. V.; Ulyanov, V. A.


    Requirements on the field uniformity in neutron polarizers are analyzed in view of the fact that neutron polarizing coatings have been improved during the past decade. The design of magnetic systems that meet new requirements is optimized by numerical simulations. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture multichannel polarizers and analyzers are represented, including (a) the polarizer to be built at channel 4-4‧ of the reactor PIK (Gatchina, Russia) for high-flux experiments with a 100×150 mm2 beam of polarized cold neutrons; (b) the fan analyzer covering a 150×100 mm2 window of the detector at the Magnetism Reflectometer (SNS, ORNL, USA); (c) the polarizer and (d) the fan analyzer covering a 220×110 mm2 window of the detector at the reflectometer NERO, which is transferred to PNPI (Russia) from HZG (Germany). Deviations of the field from the vertical did not exceed 2°. The polarizing efficiency of the analyzer at the Magnetism Reflectometer reached 99%, a record level for wide-aperture supermirror analyzers.

  3. Numerical simulation of atomic oxygen flux and fluence distribution on spacecraft surface in low earth orbit space environment%低地球轨道空间环境下航天器表面原子氧通量密度和积分通量分布的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 姜利祥; 李涛


    基于蒙特卡罗方法和区域分解法,建立低地球轨道空间环境航天器表面原子氧通量密度和积分通量的数学模型.模型考虑了航天器表面几何构型、原子氧数密度和分析热运动、地球自转对航天器速度的影响以及轨道运行参数.通量密度分布的求解是通过其微分方程的对于独立变量分子运动速度和与表面速度矢量合成的积分得到,积分通量是通过沿轨道时间积分来实现.与此同时,得到了沿入射攻角变化原子氧分布的最大值和最小值.计算结果表明:通量分布伴随入射攻角增大而急剧下降,在迎风面达到最大值,背风面最小值.入射攻角是影响分布计算结果的重要因素.计算误差与NASA-LDEF飞行试验实验结果吻合较好.%A mathematical model ofatomic oxygen flux and fluence distribution is built for spacecraft surface in low earth orbit space environment(LEO),basedOllMome Carlo raytracing and domain decomositio|Imeods(MCRT-DD).spaecraft geometry,number density and molecular thermal motion of atomic oxygen,spacecraft velocity affected by aunosphere co-rotation and orbit propagation parameters are consideredinthemodel.The differential equation for flux is integrated with respect to molecular speed and direction ofthemolecular velocity vector relative to the suffrage.Fluence along the propagation path is allintegrated flux with respect to time.Meanwhile,those of maximum and minimum values and variations with different incidence angles are calculated.Results show that the distribution takes a decreasing tendency markedly with the increasing incidence angle;at the same time,the flux density reaches the maxim value in a positive incidence angle and the minimum value in a leeward incidence angle and the incidence angle is an important factor to affect the distribution and the calculation error,as agrees well with the Long Duratin Exposure Facility of National Aeronaucs and Space Administration

  4. Study of Exotic Weakly Bound Nuclei Using Magnetic Analyzer Mavr (United States)

    Maslov, V. A.; Kazacha, V. I.; Kolesov, I. V.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Melnikov, V. N.; Osipov, N. F.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Skobelev, N. K.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Voskoboinik, E. I.


    A project of the high-resolution magnetic analyzer MAVR is proposed. The analyzer will comprise new magnetic optical and detecting systems for separation and identification of reaction products in a wide range of masses (5-150) and charges (1-60). The magnetic optical system consists of the MSP-144 magnet and a doublet of quadrupole lenses. This will allow the solid angle of the spectrometer to be increased by an order of magnitude up to 30 msr. The magnetic analyzer will have a high momentum resolution (10-4) and high focal-plane dispersion (1.9 m). It will allow products of nuclear reactions at energies up to 30 MeV/nucleon to be detected with the charge resolution ∼1/60. Implementation of the project is divided into two stages: conversion of the magnetic analyzer proper and construction of the nuclear reaction products identification system. The MULTI detecting system is being developed for the MAVR magnetic analyzer to allow detection of nuclear reaction products and their identification by charge Q, atomic number Z, and mass A with a high absolute accuracy. The identification will be performed by measuring the energy loss (ΔE), time of flight (TOF), and total kinetic energy (TKE) of reaction products. The particle trajectories in the analyzer will also be determined using the drift chamber developed jointly with GANIL. The MAVR analyzer will operate in both primary beams of heavy ions and beams of radioactive nuclei produced by the U400 - U400M acceleration complex. It will also be used for measuring energy spectra of nuclear reaction products and as an energy monochromator.

  5. A Vector Network Analyzer Based on Pulse Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schulte


    Full Text Available A fast four channel network analyzer is introduced to measure S-parameters in a frequency range from 10MHz to 3GHz. The signal generation for this kind of analyzer is based on pulse generators, which are realized with bipolar transistors. The output signal of the transistor is differentiated and two short pulses, a slow and a fast one, with opposite polarities are generated. The slow pulse is suppressed with a clipping network. Thus the generation of very short electrical pulses with a duration of about 100ps is possible. The structure of the following network analyzer is similar to the structure of a conventional four channel network analyzer. All four pulses, which contain the high frequency information of the device under test, are evaluated after the digitalization of intermediate frequencies. These intermediate frequencies are generated with sampling mixers. The recorded data is evaluated with a special analysis technique, which is based on a Fourier transformation. The calibration techniques used are the same as for conventional four channel network analyzers, no new calibration techniques need to be developed.

  6. A Method for Analyzing System Reliability of Existing Jacket Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GONG Shun-feng; JIN Wei-liang


    Owing to the ageing of the existing structures worldwide and the lack of codes for the continued safety management of structures during their lifetime, it is very necessary to develop a tool to evaluate their system reliability over a time interval. In this paper, a method is proposed to analyze system reliability of existing jacket platforms. The influences of dint, crack and corrosion are considered. The mechanics characteristics of the existing jacket platforms to extreme loads are analyzed by use of the nonlinear mechanical analysis. The nonlinear interaction of pile-soil-structure is taken into consideration in the analysis. By use of FEM method and Monte Carlo simulation, the system reliability of the existing jacket platform can be obtained. The method has been illustrated through application to BZ28-1 three jacket platforms which have operated for sixteen years. Advantages of the proposed method for analyzing the system reliability of the existing jacket platform is also highlighted.

  7. Chemical gas analyzers for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochenkova, T.K.; Klassovskaya, N.A.; Zlenko, A.G.; Gus' kova, A.N. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornogo Dela, Donetsk (Ukraine))


    Describes a series of chemical gas analyzers developed by the VNIIGD institute for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere in coal mines. The new GKh-4, GKh-5, GKh-6, GKh CO-5 use detector tubes for carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide. These devices allow miners to determine gas concentrations in the mine atmosphere in less than 4 minutes with an accuracy of +/-25%. The series is now complemented by the GKh-M CH[sub 2]O-0.004 gas analyzer for measuring formaldehyde content in mine air during mine rescue operations conducted with the use of carbamide-formaldehyde resins. Key technical data on the gas analyzers are given.

  8. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  9. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris


    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. Over the past two years, two ORU 02 analyzer assemblies have operated nominally while two others have experienced premature on-orbit failures. These failures as well as nominal performances demonstrate that ORU 02 performance remains a key determinant of MCA performance and logistical support. It can be shown that monitoring several key parameters can maximize the capacity to monitor ORU health and properly anticipate end of life. Improvements to ion pump operation and ion source tuning are expected to improve lifetime performance of the current ORU 02 design.

  10. Analyzing multimode wireless sensor networks using the network calculus



    The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N...

  11. Usage of data mining for analyzing customer mindset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Sadaria


    Full Text Available As this is the era of Information Technology, no filed remains untouched by computer science. The technology has become an integral part of the business process. By implementing different data mining techniques and algorithms on the feedback collected from the customer, we can analyzed the data. With help of this analyzed information we have clear idea about the customer’s mind set and can take meaning full decision for production and marketing of particular product. To study about customer mindset differentmodels like classification and association models are used in data mining.

  12. Electro-optic analyzer of angular momentum hyperentanglement. (United States)

    Wu, Ziwen; Chen, Lixiang


    Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement.

  13. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.


    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  14. Analyzing the Objective Causes of Oral Chinglish and Error Avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Due to the inevitable influence of the mother tongue and some other objective causes, Chinglish is troubling Chinese learners of English in various ways, which has an bad effect on quality of oral communication. Therefore, minimizing or eliminating oral Chinglish will greatly improve the quality of communication. This paper will firstly explain the definition of Chinglish,then focus on description and analyzing of oral Chinglish mistakes, what’s more, the objective causes of oral Chinglish will be analyzed and founded, especially on the aspect of negative transfer. At last, some avoidance of oral Chinglish will be offered.

  15. Analyzing Service Encounters Cross-Culturally: Methodological Considerations. (United States)

    Kalaja, Paula

    Two approaches to analyzing service encounters (instances of face-to-face interaction between a server designated in a particular area and a customer receiving service from the server) are examined. Some linguists view service encounters as business transaction texts. The two approaches are the "top-down" approach, in which linguists make direct…

  16. Application of Three Registers of FSG to Analyze Students Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the process of checking one of the students' composition,the author applies the field,tenor,and mode of FSC to analyze the writing in a broader way than before,which gives an enlightenment to teaching writing and assisting students in a new angle.

  17. Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Meier, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter


    Reinhardt, W., Meier, C., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. Crespo García, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Towards Ubiquitous Learning: 6th European Conference of Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2011 (pp. 531-536). Sept

  18. Interactive Evolutionary Computation for Analyzing Human Awareness Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Takagi


    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of establishing awareness science and show the idea of using interactive evolutionary computation (IEC as a tool for analyzing awareness mechanism and making awareness models. First, we describe the importance of human factors in computational intelligence and that IEC is one of approaches for the so-called humanized computational intelligence. Second, we show examples that IEC is used as an analysis tool for human science. As analyzing human awareness mechanism is in this kind of analyzing human characteristics and capabilities, IEC may be able to be used for this purpose. Based on this expectation, we express one idea for analyzing the awareness mechanism. This idea is to make an equivalent model of an IEC user using a learning model and find latent variables that connect inputs and outputs of the user model and that help to understand or explain the inputs-outputs relationship. Although there must be several definitions of awareness, this idea is based on one definition that awareness is to find out unknown variables that helps our understanding. If we establish a method for finding the latent variables automatically, we can realize an awareness model in computer.

  19. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.


    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  20. A Rigorous Methodology for Analyzing and Designing Plug-Ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasie, Marieta V.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kiniry, Joseph


    . This paper addresses these problems by describing a rigorous methodology for analyzing and designing plug-ins. The methodology is grounded in the Extended Business Object Notation (EBON) and covers informal analysis and design of features, GUI, actions, and scenarios, formal architecture design, including...

  1. IOSIE: A Method for Analyzing Student Behavioral Problems (United States)

    Scarpaci, Richard T.


    The author argues for a rational method to analyze behavior problems and proposes a method of identifying the problem, the objectives to be achieved, the solution, the implementation, and the evaluation (IOSIE) as a practical approach to assist teachers in resolving most classroom behavior management problems. The approach draws heavily on…

  2. 40 CFR 89.321 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... nitrogen analyzer is checked for NO2 to NO converter efficiency according to § 89.317. (c) Initial and...-fit straight line is 2 percent or less of the value at each non-zero data point and within ± 0.3... represents the data to within these limits shall be used to determine concentration. (d) The initial...

  3. Analyzing Perceptions of Prospective Teachers about Their Media Literacy Competencies (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Ergun, Muammer


    The purpose of this study is to analyze perceptions of prospective teachers about their media literacy competencies in terms of different variables. This is a descriptive research in the survey model which tries to detect the current situation. Study group includes 580 prospective teachers from Turkish, Primary School, Social Studies, Science,…

  4. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  5. 40 CFR 86.221-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86.221-94 Section 86.221-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.221-94 Hydrocarbon...

  6. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86.224-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon...

  7. A New Methodology to Analyze Instabilities in SEM Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansilla, Catalina; Ocelik, Vaclav; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.


    This paper presents a statistical method to analyze instabilities that can be introduced during imaging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method is based on the correlation of digital images and it can be used at different length scales. It consists of the evaluation of three different appr

  8. Analyzing the use of pins in safety bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Fonseca, Cesar A. L. L.; Weber, Hans I.; Fleischer, Philip F.;


    A new concept for safety bearings is analyzed: useful in emergency situations, it shall protect the bearing from destruction by the use of pins which impact with a disc, both capable of good energy dissipation. Results of work in progress are presented by validating partial stages of the developm...

  9. So you want to buy an EDXRF analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In an effort to save costs many companies are considering energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzers as an alternative to wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) analyzers. In many cases, particularly in geological applications, this begins with a desire to either replace an in-house WDX system, or reduce the number of samples sent to an outside laboratory. The differences between the two go far beyond a simple reversal of the order of spectral peaks. In order to decide if an EDX analyzer is a suitable substitute for WDX, or any other analytical method, a number of questions must be answered. These include: 1. What is the normal error associated with comparing methods; 2. What additional sources of error are important in EDXRF; 3. How do changes in sample preparation methods affect the results; 4. How to design an application study that determines if EDX is a suitable method. Each of these questions will be answered in enough detail to provide someone with the tools they need to determine if an EDXRF analyzers meets their requirements. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  10. Using UPPAAL to Analyze an MPEG-2 Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Ravn, Anders Peter; Valero, Valentin


    The performance of a parallel algorithm for an MPEG-2 encoding is analyzed using timed automata models in the UppAal tool. We have constructed both a sequential model of MPEG-2, and a parallel model of MPEG-2 and then, a comparison of the results obtained for both models is made. We show how...

  11. Analyzing Traffic Problem Model With Graph Theory Algorithms


    Tan, Yong


    This paper will contribute to a practical problem, Urban Traffic. We will investigate those features, try to simplify the complexity and formulize this dynamic system. These contents mainly contain how to analyze a decision problem with combinatorial method and graph theory algorithms; how to optimize our strategy to gain a feasible solution through employing other principles of Computer Science.

  12. A multichannel dual-mixer stability analyzer: progress report (United States)

    Stevens, C. A.; Kirk, A.; Stevens, G. L.


    A stability analyzer is being developed for frequency standards in JPL's Deep Space Network. Prototype hardware and software have been built. Initial tests on 100-MHz sources show an Allan deviation noise floor of about 7 X 10(sup -15) at 1 second for a dual-mixer channel.

  13. Analyzing Digital Library Initiatives: 5S Theory Perspective (United States)

    Isah, Abdulmumin; Mutshewa, Athulang; Serema, Batlang; Kenosi, Lekoko


    This article traces the historical development of Digital Libraries (DLs), examines some DL initiatives in developed and developing countries and uses 5S Theory as a lens for analyzing the focused DLs. The analysis shows that present-day systems, in both developed and developing nations, are essentially content and user centric, with low level…

  14. Analyzing Risk and Performance Using the Multi-Factor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); N. van der Wijst (Nico)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the m

  15. Theories Analyzing Communicative Approach in China's EFL Classes (United States)

    Xu, Yang


    Communicative Approach is applied widely in primary and middle schools, when various modern teaching methods pour in China's EFL classes. However, the development of this effective language teaching method cannot show its advantages in China during years' practice. This paper analyzed the constraining factors, such as teaching habits, examination…

  16. A Role-Playing Exercise for Analyzing Intercultural Communication. (United States)

    Lehman, Carol M.; Taylor, G. Stephen


    Presents a business communication scenario for students to role-play and analyze, using a systematic process for identifying communication roadblocks occurring on the job, especially when communicating with people from diverse backgrounds and other countries. Discusses ways to improve the communication process to enable students to develop…

  17. Success Is Cheesecake: A Guide to Analyzing Student Discourse (United States)

    Andrelchik, Hillary


    Action research, conducted by teachers in their own classrooms, with the goal of improving practice, is an invaluable practice that can provide insight into students' lives. One of the many challenges associated with action research is knowing how to analyze and interpret data. In this manuscript, written as a "how to" of sorts, I…

  18. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger;


    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact o......, a methodology for measuring their scholarly impact, and tools exploiting visual analytics to analyze the outcomes....

  19. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)


    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  20. T-Scan: a new tool for analyzing Dutch text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, H.L.W.; Kraf, R.L.; van den Bosch, Antal; van Gompel, Maarten; Kleijn, S.; Sanders, T.J.M.; van der Sloot, Ko


    T-Scan is a new tool for analyzing Dutch text. It aims at extracting text features that are theoretically interesting, in that they relate to genre and text complexity, as well as practically interesting, in that they enable users and text producers to make text-specific diagnoses. T-Scan derives it