WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyze solar-sail space-environment

  1. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  2. Dynamic analysis of spinning solar sails at deployment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxing ZHANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spinning deployment process of solar sails is analyzed in this study. A simplified model is established by considering the out-of-plane and in-plane motions of solar sails. The influences of structure parameters, initial conditions, and feedback control parameters are also analyzed. A method to build the geometric model of a solar sail is presented by analyzing the folding process of solar sails. The finite element model of solar sails is then established, which contains continuous cables and sail membranes. The dynamics of the second-stage deployment of solar sails are simulated by using ABAQUS software. The influences of the rotational speed and out-of-plane movement of the hub are analyzed by different tip masses, initial velocities, and control parameters. Compared with the results from theoretical models, simulation results show good agreements.

  3. Advances in solar sailing

    CERN Document Server

    Third International Symposium on Solar Sailing

    2014-01-01

    Hosted by the Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory within the department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of the University of Strathclyde, the third International Symposium on Solar Sailing was held in McCance Building at 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow, between 11 and 13 June 2013. The symposium attracted over 90 delegates from19 different counties, bringing together international experts from across the globe to discuss funded solar sail flight programs alongside on-going technology development and testing programs. The symposium also provided a forum for the discussion of enabling technologies, new application concepts, materials and structural concepts, space environmental effects, dynamics, navigation, control, and much more. This volume contains the unabridged symposium proceedings, in the gathered experts own words. As symposium chair, I thank our partners at Scottish Enterprise and L’Garde, Inc., the symposium’s gold sponsor, for their support in realising this symposium.

  4. Relativistic solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2018-05-01

    We apply the four-vector formalism of special relativity to describe various interaction processes of photons with a solar sail, in two cases: when the sail’s surface is a perfect mirror, and when it is a body coated with a totally absorbing material. We stress the pedagogical value of implementing simultaneously both the linear momentum and the energy conservation in a covariant fashion, as our formalism inherently does. It also allows for a straightforward change of the description of a certain process in different inertial reference frames.

  5. Structural Analysis and Test Comparison of a 20-Meter Inflation-Deployed Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Mann, Troy; Lichodziejewski, David; Derbes, Billy

    2006-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Office, the team of L Garde, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ball Aerospace, and NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a scalable solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Prior to a flight experiment of a full-scale solar sail, a comprehensive test program was implemented to advance the technology readiness level of the solar sail design. These tests consisted of solar sail component, subsystem, and sub-scale system ground tests that simulated the aspects of the space environment such as vacuum and thermal conditions. In July 2005, a 20-m four-quadrant solar sail system test article was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Space Power Facility to measure its static and dynamic structural responses. Key to the maturation of solar sail technology is the development of validated finite element analysis (FEA) models that can be used for design and analysis of solar sails. A major objective of the program was to utilize the test data to validate the FEA models simulating the solar sail ground tests. The FEA software, ABAQUS, was used to perform the structural analyses to simulate the ground tests performed on the 20-m solar sail test article. This paper presents the details of the FEA modeling, the structural analyses simulating the ground tests, and a comparison of the pretest and post-test analysis predictions with the ground test results for the 20-m solar sail system test article. The structural responses that are compared in the paper include load-deflection curves and natural frequencies for the beam structural assembly and static shape, natural frequencies, and mode shapes for the solar sail membrane. The analysis predictions were in reasonable agreement with the test data. Factors that precluded better correlation of the analyses and the tests were unmeasured initial conditions in the test set-up.

  6. Logarithmic spiral trajectories generated by Solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marco; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Analytic solutions to continuous thrust-propelled trajectories are available in a few cases only. An interesting case is offered by the logarithmic spiral, that is, a trajectory characterized by a constant flight path angle and a fixed thrust vector direction in an orbital reference frame. The logarithmic spiral is important from a practical point of view, because it may be passively maintained by a Solar sail-based spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic study concerning the possibility of inserting a Solar sail-based spacecraft into a heliocentric logarithmic spiral trajectory without using any impulsive maneuver. The required conditions to be met by the sail in terms of attitude angle, propulsive performance, parking orbit characteristics, and initial position are thoroughly investigated. The closed-form variations of the osculating orbital parameters are analyzed, and the obtained analytical results are used for investigating the phasing maneuver of a Solar sail along an elliptic heliocentric orbit. In this mission scenario, the phasing orbit is composed of two symmetric logarithmic spiral trajectories connected with a coasting arc.

  7. Fast Solar Sailing for Solar System Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Practical spinning solar sails will be needed for the most demanding and scientifically compelling solar sail missions of the future. The "heliogyro" is potentially...

  8. Comprehensive Solar Sail Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails as a propulsive device have several potential applications: providing access to previously inaccessible orbits, longer mission times, and increased...

  9. Solar sailing technology, dynamics and mission applications

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Colin Robert

    1999-01-01

    Solar sailing offers the possibility of low-cost long-distance missions, impossible for any other type of conventional spacecraft The book provides a detailed account of solar sailing, at a high technical level but in a way accessible to the scientifically informed layman Solar sail orbital dynamics and solar radiation pressure form the foundations of the book, but the engineering design of solar sails is also considered, along with potential mission applications This book introduces the subject and at the same time provides a technical reference source

  10. Solarelastic Stability of Solar Sail Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to avoid an unintended failure in proposed Solar Sail spacecraft due to solarelastic interactions it is important to develop an analytical framework for...

  11. Finite Element Analysis and Test Correlation of a 10-Meter Inflation-Deployed Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Michii, Yuki; Lichodziejewski, David; Derbes, Billy; Mann. Troy O.; Slade, Kara N.; Wang, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Office, the team of L Garde, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ball Aerospace, and NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a scalable solar sail configuration to address NASA's future space propulsion needs. Prior to a flight experiment of a full-scale solar sail, a comprehensive phased test plan is currently being implemented to advance the technology readiness level of the solar sail design. These tests consist of solar sail component, subsystem, and sub-scale system ground tests that simulate the vacuum and thermal conditions of the space environment. Recently, two solar sail test articles, a 7.4-m beam assembly subsystem test article and a 10-m four-quadrant solar sail system test article, were tested in vacuum conditions with a gravity-offload system to mitigate the effects of gravity. This paper presents the structural analyses simulating the ground tests and the correlation of the analyses with the test results. For programmatic risk reduction, a two-prong analysis approach was undertaken in which two separate teams independently developed computational models of the solar sail test articles using the finite element analysis software packages: NEiNastran and ABAQUS. This paper compares the pre-test and post-test analysis predictions from both software packages with the test data including load-deflection curves from static load tests, and vibration frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests. The analysis predictions were in reasonable agreement with the test data. Factors that precluded better correlation of the analyses and the tests were uncertainties in the material properties, test conditions, and modeling assumptions used in the analyses.

  12. Structural Analysis of an Inflation-Deployed Solar Sail With Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Michii, Yuki; Lichodziejewski, David; Derbes, Billy; Mann, Troy O.

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Office, the team of L Garde, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ball Aerospace, and NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a scalable solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Prior to a flight experiment of a full-scale solar sail, a comprehensive phased test plan is currently being implemented to advance the technology readiness level of the solar sail design. These tests consist of solar sail component, subsystem, and sub-scale system ground tests that simulate the vacuum and thermal conditions of the space environment. Recently, two solar sail test articles, a 7.4-m beam assembly subsystem test article and a 10-m four-quadrant solar sail system test article, were tested in vacuum conditions with a gravity-offload system to mitigate the effects of gravity. This paper presents the structural analyses simulating the ground tests and the correlation of the analyses with the test results. For programmatic risk reduction, a two-prong analysis approach was undertaken in which two separate teams independently developed computational models of the solar sail test articles using the finite element analysis software packages: NEiNastran and ABAQUS. This paper compares the pre-test and post-test analysis predictions from both software packages with the test data including load-deflection curves from static load tests, and vibration frequencies and mode shapes from structural dynamics tests. The analysis predictions were in reasonable agreement with the test data. Factors that precluded better correlation of the analyses and the tests were uncertainties in the material properties, test conditions, and modeling assumptions used in the analyses.

  13. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  14. Solar Sailing is not Science Fiction Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    2010-01-01

    Over 400 years ago Johannes Kepler envisioned the use of sunlight to propel a spacecraft. Just this year, a solar sail was deployed in orbit for the first time and proved that a spacecraft could effectively use a solar sail for propulsion. NASA's first nano-class solar sail satellite, NanoSail-D was designed and developed in only four months. Although the first unit was lost during the Falcon 1 rocket failure in 2008, the second flight unit has been refurbished and is waiting to be launched later this year. NanoSail-D will further the research into solar sail enabled spacecraft. It will be the first of several more sail enabled spacecraft to be launch in the next few years. FeatherSail is the next generation nano-class sail spacecraft being designed with the goal to prove low earth orbit operational capabilities. Future solar sail spacecraft will require novel ideas and innovative research for the continued development of space systems. One such pioneering idea is the Small Multipurpose Advanced Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) project. The SMART technology has the potential to revolutionize spacecraft avionics. Even though solar sailing is currently in its infancy, the next decade will provide great opportunities for research into sailing in outer space.

  15. Temperature-Driven Shape Changes of the Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.; Lockett, Tiffany E.

    2017-01-01

    Near Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) is a NASA deep space Cubesat, scheduled to launch on the Exploration Mission 1 flight of the Space Launch System. NEA Scout will use a deployable solar sail as its primary propulsion system. The sail is a square membrane supported by rigid metallic tapespring booms, and analysis predicts that these booms will experience substantial thermal warping if they are exposed to direct sunlight in the space environment. NASA has conducted sunspot chamber experiments to confirm the thermal distortion of this class of booms, demonstrating tip displacement of between 20 and 50 centimeters in a 4-meter boom. The distortion behavior of the boom is complex and demonstrates an application for advanced thermal-structural analysis. The needs of the NEA Scout project were supported by changing the solar sail design to keep the booms shaded during use of the solar sail, and an additional experiment in the sunspot chamber is presented in support of this solution.

  16. Solar Sails: Sneaking up on Interstellar Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    Throughout the world, government agencies, universities and private companies are developing solar sail propulsion systems to more efficiently explore the solar system and to enable science and exploration missions that are simply impossible to accomplish by any other means. Solar sail technology is rapidly advancing to support these demonstrations and missions, and in the process, is incrementally advancing one of the few approaches allowed by physics that may one day take humanity to the stars. Continuous solar pressure provides solar sails with propellantless thrust, potentially enabling them to propel a spacecraft to tremendous speeds ­ theoretically much faster than any present-day propulsion system. The next generation of sails will enable us to take our first real steps beyond the edge of the solar system, sending spacecraft out to distances of 1000 Astronomical Units, or more. In the farther term, the descendants of these first and second generation sails will augment their thrust by using high power lasers and enable travel to nearby stellar systems with flight times less than 500 years ­ a tremendous improvement over what is possible with conventional chemical rockets. By fielding these first solar sail systems, we are sneaking up on a capability to reach the stars.

  17. Attitude Dynamics, Stability, and Control of a Heliogyro Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta-Penalver, Adonis Reinier

    A heliogyro solar sail concept, dubbed `HELIOS', is proposed as an alternative to deep space missions without the need for on-board propellant. Although this type of solar sail has existed in concept for several decades, and some previous studies have investigated certain aspects of its operation, a significant amount of research is still needed to analyze the dynamic and control characteristics of the structure under the projected range of orbital conditions. This work presents an improvement upon the existing discrete-mass models of the heliogyro blade, and the extension of its application from a single membrane blade to a fully-coupled approximation of the dynamics of the HELIOS system with multiple spinning membrane blades around a central hub. The incorporation of structural stiffness and external forcing effects into the model is demonstrated to add a further degree of fidelity in simulating the stability properties of the system. Additionally, the approximated dynamics of multiple-blade heliogyro structures are examined under the effect of solar radiation pressure. Lastly, this study evaluates a control algorithm at each blade root to impose structural integrity and attitude control by coordinating well-known helicopter blade pitching profiles.

  18. Solar sail orbital motion about asteriods and binary asteroid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sims, J.A.; Leve, F.A.; McMahon, J.W.; Guo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    While SRP is often considered an undesirable effect, especially for missions to small bodies like asteroids and binary asteroid systems, this paper utilizes the SRP on a solar sail to generate artificial equilibrium points (AEPs) and displaced periodic orbits in these systems. While the solar sail

  19. High Performance TRAC Boom for Solar Sails, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable solar sail booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a high performance composite TRAC (TRAC HP)...

  20. Fuzzy attitude control of solar sail via linear matrix inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baculi, Joshua; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a fuzzy tracking controller based on the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model of the solar sail. First, the T-S fuzzy model is constructed by linearizing the existing nonlinear equations of motion of the solar sail. Then, the T-S fuzzy model is used to derive the state feedback controller gains for the Twin Parallel Distributed Compensation (TPDC) technique. The TPDC tracks and stabilizes the attitude of the solar sail to any desired state in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances while satisfying actuator constraints. The performance of the TPDC is compared to a PID controller that is tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method. Numerical simulation shows the TPDC outperforms the PID controller when stabilizing the solar sail to a desired state.

  1. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CU Aerospace and its University of Illinois teammate propose the design, sub-component fabrication and preliminary test of an UltraSail "Cubesat" 20 m2 solar sail...

  2. Angular velocity determination of spinning solar sails using only a sun sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the sun is the easiest and most reliable observation vector for a solar sail running in deep space exploration. This paper presents a new method using only raw measurements of the sun direction vector to estimate angular velocity for a spinning solar sail. In cases with a constant spin angular velocity, the estimation equation is formed based on the kinematic model for the apparent motion of the sun direction vector; the least-squares solution is then easily calculated. A performance criterion is defined and used to analyze estimation accuracy. In cases with a variable spin angular velocity, the estimation equation is developed based on the kinematic model for the apparent motion of the sun direction vector and the attitude dynamics equation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can quickly yield high-precision angular velocity estimates that are insensitive to certain measurement noises and modeling errors.

  3. Near Earth Asteroid Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 30x20x10cm (6U) cubesat reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m2 solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA will launch to date. NEA Scout is a secondary payload currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis furthered understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system and matured an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. This paper will address design, fabrication, and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. From optical properties of the sail material to folding and spooling the single 86m2 sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  4. Periodic orbits of solar sail equipped with reflectance control device in Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianping; Gao, Chen; Zhang, Junhua

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, families of Lyapunov and halo orbits are presented with a solar sail equipped with a reflectance control device in the Earth-Moon system. System dynamical model is established considering solar sail acceleration, and four solar sail steering laws and two initial Sun-sail configurations are introduced. The initial natural periodic orbits with suitable periods are firstly identified. Subsequently, families of solar sail Lyapunov and halo orbits around the L1 and L2 points are designed with fixed solar sail characteristic acceleration and varying reflectivity rate and pitching angle by the combination of the modified differential correction method and continuation approach. The linear stabilities of solar sail periodic orbits are investigated, and a nonlinear sliding model controller is designed for station keeping. In addition, orbit transfer between the same family of solar sail orbits is investigated preliminarily to showcase reflectance control device solar sail maneuver capability.

  5. Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble...

  6. NanoSail-D: A Solar Sail Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Whorton, Mark; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, robin; Laue, Greg; Adams, Charles

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, within the United States, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was heavily engaged in the development of revolutionary new technologies for in-space propulsion. One of the major in-space propulsion technologies developed was a solar sail propulsion system. Solar sail propulsion uses the solar radiation pressure exerted by the momentum transfer of reflected photons to generate a net force on a spacecraft. To date, solar sail propulsion systems have been designed for large spacecraft in the tens to hundreds of kilograms mass range. Recently, however, MSFC has been investigating the application of solar sails for small satellite propulsion. Likewise, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been developing small spacecraft missions that have a need for amass-efficient means of satisfying deorbit requirements. Hence, a synergistic collaboration was established between these two NASA field Centers with the objective of conducting a flight demonstration of solar sail technologies for small satellites. The NanoSail-D mission flew onboard the ill-fated Falcon Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and, due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare is ready for flight and a suitable launch arrangement is being actively pursued. Both the original sailcraft and the flight spare are hereafter referred to as NanoSail-D. The sailcraft consists of a sail subsystem stowed in a three-element CubeSat. Shortly after deployment of the NanoSail-D, the solar sail will deploy and mission operations will commence. This demonstration flight has two primary technical objectives: (1) to successfully stow and deploy the sail and (2) to demonstrate deorbit functionality. Given a near-term opportunity for launch on Falcon, the project was given the challenge of delivering the flight hardware in 6 mo, which required a significant constraint on flight system functionality. As a consequence, passive attitude stabilization of the spacecraft

  7. Fast Solar Sailing Astrodynamics of Special Sailcraft Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The range of solar sailing is very vast; it is a fully in-space means of propellantless propulsion that should allow us to accomplish various mission classes that are unviable using near or medium-term rocket propulsion, no matter if nuclear or electric. Fast and very fast solar sailings are special classes of sailcraft missions, initially developed only in the first half of the 1990s and still evolving, especially after the latest advances in nanotechnology.   This book describes how to plan, compute and optimize the trajectories of sailcraft with speeds considerably higher than the Earth’s orbital speed (30 km/s); such sailcraft would be able to explore the outer heliosphere, the near interstellar medium and the solar gravitational lens (550-800 astronomical units) in times significantly shorter than the span of an average career (~ 35 years), just to cite a few examples. The scientific interest in this type of exploration is huge.

  8. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a 10-Meter Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chris G.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    In July 2004, a 10-meter solar sail structure developed by L Garde, Inc. was tested in vacuum at the NASA Glenn 30-meter Plum Brook Space Power Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The three main objections of the test were to demonstrate unattended deployment from a stowed configuration, to measure the deployed shape of the sail at both ambient and cryogenic room temperatures, and to measure the deployed structural dynamic characteristics (vibration modes). This paper summarizes the work conducted to fulfill the second test objective. The deployed shape was measured photogrammetrically in vacuum conditions with four 2-megapixel digital video cameras contained in custom made pressurized canisters. The canisters included high-intensity LED ring lights to illuminate a grid of retroreflective targets distributed on the solar sail. The test results closely matched pre-test photogrammetry numerical simulations and compare well with ABAQUS finite-element model predictions.

  9. Solar sails a novel approach to interplanetary travel

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Matloff, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The reality of sunlight-based sailing in space began in May 2010,  and solar sail technology and science have continued to evolve rapidly through new space missions. Using the power of the Sun's light for regular travel propulsion will be the next major leap forward in our journey to other worlds. This book is the second edition of the fascinating explanation of solar sails, how they work and how they will be used in the exploration of space. Updated with 35% new material, this second edition includes three new chapters on missions operated by Japan and the US, as well as projects that are in progress. The remainder of the book describes the heritage of exploration in water-borne sailing ships and the evolution to space-vehicle propulsion; as well as nuclear, solar-electric, nuclear-electric and antimatter rocket devices. It also discusses various sail systems that may use either sunlight or solar wind, and the design, fabrication and steering challenges associated with solar sails. The first edition was me...

  10. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  11. Solar sail-solar electric technology readiness and transfer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of conducting a technology readiness assessment was developed. It uses existing OAST technology readiness and risk criteria to define a technology readiness factor that considers both the required gain in technology readiness level to achieved technology readiness plus the degree of effort associated with achieving the gain. The results indicate that Solar Electric Propulsion is preferred based on technology readiness criteria. Both Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsion have a high level of transfer potential for future NASA missions, and each has considerable technology spillover for non-NASA applications.

  12. Model and trajectory optimization for an ideal laser-enhanced solar sail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carzana (student TUDelft), Livio; Dachwald, Bernd; Noomen, R.

    2017-01-01

    A laser-enhanced solar sail is a solar sail that is not solely propelled by solar radiation but additionally by a laser beam that illuminates the sail. This way, the propulsive acceleration of the sail results from the combined action of the solar and the laser radiation pressure onto the sail. The

  13. Extension of Earth-Moon libration point orbits with solar sail propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents families of libration point orbits in the Earth-Moon system that originate from complementing the classical circular restricted three-body problem with a solar sail. Through the use of a differential correction scheme in combination with a continuation on the solar sail

  14. Parametric Studies of Square Solar Sails Using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Muheim, Danniella M.

    2004-01-01

    Parametric studies are performed on two generic square solar sail designs to identify parameters of interest. The studies are performed on systems-level models of full-scale solar sails, and include geometric nonlinearity and inertia relief, and use a Newton-Raphson scheme to apply sail pre-tensioning and solar pressure. Computational strategies and difficulties encountered during the analyses are also addressed. The purpose of this paper is not to compare the benefits of one sail design over the other. Instead, the results of the parametric studies may be used to identify general response trends, and areas of potential nonlinear structural interactions for future studies. The effects of sail size, sail membrane pre-stress, sail membrane thickness, and boom stiffness on the sail membrane and boom deformations, boom loads, and vibration frequencies are studied. Over the range of parameters studied, the maximum sail deflection and boom deformations are a nonlinear function of the sail properties. In general, the vibration frequencies and modes are closely spaced. For some vibration mode shapes, local deformation patterns that dominate the response are identified. These localized patterns are attributed to the presence of negative stresses in the sail membrane that are artifacts of the assumption of ignoring the effects of wrinkling in the modeling process, and are not believed to be physically meaningful. Over the range of parameters studied, several regions of potential nonlinear modal interaction are identified.

  15. Second approximation structural assessment of the Aurora solar sail spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, G.; Brusa, E.; Delprete, C.

    2004-01-01

    Aurora spacecraft is a scientific probe propelled by a "fast" solar sail whose first goal is to perform a technology assessment mission. A key point of the experiment is the possibility of building a very light structure in order to achieve a high speed with the very low force due to the pressure of solar light. This in turn implies the need to perform a very accurate stress analysis of the whole structure. A first approximation study allowed one to verify that the structural goals that were stated in the preliminary design can be met. The aim of the present paper is to build a complete mathematical model based on the finite element method (FEM) of the whole spacecraft allowing to perform a detailed stress analysis of the various components and to compute the inflected shape of the sail. The code that has been developed can take into account the effects of the thermal expansion of the sail and of the spacecraft acceleration and can be adapted to solar sail spacecraft with different geometrical configurations.

  16. Attitude Operation Results of Solar Sail Demonstrator IKAROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Takanao; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mimasu, Yuya; Shirasawa, Yoji; Ikaros Demonstration Team,

    This paper shows the attitude operation results of Japanese interplanetary solar sail demonstration spacecraft IKAROS. IKAROS was launched on 21 May 2010(JST) aboard an H-IIA rocket, together with the AKATSUKI Venus climate orbiter. As IKAROS is the secondary payload, the development cost and period were restricted and the onboard attitude system is very simple. This paper introduces the attitude determination and control system. And as IKAROS is spin type spacecraft and it has the large membrane, the attitude control is not easy and it is very important to determine the long-term attitude plan in advance. This paper also shows the outline of the IKAROS attitude operation plan and its operation results.

  17. Status of Solar Sail Propulsion Within NASA - Moving Toward Interstellar Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for two near-term missions and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space and interstellar precursor missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high (Delta)V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, managed by MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. Lunar Flashlight, managed by JPL, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed Lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic mirror to steer sunlight into the shaded craters. The Lunar Flashlight spacecraft will also use the propulsive solar sail to maneuver into a lunar polar orbit. Both missions use a 6U cubesat architecture, a common an 85 sq m solar sail, and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. Both missions will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight will serve as important milestones in the development of solar sail propulsion technology for future, more ambitious missions including the Interstellar Probe - a mission long desired by the space science community which would send a robotic probe beyond the edge of the solar system to a distance of 250 Astronomical Units or more. This paper will summarize the development status of NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight and describe the next steps required to enable an interstellar solar sail capability.

  18. Extrasolar solar-sail trajectories and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloff, Gregory L.

    2014-11-01

    Hyper-thin, high-speed solar-photon sail space probes exploring the Sun's Oort comet cloud could also be used to set an upper bound to the concentration of WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles), one of the suggested (but unconfirmed) forms of dark matter within the vicinity of the solar system. Newton's Shell Theorem would be applied to determine variations in apparent solar mass as the probe moves further out from the Sun. Application of this technique to the trajectories of Pioneer 10/11 reveals that the upper limit to WIMP concentration within ~60 AU of the Sun is ~0.2 Earth masses, as revealed in studies of the Pioneer Anomaly. If the published accuracy of the Pioneer acceleration measurements can be increased by an order of magnitude, probe trajectory measurements out to ~10,000 AU may confirm or falsify the hypothesis that WIMP mass within the solar vicinity is ~3X star mass. It is shown that a space-manufactured ~40-nm thick beryllium hollow-body solar sail deployed from a ~0.07 AU perihelion is a candidate spacecraft for such a mission. Possible science-team organization strategy for a ~100-year mission to ~10,000 AU is discussed.

  19. A novel experimental mechanics method for measuring the light pressure acting on a solar sail membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiming; Jiang, Li; Dowell, Earl H.; Qin, Zhixuan

    2017-02-01

    Solar sail is a high potential `sailing craft' for interstellar exploration. The area of the first flight solar sail demonstrator named "IKAROS" is 200 square meters. Future interplanetary missions will require solar sails at least on the order of 10000 square meters (or larger). Due to the limitation of ground facilities, the size of experimental sample should not be large. Furthermore the ground experiments have to be conducted in gravitational field, so the gravity effect must be considered in a ground test. To obtain insight into the solar sail membrane dynamics, a key membrane flutter (or limit cycle oscillations) experiment with light forces acting on it must be done. But one big challenge is calibrating such a tiny light force by as a function of the input power. In this paper, a gravity-based measuring method for light pressure acting on membrane is presented. To explain the experimental principle, an ideal example of a laser beam with expanders and a metal film is studied. Based on calculations, this experimental mechanics method for calibrating light pressure with an accuracy of 0.01 micro-Newton may be realized by making the light force balance the gravity force on the metal films. This gravity-based measuring method could not only be applied to study the dynamics characteristics of solar sail membrane structure with different light forces, but could also be used to determine more accurate light forces/loads acting on solar sail films and hence to enhance the determination of the mechanical properties of the solar sail membrane structure.

  20. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  1. Solar Sailing Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) Mission for Impacting/Deflecting Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong

    2005-01-01

    A solar sailing mission architecture, which requires a t least ten 160-m, 300-kg solar sail spacecraft with a characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/sqs, is proposed as a realistic near- term option for mitigating the threat posed by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Its mission feasibility is demonstrated for a fictional asteroid mitigation problem created by AIAA. This problem assumes that a 200-m asteroid, designated 2004WR, was detected on July 4, 2004, and that the expected impact will occur on January 14, 2015. The solar sailing phase of the proposed mission for the AIAA asteroid mitigation problem is comprised of the initial cruise phase from 1 AU t o 0.25 AU (1.5 years), the cranking orbit phase (3.5 years), and the retrograde orbit phase (1 year) prior to impacting the target asteroid at its perihelion (0.75 AU from the sun) on January 1, 2012. The proposed mission will require at least ten kinetic energy interceptor (KEI) solar sail spacecraft. Each KEI sailcraft consists of a 160- m, 150-kg solar sail and a 150-kg microsatellite impactor. The impactor is to be separated from a large solar sail prior to impacting the 200-m target asteroid at its perihelion. Each 150-kg microsatellite impactor, with a relative impact velocity of at least 70 km/s, will cause a conservatively estimated AV of 0.3 cm/s in the trajectory of the 200-m target asteroid, due largely to the impulsive effect of material ejected from the newly-formed crater. The deflection caused by a single impactor will increase the Earth-miss-distance by 0.45Re (where Re denotes the Earth radius of 6,378 km). Therefore, at least ten KEI sailcraft will be required for consecutive impacts, but probably without causing fragmentation, to increase the total Earth-miss-distance by 4.5Re. This miss-distance increase of 29,000 km is outside of a typical uncertainty/error of about 10,000 km in predicting the Earth-miss- distance. A conventional Delta I1 2925 launch vehicle is capable of injecting at least two KEI

  2. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  3. Exploring the Heliogyro’s Superior Orbital Control Capabilities for Solar Sail Halo Orbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Guerrant, D.; Lawrence, D

    2017-01-01

    Solar sailing is an elegant form of space propulsion that reflects solar photons off a large membrane to produce thrust. Different sail configurations exist, including a traditional fixed polygonal flat sail and a heliogyro, which divides the membrane into a number of long, slender blades. The

  4. Novel Solar Sail Mission Concepts for High-Latitude Earth and Lunar Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Macdonald, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of solar sail periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system for ob-servation of the high-latitudes of the Earth and Moon. At the Earth, the high-latitudes will be crucial in answering questions concerning global climate change, monitoring space weather events and ensuring

  5. Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry Methods for Solar Sails and Other Gossamer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jonathan T.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-lightweight and inflatable gossamer space structures are designed to be tightly packaged for launch, then deploy or inflate once in space. These properties will allow for in-space construction of very large structures 10 to 1000 meters in size such as solar sails, inflatable antennae, and space solar power stations using a single launch. Solar sails are of particular interest because of their potential for propellantless propulsion. Gossamer structures do, however, have significant complications. Their low mass and high flexibility make them very difficult to test on the ground. The added mass and stiffness of attached measurement devices can significantly alter the static and dynamic properties of the structure. This complication necessitates an alternative approach for characterization. This paper discusses the development and application of photogrammetry and videogrammetry methods for the static and dynamic characterization of gossamer structures, as four specific solar sail applications demonstrate. The applications prove that high-resolution, full-field, non-contact static measurements of solar sails using dot projection photogrammetry are possible as well as full-field, noncontact, dynamic characterization using dot projection videogrammetry.

  6. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  7. Performance Quantification of Solar Sail Heliogyros for Planetary and Interplanetary Missions Using Multi-Scale Dynamics and Control Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this proposal is the guidance and control of a particular type of solar sail and supports NASA's exploration goals as outlined in TABS element 2.2.2:...

  8. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  9. Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry Methods Development for Solar Sail Structures. Masters Thesis awarded by George Washington Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S. (Technical Monitor); Black, Jonathan T.

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the development and application of metrology methods called photogrammetry and videogrammetry that make accurate measurements from photographs. These methods have been adapted for the static and dynamic characterization of gossamer structures, as four specific solar sail applications demonstrate. The applications prove that high-resolution, full-field, non-contact static measurements of solar sails using dot projection photogrammetry are possible as well as full-field, non-contact, dynamic characterization using dot projection videogrammetry. The accuracy of the measurement of the resonant frequencies and operating deflection shapes that were extracted surpassed expectations. While other non-contact measurement methods exist, they are not full-field and require significantly more time to take data.

  10. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  11. Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Leehyun

    2005-01-01

    Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the

  12. Evolution of the halo family in the radial solar sail circular restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Patricia; Waters, Thomas; Sieber, Jan

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the dramatic changes that occur in the halo family when radiation pressure is introduced into the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP). This photo-gravitational CRTBP can be used to model the motion of a solar sail orientated perpendicular to the Sun-line. The problem is then parameterized by the sail lightness number, the ratio of solar radiation pressure acceleration to solar gravitational acceleration. Using boundary-value problem numerical continuation methods and the AUTO software package (Doedel et al. in Int J Bifurc Chaos 1:493-520, 1991) the families can be fully mapped out as the parameter is increased. Interestingly, the emergence of a branch point in the retrograde satellite family around the Earth at acts to split the halo family into two new families. As radiation pressure is further increased one of these new families subsequently merges with another non-planar family at , resulting in a third new family. The linear stability of the families changes rapidly at low values of , with several small regions of neutral stability appearing and disappearing. By using existing methods within AUTO to continue branch points and period-doubling bifurcations, and deriving a new boundary-value problem formulation to continue the folds and Krein collisions, we track bifurcations and changes in the linear stability of the families in the parameter and provide a comprehensive overview of the halo family in the presence of radiation pressure. The results demonstrate that even at small values of there is significant difference to the classical CRTBP, providing opportunity for novel solar sail trajectories. Further, we also find that the branch points between families in the solar sail CRTBP provide a simple means of generating certain families in the classical case.

  13. A Fractionated Space Weather Base at L5 using CubeSats and Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewer, Paulett C.; Klesh, A.; Lo, M.; Murphy, N.; Staehle, R. L.; Vourlidas, A.; Cutler, J. W.; Lightsey, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point is an ideal location for an operational space weather mission to provide early warning of Earth-directed solar storms (CMEs, shocks and associated solar energetic particles) so the effects on power grids, spacecraft and communications systems can be mitigated. Such missions have been proposed using conventional spacecraft and chemical propulsion at costs of hundreds of millions of dollars. Here we describe a mission that can accomplish the goals at a much lower cost by dividing the payload among a cluster of interplanetary CubeSats that reach orbits around L5 using solar sails. The ascendancy of CubeSats has brought renewed interest in solar sail propulsion because sail area scales directly with spacecraft mass. The concept presented here draws heavily on a NIAC study (Staehle et al., AIAA, 2012) that developed a 6U CubeSat architecture for interplanetary missions. This study allocated 2U for a solar sail; the sail system was based on the Planetary Society’s LightSail-1TM architecture. At a recent workshop on small satellites, hosted by the Keck Institute for Space Studies, a concept was developed for a fractionated Space Weather Base (SWB) at L5. In this concept, a loose formation of CubeSats, each ~6U in size and each carrying a portion of the science payload, can accomplish, at a much reduced cost, many of the goals of a conventional single-spacecraft L5 mission, as described in the 2013 NRC Solar and Space Physics Decadal report. Each of the small ~6U interplanetary CubeSats reaches an orbit around L5 using its own solar sail of approximately 64 m2 which fits in ~2U. Key to the mission is that only one of the CubeSats carries a high-gain antenna and other hardware necessary for sending high-rate science data to Earth. The other CubeSats, in addition to carrying one or two science instruments, carry a much smaller communication system to send the science data to the communication hub and low-rate engineering data to Earth. The

  14. NanoSail-D: The First Flight Demonstration of Solar Sails for Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, Robin; Laue, Greg; Adams, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    The NanoSail-D mission is currently scheduled for launch onboard a Falcon Launch Vehicle in the late June 2008 timeframe. The NanoSail-D, a CubeSat-class satellite, will consist of a sail subsystem stowed in a Cubesat 2U volume integrated with a CubeSat 1U volume bus provided by the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Shortly after deployment of the NanoSail-D from a Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD) ejection system, the solar sail will deploy and mission operations will commence. This demonstration flight has two primary mission objectives: 1) to successfully stow and deploy the sail and 2) to demonstrate de-orbit functionality. Given a nearterm opportunity for launch, the project was met with the challenge of delivering the flight hardware in approximately six months, which required a significant constraint on flight system functionality. As a consequence, passive attitude stabilization will be achieved using permanent magnets to de-tumble and orient the body with the magnetic field lines and then rely on atmospheric drag to passively stabilize the sailcraft in an essentially maximum drag attitude. This paper will present an introduction to solar sail propulsion systems, overview the NanoSail-D spacecraft, describe the performance analysis for the passive attitude stabilization, and present a prediction of flight data results from the mission.

  15. Numerical analysis of orbital transfers to Mars using solar sails and attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. C.; de Melo, C. F.; Meireles, L. G.

    2017-10-01

    Solar sails present a promising alternative method of propulsion for the coming phases of the space exploration. With the recent advances in materials engineering, the construction of lighter and more resistant materials capable of impelling spaceships with the use of solar radiation pressure has become increasingly viable technologically and economically. The studies, simulations and analysis of orbital transfers from Earth to Mars proposed in this work were implemented considering the use of a flat solar sail. Maneuvers considering the delivery of a sailcraft from a Low Earth Orbit to the border of the Earth’s sphere of influence and interplanetary trajectories to Mars were investigated. A set of simulations were implemented varying the attitude of the sail relative to the Sun. Results show that a sailcraft can carry out transfers with final velocity with respect to Mars smaller than the interplanetary Patched-conic approximation, although this requires a longer time of transfers, provided the attitude of the sailcraft relative to the Sun can be controlled in some points of the trajectories.

  16. Solar Sail Topology Variations Due to On-Orbit Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Jeremy A.; Lively, Peter S.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Jenkins, Chrostopher H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to predict the influence of non-uniform temperature distribution on solar sail topology and the effect of such topology variations on sail performance (thrust, torque). Specifically considered were the thermal effects due to on orbit attitude control maneuvers. Such maneuvers are expected to advance the sail to a position off-normal to the sun by as much as 35 degrees; a solar sail initially deformed by typical pre-tension and solar pressure loads may suffer significant thermally induced strains due to the non-uniform heating caused by these maneuvers. This on-orbit scenario was investigated through development of an automated analytical shape model that iterates many times between sail shape and sail temperature distribution before converging on a final coupled thermal structural affected sail topology. This model utilizes a validated geometrically non-linear finite element model and a thermal radiation subroutine. It was discovered that temperature gradients were deterministic for the off-normal solar angle cases as were thermally induced strains. Performance effects were found to be moderately significant but not as large as initially suspected. A roll torque was detected, and the sail center of pressure shifted by a distance that may influence on-orbit sail control stability.

  17. A scalable bus-based attitude control system for Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, S. Nasir; Lappas, Vaios J.; Wie, Bong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in Solar Sails as an alternative means of space propulsion. Many different attitude control systems have been designed for Solar Sails taking advantage of the centre-of-mass (CM)/centre-of-pressure (CP) offset while utilising the main sail structure to position the actuators. However, by attaching actuators to the main sail, these systems increase the risks involved in the deployment subsystem. In this paper we propose an attitude control system (ACS) decoupled from the main sail booms and attached to the spacecraft bus. We use ballast masses to change the CM and highly reflective panels to change the CP, achieving 3-axis control. As a result of the decoupled nature of the ACS, scalability and simplicity can be achieved. This is shown through sizing and simulation of the ACS for three different sail sizes, the 5 m Cubesail, 40 m GeoSail and 245 m interstellar heliopause probe (IHP). The scalable bus-based ACS decreases the risks and complexity involved in the design of the sail deployment subsystem and can be employed alongside any available sail deployment mechanisms.

  18. SOLAR SAIL PROPULSION SENSITIVITY TO MEMBRANE SHAPE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES USING THE SOLAR VECTORING EVALUATION TOOL (SVET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Solar sail propulsive performance is dependent on sail membrane optical properties and on sail membrane shape. Assumptions of an ideal sail (flat, perfect reflector) can result in errors which can affect spacecraft control, trajectory analyses, and overall evaluation of solar sail performance. A MATLAB(R) program has been developed to generate sail shape point cloud files for two square-architecture solar sail designs. Simple parabolic profiles are assumed for sail shape under solar pressure loading. These files are then input into the Solar Vectoring Evaluation Tool (SVET) software to determine the propulsive force vector, center of pressure, and moments about the sail body axes as a function of sail shape and optical properties. Also, the impact of the center-line angle, due to non-perfect optical properties, is addressed since this constrains sail force vector cone angle and is often overlooked when assuming ideal-reflector membranes. Preliminary sensitivity analysis using these tools aids in determining the key geometric and optical parameters that drive solar sail propulsive performance.

  19. Attitude and orbital dynamics modeling for an uncontrolled solar-sail experiment in low-Earth orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirovano, L.; Seefeldt, P.; Dachwald, B.; Noomen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Gossamer-1 is the first project of the three-step Gossamer roadmap, the purpose of which is to develop, prove and demonstrate that solar-sail technology is a safe and reliable propulsion technique for long-lasting and high-energy missions. This paper firstly presents the structural analysis

  20. Design and Applications of Solar Sail Periodic Orbits in the Non-Autonomous Earth-Moon System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Turner, J.D.; Wawrzyniak, G.G.; Cerven, W.T.; Majji, M.

    2015-01-01

    Solar sailing has great potential for a range of high-energy and long duration mis-sions in the Sun-Earth system. This paper extends this potential to the non-autonomous Earth-Moon system through the use of a differential correction scheme, and by selecting suitable in-plane and out-of-plane sail

  1. Solar Sail Attitude Control System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.

  2. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  3. The dynamics and control of the CubeSail mission: A solar sailing demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukniel, Andrew; Coverstone, Victoria; Burton, Rodney; Carroll, David

    2011-12-01

    The CubeSail mission is a low-cost demonstration of the UltraSail solar sailing concept ( Burton et al., 2005; Botter et al., 2006; Hargens-Rysanek, 2006; Pukniel, 2009), using two near-identical CubeSat satellites to deploy a 260 m-long, 20 m 2 reflecting film. The two satellites are launched as a unit, detumbled, and separated, with the film unwinding symmetrically from motorized reels. The conformity to the CubeSat specification allows for reduction in launch costs as a secondary payload and utilization of the University of Illinois-developed spacecraft bus. The CubeSail demonstration is the first in a series of increasingly-complex missions aimed at validating several spacecraft subsystems, including attitude determination and control, the separation release unit, reel-based film deployment, as well as the dynamical behavior of the sail and on-orbit solar propulsion. The presented work describes dynamical behavior and control methods used during three main phases of the mission. The three phases include initial detumbling and stabilization using magnetic torque actuators, gravity-gradient-based deployment of the film, and steady-state film deformations in low Earth orbit in the presence of external forces of solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic drag, and gravity-gradient.

  4. NASA's Advanced Solar Sail Propulsion System for Low-Cost Deep Space Exploration and Science Missions that Use High Performance Rollable Composite Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Rose, Geoffrey K.; Younger, Casey J.; Dean, Gregory D.; Warren, Jerry E.; Stohlman, Olive R.; Wilkie, W. Keats

    2017-01-01

    Several low-cost solar sail technology demonstrator missions are under development in the United States. However, the mass saving derived benefits that composites can offer to such a mass critical spacecraft architecture have not been realized yet. This is due to the lack of suitable composite booms that can fit inside CubeSat platforms and ultimately be readily scalable to much larger sizes, where they can fully optimize their use. With this aim, a new effort focused at developing scalable rollable composite booms for solar sails and other deployable structures has begun. Seven meter booms used to deploy a 90 m2 class solar sail that can fit inside a 6U CubeSat have already been developed. The NASA road map to low-cost solar sail capability demonstration envisioned, consists of increasing the size of these composite booms to enable sailcrafts with a reflective area of up to 2000 m2 housed aboard small satellite platforms. This paper presents a solar sail system initially conceived to serve as a risk reduction alternative to Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout's baseline design but that has recently been slightly redesigned and proposed for follow-on missions. The features of the booms and various deployment mechanisms for the booms and sail, as well as ground support equipment used during testing, are introduced. The results of structural analyses predict the performance of the system under microgravity conditions. Finally, the results of the functional and environmental testing campaign carried out are shown.

  5. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  6. Overview of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program Technology Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how spacecraft and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and shrinking microelectronics behind less shielding utilizing new materials. The potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion introduces new requirements to develop new engineering tools. In order to drive down these uncertainties, NASA s SEE Program provides resources for technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on spacecraft. This paper will describe the current SEE Program's, currently funded activities and possible future developments.

  7. Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Spacecraft Charging Technology Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, B.; Hardage, D.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how materials and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the continued push to use Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) microelectronics, potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will introduce the SEE Program, briefly discuss past and currently sponsored spacecraft charging activities and possible future endeavors.

  8. Technology Development Activities for the Space Environment and its Effects on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody; Barth, Janet; LaBel, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how emerging microelectronics will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and shrinking microelectronics behind less shielding and the potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will describe the relationship between the Living With a Star (LWS): Space Environment Testbeds (SET) Project and NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program and their technology development activities funded as a result from the recent SEE Program's NASA Research Announcement.

  9. Performance Comparisons and Down Selection of Small Motors for Two-Blade Heliogyro Solar Sail 6U CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattananon, Peerawan; Bryant, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    This report compiles a review of 130 commercial small scale motors (piezoelectric and electric motors) and almost 20 researched-type small scale piezoelectricmotors for potential use in a 2 blades Heliogyro Solar Sail 6U CubeSat. In this application, a motor and gearhead (drive system) will deploy a roll of solar sailthin film (2 um thick)accommodated in a 2U CubeSat (100 x 200 x 100 mm) housing. The application requirements are: space rated, output torque at fulldeployment of 0.8 Nm, reel speed of 3 rpm, drive system weight limited to 150 grams, diameter limited to 50 mm, and the length not to exceed 40 mm. The 50mm diameter limit was imposed as motors with larger diameters would likely weigh too much and use more space on the satellite wall. This would limit theamount of the payload. The motors performance are compared between small scale, volume within 3x102 cm3 (3x105 mm3), commercial electric DC motors,commercial piezoelectric motors, and researched-type (non-commercial) piezoelectric motors extracted from scientific and product literature. The comparisonssuggest that piezoelectric motors without a gearhead exhibit larger output torque with respect to their volume and weight and require less input power toproduce high torque. A commercially available electric motor plus a gearhead was chosen through a proposed selection process to meet the applications designrequirements.

  10. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  11. Organic polymer materials in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ding, Nengwen; Li, Zhifeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The space environment is a complex environment full of microgravity, high vacuum, high and low temperature, strong radiation and plasma. Polymers used in the space environment will inevitably experience aging and degradation which result in changes of the material mechanics, physics and chemical properties, until they lose usefulness. To make a material that can be used for a long time and whose performance is not changed in the space environment, its ability to resist environmental factors must be excellent. Therefore, this paper provides an introduction to the harmful conditions in the space environment and their effects on the polymers, also it reviews the aging mechanisms of the adhesives used in the space environment and the effect of thermal cycling, stress, electromagnetic radiation and ionizing particles on the properties of polymers and optical devices, to provide the reference basis for selection, modification and reliability analysis of materials used in the space environment.

  12. A study of dynamical behavior of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Studies have covered a wide range of problems in the space environment, such as the problems of the dynamical behavior of the thermosphere, hydromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere, and interplanetary space environment. The theories used to analyze these problems range from a continuum theory of magnetohydrodynamics to the kinetic theory of free molecular flow. This is because the problems encountered covered the entire range of the Knudsen number (i.e., the ratio of mean free path to the characteristic length). Significant results are summarized.

  13. Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Summary of activities: (1) FYO1 NRA - Model development and data mining. (2) FY03 NRA - Flight investigations. (3) SET carrier development. (4) Study for accommodation of SET carrier to support advanced detectors. (5) Collaboration with other programs: LWS TR&T to maximize synergy between TR&T space environment research and SET space environment effects research. LWS Data System to optimize dissemination of SET data. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program to leverage ground testing of technologies. Defense Threat Reduction Agency to leverage ground testing and common interests in advanced detectors. and Air Force Research Laboratory to leverage flight opportunities. (6) Education and Public Outreach.

  14. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  15. Space Environment's Effects on Seal Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, Christopher C.; Dunlap, Patrick; Miller, Sharon; Dever, Joyce; Waters, Deborah; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    A Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) is being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center to support future missions of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The LIDS is androgynous, such that each system half is identical, thus any two vehicles or modules with LIDS can be coupled. Since each system half is a replica, the main interface seals must seal against each other instead of a conventional flat metal surface. These sealing surfaces are also expected to be exposed to the space environment when vehicles are not docked. The NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) is supporting this project by developing the main interface seals for the LIDS and determining the durability of candidate seal materials in the space environment. In space, the seals will be exposed to temperatures of between 50 to 50 C, vacuum, atomic oxygen, particle and ultraviolet radiation, and micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). NASA GRC is presently engaged in determining the effects of these environments on our candidate elastomers. Since silicone rubber is the only class of seal elastomer that functions across the expected temperature range, NASA GRC is focusing on three silicone elastomers: two provided by Parker Hannifin (S0-899-50 and S0-383-70) and one from Esterline Kirkhill (ELA-SA-401). Our results from compression set, elastomer to elastomer adhesion, and seal leakage tests before and after various simulated space exposures will be presented.

  16. Space environment simulation and sensor calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Daniel P.; Patton, James; Plis, Elena; Cooper, Russell; Hoffmann, Ryan; Ferguson, Dale; Hilmer, Robert V.; McGarity, John; Holeman, Ernest

    2018-02-01

    The Mumbo space environment simulation chamber discussed here comprises a set of tools to calibrate a variety of low flux, low energy electron and ion detectors used in satellite-mounted particle sensors. The chamber features electron and ion beam sources, a Lyman-alpha ultraviolet lamp, a gimbal table sensor mounting system, cryogenic sample mount and chamber shroud, and beam characterization hardware and software. The design of the electron and ion sources presented here offers a number of unique capabilities for space weather sensor calibration. Both sources create particle beams with narrow, well-characterized energetic and angular distributions with beam diameters that are larger than most space sensor apertures. The electron and ion sources can produce consistently low fluxes that are representative of quiescent space conditions. The particle beams are characterized by 2D beam mapping with several co-located pinhole aperture electron multipliers to capture relative variation in beam intensity and a large aperture Faraday cup to measure absolute current density.

  17. Space Environment Effects on Silicone Seal Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, Christopher C.; Dever, Joyce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A docking system is being developed by the NASA to support future space missions. It is expected to use redundant elastomer seals to help contain cabin air during dockings between two spacecraft. The sealing surfaces are exposed to the space environment when vehicles are not docked. In space, the seals will be exposed to temperatures between 125 to -75 C, vacuum, atomic oxygen, particle and ultraviolet radiation, and micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). Silicone rubber is the only class of space flight-qualified elastomeric seal material that functions across the expected temperature range. NASA Glenn has tested three silicone elastomers for such seal applications: two provided by Parker (S0899-50 and S0383-70) and one from Esterline (ELA-SA-401). The effects of atomic oxygen (AO), UV and electron particle radiation, and vacuum on the properties of these three elastomers were examined. Critical seal properties such as leakage, adhesion, and compression set were measured before and after simulated space exposures. The S0899-50 silicone was determined to be inadequate for extended space seal applications due to high adhesion and intolerance to UV, but both S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 seals were adequate.

  18. Ionizing radiations and dosimetry in space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    1990-01-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the construction of bases on the moon and launch of manned spacecraft to Mars. In the present report, the level of radiations in space, possible exposure of astronauts to radiations, appropriate levels of permissible exposure to such radiations, and available techniques to measure the dose equivalent are discussed in relation to long stays of astronauts in space outside the magnetosphere. Specifically, the report first outlines major features of radiations in the space environment focusing on electron and proton beams caught by the terrestrial magnitism, radiations released by the sun and galactic cosmic rays, and then presents estimations of possible exposure dose in space focusing on the contributions of electron and proton beams caught by the terrestrial magnetism, radiations released by the sun and galactic cosmic rays. The report also addresses guidelines for protection from radiations in space, techniques for measuring the intensity of radiations in space. It is pointed out that more studies should be made to permit accurate measurement of radiation doses in a mixed field containing high-energy heavy particles. (N.K.)

  19. Research on the Design of Public Space Environment for Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Soo, Kim Chul

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the living space environment suitable for the elderly, because the elderly and the disabled have become increasingly prominent social problems. Through the discussion of the humanistic environment design method of the elderly and the disabled, the paper puts forward a new environment design which has the traditional characteristics and adapts to the new society to care for the elderly (the disabled).By studying and analyzing the background of social aging, the theory of public space environment design and the needs of the elderly, it is pointed out that the design of public space environment in the aged society needs to be implemented in detail design. The number of elderly people in public space will increase, give full attention to the public space outdoor environment quality, for the elderly to provide a variety of environmental facilities have long-term significance.

  20. Mutagenic effects of space environment and protons on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Shen Mei

    1998-07-01

    Dry seeds of 5 rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite for space mutation, and were irradiated by 4∼8 MeV protons with various doses. The mutagenic effects was studied. The results indicated that the space environment could cause chromosomal structure aberration and had stimulating mitosis action in root tip cells. As compared with γ-rays and protons, the effects of space environment flight were lower on chromosomal aberration but were significantly higher on mitosis index. Space environment and protons induce high frequency of chlorophyll deficient mutation and mutation in plant height and heading date in M 2 generation. Frequency of beneficial mutation induced by space environment and protons were higher than those induced by γ-rays

  1. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This presentation outlines a brief description of the Living With a Star (LWS) Program missions and detailed information about the Space Environment Testbed (SET) payload consisting of a space weather monitor and carrier containing 4 board experiments.

  2. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  3. Design of Optimal Cyclers Using Solar Sails

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing interest in establishing a base on Mars has spurred a need for regular and repeated visits to the red planet using a cycling shuttle to transport supplies, equipment and to retrieve surface samples...

  4. Protection of the Space Environment: The First Small Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, M.

    The exploration of the space environment - by robotic and manned missions - is a natural extension of mankind's desire to explore his own planet. Likewise, the development of the space environment - for industry, commerce and tourism - is a natural extension of our current business and domestic environment. Unfortunately, it appears that our ability to pollute, degrade and even destroy aspects of the space environment is also an extension of an ability we have developed and practised here on Earth. This paper reviews the evidence of mankind's pollution of the space environment - which includes the planetary bodies - in the first 45 years of the Space Age, and extrapolates the potential for further degradation into its second half-century. It considers the future development of both scientific exploration and commercial exploitation - in orbit and on the surface of the planetary bodies - and the possible detrimental effects. In presenting the case for protection of the space environment, the paper makes recommendations concerning the first steps towards a solution to the problem. Among other things, it calls for the formation of an international consultative body, to consider the issues relevant to `Protection of the Space Environment' and to raise awareness of the subject among the growing body of space professionals and practitioners. It also recommends consideration of a `set of guidelines' or `code of practice' as a precursor to more formal policies or legislation. In doing so, however, it is careful to recognise the need to strike a balance between unbridled exploration and development, and a stifling regime of rules and regulations. The discussion of this subject requires a good deal more collective knowledge, understanding and maturity than has been evident in similar discussions regarding the Earth's environment. At present, that knowledge resides largely within the professional space community. Thus there is also a need for promulgation, both within and

  5. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; LaBel, Kenneth; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affects life and society. The Program Architecture includes science missions, theory and modeling and Space Environment Testbeds (SET). This current paper discusses the Space Environment Testbeds. The goal of the SET program is to improve the engineering approach to accomodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The SET Program will infuse new technologies into the space programs through collection of data in space and subsequent design and validation of technologies. Examples of these technologies are cited and discussed.

  6. Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

  7. Analysis on Space Environment from the Anomalies of Geosynchronous Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that space environment can produce spacecraft anomaly, defining space environment effects for each anomalies is difficult. This is caused by the fact that spacecraft anomaly shows various symptoms and reproducing it is impossible. In this study, we try to find the conditions of when spacecraft failures happen more frequently and give satellite operators useful information. Especially, our study focuses on the geosynchronous satellites which cost is high and required high reliability. We used satellite anomaly data given by Satellite News Digest which is internet newspaper providing space industry news. In our analysis, 88 anomaly cases occurred from 1997 to 2008 shows bad corelation with Kp index. Satellite malfunctions were likely to happen in spring and fall and in local time from midnight to dawn. In addition, we found the probability of anomaly increase when high energy electron flux is high. This is more clearly appeared in solar minimum than maximum period.

  8. Research Progress and Prospect of GNSS Space Environment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Yibin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere and ionosphere are two important components of the near-earth space environment. They are close to the surface of the earth and have great influence on human life. The developments of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS over the past several decades provide a great opportunity for the GNSS-based space environment science. This review summarizes the research progress and prospect of the GNSS-based research of the Earth's troposphere and ionosphere. On the tropospheric perspective, modeling of the key tropospheric parameters and inversion of precipitable water vapor (PWV are dominant researching fields. On the ionospheric perspective, 2D/3D ionospheric models and regional/global ionospheric monitoring are dominant researching fields.

  9. International Space Environment Service: Current Activities and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, D. H.; H. Lundstedt, H.; Kunches, J.; Coffey, H.; Hilgers, A.; Patterson, G.; van der Linden, R.; Lam, H.-L.; Wang, H.; Buresova, D.; et al.

    The International Space Environment Service ISES is a permanent service of the Federations of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services FAGS with the mission to encourage and facilitate near-real-time international monitoring and prediction of the space environment This is done through the work of Regional Warning Centres RWC around the world who collaborate in the exploitation of a wide range of space-based and ground-based data Rapid exchange of information about the space environment is facilitated through the use of standard URSIgram codes RWCs also collaborate in sharing expertise in particular areas of specialty ISES also prepares the International Geophysical Calendar IGC each year giving a list of World Days during which scientists are encouraged to carry out their experiments and the monthly Spacewarn Bulletins which summarize the status of satellites in earth orbit and in the interplanetary medium ISES has its origins in the former URSI Central Committee of USRIgrams which initiated rapid international data interchange services in 1928 The modern system of regional warning centres was set up during the International Geophysical Year and now exist in every populated continent except Africa and South America ISES as part of its IGY 50 activities is working to develop RWCs in those continents ISES is also involved in developing new multi-national space weather services for example for trans-polar flights New space-based data on space weather activity will require extensive collaboration if it is to be

  10. Space Ethics and Protection of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The construction of the International Space Station in low Earth orbit and the formulation of plans to search for life on Mars - one day by means of manned missions - indicate that mankind is intent on making the space environment part of its domain. Publicity surrounding space tourism, in-space `burials' and the sale of lunar `real estate' suggests that, some time in the 21st century, the space environment will become an extraterrestrial extension of our current business and domestic environment. This prompts the question of our collective attitude towards the space environment and the degree to which we should regulate its use and protect it for future generations. What, indeed, are the ethical considerations of space exploration and development? Ethics can be defined as "the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct, and of the rules or principles that ought to govern it". More practically, it represents "an approved code of behaviour" adopted, for example, by a group or profession. If a set of ethics is to be developed for space, it is important that what we refer to as the `space community', or `space profession', is intimately involved. Indeed, if it is not, the profession risks having the job done for it, for example by politicians and members of the general public, who for their own reasons may wish to place restrictions on space development, or ban it altogether. The terrestrial nuclear power industry, for example, has already suffered this fate, while widespread ignorance of the subject has led to a moratorium on the use of RTGs in spacecraft. However, there is a danger in the discussion of ethics that consideration is confined to the philosophical aspects, thus excusing those involved from providing practical solutions to the problems that emerge. The fact that mankind has already affected, and arguably damaged, the space environment transports the discussion beyond the philosophical realm. This paper offers a pragmatic analysis of one

  11. The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

  12. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will be in a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). This oral presentation will describe the SET payload.

  13. Mechanistic studies for optical switching materials for space environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, George W.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Rahman, Salma; Godschalx, James P.; Taylor, Edward W.

    2010-09-01

    Optical power limiters (OPLs) are nonlinear optical (NLO) devices that limit the amount of energy transmitted in an optical system. At low incident optical power or pulse energy, the transmission of the system is high enough to allow nominal operation of the system. At high incident optical power or pulse energy, the transmission decreases to protect sensitive components such as optical receivers or transmitters. The interest OPLs for use in the space environment is due to the increasingly large number of space based missions and devices that require laser protection from laser beam is coming from, an enemy, misaligned laser in equipment, etc. Temperature and space radiation-induced effects in optical and electronic materials are well known and they can cause disruption in OPL functions, or in the worst case, failure of the sensor. Recently, certain hyperbranched polymer-based composites containing OPL chromophores have been developed that offer high OPL performance and have been shown to function in a simulated + space environment. One novel high performance polymer material containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) covalently attached to the polymer host is promising. Preliminary light scattering measurements suggest that nonlinear scattering is not the primary mechanism for OPL performance.

  14. Direct curing of composite material in free space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    The size and mass of modern space constructions (antenna, space satellite, space station or space base) sent to the Earth orbit are limited by capacity of a launch vehicle. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the technology of the polymerization of fiber-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied in free space. The experimental and theoretical investigations on the curing process in high vacuum, space plasma and temperature variations indicate that the curing process can be realized under free space conditions. The curing process is sensitive to conditions of free space environment and to composition of polymer matrix. The selected compositions provide a bubble-free polymer matrix with crosslinking effect under the space irradiations. The results of laboratory experiments and stratospheric flight experiments are discussed. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, ESA, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  15. Qualification of quantum cascade lasers for space environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Crowther, Blake; Hansen, Stewart

    2014-06-11

    Laser-based instruments are enabling a new generation of scientific instruments for space environments such as those used in the exploration of Mars. The lasers must be robust and able to withstand the harsh environment of space, including radiation exposure. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), which are semiconductor lasers that emit in the infrared spectral region, offer the potential for the development of novel laser-based instruments for space applications. The performance of QCLs after radiation exposure, however, has not been reported. We report on work to quantify the performance of QCLs after exposure to two different radiation sources, 64 MeV protons and Cobalt-60 gamma rays, at radiation levels likely to be encountered during a typical space flight mission. No significant degradation in threshold current or slope efficiency is observed for any of the seven Fabry-Perot QCLs that are tested.

  16. Degradation of optical components in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehainaut, Linda L.; Kenemuth, John; Tidler, Cynthia E.; Seegmiller, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Phillips Laboratory (PL) Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment is to determine the adverse effects of the natural space environment on laser optical component and coating materials. The LDEF experiment provides a unique opportunity for the study of optical material response to an extended low earth orbit space exposure. The PL samples consist of 10 sets of the six materials each. The materials are uncoated fused silica, magnesium fluoride coated fused silica, uncoated molybdenum, molybdenum coated with chromium, silver and thorium fluoride, diamond turned copper, and diamond turned nickel plated copper. Performance degradation will be correlated to establish trends between sample location, duration of exposure, atomic oxygen exposure and other space environmental conditions. This paper discusses the results of the tests thus far performed on the LDEF samples and the plans for the future.

  17. Seals Having Textured Portions for Protection in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher (Inventor); Garafolo, Nicholas (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A sealing construct for a space environment includes a seal-bearing object, a seal on the seal-bearing object, and a seal-engaging object. The seal includes a seal body having a sealing surface, and a textured pattern at the sealing surface, the textured pattern defining at least one shaded channel surface. The seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object through the seal. The seal-engaging object has a sealing surface, wherein, when the seal-engaging object is selectively engaged with the seal-bearing object, the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object engages the sealing surface of the seal, and the seal is compressed between the seal-bearing object and the seal-engaging object such that at least one shaded channel surface engages the sealing surface of the seal-engaging object.

  18. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  19. Do Inner Planets Modulate the Space Environment of the Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Variabilities in the solar wind cause disturbances throughout the heliosphere on all temporal and spatial scales, which leads to changeable space weather. As a view of space weather forecasting, in particular, it is important to know direct and indirect causes modulating the space environment near the Earth in advance. Recently, there are discussions on a role of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury in affecting the solar wind velocity in the Earth’s neighborhood during its inferior conjunctions. In this study we investigate a question of whether other parameters describing the space environment near the Earth are modulated by the inner planets’ wake, by examining whether the interplanetary magnetic field and the proton density in the solar wind observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft, and the geomagnetic field via the Dst index and Auroral Electrojet index (AE index are dependent upon the relative position of the inner planets. We find there are indeed apparent variations. For example, the mean variations of the geomagnetic fields measured in the Earth’s neighborhood apparently have varied with a timescale of about 10 to 25 days. Those variations in the parameters we have studied, however, turn out to be a part of random fluctuations and have nothing to do with the relative position of inner planets. Moreover, it is found that variations of the proton density in the solar wind, the Dst index, and the AE index are distributed with the Gaussian distribution. Finally, we point out that some of properties in the behavior of the random fluctuation are to be studied.

  20. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  1. BUSEFL: The Boston University Space Environment Forecast Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contos, A.R.; Sanchez, L.A.; Jorgensen, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    BUSEFL (Boston University Space Environment Forecast Laboratory) is a comprehensive, integrated project to address the issues and implications of space weather forecasting. An important goal of the BUSEFL mission is to serve as a testing ground for space weather algorithms and operational procedures. One such algorithm is the Magnetospheric Specification and Forecast Model (MSFM), which may be implemented in possible future space weather prediction centers. Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), the satellite component of BUSEFL, will incorporate four experiments designed to measure (1) the earth close-quote s magnetic field, (2) distribution of energetic electrons trapped in the earth close-quote s radiation belts, (3) the mass and charge composition of the ion fluxes along the magnetic field lines and (4) the auroral forms at the foot of the field line in the auroral zones. Data from these experiments will be integrated into a ground system to evaluate space weather prediction codes. Data from the BUSEFL mission will be available to the scientific community and the public through media such as the World Wide Web (WWW). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  3. Study of integrated circuits in natural space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoui, S.

    1993-11-01

    In this thesis we study one of the critical phenomena induced by the radiation of integrated circuits in the natural space environment: the so-called upset phenomenon. This phenomenon, caused by a heavy-ion strike on circuit sensitive areas, result in the modification of the information stored in a memory element. Upsets may then perturb the functioning of satellite-borne complex processors with serious consequences on the control of equipments operating in space. As commonly used processes or design hardening techniques cannot guarantee a total immunity against upsets, provisional methods are generally adopted to select the less sensitive circuits among components to be used in a space application. These methods consist in the simulation of the irradiated environment by means of particle accelerators, to get experimental figures about the upset sensitivity of the considered circuit, and the use of these measures to estimate the in orbit circuit vulnerability. To implement such experiments on different processor types, we have designed and developed a dedicated test system, the FUTE 16 tester. This tester has been used in several test experiments where irradiated environment was simulated by means of particle accelerators. The activity of the target circuit during the irradiation could have a great influence on the measured upset sensitivity. Generally used test sequences so-called ''register test'', consist on the initialization of accessible registers with known data, and the observation of their content after a given delay to detect errors due to upsets. The main goal of this thesis is to compare in orbit error rate estimations obtained with register tests, to those obtained with ''application like'' test sequences. Both kinds of test sequences have been used during heavy-ion test experiments performed on commercially available CISC and RISC processors. The results obtained clearly show that using ''register tests'' may lead to wrong decisions in the selections

  4. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog

  5. MicroRNA expression of C. elegans in space environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Entire microRNA expression were analyzed using the Filgen Array miRNA Caenorhabditis elegans 232 probes (Filgen). In the microRNA expression analysis we compared the...

  6. Space Environment Automated Alerts and Anomaly Analysis Assistant (SEA^5) for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a comprehensive analysis and dissemination system (Space Environment Automated Alerts  & Anomaly Analysis Assistant: SEA5) that will...

  7. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Medaka Tissues Sampled after Adaptation to a Space Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To understand how humans adapt to space environments many experiments can be conducted on astronauts while they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International...

  8. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  9. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  10. NASA's Space Environments and Effects Program: Technology for the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna M.; Pearson, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    Current trends in spacecraft development include the use of advanced technologies while maintaining the "faster, better, cheaper" philosophy. Spacecraft designers are continually designing with smaller and faster electronics as well as lighter and thinner materials providing better performance, lower weight, and ultimately lower costs. Given this technology trend, spacecraft will become increasingly susceptible to the harsh space environments, causing damaging or even disabling effects on space systems. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides advanced technology development to support the design, development, and operation of spacecraft systems that will accommodate or mitigate effects due to the harsh space environments. This Program provides a comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this multitudinous information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. A description of the SEE Program, its accomplishments, and future activities is provided.

  11. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Contamination Engineering Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Steven D.; Clifton, K. Stuart

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, etc. and data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and will present SEE contamination engineering technology development and risk mitigation for future spacecraft design.

  12. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  13. Evolution of crop production under a pseudo-space environment using model plants, Lotus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Motohashi, Kyohei; Omi, Naomi; Sato, Seigo; Aoki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying space agriculture and/or spacecraft agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment. However, careful investigation should be made concerning the results of exotic environmental effects on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in indi-vidual cultivated plants in a space environment. We have already reported that the production of functional substances in cultivated plants as crops are affected by gravity. The amounts of the main physiological substances in these plants grown under terrestrial control were different from that grown in a pseudo-microgravity. These results suggested that the nutrition would be changed in the plants/crops grown in the space environment when human beings eat in space. This estimation required us to investigate each of the useful components produced by each plant grown in the space environment. These estimations involved several study fields, includ-ing nutrition, plant physiology, etc. On the other hand, the analysis of model plant genomes has recently been remarkably advanced. Lotus japonicus, a leguminous plant, is also one of the model plant. The leguminosae is a large family in the plant vegetable kingdom and almost the entire genome sequence of Lotus japonicus has been determined. Nitrogen fixation would be possible even in a space environment. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for crop production using the model plants.

  14. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Steering of Solar Sails Using Optical Lift Force Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study seeks to look beyond the use of radiation pressure for thrust, and to explore a means of solar navigation whereby a solar craft would be steered by use...

  16. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  17. An Overview of the Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Garrett, Henry B.; Miller, Sharon K.; Peddie, Darilyn; Porter Ron; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore our Earth, and the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge on the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments fields that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environment and spacecraft effects (SESE) organization. This SESE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems, and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Environment effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system, and system-level response to the space environment and include the selection and testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with

  18. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1985: High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The seventh NASA Conference on Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology was held at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, from 30 April until 2 May 1985. Its purpose was to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and future strategy for space photovoltaic research. Particular emphasis was placed on high efficiency, space environment, and array technology.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  20. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Burns, H. D.; Clinton, R. G.; Schumacher, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous organizations specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline organizations, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environment and spacecraft effects organization. This includes space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, and effects on spacecraft materials and systems. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization would be comprised of Technical Working Groups (TWG) focusing on, for example: a) Charged Particles (CP), b) Space Environmental Effects (SEE), and c) Interplanetary and Extraterrestrial Environments (IEE). These technical working groups will generate products and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, environment effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Environment effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather observations to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA and other federal agencies to ensure that communications are well established and the needs of the programs are being met. The programmatic

  1. Living with a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbeds (SET), Mission Carrier Overview and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patschke, Robert; Barth, Janet; Label, Ken; Mariano, Carolyn; Pham, Karen; Brewer, Dana; Cuviello, Michael; Kobe, David; Wu, Carl; Jarosz, Donald

    2004-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The three program elements of the LWS Program are Science Missions; Targeted Research and Technology; and Space Environment Testbeds (SETS). SET is an ideal platform for small experiments performing research on space environment effects on technologies and on the mitigation of space weather effects. A short description of the LWS Program will be given, and the SET will be described in detail, giving the mission objectives, available carrier services, and upcoming flight opportunities.

  2. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  3. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  4. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon S.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry (e.g. blocking diodes). Key elements of the space environment which must be accounted for in a PV system design include: Solar Photon Radiation, Charged Particle Radiation, Plasma, and Thermal Cycling. While solar photon radiation is central to generating power in PV systems, the complete spectrum includes short wavelength ultraviolet components, which photo-ionize materials, as well as long wavelength infrared which heat materials. High energy electron radiation has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the output power of III-V type PV cells; and proton radiation damages material surfaces - often impacting coverglasses and antireflective coatings. Plasma environments influence electrostatic charging of PV array materials, and must be understood to ensure that long duration arcs do not form and potentially destroy PV cells. Thermal cycling impacts all components on a PV array by inducing stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. Given such demanding environments, and the complexity of structures and materials that form a PV array system, mission success can only be ensured through realistic testing in the laboratory. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a broad space environment test capability to allow PV array designers and manufacturers to verify their system's integrity and avoid costly on-orbit failures. The Marshall Space Flight Center test capabilities are available to government, commercial, and university customers. Test solutions are tailored to meet the customer's needs, and can include performance assessments, such as flash testing in the case of PV cells.

  5. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: The Pursuit of Tomorrow's Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Steven D.; Hardage, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    A hazard to all spacecraft orbiting the earth and exploring the unknown in deep space is the existence of a harsh and ever changing environment with its subsequent effects. Some of these environmental hazards, such as plasma, extreme thermal excursions, meteoroids, and ionizing radiation result from natural sources, whereas others, such as orbital debris and neutral contamination are induced by the presence of spacecraft themselves. The subsequent effects can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and advocates technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will provide an overview of the Program's purpose, goals, database management and technical activities. In particular, the SEE Program has been very active in developing improved ionizing radiation models and developing related flight experiments which should aid in determining the effect of the radiation environment on modern electronics.

  6. Oncogenesis of melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yupeng; Yang Hongsheng; Tang Jingtian; Xu Mei; Geng Chuanying; Fang Qing; Xu Bo; Li Hongyan; Xiang Xing; Pan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oncogenesis of the melanoma B16 cell clones mutagenized by space environment, and find the B16 cell clones with remarkably mutated immunogenicity. Methods: B16 cells were carried by the Chinese 20th recoverable satellite to the outer space, and were harvested after 18 days' spaceflight and then monocloned. Four cell clones, which were randomly selected from the total 110 clones obtained , and the control clone were routinely cultured. The cultured cells were injected to 10 groups of C57BL/6J mice, 82.1 mice in each group. Five groups of mice received hypodermic injection and another 5 groups of mice received abdominal injection. The survival time was observed in abdominal injection groups. The mice in hypodermic injection groups were sacrificed after 14 days, the tumor, spleen and thymus were weighted, and the serum IL-2 concentration was determined. Moreover, the melanoma tumor tissues were examined histopathologically. Results: An experiment program suitable to screening space mutagenesis of B16 tumor cell clones in vivo and the observation indices were basically established. One clone was found out which was remarkably different from the control clone in latent period of tumor formation, tumor weight, survival time of the tumor-bearing mice and the expression of IL-2. Conclusions: Cultured melanoma B16 cells could be mutated by outer space environment. The further study will be focused on the influence of space environment on immunogenicity of mutagenized B16 cells. (authors)

  7. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  8. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent times long-term stay has become a common occurrence in the International Space Station (ISS). However adaptation to the space environment can sometimes...

  9. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  10. Radiation tolerant passive and active optical fiber products for use in space environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mark; Hankey, Judith; Gray, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the radiation performance results of several new product types designed for high radiation environments. The products tested include radiation hardened highly birefringent (HiBi) passive products for polarised applications and radiation tolerant active erbium doped fiber products for amplifiers. Radiation hardened, short beatlength HiBi fiber products have been developed for high accuracy polarisation maintaining (PM) gyros and sensors at both 1310nm and 1550nm operation in the space environment. The fibers have been tested up to 5kGy (500krad) - levels which could be expected in extreme, extra-terrestrial space environments. Results show a consistently low Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) of fibers are intended for use in multichannel amplifiers in optical intersatellite communications. The structure of the fibers have been designed to deliver an accelerated recovery of radiation damage through photo-annealing using only the residual energy already available in an amplifier using a 980nm pumping regime. These products have been tested up to 200Gy (20krad) - levels which can be expected in Earth orbit environments over a 20-30 mission lifetime. Results show up to 100% recovery under continuous use for dose rates of 0.11rad/hr. It has also been demonstrated through analysis of the optical spectral output that this effect reverses the gain tilt, or spectral narrowing, induced by radiation damage through the C and L band. These combined fiber characteristics allow performance stability of the amplifier over the lifetime of the space mission.

  11. Carrier Plus: A sensor payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTR4) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating to develop the Carrier Plus sensor experiment platform as a capability of the Space Environments Testbed (SET). The Space Environment Testbed (SET) provides flight opportunities for technology experiments as part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Carrier Plus will provide new capability to characterize sensor technologies such as state-of-the-art visible focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a natural space radiation environment. The technical objectives include on-orbit validation of recently developed FPA technologies and performance prediction methodologies, as well as characterization of the FPA radiation response to total ionizing dose damage, displacement damage and transients. It is expected that the sensor experiment will carry 4-6 FPAs and associated radiation correlative environment monitors (CEMs) for a 2006-2007 launch. Sensor technology candidates may include n- and p-charge coupled devices (CCDs), active pixel sensors (APS), and hybrid CMOS arrays. The presentation will describe the Carrier Plus goals and objectives, as well as provide details about the architecture and design. More information on the LWS program can be found at http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Business announcements for LWS/SET and program briefings are posted at http://lws-set.gsfc.nasa.gov

  12. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  13. Gene expression of rice seeds surviving 13- and 20-month exposure to space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Oono, Youko; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Gusev, Oleg; Maekawa, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Natalia; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    2016-11-01

    Rice seeds were exposed outside of the international space station to assess the risk of space environment exposure on gene expression associated with seed germination. The germination percentages of the space-stored and ground-stored seeds exposed for 13 months were 48 and 96% respectively. Those for 20 months were 7 and 76%, respectively. Germination was defined 3 days after imbibition, except for the space-stored seeds exposed for 20 months, which germinated 5 days after imbibition. Subsequent RNA-seq analyses of the dry seeds, germinated seeds, and roots and shoots of seedlings revealed that the mutation rates of mRNA sequences were not significantly different between space-stored and ground-stored samples exposed for 13 months and 20 months. In all, 4 and 16 transcripts of glycolysis-related genes were increased in the germinated seeds after 13-month and 20-month exposure, respectively. Also, 2 and 39 transcripts of long-lived mRNA required for germination were decreased more than 2-fold in the dry seeds after 13-month and 20-month exposure, respectively. These results suggest that damage to long-lived mRNA in seeds by a space environment delays and reduces germination.

  14. Improved gap filling method based on singular spectrum analysis and its application in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhen; Liu, Shuai; Li, Zhi; Gong, Jiancun

    2017-11-01

    Data missing is a common phenomenon in the space environment measurements, which impacts or even blocks the following model-building procedures, predictions and posterior analysis. To fill these data gaps, an improved filling method based on iterative singular spectrum analysis is proposed. It first extracts a distribution array of the gaps and then fills the gaps with all known data. The distribution array is utilized to generate the test sets for cross validation. The embedding window length and principal components are determined by the discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm in a noncontinuous fashion. The effectiveness and adaptability of the filling method are proved by some tests done on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices from different solar activity years.

  15. Survey report of JSUP Space Environment Utilization Research Committee in fiscal year 1992: Metallic Materials Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Michio; Kamio, Akihiko; Motegi, Tetsuichi; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Hori, Takanobu; Tanji, Akira; Inatani, Toshihiro; Iwata, Yoshihiro; Miyauchi, Masami; Oyama, Shigeru

    1993-03-01

    This report describes space processing research conducted by NASA. The in-situ observation of separate liquid phase behavior of Al-Pb and Al-Bi alloys conducted in Japan is also reported. The following topics are included: space environment, space processing, microgravity, microgravity experiments, Hg-Cd-Te alloy, Ni-Sn alloy, Fe-Ni alloy, Al-Ga-As alloy, MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy), Ga-As crystal growth, semiconductor junctions, directional solidification, immiscible alloys, binary mixtures, succinonitrile solution, pushing phenomenon, containerless processing, containerless capsule dropping process, undercooling, Ostwald growing process, IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory-1), IML-2, Marangoni effect, liquid flow, ammonium chloride, molding, convection, segregation, metal combustion, flames, droplets, bubbles, STEP (Space Technology Experiment Platform), solid solution, sintering, metallic glasses, and viscosity.

  16. Analysis of the Thermo-Elastic Response of Space Reflectors to Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Ivagnes, M. M.; Marchetti, M.; Poscente, F.

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of space environment effects on materials and structures is a key matter to develop a proper design of long duration missions: since a large part of satellites operating in the earth orbital environment are employed for telecommunications, the development of space antennas and reflectors featured by high dimensional stability versus space environment interactions represents a major challenge for designers. The structural layout of state of the art space antennas and reflectors is very complex, since several different sensible elements and materials are employed: particular care must be placed in evaluating the actual geometrical configuration of the reflectors operating in the space environment, since very limited distortions of the designed layout can produce severe effects on the quality of the signal both received and transmitted, especially for antennas operating at high frequencies. The effects of thermal loads due to direct sunlight exposition and to earth and moon albedo can be easily taken into account employing the standard methods of structural analysis: on the other hand the thermal cycling and the exposition to the vacuum environment produce a long term damage accumulation which affects the whole structure. The typical effects of the just mentioned exposition are the outgassing of polymeric materials and the contamination of the exposed surface, which can affect sensibly the thermo-mechanical properties of the materials themselves and, therefore, the structural global response. The main aim of the present paper is to evaluate the synergistic effects of thermal cycling and of the exposition to high vacuum environment on an innovative antenna developed by Alenia Spazio S.p.a.: to this purpose, both an experimental and numerical research activity has been developed. A complete prototype of the antenna has been exposed to the space environment simulated by the SAS facility: this latter is constituted by an high vacuum chamber, equipped by

  17. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  18. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  19. Modeling ion induced effects in thin films and coatings for lunar and space environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Pirich, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    Protective thin film coatings are important for many near-Earth and interplanetary space systems applications using photonic components, optical elements, solar cells and detector-sensor front surfaces to name but a few environmentally at-risk technologies. The near-Earth and natural space environment consists of known degradation processes induced within these technologies brought about by atomic oxygen, micrometeorite impacts, space debris and dust, solar generated charged particles, Van Allen belt trapped particles, and galactic cosmic radiation. This paper will focus on presenting the results of an investigation based on simulated ion-induced defect-modeling and nuclear irradiation testing of several innovative hybrid-polymeric self-cleaning hydrophobic coatings investigated for application to space photonic components, lunar surface, avionic and terrestrial applications. Data is reported regarding the radiation resistance of several hybrid polymer coatings containing various loadings of nanometer-sized TiO2 fillers for protecting sensors, structures, human and space vehicles from dust contamination found in space and on the Lunar and other planetary surfaces.

  20. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  1. Preliminary analyses of WL experiment No. 701, space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the analyses performed to date on WL Experiment-701 is presented. Four active digital fiber optic links were directly exposed to the space environment for a period of 2114 days. The links were situated aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with the cabled, single fiber windings atop an experimental tray containing instrumentation for exercising the experiment in orbit. Despite the unplanned and prolonged exposure to trapped and galactic radiation, wide temperature extremes, atomic oxygen interactions, and micro-meteorite and debris impacts, in most instances the optical data links performed well within the experimental limits. Analysis of the recorded orbital data clearly indicates that fiber optic applications in space will meet with success. Ongoing tests and analysis of the experiment at the Phillips Laboratory's Optoelectronics Laboratory will expand this premise, and establish the first known and extensive database of active fiber optic link performance during prolonged space exposure. WL Exp-701 was designed as a feasibility demonstration for fiber optic technology in space applications, and to study the performance of operating fiber systems exposed to space environmental factors such as galactic radiation, and wide temperature cycling. WL Exp-701 is widely acknowledged as a benchmark accomplishment that clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that fiber optic technology can be successfully used in a variety of space applications.

  2. Systematic investigation of the optical coatings damages induced in harsh space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Alain Jody; Tessarolo, Enrico; Martucci, Alessandro; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina

    2017-09-01

    The scientific goals required to the next-generation space missions lead the development of innovative instrumentation, conceived to operate in increasingly harsh environments. Optical coatings are among the sub-systems which can highly suffer the agents in such environments. In particular, as recently demonstrated, the accelerated ions and particles can potentially jeopardize the coatings optical performances, with a consequent degradation of the overall functionality of an instrument. Despite its importance, this issue is still poorly investigated. In fact, the fragmentary knowledge of the space environments and the low number of previous ground testing experiments complicates the definition of clear procedures to investigate the behavior of the optical coatings in space. A systematic approach devoted to identify a methodology for the validation of optical coatings under ions irradiation is presented. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the effects induced by different ion species and energies on both layers and multilayers of different materials, getting an accurate overview of the main criticalities. Such results are then used to plan representative irradiation experiments and the subsequent analysis procedures needed for a proper characterization of the exposed samples. In this paper, a summary of the experiments performed so far is presented. Thanks to these studies we have identified three main damage mechanisms which can be used to explain most of the degradation effects observed when an optical coating is irradiated with low energy particles. A brief discussion of such mechanisms is reported.

  3. The Objectives of NASA's Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Brewer, Dana; Kauffman, Billy; Howard, Regan; Griffin, Geoff; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is planning to fly a series of Space Environment Testbeds (SET) as part of the Living With A Star (LWS) Program. The goal of the testbeds is to improve and develop capabilities to mitigate and/or accommodate the affects of solar variability in spacecraft and avionics design and operation. This will be accomplished by performing technology validation in space to enable routine operations, characterize technology performance in space, and improve and develop models, guidelines and databases. The anticipated result of the LWS/SET program is improved spacecraft performance, design, and operation for survival of the radiation, spacecraft charging, meteoroid, orbital debris and thermosphere/ionosphere environments. The program calls for a series of NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to be issued to solicit flight validation experiments, improvement in environment effects models and guidelines, and collateral environment measurements. The selected flight experiments may fly on the SET experiment carriers and flights of opportunity on other commercial and technology missions. This paper presents the status of the project so far, including a description of the types of experiments that are intended to fly on SET-1 and a description of the SET-1 carrier parameters.

  4. VirtualSpace: A vision of a machine-learned virtual space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, J.; Sarno-Smith, L. K.; Chu, X.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Space borne instrumentation tends to come and go. A typical instrument will go through a phase of design and construction, be deployed on a spacecraft for several years while it collects data, and then be decommissioned and fade into obscurity. The data collected from that instrument will typically receive much attention while it is being collected, perhaps in the form of event studies, conjunctions with other instruments, or a few statistical surveys, but once the instrument or spacecraft is decommissioned, the data will be archived and receive progressively less attention with every passing year. This is the fate of all historical data, and will be the fate of data being collected by instruments even at the present time. But what if those instruments could come alive, and all be simultaneously present at any and every point in time and space? Imagine the scientific insights, and societal gains that could be achieved with a grand (virtual) heliophysical observatory that consists of every current and historical mission ever deployed? We propose that this is not just fantasy but is imminently doable with the data currently available, with the present computational resources, and with currently available algorithms. This project revitalizes existing data resources and lays the groundwork for incorporating data from every future mission to expand the scope and refine the resolution of the virtual observatory. We call this project VirtualSpace: a machine-learned virtual space environment.

  5. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A

    2016-03-18

    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  7. Non-Uniform Plasma Discharges in Near Earth Space Environment and Ionosphere to Troposphere Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanney, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Most earth weather and ionosphere-space environment coupling studies separate the problems into distinct groups. Heliosphere to solar wind - solar storm activity to ionospheric coupling - thermosphere and mid- altitude to the ionosphere and electrical effects such as elves and sprites and thunderstorms in another group - additionally mid and high latitude weather systems are many times separated also. The theoretical work here shows that not only are these areas coupled and related, but it also shows that without the constant electrical and resulting magnetic driving forces from space environments, earth would have little if no weather variability at all below the ionosphere. With only solar light energy as input, earth (and the other planets) would have little weather at all. The realization that extensive electrical activates occur in and above the troposphere, extending to the ionosphere and ultimately coupling to the magnetosphere have raised the theoretical and experimental questions regarding the sources of EMF which create the observed effects. The current work has identified 17 Local Electrical Batteries (LEBs), which provide the electrical EMF that can be linked to the observed effects the jet streams and lower atmospheric weather phenomenon. The path of the sources of EMF can be followed from the passing solar wind through "tunnels" that end in electrical currents that pass into the atmosphere via the ionosphere to storm cloud systems in the lower atmosphere. However the source of energy comes from localized plasma discharging of a non-uniform plasma environment that powers the electrical systems of the entire solar system. These are ultimately the sources of electrical energy that power the severe lower atmospheric storm systems such as westerly moving hurricanes at low latitudes and associated tornadoes. The connection is made theoretically with the solar wind that drives the 17 identified LEBs. The ultimate source of driving energy is the result of an

  8. Impact of space environment on stability of medicines: Challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Priti; Bhayani, Dhara

    2017-03-20

    To upkeep health of astronauts in a unique, isolated, and extreme environment of space is the primary goal for a successful space mission, hence, safe and efficacious medications are essential for the wellness of astronauts. Space medication has been challenged with problems related to efficacy. Along with altered physiology, one of the possible reasons could be instability of space medications in the presence of harsh spaceflight environmental conditions. Altered physical and chemical stability can result in reduced potency which can result in reduced efficacy. Right now, medicines from the International Space Station are replaced before their expiration. But, for longer duration missions to Mars or any other asteroid, there will not be any chance of replacement of medicines. Hence, it is desired that medicines maintain the shelf-life throughout the space mission. Stability of medicines used for short term or long term space missions cannot be judged by drug stability guidelines based on terrestrial environmental factors. Unique environmental conditions related to spaceflight include microgravity, excessive vibration, hard vacuum, humidity variation, temperature differences and excessive radiation, which may cause instability of medicines. This write-up provides a review of the problem and countermeasure approaches for pharmaceuticals exposed to the space environment. The first part of the article discusses thought processes behind outlining of International Conference on Harmonization drug stability guidelines, Q1A (R2) and Q1B, and its acceptance limits for accelerated stability study. The second part of the article describes the difference in the radiation environment of deep space compared to radiation environment inside the space shuttle based on penetration power of different types of radiation. In the third part of the article, various promising approaches are listed which can be used for assurance of space medicine stability. One of the approaches is the

  9. Foton 11: ESA investigates further the space environment and its impact on organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Scientific research conducted under space conditions can provide new insight into how processes occur on Earth and organisms function. The unmanned Foton spacecraft has been used since 1988 to conduct such investigations. Now on its 11th mission and the fifth in which ESA has taken part, Foton is carrying some 80 kg of ESA payload: two ESA research facilities (an incubator and an experiment holder on the outside of the spacecraft) are on board along with 12 scientific experiments. The French space agency (CNES) and the German space agency (DARA) also have payload on the spacecraft. ESA's space-qualified incubator, called Biobox, keeps organisms at predefined conditions. During this mission, the three Biobox experiments are looking at the reaction of bone cells in microgravity. The second ESA facility, a pan-shaped container called Biopan attached to the outside of Foton, is used to expose experiment samples directly to the space environment in order to study the impact of space's extreme temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation, and near-perfect vacuum. On this mission, the six Biopan experiments are concentrating on exobiology, radiation biology and material science. Biopan has a motor-driven, hinged lid and is equipped with devices and sensors that measure the various aspects of the environment to which the experiments are subjected. Once Foton is in orbit, a telecommand is sent from ground and the lid opens to expose the samples to the environment. At the end of the mission, another command is sent and the lid closes. Since Biopan is on the outside of Foton, it also has its own ablative heat shield to protect the facility and samples during the spacecraft's re-entry and landing. Other ESA experiments on board Foton are looking into the effects of weightlessness on bacteria, the biological clocks of beetles and the aging of fruitflies. The scientific investigators responsible for the ESA experiments are from research institutes and universities in Belgium

  10. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Inverse problems can usually be modelled as operator equations in infinite-dimensional spaces with a forward operator acting between Hilbert or Banach spaces—a formulation which quite often also serves as the basis for defining and analyzing solution methods. The additional amount of structure and geometric interpretability provided by the concept of an inner product has rendered these methods amenable to a convergence analysis, a fact which has led to a rigorous and comprehensive study of regularization methods in Hilbert spaces over the last three decades. However, for numerous problems such as x-ray diffractometry, certain inverse scattering problems and a number of parameter identification problems in PDEs, the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based on conventions rather than an appropriate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, non-Hilbertian regularization and data fidelity terms incorporating a priori information on solution and noise, such as general Lp-norms, TV-type norms, or the Kullback-Leibler divergence, have recently become very popular. These facts have motivated intensive investigations on regularization methods in Banach spaces, a topic which has emerged as a highly active research field within the area of inverse problems. Meanwhile some of the most well-known regularization approaches, such as Tikhonov-type methods requiring the solution of extremal problems, and iterative ones like the Landweber method, the Gauss-Newton method, as well as the approximate inverse method, have been investigated for linear and nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Convergence with rates has been proven and conditions on the solution smoothness and on the structure of nonlinearity have been formulated. Still, beyond the existing results a large number of challenging open questions have arisen, due to the more involved handling of general Banach spaces and the larger variety

  11. Analyzing System on A Chip Single Event Upset Responses using Single Event Upset Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)

  12. Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment – ICPMSE Proceedings Series: How Did It All Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Jacob

    A historical overview of the first ten meetings of the International Conference for Protection of Materials from Space Environment (ICPMSE) is presented. Through the published documents and pictures from personal archives the rich history of the meeting is illustrated. The collaborative links with ESA, CNES, ONERA and JAXA are described that helped to make the ICPMSE series of meeting a truly International event. The review is based on published ICPMSE proceedings as well as on personal archives of Prof. J. Kleiman who initiated the meeting in 1991.

  13. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  14. Characterization of System on a Chip (SoC) Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses Using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  15. Optimization of an Advanced Multi-Junction Solar-Cell Design for Space Environments (AM0) Using Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AN ADVANCED MULTI-JUNCTION SOLAR-CELL DESIGN FOR SPACE ENVIRONMENTS (AM0) USING NEARLY ORTHOGONAL LATIN HYPERCUBES by Silvio Pueschel June...ADVANCED MULTI-JUNCTION SOLAR-CELL DESIGN FOR SPACE ENVIRONMENTS (AM0) USING NEARLY ORTHOGONAL LATIN HYPERCUBES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Silvio...multi-junction solar cells with Silvaco Atlas simulation software. It introduces the nearly orthogonal Latin hypercube (NOLH) design of experiments (DoE

  16. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Masini

    Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. To clarify this point thyroid and testis/epididymis, both regulated by anterior pituitary gland, have been analyzed on long-term space-exposed male C57BL/10 mice, either wild type or pleiotrophin transgenic, overexpressing osteoblast stimulating factor-1. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. cAMP production in 10(-7M and 10(-8M thyrotropin-treated samples was studied. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.In testes, immunofluorescent reaction for 3β- steroid dehydrogenase was performed and the relative expressions of hormone receptors and interleukin-1β were quantified by RT-PCR. Epididymal sperm number was counted. In space-exposed animals, the presence of 3β and 17β steroid dehydrogenase was reduced. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The interleukin 1 β expression was upregulated. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis (approx. -90% vs. laboratory and ground controls, indicating that the space environment may lead to degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules.Space-induced changes of structure and function of thyroid and testis

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  18. [Fungal biota in manned space environment and impact on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    It is important to promote microbiological research essential for long-term manned space activities under microgravity and in a completely closed environment in space craft in relation to long-duration space expeditions on the International Space Station (ISS) or to the moon and Mars in the future. Environmental monitoring data from the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have already shown that microorganisms isolated from air and on inner surfaces of space craft were generally carried by crew members. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) "KIBO" was attached to the ISS and started its operation from 2008. It is an invaluable opportunity to begin the survey of the transition of microbiota, particularly fungal biota, in JEM from "brand-new" to "well-used" condition at various periods. Therefore, we are preparing the on-board analyzing systems for microbiota in air and on inner surfaces of ISS/JEM and normal microbiota of the astronauts themselves. In this paper, we introduce the current status and future plans on fungal research on ISS/JEM to protect flight crew members and flight hardware from potentially hazardous microorganisms from the environmental and biomedical aspects of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

  19. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  20. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Paccagnella, A.; Bagatin, M.; Gerardin, S.; Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Picozza, P.; Gorini, G.; Mancini, R.; Sarno, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  1. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andreani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  2. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; hide

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  3. Space Environment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Various environmental effects were ranked according to their perceived importance. The relative importance of any particular environment component is viewed within the context of the anticipated mission environment. The chart does serve as an indication of the historically major environmental concerns for operating space power systems

  4. Analysis and assessment of film materials and associated manufacturing processes for a solar sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E. J.; Jakobsen, R. J.; Sliemers, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate resin manufacturers and film producers were surveyed to determine the availability of key materials and to establish the capabilities of fabricators to prepare ultrathin films of these materials within the capacity/cost/time constraints of the Halley program. Infrared spectra of three candidate samples were obtained by pressing each sample against an internal reflection crystal with the polymer sandwiched between the crystal and the metal backing. The sample size was such that less than one-fourth of the surface of the crystal was covered with the sample. This resulted in weak spectra requiring a six-fold expansion. Internal reflection spectra of the three samples were obtained using both a KRS-5 and a Ge internal reflection crystal. Subtracted infrared spectra of the three samples are presented.

  5. Fiber-Optic Shape Sensing for Intelligent Solar Sail Deployment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations proposes to develop a distributed fiber-optic shape sensor to provide a control system for the deployment of ultra-lightweight inflatable support...

  6. The influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system: conception, methods, and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy; Falchenko, Iurii; Fedorchuk, Viktor; Petrushynets, Lidiia

    2016-07-01

    This report focuses on the results of the EU project "Superlight-weight thermal protection system for space application (LIGHT-TPS)". The bottom line is an analysis of influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system (TPS). This report focuses on new methods that based on the following models: synergetic, physical, and computational. This report concentrates on four approaches. The first concerns the synergetic approach. The synergetic approach to the solution of problems of self-controlled synthesis of structures and creation of self-organizing technologies is considered in connection with the super-problem of creation of materials with new functional properties. Synergetics methods and mathematical design are considered according to actual problems of material science. The second approach describes how the optimization methods can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties. This technique enables one to find unexpected microstructures with exotic behavior (e.g., negative thermal expansion coefficients). The third approach concerns the dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of TPS l elements with complex characterizations for damages using a physical model of TPS system and a predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. Focusing is given mainly on the TPS model, mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment and software for the modeling and prediction of the influence of the free space environment. The probabilistic risk assessment method for TPS is presented considering some deterministic and stochastic factors. The last approach concerns results of experimental research of the temperature distribution on the surface of the honeycomb sandwich panel size 150 x 150 x 20 mm at the diffusion welding in vacuum are considered. An equipment, which provides alignment of temperature fields in a product for the formation of equal strength of welded joints is

  7. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  8. Study of Single Event Effects induced by highly energetic charged particles of the space environment in CMOS image Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalucaa, Valerian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the single event effects of space environment in CMOS image sensors (CIS). This work focuses on the effects of heavy ions on 3T standard photodiode pixels, and 4T and 5T pinned photodiode pixels. The first part describes the space radioactive environment and the sensor architecture. The most harmful events (SEL and SETs) are identified thanks to the scientific literature. The experimentally tested sensors agree with the theoretical work. SETs are compared to STARDUST simulations with a good agreement for all ions and sensors. The work explains why the SETs on 3T pixels are insensitive to the various photodiode designs, and they are decreased when an epitaxial substrate is used. A method using anti-blooming was successfully used in 4T and 5T pixels to prevent the spread of the SETs. The mechanism of latch-up in 4T pixel sensors is described. All the identified mechanisms are very useful to provide hardening methods for the CISs. (author) [fr

  9. Effects of electron irradiation in space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qi, E-mail: yuqi1027@126.com [Liaoning Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites and Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136 (China); Chen, Ping, E-mail: chenping_898@126.com [Liaoning Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites and Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals and School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gao, Yu; Ma, Keming; Lu, Chun; Xiong, Xuhai [Liaoning Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites and Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: •Electron irradiation decreased the storage modulus finally. •T{sub g} decreased first and then increased and finally decreased. •The thermal stability was reduced and then improved and finally decreased. •The changing trend of flexural strength and ILSS are consistent. -- Abstract: The effects of electron irradiation in simulated space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of high performance carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites were investigated. The dynamic mechanical properties of the composites exposed to different fluences of electron irradiation were evaluated by Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the changes in thermal stability of the resin matrix after exposure to electron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The results indicated that electron irradiation in high vacuum had an impact on thermal and mechanical properties of CF/BMI composites, which depends on irradiation fluence. At lower irradiation fluences less than 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, the dynamic storage modulus, cross-linking degree, thermal stability and mechanical properties that were determined by a competing effect between chain scission and cross-linking process, decreased firstly and then increased. While at higher fluences beyond 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}, the chain scission process was dominant and thus led to the degradation in thermal and mechanical properties of the composites.

  10. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  11. Development of GFP fusions for examination of the effects of the space environment on gene expression in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R.; Fahlen, T.

    The goal of the In situ Space Gene Expression on Nano-satillites (ISGEN) program is to be ready to fly technology that can support a fully automated experiment to quantify changes in model organisms in situ in low earth orbit in a free flyer platform in less than two years. A straightforward gene expression assay that meets the ISGEN flight objective for testing flight hardware as well as return data regarding the effects of microgravity on gene expression has been developed. Escherichia coli K-12, a bacterium that exhibits changes in its growth pattern when flown in micro-gravity on the Space Shuttle, was used. The scientific objective of this work is to determine if there is a discernable change in metabolic and stress pathway gene expression due to growth in the space environment. To that end, we have linked the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gfp to phoP, a gene that responds to extracellular Mg2+ levels, and pykF, a gene involved in the glycolytic pathway that responds to changes in intracellular pyruvate. These genes respond to the metabolic needs of the cell and may be altered in the micro-gravity environment. E. coli cells containing a plasmid encoding the phoP-gfp-mut3 reporter construct were grown with or without MgSO_4. The effect of the added MgSO_4 is the repression of the expression of GFP. This is the expected result if GFP expression were under the control of a magnesium-regulated promoter such as phoP. Consistent with the negative feedback loop, we observe repression of GFP production in cells containing our pykF-gfp plasmid construct, when grown in the presence of excess glucose. Thus, the pykF-gfp fusion functions as a glucose sensor.

  12. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Analysis of samples of reflector materials which are multicoated and metal samples with oxide coatings which have been exposed the space environment in LDEF testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of low angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and Auger spectrometry have been tested as suitable methods for analysis of thin oxide films on metal substrates exposed to the space environment during Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) testing. No significant changes in the composition of silicon monoxide overcoats on aluminum surfaces was found. XPS and Auger testing appear to be more suitable for ultrathin films than XRD.

  14. Thermal Deformation of Very Slender Triangular Rollable and Collapsible Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic triangular rollable and collapsible (TRAC) booms have deployed two Cubesat-based solar sails in low Earth orbit, making TRAC booms the most popular solar sail deployment method in practice. This paper presents some concerns and solutions surrounding the behavior of these booms in the space thermal environment. A 3.5-cm-tall, 4-meter-long TRAC boom of Elgiloy cobalt alloy, when exposed to direct sunlight in a 1 AU deep space environment, has a predicted tip motion of as much as 0.5 meters. Such large thermal deflections could generate unacceptable distortions in the shape of a supported solar sail, making attitude control of the solar sail spacecraft difficult or impossible. As a possible means of mitigating this issue, the thermal distortion behaviors of three alternative material TRAC booms are investigated and compared with the uncoated Elgiloy baseline boom. A tenfold decrease in induced curvature is shown to be possible relative to the baseline boom. Potential thermal distortions of the LightSail-A solar sail TRAC booms are also examined and compared, although inconclusively, with available on-orbit camera imagery.

  15. Artificial neural networks contribution to the operational security of embedded systems. Artificial neural networks contribution to fault tolerance of on-board functions in space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintenat, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    A good quality often attributed to artificial neural networks is fault tolerance. In general presentation works, this property is almost always introduced as 'natural', i.e. being obtained without any specific precaution during learning. Besides, space environment is known to be aggressive towards on-board hardware, inducing various abnormal operations. Particularly, digital components suffer from upset phenomenon, i.e. misplaced switches of memory flip-flops. These two observations lead to the question: would neural chips constitute an interesting and robust solution to implement some board functions of spacecrafts? First, the various aspects of the problem are detailed: artificial neural networks and their fault tolerance, neural chips, space environment and resulting failures. Further to this presentation, a particular technique to carry out neural chips is selected because of its simplicity, and especially because it requires few memory flip-flops: random pulse streams. An original method for star recognition inside a field-of-view is then proposed for the board function 'attitude computation'. This method relies on a winner-takes-all competition network, and on a Kohonen self-organized map. An hardware implementation of those two neural models is then proposed using random pulse streams. Thanks to this realization, on one hand difficulties related to that particular implementation technique can be highlighted, and on the other hand a first evaluation of its practical fault tolerance can be carried out. (author) [fr

  16. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  17. NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight: Two NearTerm Interplanetary CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing two small satellite missions as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, both of which will use a solar sail to enable their scientific objectives. Solar sails reflect sunlight from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material to provide thrust. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers in space. Lunar Flashlight, managed by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will search for and map volatiles in permanently shadowed lunar craters using a solar sail as a gigantic mirror to steer sunlight into them, then examine the reflected light with a spectrometer. The Lunar Flashlight spacecraft will also use the solar sail to maneuver into a lunar polar orbit. The mission will demonstrate a low-cost capability to explore, locate and estimate the size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, managed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will survey and image a Near Earth Asteroid for possible future human exploration using a smallsat propelled by a solar sail. Detections of NEAs are expected to grow in the near future, offering increasing target opportunities. Obtaining and analyzing relevant data about these bodies via robotic precursors before committing a crew to visit them is essential. The NEA Scout spacecraft is nearly identical to the one being developed for Lunar Flashlight, with the science instrument package being the primary difference. The NEA Scout solar sail will provide the primary propulsion taking the 6U cubesat from near the Earth to its final asteroid destination and the Lunar Flashlight sail will provide the propulsion necessary for its spacecraft to enter lunar orbit. Both projects will use an 85 m2 solar sail developed by NASA MSFC. The NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight flight systems are based on a 6U cubesat form factor, with a stowed envelope of 10 x 20 x 30 cm and a mass of less

  18. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  19. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  20. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  1. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  2. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  3. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  4. Charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, Istvan; Endroeczy, Gabor; Szemerey, Istvan; Szendroe, Sandor

    1985-01-01

    The scientific task of the charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG, a part of the VEGA space probe, and the physical background of the measurements are described. The sensor of the device face the Sun and the comet Halley measuring the energy and mass spectrum of ion and electron components of energies lower than 25 keV. The tasks of the individual electronic parts, the design aspects and the modes of operation in different phases of the flight are dealt with. (author)

  5. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  6. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  7. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  8. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  9. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  10. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  11. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  12. Selection of a Data Acquisition and Controls System Communications and Software Architecture for Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory Thermal and Vacuum Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade of data acquisition and controls systems software at Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) involved the definition, evaluation and selection of a system communication architecture and software components. A brief discussion of the background of the SESL and its data acquisition and controls systems provides a context for discussion of the requirements for each selection. Further framework is provided as upgrades to these systems accomplished in the 1990s and in 2003 are compared to demonstrate the role that technological advances have had in their improvement. Both of the selections were similar in their three phases; 1) definition of requirements, 2) identification of candidate products and their evaluation and testing and 3) selection by comparison of requirement fulfillment. The candidates for the communication architecture selection embraced several different methodologies which are explained and contrasted. Requirements for this selection are presented and the selection process is described. Several candidates for the software component of the data acquisition and controls system are identified, requirements for evaluation and selection are presented, and the evaluation process is described.

  13. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  14. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  15. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  16. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  17. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission -Ultraviolet Remote Sensing of Earth's Space Environment from Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A. G.; Eastes, R.

    2017-12-01

    The GOLD mission of opportunity will fly a far ultraviolet imaging spectrograph in geostationary (GEO) orbit as a hosted payload. The mission is scheduled for launch in late January 2018 on SES-14, a commercial communications satellite that will be stationed over eastern South America at 47.5 degrees west longitude. GOLD is on schedule to be the first NASA science mission to fly as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. The GOLD imager has two identical channels. Each channel can scan the full disk at a 30 minute cadence, making spectral images of Earth's UV emission from 132 to 162 nm, as well as make a measurement on the Earth's limb. Remote sensing techniques that have been proven on previous Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions will be used to derive fundamental parameters for the neutral and ionized space environment. Parameters that will be derived include composition (O/N2 ratio) and temperature of the neutral atmosphere on the dayside disk. On the nightside, peak electron densities will be obtained in the low latitude ionosphere. Many of the algorithms developed for the mission are extensions of ones used on previous earth and planetary missions, with modifications for observations from geostationary orbit. All the algorithms have been tested using simulated observations based on the actual instrument performance. From geostationary orbit, GOLD can repeatedly image the same geographic locations over most of the hemisphere at a cadence comparable to that of the T-I system (order of an hour). Such time resolution and spatial coverage will allow the mission to track the changes due to geomagnetic storms, variations in solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, and forcing from the lower atmosphere. In addition to providing a new perspective by being able to repeatedly remotely sense the same hemisphere at a high cadence, GOLD's simultaneous measurements of not only composition but also temperatures across the disk will provide a valuable, new parameter

  18. Temporal changes in the skin Malassezia microbiota of members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE): A case study in Antarctica as a pseudo-space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yamada, Shin; Takeoka, Hajime; Cho, Otomi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Ohno, Giichiro; Watanabe, Kentaro; Makimura, Koichi; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki

    2015-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is located approximately 400 km above the Earth. Astronauts staying at the ISS are under microgravity and are thus unable to bathe or shower; instead, they wash their bodies using wet tissues. For astronauts, skin hygiene management is important to maintain the quality of life during long-term stays on the ISS. In Antarctica, members of a Japanese geological investigation team negotiate their way over land using snowmobiles. During their 3-month stay, they are subject to a "pseudo-space" environment similar to that experienced by ISS astronauts, including the inability to bathe or shower. In this study, temporal changes in the colonization levels of skin lipophilic fungi, Malassezia were investigated in 16 team members. Compared to the levels before their trip to Antarctica, the fold changes in Malassezia colonization levels during the researchers' stay in Antarctica were in the range of 3.0 ± 1.9 to 5.3 ± 7.5 in cheek samples, 8.9 ± 10.6 to 22.2 ± 40.0 in anterior chest samples, 6.2 ± 5.4 to 16.9 ± 25.5 in behind-the-ear samples, and 1.7 ± 0.9 to 17.4 ± 33.4 in sole-of-the-foot samples. On the scalp, the level of Malassezia colonization increased dramatically, by 96.7 ± 113.8 to 916.9 ± 1251.5 fold. During their stay in Antarctica, the team members experienced itchy scalps and produced a large number of scales. The relative proportions of Malassezia globosa and M. restricta shifted to seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff types. These results provide useful information for the development of skin hygiene management plans for astronauts staying at the ISS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  20. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  1. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  2. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  3. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  4. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  5. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  6. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Willey, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties. 4 claims, 3 figures

  7. Market study: Whole blood analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted to develop findings relative to the commercialization potential and key market factors of the whole blood analyzer which is being developed in conjunction with NASA's Space Shuttle Medical System.

  8. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  9. Compact analyzer: an interactive simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Colley, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Compact Analyzer is a computer system that combines dynamic simulation models with interactive and color graphics user interface functions to provide a cost-effective simulator for dynamic analysis and evaluation of power plant operation, with engineering and training applications. Most dynamic simulation packages such as RETRAN and TRAC are designed for a batch-mode operation. With advancements in computer technology and man/machine interface capabilities, it is possible to integrate such codes with interactive and graphic functions into advanced simulators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored development of plant analyzers with such characteristics. The Compact Analyzer is an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored project, which currently utilizes the EPRI modular modeling system (MMS) for process simulation, and uses an adaptable color graphic package for dynamic display of the simulation results

  10. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  11. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  12. Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation Ian N. Barford n Patrick T. Hester R Defense AT&L: Special Edition: March –April 2011 36 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...between 1965 and 1979), and Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000). 37 Defense AT&L: Special Edition: March –April 2011 Defense AT&L: Special

  13. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  14. Historical Thinking: Analyzing Student and Teacher Ability to Analyze Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Cowgill II, Daniel Armond; Waring, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to partially replicate the Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Process Using Historical Evidence study conducted by Sam Wineburg in 1991. The Historical Problem Solving study conducted by Wineburg (1991) sought to compare the ability of historians and top level students, as they analyzed pictures and written documents centered on the Battle of Lexington Green. In this version of the study, rather than compare historians and students, we sought ...

  15. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  16. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  17. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  18. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  19. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  20. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  1. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  2. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    FILE : MHCI TUNE TABLE 84 (SCANNING with PARENT) SCAN RANGE 10.9 TO 700.0 TUNE MASS 355.0 (AUTO) >LENS 1-3 -13. 88 0. 2: POFF - 1. 2 9: COFF - 4. 1 3...and 500 ng of caffeine in I uL of chloroform by GC/A?:,,MS using negative ions. Also analyzed were barbiturates, extracted from urine, in the 3-5 Mg

  3. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-06-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  4. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  5. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  6. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  7. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  8. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  9. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  10. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  11. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  12. Historical Thinking: Analyzing Student and Teacher Ability to Analyze Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armond Cowgill II

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to partially replicate the Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Process Using Historical Evidence study conducted by Sam Wineburg in 1991. The Historical Problem Solving study conducted by Wineburg (1991 sought to compare the ability of historians and top level students, as they analyzed pictures and written documents centered on the Battle of Lexington Green. In this version of the study, rather than compare historians and students, we sought out to compare the analytical skills of teachers and students. The main findings relate to the fact that the participants lacked the ability to engage in the very complex activities associated with historical inquiry and the utilization of primary sources in learning about the past. This lack of ability should be used to improve teacher professional development programs and help them develop the skills needed to not only engage in historical evaluation themselves but to also develop skills that will allow them to instruct students to do the same.

  13. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  14. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  15. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  16. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  17. Solar Power Generation in Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Frederick W.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of space requires power for guidance, navigation, and control; instrumentation; thermal control; communications and data handling; and many subsystems and activities. Generating sufficient and reliable power in deep space through the use of solar arrays becomes even more challenging as solar intensity decreases and high radiation levels begin to degrade the performance of photovoltaic devices. The Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project goal is to develop advanced photovoltaic technology to address these challenges.

  18. Skin in aviation and space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sanjiv

    2011-01-01

    The aerospace environment is a dynamic interaction between man, machine and the environment. Skin diseases are not particularly significant aeromedically, yet they could permanently affect an aviator's status for continued flying duty. A number of dermatological conditions lend themselves to flying restrictions for the aviator. Aircrew and ground crew are exposed to a myriad of elements that could also adversely impact their flying status. Inflight stresses during flights as well as space travel could impact certain behaviors from a dermatological standpoint. With the advent of space tourism, dermatological issues would form an integral part of medical clearances. With limited literature available on this subject, the review article aims to sensitize the readers to the diverse interactions of dermatology with the aerospace environment.

  19. POES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The TIROS/NOAA satellite series, also known as POES, is designed to meet the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's need for operational, remote sensing...

  20. Surface Reactions in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    From the beginning, a central goal of this effort has been to establish a coordinated multidisciplinary Center of Excellence program concentrating...References 1. M. Faraday, "Sur la Coloration produite par la lumiere, dans une espece particuliere de carreaux de vitres", Annale de Chimie et de

  1. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  2. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solid state detectors with pulse height discrimination measure proton, alpha-particle, and electron fluxes. E1 and I1 channels are responding primarily to trapped...

  3. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  4. Vestibular function in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baumgarten, R. J.; Harth, O.; Thuemler, R.; Baldrighi, G.; Shillinger, G. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present work presents new results about the interdependence of optical illusory sensations and eye movements in man. To establish to what degree certain illusions previously obtained during centrifugation and parabolic flight can be explained by eye movements and by neuronal integration in the brain, real eye movements were measured as they occurred in the dark without optical fixation, during rectilinear accelerations on the ground, and during weightlessness in parabolic flight. Results provide valuable insight into normal vestibular function as well as resolution of within-the-eye and behind-the-eye contributions to the above illusions.

  5. Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-05

    of the main field are most ( molten iron) in a magnetic (excitation) field produces a easil% shown in world chart’, A the elements,. llistorically...primary. coverage, area of MF broadcast tran%- * ionosphere waveguide mox ~cl and propagation thirough the mitters. ionosphere by so-called "whistlr...nton foria tpina durin te lenths of soignl v fro asyr onu salt ellitee P is show inwe Figure 0.4 10 r ek o nfo the6 alongu exiusih thf cumlaiv

  6. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  7. E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

  8. The 2 Pi Charged Particles Analyzer: All-Sky Camera Concept and Development for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthellier, J.-J.; Moore, T.; Avanov, L.; Leblanc, F.; Leblanc, F.; Moiseev, P.; Moiseenko, D.; Becker, J.; Collier, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the temporal resolution and instant coverage of velocity space of space plasma measurements is one of the key issues for experimentalists. Today, the top-hat plasma analyzer appears to be the favorite solution due to its relative simplicity and the possibility to extend its application by adding a mass-analysis section and an electrostatic angular scanner. Similarly, great success has been achieved in MMS mission using such multiple top-hat analyzers to achieve unprecedented temporal resolution. An instantaneous angular coverage of charged particles measurements is an alternative approach to pursuing the goal of high time resolution. This was done with 4-D Fast Omnidirectional Nonscanning Energy Mass Analyzer and, to a lesser extent, by DYMIO instruments for Mars-96 and with the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer instrument for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging mission. In this paper we describe, along with precursors, a plasma analyzer with a 2 electrostatic mirror that was developed originally for the Phobos-Soil mission with a follow-up in the frame of the BepiColombo mission and is under development for future Russian missions. Different versions of instrument are discussed along with their advantages and drawbacks.

  9. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  10. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  11. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D

    1991-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  12. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  13. Analyzing metabolomics-based challenge test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Wopereis, S.; van Ommen, B.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests are used to assess the resilience of human beings to perturbations by analyzing responses to detect functional abnormalities. Well known examples are allergy tests and glucose tolerance tests. Increasingly, metabolomics analysis of blood or serum samples is used to analyze the

  14. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  16. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  17. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  18. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  19. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  20. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  1. Guide to analyzing investment options using TWIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R Blinn; Dietmar W. Rose; Monique L. Belli

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods for analyzing economic return of simulated stand management alternatives in TWIGS. Defines and discusses net present value, equivalent annual income, soil expectation value, and real vs. nominal analyses. Discusses risk and sensitivity analysis when comparing alternatives.

  2. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  3. Analyzing Protein Dynamics Using Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Eryol, Atahan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates dimensionality reduction for analyzing the dynamics ofprotein simulations, particularly disordered proteins which do not fold into a xedshape but are thought to perform their functions through their movements. Ratherthan analyze the movement of the proteins in 3D space, we use dimensionalityreduction to project the molecular structure of the proteins into a target space inwhich each structure is represented as a point. All that is needed to do this arethe pairwise dis...

  4. Digital dynamic amplitude-frequency spectra analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; )

    2006-01-01

    The spectra analyzer is intended for the dynamic spectral analysis of signals physical installations and noise filtering. The recurrence Fourier transformation algorithm is used in the digital dynamic analyzer. It is realized on the basis of the fast logic FPGA matrix and the special signal ADSP microprocessor. The discretization frequency is 2 kHz-10 MHz. The number of calculated spectral coefficients is not less 512. The functional fast-action is 20 ns [ru

  5. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  6. A Novel Architecture For Multichannel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, E.; Elhanani, I.; Nir, J.; Ellenbogen, M.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    A novel digital approach to real-time, high-throughput, low-cost Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for radiation spectroscopy is being presented. The MCA input is a shaped nuclear pulse sampled at a high rate, using an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) chip. The digital samples are analyzed by a state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Away (FPGA). A customized algorithm is utilized to estimate the peak of the pulse, to reject pile-up and to eliminate processing dead time. The valid pulses estimated peaks are transferred to a micro controller system that creates the histogram and controls the Human Machine Interface (HMI)

  7. Advances on CT analyzing urolithiasis constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qiang; Ma Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    Urolithiasis is common and frequently-occurring diseases of urology. The treatment of lithiasis is not only relevant with the size, location, brittle and infection of calculi, but also affected by urolithiasis constituents. Knowing the urolithiasis constituents in advance is no doubt to guide treatment. But so far an reliable inspection method was not found to analyze accurately urolithiasis constituents in vivo. CT judge precisely the size, location of calculi and analyze roughly the urolithiasis constituents in vivo, especially the appear of dual soure CT, which provide a new method for studying urolithiasis constituents. It may be helpful to find the cause, prevention and therapy of calculi. (authors)

  8. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  9. Electrical aerosol analyzer: calibration and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, D.Y.H.; Liu, B.Y.H.

    1976-01-01

    The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) was calibrated by means of monodisperse aerosols generated by two independent techniques. In the 0.02 to 1 ..mu..m diameter range, the aerosol was generated by electrostatic classification. In the range between 0.007 and 0.03 ..mu..m, the aerosols were generated by the photo-oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in a smog chamber. Calibration data are presented showing the performance of the EAA as an aerosol detector and as a size distribution analyzer.

  10. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer

  11. Environmental applications of the centrifugal fast analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.; Strain, J.E.; Bowling, J.L.

    1975-12-01

    The centrifugal fast analyzer (GeMSAEC Fast Analyzer) was applied to the analysis of pollutants in air and water. Since data acquisition and processing are computer controlled, considerable effort went into devising appropriate software. A modified version of the standard FOCAL interpreter was developed which includes special machine language functions for data timing, acquisition, and storage, and also permits chaining together of programs stored on a disk. Programs were written and experimental procedures developed to implement spectrophotometric, turbidimetric, kinetic (including initial-rate, fixed-time, and variable-time techniques), and chemiluminescence methods of analysis. Analytical methods were developed for the following elements and compounds: SO 2 , O 3 , Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se(IV), Zn, Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , PO 4 -3 , S -2 , and SO 4 -2 . In many cases, standard methods could be adapted to the centrifugal analyzer, in others new methods were employed. In general, analyses performed with the centrifugal fast analyzer were faster, more precise, and more accurate than with conventional instrumentation

  12. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  13. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  14. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  15. Images & Issues: How to Analyze Election Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Hugh

    Although it is impossible to know in advance the credibility of political messages, such persuasive discourse can be analyzed in a non-partisan, common sense way using predictable patterns in content and form. The content of a candidate's message can be summarized as "I am competent and trustworthy; from me, you'll get 'more good' and 'less…

  16. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  18. Consideration Regarding Diagnosis Analyze of Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ciopi OPREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis management aims to identify critical situations and positive aspectsof corporate management. An effective diagnosis made by a team with thestatus of independence from the organization’s management is for managers auseful feedback necessary to improve performance. The work presented focuseson the methodology to achieve effective diagnosis, considering multitudecriteria and variables to be analyzed.

  19. Analyzing and Interpreting Research in Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While qualitative research is used when little or nothing is known about the subject, quantitative research is required when there are quantifiable variables to be measured. By implication, health education research is based on phenomenological, ethnographical and/or grounded theoretical approaches that are analyzable ...

  20. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  1. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE's NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R ampersand D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, 131m Xe(11.9 d), 133m Xe(2.19 d), 133 Xe (5.24 d), and 135 Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m 3 /h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 μBq/m 3 of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers

  2. Performance optimization of spectroscopic process analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Hans F. M.; Kok, Wim Th; de Noord, Onno E.; Smilde, Age K.

    2004-01-01

    To increase the power and the robustness of spectroscopic process analyzers, methods are needed that suppress the spectral variation that is not related to the property of interest in the process stream. An approach for the selection of a suitable method is presented. The approach uses the net

  3. ITK and ANALYZE: a synergistic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    The Insight Toolkit (ITK) is a C++ open-source software toolkit developed under sponsorship of the National Library of Medicine. It provides advanced algorithms for performing image registration and segmentation, but does not provide support for visualization and analysis, nor does it offer any graphical user interface (GUI). The purpose of this integration project is to make ITK readily accessible to end-users with little or no programming skills, and provide interactive processing, visualization and measurement capabilities. This is achieved through the integration of ITK with ANALYZE, a multi-dimension image visualization/analysis application installed in over 300 institutions around the world, with a user-base in excess of 4000. This integration is carried out at both the software foundation and GUI levels. The foundation technology upon which ANALYZE is built is a comprehensive C-function library called AVW. A new set of AVW-ITK functions have been developed and integrated into the AVW library, and four new ITK modules have been added to the ANALYZE interface. Since ITK is a software developer"s toolkit, the only way to access its intrinsic power is to write programs that incorporate it. Integrating ITK with ANALYZE opens the ITK algorithms to end-users who otherwise might never be able to take advantage of the toolkit"s advanced functionality. In addition, this integration provides end-to-end interactive problem solving capabilities which allow all users, including programmers, an integrated system to readily display and quantitatively evaluate the results from the segmentation and registration routines in ITK, regardless of the type or format of input images, which are comprehensively supported in ANALYZE.

  4. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  5. Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:10 7 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments.

  6. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  7. Analyzing Technique of Power Systems Under Deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ishigame, Atsushi

    Deregulation of the electric utilities has been progressing. Even under the deregulation, the reliability should be the most important problem of power systems. However, according to the deregulation, operation and scheduling of power systems are changing and new techniques to analyze power systems are introducing. To evaluate reliability of power systems, adequacy and security are well employed recently. This paper presents the new analyzing technique which will be realized in near future from the viewpoint of adequacy and security. First, simulation tool to evaluate adequacy is described. As an example of this tool, MARS and other methods are mentioned. Next, to evaluate the security, security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) are mentioned. Finally, some topics concerning ancillary service are described.

  8. Development of a nuclear plant analyzer (NPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vlaminck, M.; Mampaey, L.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Bastenaire, F.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Plant Analyzer has been developed by TRACTABEL. Three distinct functional units make up the Nuclear Plant Analyser, a model builder, a run time unit and an analysis unit. The model builder is intended to build simulation models which describe on the one hand the geometric structure and initial conditions of a given plant and on the other hand command control logics and reactor protection systems. The run time unit carries out dialog between the user and the thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis unit is aimed at deep analyzing of the transient results. The model builder is being tested in the framework of the International Standard Problem ISP-26, which is the simulation of a LOCA on the Japanese ROSA facility

  9. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Kengo; Ishizuka, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohhashi, Hideaki; Tsuruoka, Kimitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  10. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed M. Almalki; Luis Rabelo; Charles Davis; Hammad Usmani; Debra Hollister; Alfonso Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been s...

  11. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  12. Analyzing Architecture of Mithraism Rock Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre AliJabbari

    2017-01-01

    This analyzes the architecture of rock temples of West and Northwest of Iran, as well as factors influencing their formation. The creation of rock architecture in this area of Iran is influenced by the religious, geographical and political atmosphere of their time. Most of these structures are formed by dominated empires in the first millennium BC. And in some works we are observing their continuity in later periods and change in their functions. One of the reasons that have attracted man to ...

  13. General methods for analyzing bounded proportion data

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Abu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis introduces two general classes of models for analyzing proportion response variable when the response variable Y can take values between zero and one, inclusive of zero and/or one. The models are inflated GAMLSS model and generalized Tobit GAMLSS model. The inflated GAMLSS model extends the flexibility of beta inflated models by allowing the distribution on (0,1) of the continuous component of the dependent variable to come from any explicit or transformed (i.e. logit or truncated...

  14. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Germán COMINA; Martin NISSFOLK; José Luís SOLÍS

    2010-01-01

    A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water qualit...

  15. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunsu

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.

  16. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gonser; A. Held

    2013-01-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable...

  17. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gonser; A. Held

    2013-01-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of ana...

  18. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  19. Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed

  20. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore

    2004-03-16

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector.

  1. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector

  2. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  3. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  4. Visual analyzer as anticipatory system (functional organization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas

    2000-05-01

    Hypothetical functional organization of the visual analyzer is presented. The interpretation of visual perception, anatomic and morphological structure of visual systems of animals, neuro-physiological, psychological and psycho-physiological data in the light of a number of the theoretical solutions of image recognition and visual processes simulation enable active information processing. The activities in special areas of cortex are as follows: focused attention, prediction with analysis of visual scenes and synthesis, predictive mental images. In the projection zone of visual cortex Area Streata or V1 a "sensory" screen (SS) and "reconstruction" screen (RS) are supposed to exist. The functional structure of visual analyzer consist of: analysis of visual scenes projected onto SS; "tracing" of images; preliminary recognition; reversive image reconstruction onto RS; comparison of images projected onto SS with images reconstructed onto RS; and "correction" of preliminary recognition. Special attention is paid to the quasiholographical principles of the neuronal organization within the brain, of the image "tracing," and of reverse image reconstruction. Tachistoscopic experiments revealed that the duration of one such hypothesis-testing cycle of the human visual analyzers is about 8-10 milliseconds.

  5. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  6. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  7. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, S. G.; Held, A.

    2013-09-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16) to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  8. A computer program for analyzing channel geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R.S.; Schaffranek, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Channel Geometry Analysis Program (CGAP) provides the capability to process, analyze, and format cross-sectional data for input to flow/transport simulation models or other computational programs. CGAP allows for a variety of cross-sectional data input formats through use of variable format specification. The program accepts data from various computer media and provides for modification of machine-stored parameter values. CGAP has been devised to provide a rapid and efficient means of computing and analyzing the physical properties of an open-channel reach defined by a sequence of cross sections. CGAP 's 16 options provide a wide range of methods by which to analyze and depict a channel reach and its individual cross-sectional properties. The primary function of the program is to compute the area, width, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius of cross sections at successive increments of water surface elevation (stage) from data that consist of coordinate pairs of cross-channel distances and land surface or channel bottom elevations. Longitudinal rates-of-change of cross-sectional properties are also computed, as are the mean properties of a channel reach. Output products include tabular lists of cross-sectional area, channel width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, average depth, and cross-sectional symmetry computed as functions of stage; plots of cross sections; plots of cross-sectional area and (or) channel width as functions of stage; tabular lists of cross-sectional area and channel width computed as functions of stage for subdivisions of a cross section; plots of cross sections in isometric projection; and plots of cross-sectional area at a fixed stage as a function of longitudinal distance along an open-channel reach. A Command Procedure Language program and Job Control Language procedure exist to facilitate program execution on the U.S. Geological Survey Prime and Amdahl computer systems respectively. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  10. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  11. Analyzing Argumentation In Rich, Natural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Reznitskaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of research on the development of argument- ation in elementary school children. It presents a theoretical framework detailing psychological mechanisms responsible for the acquisition and transfer of argumentative discourse and demonstrates several applications of the framework, described in sufficient detail to guide future empirical investigations of oral, written, individual, or group argumentation performance. Software programs capable of facilitating data analysis are identified and their uses illustrated. The analytic schemes can be used to analyze large amounts of verbal data with reasonable precision and efficiency. The conclusion addresses more generally the challenges for and possibilities of empirical study of the development of argumentation.

  12. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  13. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  14. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  15. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  16. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  17. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  18. Plutonium solution analyzer. Revised February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%--0.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40--240 g/l: and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4--4.0 g/y. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 ml of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 ml per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  19. Mango: combining and analyzing heterogeneous biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Cho, Hyejin; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous biological data such as sequence matches, gene expression correlations, protein-protein interactions, and biochemical pathways can be merged and analyzed via graphs, or networks. Existing software for network analysis has limited scalability to large data sets or is only accessible to software developers as libraries. In addition, the polymorphic nature of the data sets requires a more standardized method for integration and exploration. Mango facilitates large network analyses with its Graph Exploration Language, automatic graph attribute handling, and real-time 3-dimensional visualization. On a personal computer Mango can load, merge, and analyze networks with millions of links and can connect to online databases to fetch and merge biological pathways. Mango is written in C++ and runs on Mac OS, Windows, and Linux. The stand-alone distributions, including the Graph Exploration Language integrated development environment, are freely available for download from http://www.complex.iastate.edu/download/Mango. The Mango User Guide listing all features can be found at http://www.gitbook.com/book/j23414/mango-user-guide.

  20. Analyzing block placement errors in SADP patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Okada, Soichiro; Shimura, Satoru; Nafus, Kathleen; Fonseca, Carlos; Demand, Marc; Biesemans, Serge; Versluijs, Janko; Ercken, Monique; Foubert, Philippe; Miyazaki, Shinobu

    2016-03-01

    We discuss edge placement errors (EPE) for multi-patterning of Mx critical layers using ArF lithography. Specific focus is placed on the block formation part of the process. While plenty of literature characterization data exist on spacer formation, only limited published data is available on block processes. We analyze the accuracy of placing blocks relative to narrow spacers. Many publications calculate EPE assuming Gaussian distributions for key process variations contributing to EPE. For practical reasons, each contributor is measured on dedicated test structures. In this work, we complement such analysis and directly measure the EPE in product. We perform high density sampling of blocks using CDSEM images and analyze all feature edges of interest. We find that block placement errors can be very different depending on their local design context. Specifically we report on 2 block populations (further called block A and B) which have a 4x different standard deviation. We attribute this to differences in local topography (spacer shape) and interaction with the plasma-etch process design. Block A (on top of the `core space' S1) has excellent EPE uniformity of ~1 nm while block B (on top of `gap space' S2) has degraded EPE control of ~4 nm. Finally, we suggest that the SOC etch process is at the origin on positioning blocks accurately on slim spacers, helping the manufacturability of spacer-based patterning techniques, and helping its extension toward the 5nm node.

  1. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  3. CALIBRATION OF ONLINE ANALYZERS USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu

    2003-12-05

    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).

  4. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  5. Calibration of the portable wear metal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael J.

    1987-12-01

    The Portable Wear Metal Analyzer (PWMA), a graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA) spectrometer, developed under a contract for this laboratory, was evaluated using powdered metal particles suspended in oil. The PWMA is a microprocessor controlled automatic sequential multielement AA spectrometer designed to support the deployed aircraft requirement for spectrometric oil analysis. The PWMA will analyze for nine elements (Ni, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ag, Mg, Si, Ti, Al) at a rate of 4 min per sample. The graphite tube and modified sample introduction system increase the detection of particles in oil when compared to the currently used techniques of flame AA or spark atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy. The PWMA shows good-to-excellent response for particles in sizes of 0 to 5 and 5 to 10 micrometers and fair response to particles of 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 micrometers. All trends in statistical variations are easily explained by system considerations. Correction factors to the calibration curves are necessary to correlate the analytical capability of the PWMA to the performance of existing spectrometric oil analysis (SOA) instruments.

  6. Solar Probe ANalyzer for Ions - Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, R.; Larson, D. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission is a heliospheric satellite that will orbit the Sun closer than any prior mission to date with a perihelion of 35 solar radii (RS) and an aphelion of 10 RS. PSP includes the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which in turn consists of four instruments: the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and three Solar Probe ANalyzers (SPAN) for ions and electrons. Together, this suite will take local measurements of particles and electromagnetic fields within the Sun's corona. SPAN-Ai has completed flight calibration and spacecraft integration and is set to be launched in July of 2018. The main mode of operation consists of an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) at its aperture followed by a Time-of-Flight section to measure the energy and mass per charge (m/q) of the ambient ions. SPAN-Ai's main objective is to measure solar wind ions within an energy range of 5 eV - 20 keV, a mass/q between 1-60 [amu/q] and a field of view of 2400x1200. Here we will show flight calibration results and performance.

  7. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  8. Analyzing surface coatings in situ: High-temperature surface film analyzer developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have devised a new instrument that can analyze surface coatings under operating conditions. The High-Temperature Surface Film Analyzer is the first such instrument to analyze the molecular composition and structure of surface coatings on metals and solids under conditions of high temperature and pressure in liquid environments. Corrosion layers, oxide coatings, polymers or paint films, or adsorbed molecules are examples of conditions that can be analyzed using this instrument. Film thicknesses may vary from a few molecular layers to several microns or thicker. The instrument was originally developed to study metal corrosion in aqueous solutions similar to the cooling water systems of light-water nuclear reactors. The instrument may have use for the nuclear power industry where coolant pipes degrade due to stress corrosion cracking, which often leads to plant shutdown. Key determinants in the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking are the properties and composition of corrosion scales that form inside pipes. The High-Temperature Surface Analyzer can analyze these coatings under laboratory conditions that simulate the same hostile environment of high temperature, pressure, and solution that exist during plant operations. The ability to analyze these scales in hostile liquid environments is unique to the instrument. Other applications include analyzing paint composition, corrosion of materials in geothermal power systems, integrity of canisters for radioactive waste storage, corrosion inhibitor films on piping and drilling systems, and surface scales on condenser tubes in industrial hot water heat exchangers. The device is not patented

  9. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  10. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  11. Analyzer of neutron flux in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Carrillo M, R.A.; Balderas, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    With base in the study of the real signals of neutron flux of instability events occurred in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant where the nucleus oscillation phenomena of the reactor are in the 0 to 2.5 Hz range, it has been seen the possibility about the development a surveillance and diagnostic equipment capable to analyze in real time the behavior of nucleus in this frequencies range. An important method for surveillance the stability of the reactor nucleus is the use of the Power spectral density which allows to determine the frequencies and amplitudes contained in the signals. It is used an instrument carried out by LabVIEW graphic programming with a data acquisition card of 16 channels which works at Windows 95/98 environment. (Author)

  12. Analyzing the Control Structure of PEPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    expressed in PEPA. The analysis technique we adopted is Data Flow Analysis. We begin the analysis by defining an appropriate transfer function, then with the classical worklist algorithm we construct a finite automaton that captures all possible interactions among processes. By annotating labels and layers...... to PEPA programs, the approximating result is very precise. Based on the analysis, we also develop algorithms for validating the deadlock property of PEPA programs. The techniques have been implemented in a tool which is able to analyze processes with a control structure that more than one thousand states.......The Performance Evaluation Process Algebra, PEPA, is introduced by Jane Hillston as a stochastic process algebra for modelling distributed systems and especially suitable for performance evaluation. We present a static analysis that very precisely approximates the control structure of processes...

  13. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  14. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Installation manual. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.; Grush, W.H.; Jones, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the installation instructions for the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) System. The NPA System consists of the Computer Visual System (CVS) program, the NPA libraries, the associated utility programs. The NPA was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of these analysis codes. The NPA also provides the user with a convenient means of interactively controlling the host program through user-defined pop-up menus. The NPA was designed to serve primarily as an analysis tool. After a brief introduction to the Computer Visual System and the NPA, an analyst can quickly create a simple picture or set of pictures to aide in the study of a particular phenomenon. These pictures can range from simple collections of square boxes and straight lines to complex representations of emergency response information displays

  15. Using wavelet features for analyzing gamma lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Abdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Uzhinskii, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Data processing methods for analyzing gamma ray spectra with symmetric bell-shaped peaks form are considered. In many cases the peak form is symmetrical bell shaped in particular a Gaussian case is the most often used due to many physical reasons. The problem is how to evaluate parameters of such peaks, i.e. their positions, amplitudes and also their half-widths, that is for a single peak and overlapped peaks. Through wavelet features by using Marr wavelet (Mexican Hat) as a correlation method, it could be to estimate the optimal wavelet parameters and to locate peaks in the spectrum. The performance of the proposed method and others shows a better quality of wavelet transform method

  16. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up

  17. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  18. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  19. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business....... This thesis documents the groundwork towards addressing the challenges faced by telemedical technologies today and establishing telemedicine as a means of patient diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, it serves as an empirical example of designing a software ecosystem....

  20. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  1. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, B.J.; Hall, R.C.; Thiede, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  2. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    as the software development and distribution by a set of actors dependent on each other and the ecosystem. We commence on the hypothesis that the establishment of a software ecosystem on the telemedicine services of Denmark would address these issues and investigate how a software ecosystem can foster...... the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business...

  3. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn [Oak Ridge, TN; Chen, Da-Ren [Creve Coeur, MO

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  4. Analyzing use cases for knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Robert L.; Webster, Robert B.

    2000-03-01

    The analysis of use cases describing construction of simulation configuration files in a data/information management system can lead to the acquisition of new information and knowledge. In this application, a user creates a use case with an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) description representing a configuration file for simulation of a physical system. INtelligent agents analyze separate versions of the XML descriptions of a user and additionally, make comparisons of the descriptions with examples form a library of use cases. The agents can then make recommendations to a user on how to proceed or if tutoring is necessary. In a proof-of-concept test, new information is acquired and a user learns from the agent-facilitated tutoring.

  5. Spectroscopic methods to analyze drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jong-Jae; Park, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Won-Je; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Son, Woo Sung

    2018-03-09

    Drug metabolites have been monitored with various types of newly developed techniques and/or combination of common analytical methods, which could provide a great deal of information on metabolite profiling. Because it is not easy to analyze whole drug metabolites qualitatively and quantitatively, a single solution of analytical techniques is combined in a multilateral manner to cover the widest range of drug metabolites. Mass-based spectroscopic analysis of drug metabolites has been expanded with the help of other parameter-based methods. The current development of metabolism studies through contemporary pharmaceutical research are reviewed with an overview on conventionally used spectroscopic methods. Several technical approaches for conducting drug metabolic profiling through spectroscopic methods are discussed in depth.

  6. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  7. Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-05-01

    Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically

  8. A framework to analyze emissions implications of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future uncertainty in regulations and evaluate resulting emissions growth patterns. The framework integrates EPA’s energy systems model with an economic Input-Output (I/O) Life Cycle Assessment model. The EPAUS9r MARKAL database is assembled from a set of technologies to represent the U.S. energy system within MARKAL bottom-up technology rich energy modeling framework. The general state of the economy and consequent demands for goods and services from these sectors are taken exogenously in MARKAL. It is important to characterize exogenous inputs about the economy to appropriately represent the industrial sector outlook for each of the scenarios and case studies evaluated. An economic input-output (I/O) model of the US economy is constructed to link up with MARKAL. The I/O model enables user to change input requirements (e.g. energy intensity) for different sectors or the share of consumer income expended on a given good. This gives end-users a mechanism for modeling change in the two dimensions of technological progress and consumer preferences that define the future scenarios. The framework will then be extended to include environmental I/O framework to track life cycle emissions associated

  9. Analyzing Music Services Positioning Through Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.

  10. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  11. Analyzing Architecture of Mithraism Rock Temples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AliJabbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This analyzes the architecture of rock temples of West and Northwest of Iran, as well as factors influencing their formation. The creation of rock architecture in this area of Iran is influenced by the religious, geographical and political atmosphere of their time. Most of these structures are formed by dominated empires in the first millennium BC. And in some works we are observing their continuity in later periods and change in their functions. One of the reasons that have attracted man to mountain and rock in different schools was the religious structure of community. According to the sanctity of mountains and rocks in the ancient religions, especially in Mithraism, valuable temples and places of worship have emerged in the mountains. Their obvious characteristic is circular dome-shaped spaces; simplicity, arrangement of spaces and the way of creating light that correspond with the tradition of Mithraism in Iran. Mehr Temple in Maragheh, Dashkasan in Zanjan, and Qadamgah Temple in Azarshahr are the rock temples in northwest of Iran that signs and symbols on them indicate the performance of Mithraism duties in these temples. In the West of Iran, Cogan cave in Lorestan, considering the characteristics of Mithraism temples, in a period had function as a temple for the worship of Mithra. This research investigates architectural futures of these temples.

  12. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. Almalki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been surveyed in two undergraduate engineering programs to discover their leadership skills. The results in both programs were revealing that undergraduate engineering students are lacking behind in the visionary leadership skills compared to directing, including and cultivating leadership styles. Recommendation: A practical framework has been proposed to enhance the lacking leadership skills by utilizing the Matrix of Change (MOC, and the Balanced Scorecard BSC to capture the best leadership scenarios to design virtual simulation environment as per the lacking leadership skills which is the visionary leadership skills in this case. After that, the virtual simulation will be used to provide an experiential learning by replacing human beings with avatars that can be managed or dramatized by real people to enable the creation of live, practical, measurable, and customizable leadership development programs.

  13. Analyzing human errors in flight mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.

  14. Complete denture analyzed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-02-01

    The complete dentures are currently made using different technologies. In order to avoid deficiencies of the prostheses made using the classical technique, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Thus, at the present time, there are several injecting systems and technologies on the market, that use chemoplastic materials, which are heat cured (90-100°C), in dry or wet environment, or cold cured (below 60°C). There are also technologies that plasticize a hard cured material by thermoplastic processing (without any chemical changes) and then inject it into a mold. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existence of possible defects in several dental prostheses using a non invasive method, before their insertion in the mouth. Different dental prostheses, fabricated from various materials were investigated using en-face optical coherence tomography. In order to discover the defects, the scanning was made in three planes, obtaining images at different depths, from 0,01 μm to 2 mm. In several of the investigated prostheses we found defects which may cause their fracture. These defects are totally included in the prostheses material and can not be vizualised with other imagistic methods. In conclusion, en-face OCT is an important investigative tool for the dental practice.

  15. Update on the USNRC's nuclear plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAPS series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, The Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAPS simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  16. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  17. NRC plant-analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an LWR engineering plant analyzer capable of performing realistic and accurate simulations of plant transients and Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents at real-time and faster than real-time computing speeds and at low costs for preparing, executing and evaluating such simulations. The program is directed toward facilitating reactor safety analyses, on-line plant monitoring, on-line accident diagnosis and mitigation and toward improving reactor operator training. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International, Ann Arbor, MI, a special-purpose peripheral processor for high-speed systems simulation, is programmed through a PDP-11/34 minicomputer and carries out digital simulations with analog hardware in the input/output loop (up to 256 channels). Analog signals from a control panel are being used now to activate or to disable valves and to trip pump drive motors or regulators without interrupting the simulation. An IBM personal computer with multicolor graphics capabilities and a CRT monitor are used to produce on-line labelled diagrams of selected plant parameters as functions of time

  18. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  19. Analyzing dialect variation in historical speech corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Margaret E L; Olsen, Rachel M

    2017-07-01

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race. Multiple tokens of common words were annotated (N = 6085), and formant values of their stressed vowels were extracted. The effects of shifting on relative vowel placement were evaluated via Pillai scores, and vowel dynamics were estimated via functional data analysis and modeled with linear mixed-effects regression. Results indicate that European American speakers show features of the Southern Vowel Shift, though certain speakers shift in more ways than others, and African American speakers' productions are consistent with the African American Vowel Shift. Wide variation is apparent, even within this small geographic region, contributing evidence of the complexity of Southern speech.

  20. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.

  1. Analyzing the Pension System of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Pudovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title "ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR" deals with numerous aspects of development of the pension system of the former USSR. Since the improvement of the Russian pension system is presently high on the agenda, the author believes that analyzing the own historical experience in the first line is essential in order to create a sound and efficient pension system in Russia. The study presented in the article aims to execute an in-depth analysis of legislature on the soviet pension system with the view to recreate the architecture of the pension system of the USSR. In addition, the study also reflects on the official statistics for the said period to make a qualified and fundamental conclusion on the efficiency of the soviet pension system. The evolution of the pension system, based on statistical data evidently proves the efficiently of the soviet pension system. It is highly recommended that the positive aspects of the soviet pension system are taken into consideration when reforming the actual pension system of Russian Federation.

  2. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  3. Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fracta...

  4. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  5. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  6. Nuclear plant analyzer program for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive nuclear plant analyzer(NPA) has been developed for use by the Bulgarian technical community in the training of plant personnel, the development and verification of plant operating procedures, and in the analysis of various anticipated operational occurrences and accident scenarios. The current NPA includes models for a VVER-440 Model 230 and a VVER-1000 Model 320 and is operational on an IBM RISC6000 workstation. The RELAP5/MOD2 computer code has been used for the calculation of the reactor responses to the interactive commands initiated by the NPA operator. The interactive capabilities of the NPA have been developed to provide considerable flexibility in the plant actions that can be initiated by the operator. The current capabilities for both the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 models include: (1) scram initiation; (2) reactor coolant pump trip; (3) high pressure safety injection system initiation; (4) low pressure safety injection system initiation; (5) pressurizer safety valve opening; (6) steam generator relief/safety valve opening; (7) feedwater system initiation and trip; (8) turbine trip; and (9) emergency feedwater initiation. The NPA has the capability to display the results of the simulations in various forms that are determined by the model developer. Results displayed on the reactor mask are shown through the user defined, digital display of various plant parameters and through color changes that reflect changes in primary system fluid temperatures, fuel and clad temperatures, and the temperature of other metal structures. In addition, changes in the status of various components and systems can be initiated and/or displayed both numerically and graphically on the mask. This paper provides a description of the structure of the NPA, a discussion of the simulation models used for the VVER-440 and the VVER-1000, and an overview of the NPA capabilities. Typical results obtained using both simulation models will be discussed

  7. Update on the USNRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAP5 series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. Since the 1984 presentation, major redirections of this NRC program have been taken. The original NPA system was developed for operation on a Control Data Corporation CYBER 176 computer, technology that is some 10 to 15 years old. The NPA system has recently been implemented on Class VI computers to gain increased computational capabilities, and is now being implemented on super-minicomputers for use by the scientific community and possibly by the commercial nuclear power plant simulator community. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, the Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAP5 simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  8. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  9. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  10. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  11. analyzers in overweight/obese renal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kusztal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is an affordable, non-invasive and fast alternative method to assess body composition. The purpose of this study was to compare two different tetrapolar BIA devices for estimating body fluid volumes and body cell mass (BCM in a clinical setting among patients with kidney failure.All double measurements were performed by multi-frequency (MF and single-frequency (SF BIA analyzers: a Body Composition Monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Germany and BIA-101 (Akern, Italy, respectively. All procedures were conducted according to the manufacturers’ instructions (dedicated electrodes, measurement sites, positions, etc. Total body water (TBW, extracellular water (ECW, intracellular water (ICW and BCM were compared. The study included 39 chronic kidney disease patients (stage III-V with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8 years (21 men and 18 women who had a wide range of BMI [17-34 kg/m2 (mean 26.6 ±5].A comparison of results from patients with BMI <25 vs ≥25 revealed a significant discrepancy in measurements between the two BIA devices. Namely, in the group with BMI <25 (n=16 acceptable correlations were obtained in TBW (r 0.99; p<0.01, ICW (0.92; p<0.01, BCM (0.68; p<0.01, and ECW (0.96 p<0.05, but those with BMI ≥25 (n=23 showed a discrepancy (lower correlations in TBW (r 0.82; p<0.05, ICW (0.78; p<0.05, BCM (0.52; p<0.05, and ECW (0.76; p<0.01.Since estimates of TBW, ICW and BCM by the present BIA devices do not differ in patients with BMI <25, they might be interchangeable. This does not hold true for overweight/obese renal patients.

  12. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory Data Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Hagerty, M.; Holland, J.; Gee, L. S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several efforts underway to improve data quality at its stations. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development. The DQA is designed to characterize station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner. Station quality is based on the evaluation of various metrics, such as timing quality, noise levels, sensor coherence, and so on. These metrics are aggregated into a measurable grade for each station. The DQA consists of a website, a metric calculator (Seedscan), and a PostgreSQL database. The website allows the user to make requests for various time periods, review specific networks and stations, adjust weighting of the station's grade, and plot metrics as a function of time. The website dynamically loads all station data from a PostgreSQL database. The database is central to the application; it acts as a hub where metric values and limited station descriptions are stored. Data is stored at the level of one sensor's channel per day. The database is populated by Seedscan. Seedscan reads and processes miniSEED data, to generate metric values. Seedscan, written in Java, compares hashes of metadata and data to detect changes and perform subsequent recalculations. This ensures that the metric values are up to date and accurate. Seedscan can be run in a scheduled task or on demand by way of a config file. It will compute metrics specified in its configuration file. While many metrics are currently in development, some are completed and being actively used. These include: availability, timing quality, gap count, deviation from the New Low Noise Model, deviation from a station's noise baseline, inter-sensor coherence, and data-synthetic fits. In all, 20 metrics are planned, but any number could be added. ASL is actively using the DQA on a daily basis for station diagnostics and evaluation. As Seedscan is scheduled to run every night, data quality analysts are able to then use the

  13. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    summarize the information there is a mechanism of data grouping, which provides general data of the number of entries, maximum, minimum, average values for different groups of records.Results. This technology has been tested in the monitoring requirements of the services of additional professional education and the definition of the educational needs of teachers and executives of educational organizations of the Irkutsk region. The survey has involved 2,780 respondents in 36 municipalities. Creating the data model took several hours. The survey was conducted during the month.Conclusion. The proposed technology allows a short time to collect the information in relational form, and then analyze it without the need for programming with flexible assignment of the operating logic for form.

  14. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  15. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  16. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  17. Solar Torque Management for the Near Earth Asteroid Scout CubeSat Using Center of Mass Position Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon C.

    2018-01-01

    A novel mechanism, the Active Mass Translator (AMT), has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission to autonomously manage the spacecraft momentum. The NEA Scout CubeSat will launch as a secondary payload onboard Exploration Mission 1 of the Space Launch System. To accomplish its mission, the CubeSat will be propelled by an 86 square-meter solar sail during its two-year journey to reach asteroid 1991VG. NEA Scout's primary attitude control system uses reaction wheels for holding attitude and performing slew maneuvers, while a cold gas reaction control system performs the initial detumble and early trajectory correction maneuvers. The AMT control system requirements, feedback architecture, and control performance will be presented. The AMT reduces the amount of reaction control propellant needed for momentum management and allows for smaller capacity reaction wheels suitable for the limited 6U spacecraft volume. The reduced spacecraft mass allows higher in-space solar sail acceleration, thus reducing time-of-flight. The reduced time-of-flight opens the range of possible missions, which is limited by the lifetime of typical non-radiation tolerant CubeSat avionics exposed to the deep-space environment.

  18. Noise and analyzer-crystal angular position analysis for analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the angular intensity profile of the x-ray beam passed through the object at different angular positions of the analyzer crystal. The noise in the estimated ABI parametric images depends upon imaging conditions like the source intensity (flux), measurements angular positions, object properties, and the estimation method. In this paper, we use the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) to quantify the noise properties in parametric images and to investigate the effect of source intensity, different analyzer-crystal angular positions and object properties on this bound, assuming a fixed radiation dose delivered to an object. The CRLB is the minimum bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator and defines the best noise performance that one can obtain regardless of which estimation method is used to estimate ABI parametric images. The main result of this paper is that the variance (hence the noise) in parametric images is directly proportional to the source intensity and only a limited number of analyzer-crystal angular measurements (eleven for uniform and three for optimal non-uniform) are required to get the best parametric images. The following angular measurements only spread the total dose to the measurements without improving or worsening CRLB, but the added measurements may improve parametric images by reducing estimation bias. Next, using CRLB we evaluate the multiple-image radiography, diffraction enhanced imaging and scatter diffraction enhanced imaging estimation techniques

  19. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Rashed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.  

  20. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.

  1. Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fractal soot agglomerates. PSL and AS particles were easily resolved as a function of charge. For fresh soot, the presence of multiply charged particles severely affects the isolation of the singly charged particles. In cases where the DMA-APM was unable to fully resolve the singly charged particles of interest, the peak mass deviated by up to 13 % leading to errors in the mass specific extinction cross section of over 100 %. For measurements of non-spherical particles, non-symmetrical distributions of concentration as a function of mass were a sign of the presence of multiply charged particles. Under these conditions, the effects of multiply charged particles can be reduced by using a second charge neutralizer after the DMA and prior to the APM. Dilution of the aerosol stream serves to decrease the total number concentration of particles and does not remove the contributions of multiply charged particles.

  2. Alkylating agent (MNU)-induced mutation in space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T; Takahashi, A; Ohnishi, K; Takahashi, S; Masukawa, M; Sekikawa, K; Amano, T; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, some contradictory data about the effects of microgravity on radiation-induced biological responses in space experiments have been reported. We prepared a damaged template DNA produced with an alkylating agent (N-methyl-N-nitroso urea; MNU) to measure incorrect base-incorporation during DNA replication in microgravity. We examined whether mutation frequency is affected by microgravity during DNA replication for a DNA template damaged by an alkylating agent. Using an in vitro enzymatic reaction system, DNA synthesis by Taq polymerase or polymerase III was done during a US space shuttle mission (Discovery, STS-91). After the flight, DNA replication and mutation frequencies were measured. We found that there was almost no effect of microgravity on DNA replication and mutation frequency. It is suggested that microgravity might not affect at the stage of substrate incorporation in induced-mutation frequency. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Assessment of the Space Environment using MEMS Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Dilip; Saint Jean, Dileon; Abdurakhimov, Siyovush; Kopparthy, Varun; Nestorova, Gergana; Pal, Nabamita; Nguyen, Nam; Derosa, Pedro; Sawyer, Lee; Crews, Niel; Decoster, Mark; Louisiana Tech University Team

    For decades, researchers have studied the damage to DNA by high-energy radiation. Radiation induced damage include DNA strand breaks, base damage and base substitution. Currently, though, scientists are discovering that it is, in fact, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to the irradiated cells are the primary source of carcinogenesis. To address these ``bystander effects'', we developed a radiation detector using multi-clad scintillating fibers and silicon pixel arrays to study the effect of radiation on gene expression changes using Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The efficiency of proton energy deposition on each of the different layers of the radiation tracking detector has been simulated using GEANT4 toolkit and tested experimentally using the detector. The position of the proton beam was determined from the intensity of the output signal from orthogonal planes of the tracking detector. We have developed and tested an instrument that automates the extraction and quantification of RNA from living cells that automates the collection, purification, and reverse transcription (RT) of RNA from a precisely-defined area of the biological sample. NASA EPSCOR GRANT 13-EPSCoR-0027.

  4. Piezoelectric PVDF materials performance and operation limits in space environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargaville, Tim Richard; Assink, Roger Alan; Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films are achieved via charge deposition and require a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material responses which are expected to suffer due to strong vacuum UV, gamma, X-ray, energetic particles and atomic oxygen under low earth orbit exposure conditions. The degradation of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments has been investigated. Initial radiation aging studies using gamma- and e-beam irradiation have shown complex material changes with significant crosslinking, lowered melting and Curie points (where observable), effects on crystallinity, but little influence on overall piezoelectric properties. Surprisingly, complex aging processes have also been observed in elevated temperature environments with annealing phenomena and cyclic stresses resulting in thermal depoling of domains. Overall materials performance appears to be governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and AO exposure is evident as depoling and surface erosion. Major differences between individual copolymers have been observed providing feedback on material selection strategies

  5. Space Environment Modelling with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstedt, H.; Wintoft, P.; Wu, J.-G.; Gleisner, H.; Dovheden, V.

    1996-12-01

    Space based technological systems are affected by the space weather in many ways. Several severe failures of satellites have been reported at times of space storms. Our society also increasingly depends on satellites for communication, navigation, exploration, and research. Predictions of the conditions in the satellite environment have therefore become very important. We will here present predictions made with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and hybrids of AT methods. We are developing a space weather model based on intelligence hybrid systems (IHS). The model consists of different forecast modules, each module predicts the space weather on a specific time-scale. The time-scales range from minutes to months with the fundamental time-scale of 1-5 minutes, 1-3 hours, 1-3 days, and 27 days. Solar and solar wind data are used as input data. From solar magnetic field measurements, either made on the ground at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford, or made from space by the satellite SOHO, solar wind parameters can be predicted and modelled with ANN and MHD models. Magnetograms from WSO are available on a daily basis. However, from SOHO magnetograms will be available every 90 minutes. SOHO magnetograms as input to ANNs will therefore make it possible to even predict solar transient events. Geomagnetic storm activity can today be predicted with very high accuracy by means of ANN methods using solar wind input data. However, at present real-time solar wind data are only available during part of the day from the satellite WIND. With the launch of ACE in 1997, solar wind data will on the other hand be available during 24 hours per day. The conditions of the satellite environment are not only disturbed at times of geomagnetic storms but also at times of intense solar radiation and highly energetic particles. These events are associated with increased solar activity. Predictions of these events are therefore also handled with the modules in the Lund Space Weather Model. Interesting Links: Lund Space Weather and AI Center

  6. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  7. Directional solidification of eutectic composites in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic and a nickel-base alloy containing 30 wt pct Ta were solidified unidirectionally in an electron beam floating zone melting apparatus. It was found that the volume fraction of the Ni3Ta phase in the Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic mixture was increased from 7.6 to 36 volume pct in agreement with the theory as predicted. Tensile properties of the randomly solidified and unidirectionally solidified Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic were determined as function of solidification rate and temperature. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength decreased as both the test temperature and solidification rate increased. An elongation of 40 pct was obtained for a nickelbase alloy containing 30 wt at room temperature. This unusually large elongation was attributed to the superplastic behavior of the alloy. The critical currents versus the external fields at 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.2 deg for the unidirectionally solidified Pb-Sn eutectic were measured. The values of critical fields at zero critical currents were obtained by extrapolation.

  8. Adhesion of materials in a space environment : a status report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomon, G.

    1967-01-01

    This survey is based on a symposium held jointly by ASTM-ASLE, May 1967 at Toronto. The present knowledge on the adhesion of metals and the cleavage of silicates is briefly re viewed, followed by a synopsis on the concept of low friction surfaces and recent advances in the testing of friction

  9. Bio-Inspired Space Environment-Resistant Polymer Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of inorganic nanoparticles which have been recently explored for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of oxidative stress disorder, cancer and heart diseases...

  10. The Behavior of Systems in the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-19

    P.A. Redhead , Can. J. Phys. 36,255 (1958). [27] K. Takayanagi, and H. Suzuki, Crossections for Atomic Processes Vol.I (Research Information Center...focus on personality, demographic variables, and differences in task-related skills which characterize individuals in a group. Studies of social

  11. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  12. Chemistry in interstellar space. [environment characteristics influencing reaction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, B.

    1973-01-01

    The particular characteristics of chemistry in interstellar space are determined by the unique environmental conditions involved. Interstellar matter is present at extremely low densities. Large deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are, therefore, to be expected. A relatively intense ultraviolet radiation is present in many regions. The temperatures are in the range from 5 to 200 K. Data concerning the inhibiting effect of small activation energies in interstellar clouds are presented in a table. A summary of measured activation energies or barrier heights for exothermic exchange reactions is also provided. Problems of molecule formation are discussed, taking into account gas phase reactions and surface catalyzed processes.

  13. Human homeostasis in the space environment: A systems synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The features of homeostatic changes which occur during adaptation to the weightless state are examined and the possible mechanisms underlying the responses are explored. Cardiac output, negative fluid balance, body weight, bone calcium, and muscle atrophy are discussed. Some testable hypotheses concerning possible effects on homeostasis that long-term exposure to weightlessness might cause are proposed.

  14. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model calculations and risk assessment estimates indicate that secondary neutrons, with energies ranging between 0.5 to >150 MeV, make a significant contribution...

  15. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program will leverage recent advances in striction materials and coupled striction devices as to enable highly isolated (analog) voltage and current flow sensors...

  16. Thermal stress analysis of composites in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David E.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element micromechanics approach was utilized to investigate the thermally induced stress fields in continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites at temperatures typical of spacecraft operating environments. The influence of laminate orientation was investigated with a simple global/local formulation. Thermal stress calculations were used to predict probable damage initiation locations, and the results were compared to experimentally observed damage in several epoxy matrix composites. The influence of an interphase region on the interfacial stress states was investigated.

  17. Moonwalk Series. Program 2; Adapting to a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    This episode (second in a four-part series) shows the procedures Apollo operators used in order to make sure the astronauts would be able to survive in outer space, namely testing man's limitations and preferences (atmospheric pressure, temperature range, breathing gas, acceleration protection) and adapting the Columbia Module to account for these limitations. This show explains the function of the different stages of the moon rocket, i.e., how the stages separate and what becomes of them. We pick up the moonwalk story by looking back at some of the old classic space films that were a Hollywood perspective on future space travel.

  18. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  19. Fast Neutron Dosimeter for the Space Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Secondary neutrons make a significant contribution to the total absorbed dose received by space crews during long duration space missions However, only a limited...

  20. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  1. Screens as light biological variable in microgravitational space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, S.; Masali, M.

    Foreword The ability of the biological organisms to orient themselves and to synchronize on the variations of the solar rhythms is a fundamental aspect in the planning of the human habitat above all when habitat is confined in the Space the planetary and in satellite outer space settlements In order to simulate the experience of the astronauts in long duration missions one of the dominant characteristics of the Space confined habitats is the absence of the earthlings solar cycles references The Sun is the main references and guidelines of the biological compass and timepiece The organism functions are influenced from the variation of the light in the round of the 24 hours the human circadian rhythms In these habitats it is therefore necessary to reproduce the color and intensity of the solar light variations along the arc of the day according to defined scientific programs assuring a better performance of the human organism subsubsection Multilayer Foldable Screens as biological environmental variable In the project Multilayer Foldable Screens are the monitors posed in the ceiling of an Outer Space habitat and are made of liquid crystals and covered with Kevlar they stand for a modulate and flexible structure for different arrangements and different visions Screens work sout s on all the solar light frequencies and display the images that the subject needs They are characterized from the emission of an environmental light that restores the earthly solar cycle for intensity and color temperature to irradiate

  2. Reaction: Chemistry Driven by the Harsh Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2018-01-01

    The studies by Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) teams such as REVEALS and DREAM2 not only connect back to the highest planetary science decadal goals regarding volatiles but also feed forward to understanding the chemical origins of potential resources at the surface useful for human exploration. See https://sservi.nasa.gov for more about SSERVI and its dynamic teams.

  3. The Oxford space environment goniometer: A new experimental setup for making directional emissivity measurements under a simulated space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, T. J.; Bowles, N. E.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Thomas, I. R.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the light scattering behaviour of the regoliths of airless bodies via remote sensing techniques in the Solar System, across wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared, are essential in understanding their surface properties. A key parameter is knowledge of the angular behaviour of scattered light, usually represented mathematically by a phase function. The phase function is believed to be dependent on many factors including the following: surface composition, surface roughness across all length scales, and the wavelength of radiation. Although there have been many phase function measurements of regolith analog materials across visible wavelengths, there have been no equivalent measurements made in the thermal infrared (TIR). This may have been due to a lack of TIR instruments as part of planetary remote sensing payloads. However, since the launch of Diviner to the Moon in 2009, OSIRIS-Rex to the asteroid Bennu in 2016, and the planned launch of BepiColombo to Mercury in 2018, there is now a large quantity of TIR remote sensing data that need to be interpreted. It is therefore important to extend laboratory phase function measurements to the TIR. This paper describes the design, build, calibration, and initial measurements from a new laboratory instrument that is able to make phase function measurements of analog planetary regoliths across wavelengths from the visible to the TIR.

  4. An Examination of Radiation Induced Tensile Failure of Stressed and Unstressed Polymer Films Flown on MISSE-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film polymers are used in many spacecraft applications for thermal control (multilayer insulation and sunshields), as lightweight structural members (solar array blankets, inflatable/deployable structures) and have been proposed for propulsion (solar sails). Polymers in these applications are often under a tensile load and are directly exposed to the space environment, therefore it is important to understand the effect of stress in combination with the environment on the durability of these polymer films. The purpose of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment, flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6), was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. This paper describes the results of post flight tensile testing of these samples.

  5. Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective.......Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective....

  6. Verification and quality control of routine hematology analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J Y; Huisman, A

    2016-01-01

    Verification of hematology analyzers (automated blood cell counters) is mandatory before new hematology analyzers may be used in routine clinical care. The verification process consists of several items which comprise among others: precision, accuracy, comparability, carryover, background and

  7. ARC Code TI: Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers (IKOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IKOS is a C++ library designed to facilitate the development of sound static analyzers based on Abstract Interpretation. Specialization of a static analyzer for an...

  8. Lab-on-a-chip Astrobiology Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The analyzer will...

  9. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both simple...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1700 - Nitrous oxide gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. 868.1700 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1700 Nitrous oxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A nitrous oxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitrous oxide...

  11. 21 CFR 862.2500 - Enzyme analyzer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. 862.2500 Section... Instruments § 862.2500 Enzyme analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An enzyme analyzer for clinical use is a device intended to measure enzymes in plasma or serum by nonkinetic or kinetic measurement of...

  12. 40 CFR 91.318 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen analyzer... Provisions § 91.318 Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the chemiluminescent oxides of... introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, check the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer for...

  13. 40 CFR 89.321 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen analyzer... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.321 Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (a) The chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer shall receive the initial and periodic calibration described in this section...

  14. 40 CFR 90.318 - Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen analyzer... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.318 Oxides of nitrogen analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the chemiluminescent oxides of nitrogen analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and Periodic Interference...

  15. [Communication interface and software design for laboratory analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yun-Guang; Wang, Chun-Hua; Song, Cheng-Jun; Hu, Wen-Zhong; Chen, Hang-Hua

    2009-07-01

    In this text the interface of hardware and software for laboratory analyzer is analyzed. Adopting VC++ and multi-thread technique, the real-time communication without errors between LIS and the laboratory analyzer is realized. Practice proves that the system based on the technique is stable in running and all data are received accurately and timely.

  16. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction... carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges. New calibration...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated as follows: (a...

  18. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated: (a...

  19. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.250 - Nondispersive infra-red analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. 1065... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Co and Co2 Measurements § 1065.250 Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. (a) Application. Use a nondispersive infra-red (NDIR) analyzer to measure CO...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1975 - Water vapor analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water vapor analyzer. 868.1975 Section 868.1975...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1975 Water vapor analyzer. (a) Identification. A water vapor analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of water vapor in a...

  2. The design of virtual signal analyzer with high cost performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-nan; Pei, Gui-ling; Xu, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Based on 16bit STEREO AUDIO CODEC and C# this paper introduces a virtual signal analyzer. It mainly describes the system's overall structure, hardware design, PC software framework, etc. With reducing costs dramatically, the system also achieves being a signal generator, oscilloscope, recorder, spectrum analyzer, time-frequency analyzer and so on.

  3. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  4. 21 CFR 870.3630 - Pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker generator function analyzer. 870.3630... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3630 Pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. A pacemaker generator function analyzer is a device that is...

  5. Direct bonded HOPG - Analyzer support without background source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groitl, Felix; Kitaura, Hidetoshi; Nishiki, Naomi; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2018-04-01

    A new production process allows a direct bonding of HOPG crystals on Si wafers. This new method facilitates the production of analyzer crystals with support structure without the use of additional, background inducing fixation material, e.g. glue, wax and screws. This new method is especially interesting for the upcoming generation of CAMEA-type multiplexing spectrometers. These instruments allow for a drastic performance increase due to the increased angular coverage and multiple energy analysis. Exploiting the transparency of multiple HOPG for cold neutrons, a consecutive arrangement of HOPG analyzer crystals per Q-channel can be achieved. This implies that neutrons travel through up to 10 arrays of analyzer crystals before reaching the analyzer corresponding to their energy. Hence, a careful choice of the fixation method for the analyzer crystals in regards to transparency and background is necessary. Here, we present first results on the diffraction and mechanical performance of direct bonded analyzer crystals.

  6. Verification and quality control of routine hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J Y; Huisman, A

    2016-05-01

    Verification of hematology analyzers (automated blood cell counters) is mandatory before new hematology analyzers may be used in routine clinical care. The verification process consists of several items which comprise among others: precision, accuracy, comparability, carryover, background and linearity throughout the expected range of results. Yet, which standard should be met or which verification limit be used is at the discretion of the laboratory specialist. This paper offers practical guidance on verification and quality control of automated hematology analyzers and provides an expert opinion on the performance standard that should be met by the contemporary generation of hematology analyzers. Therefore (i) the state-of-the-art performance of hematology analyzers for complete blood count parameters is summarized, (ii) considerations, challenges, and pitfalls concerning the development of a verification plan are discussed, (iii) guidance is given regarding the establishment of reference intervals, and (iv) different methods on quality control of hematology analyzers are reviewed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The development of a new uranium analyzer and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shengli; Zeng Weihua; Deng Yonghui; Li Fubin

    2012-01-01

    A new uranium analyzer and its application are introduced in this paper. The analyzer consists of a detector for β-ray, a detector for γ-ray, the circuits for signal-processing and the software for data collecting and processing. The uranium content is measured by simultaneously counting the β-rays and γ-rays radiated by the sample. It is very easy to operate the analyzer and very quick to get the result. The experiment shows that the data error between this analyzer and chemical analysis can meet the demand of uranium mine for the detection of uranium content. (authors)

  8. L G-2 Scintrex manual.Fluorescence analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirelli, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Scintrex Fluorescence Analyzer LG-2 selectively detects the presence of certain fluorescent minerals through UV photoluminescence induced and provides quantitative information on its distribution.

  9. Split shielding plates in electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavor, Mikhail I.

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method is developed for calculation of the influence of the splitted shielding plates in inhomogeneous electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters on their electron optical properties. The method allows one to simplify considerably the choice of the mode of operation of the shielding plates needed to achieve a required electrostatic field distribution inside the analyzer.

  10. 21 CFR 868.1120 - Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration... Indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxyhemoglobin concentration analyzer is a photoelectric device used to measure, in vivo, the oxygen-carrying capacity of...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instructions or good engineering practice for instrument startup and basic operating adjustment using the... thereafter the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be calibrated on all normally used instrument ranges, and, if... measured by a gas flow meter with an accuracy of ±2 percent. ER06OC93.184 (2) The bag sample is analyzed...

  12. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new...

  13. Development of parallel/serial program analyzing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saichi; Takigawa, Yoshio; Kumakura, Toshimasa

    1999-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing 'KMtool', a parallel/serial program analyzing tool, in order to promote the parallelization of the science and engineering computation program. KMtool analyzes the performance of program written by FORTRAN77 and MPI, and it reduces the effort for parallelization. This paper describes development purpose, design, utilization and evaluation of KMtool. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  15. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction into service, and monthly thereafter, or within one month prior to the certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the...

  17. Analyzing FCS Professionals in Higher Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Harden, Amy; Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

    2016-01-01

    A national study of family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals in higher education was analyzed as a case study to illustrate procedures useful for investigating issues related to FCS. The authors analyzed response rates of more than 1,900 FCS faculty and administrators by comparing those invited to participate and the 345 individuals who…

  18. Analyzing atomic noise with a consumer sound card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Müller, Georg M.; Horn, Hauke; Hübner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael

    2012-03-01

    We discuss an advanced undergraduate project on spin noise spectroscopy of atomic rubidium vapor. The spin noise is digitized using a consumer sound card and analyzed by a fast Fourier transform. Students gain competence in digital data acquisition and processing, and the idea of analyzing a noise signal is emphasized.

  19. The Pep Talk: How to Analyze Political Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Hugh

    Recognizing the proliferation of persuasive language in advertising and in politics, this guide explains how to analyze political language for its persuasive techniques and why it is important to do so. The first chapter of the book provides a rationale for analyzing persuasion, and an overview of the book. The remaining chapters explore various…

  20. Validation of ESR analyzer using Westergren ESR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Meera; Tandon, Rajesh; Rusia, Usha; Madan, Nishi

    2007-07-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is one of the most frequently ordered laboratory test. ESR analyzers were developed to provide a quick and efficient measure of ESR. We compared the results of ESR obtained by an ESR analyzer with those by the Westergren method in a group of 75 patients Linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between the two results (r = 0.818, p < 0.01). The intra class correlation was 0.82. The analyzer method had the advantages of safety, decreased technician time and improved patient care by providing quick results.

  1. Emergency response training with the BNL plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S.; Guppy, J.G.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the experience in the use of the BNL Plant Analyzer for NRC emergency response training to simulated accidents in a BWR. The unique features of the BNL Plant Analyzer that are important for the emergency response training are summarized. A closed-loop simulation of all the key systems of a power plant in question was found essential to the realism of the emergency drills conducted at NRC. The faster than real-time simulation speeds afforded by the BNL Plant Analyzer have demonstrated its usefulness for the timely conduct of the emergency response training.

  2. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  3. The Rhetoric of Satire: Analyzing in Freshman English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Betty Jane

    1982-01-01

    Presents a series of exercises designed to provide freshman composition students with a base for analyzing works rhetorically, to point out how language can be used persuasively, and to illustrate how satire functions. (FL)

  4. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

  5. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  6. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  7. Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to employ Off-Axis ICOS to develop triple-isotope water analyzers for lunar and other extraplanetary exploration. This instrument...

  8. Lab-on-a-chip astrobiology analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an astrobiology analyzer to measure chemical signatures of life in extraterrestrial settings. The...

  9. Analyzing Spread of Influence in Social Networks for Transportation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This project analyzed the spread of influence in social media, in particular, the Twitter social media site, and identified the individuals who exert the most influence to those they interact with. There are published studies that use social media to...

  10. Analyzing Spread of Influence in Social Networks for Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This project analyzed the spread of influence in social media, in particular, the Twitter social media site, and identified the individuals who exert the most influence to those they interact with. There are published studies that use social media to...

  11. Analyzed method for calculating the distribution of electrostatic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.

    1981-01-01

    An analyzed method for calculating the distribution of electrostatic field under any given axial gradient in tandem accelerators is described. This method possesses satisfactory accuracy compared with the results of numerical calculation

  12. A multichannel analyzer software system realized by C Language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lifang; Xue Liudong

    1995-01-01

    The specialty of a multichannel analyzer software system realized by C Language is introduced. Because of its superior performance, the software has brilliant prospects for applications. The function of the software is also introduced

  13. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  14. Mini Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (miniTOCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this development is to create a prototype hand-held, 1 to 2 liter size battery-powered Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA). The majority of...

  15. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented

  16. Energy range extension for an electrostatic-analyzer homogenizer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, D.S.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Purser, F.O.; Newson, H.W.; Seagondollar, L.W.; Mitchell, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The energy range of an electrostatic-analyzer homogenizer system has been extended by the introduction of a molecular dissociator which operates on the diatomic hydrogen ions from a Van de Graff accelerator. Energy resolutions of 300-400 eV with solid targets have been obtained routinely up to proton energies of 4.5 MeV with an electrostatic analyzer originally limited to measuring proton energies below 2.7 MeV. Improvements to the Van de Graaff accelerator are expected to permit this system to operate as high as 5-6 MeV. Since feedback for this homogenizer is obtained by modulating the voltage on the dissociator, a magnetic analyzer could be substituted for the electrostatic analyzer. (Auth.)

  17. Mini Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (miniTOCA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers function by converting (oxidizing) all organic compounds (contaminants) in the water sample to carbon dioxide gas (CO2), then...

  18. The quality infrastructure measuring, analyzing, and improving library services

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    Summarizing specific tools for measuring service quality alongside tips for using these tools most effectively, this book helps libraries of all kinds take a programmatic approach to measuring, analyzing, and improving library services.

  19. Analyzing Properties of Stochastic Business Processes By Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an approach to precise formal analysis of business processes with stochastic properties. The method presented here allows for both qualitative and quantitative properties to be individually analyzed at design time without requiring a full specification. This provides...

  20. Airspace Analyzer for Assessing Airspace Directional Permeability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build a software tool which enables the user (airline or Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP)) the ability to analyze the flight-level-by-flight-level permeability...

  1. GIOTTO JOHNSTONE PARTICLE ANALYZER MERGED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains results from the Implanted Ion Sensor (IIS) 4DH mode and the Fast Ion Sensor SW and HAR modes of the Three- Dimensional Particle Analyzer (JPA)...

  2. Mars & Multi-Planetary Electrical Environment Spectrum Analyzer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY14, we will develop and deliver a Multi-Planetary Electrical Environment Plasma Spectrum Analyzer. This instrument is a DC and AC electric field sensor suite...

  3. A traffic analyzer for multiple SpaceWire links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scige J.; Giusi, Giovanni; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Vertolli, Nello; Galli, Emanuele; Biondi, David; Farina, Maria; Pezzuto, Stefano; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Modern space missions are becoming increasingly complex: the interconnection of the units in a satellite is now a network of terminals linked together through routers, where devices with different level of automation and intelligence share the same data-network. The traceability of the network transactions is performed mostly at terminal level through log analysis and hence it is difficult to verify in real time the reliability of the interconnections and the interchange protocols. To improve and ease the traffic analysis in a SpaceWire network we implemented a low-level link analyzer, with the specific goal to simplify the integration and test phases in the development of space instrumentation. The traffic analyzer collects signals coming from pod probes connected in-series on the interested links between two SpaceWire terminals. With respect to the standard traffic analyzers, the design of this new tool includes the possibility to internally reshape the LVDS signal. This improvement increases the robustness of the analyzer towards environmental noise effects and guarantees a deterministic delay on all analyzed signals. The analyzer core is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA, programmed to decode the bidirectional LVDS signals at Link and Network level. Successively, the core packetizes protocol characters in homogeneous sets of time ordered events. The analyzer provides time-tagging functionality for each characters set, with a precision down to the FPGA Clock, i.e. about 20nsec in the adopted HW environment. The use of a common time reference for each character stream allows synchronous performance measurements. The collected information is then routed to an external computer for quick analysis: this is done via high-speed USB2 connection. With this analyzer it is possible to verify the link performances in terms of induced delays in the transmitted signals. A case study focused on the analysis of the Time-Code synchronization in presence of a SpaceWire Router is

  4. Methods of analyzing microsize particulate aerosols and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1971-01-01

    Methods for analyzing atmospheric aerosols and particulate contaminants from natural and industrial sources are briefly described. Their development was spurred by interest in cosmic dust investigations. These methods make it possible to analyze individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 microns for elemental and mineralogical content. The described methods include transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, optical mineralogy, and density measurement.

  5. APPROACHES TO ANALYZE THE QUALITY OF ROMANIAN TOURISM WEB SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezeanu Ramona

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our work is to analyze travel web-sites, more exactly, whether the criteria used to analyze virtual stores are also adequate for the Romanian tourism product. Following the study, we concluded that the Romanian online tourism web-sites for the Romanian market have the features that we found listed on similar web-sites of France, England, Germany, etc. In conclusion, online Romanian tourism can be considered one of the factors of economic growth.

  6. Principle and application of portable NIR tea drinks analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyi; Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli

    2009-11-01

    Tea polyphenols (Tp) and free amino acids (Aa) are the most important quality materials in tea drinks. Due to the high number of samples to be analyzed, new analytical techniques providing fast and reliable data about the quality are essential. Therefore, a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) analyzer was developed for real-time, continuous and quantitative determination of Tp and Aa in tea drinks. The portable NIR tea drinks analyzer is composed of a lamphouse, a temperature-controlled sample chamber, an optical fiber and an InGaAs array mini grating spectrometer. The analyzer is compact, lightweight and robust with no movable elements. The software with the functions of spectrum acquisition, model establishment, method selection and real-time analysis was also developed for the analyzer. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, the calibration models for the quantification of Tp and Aa were established with reference to the GB methods (the national standard methods). The values of root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of the models for Tp and Aa calibration were 0.059 mg/mL, 0.005 mg/mL, the values of the correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.99 and 0.98 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ten repetitive testing were 3.17% and 4.15%. It suggested that the portable NIR tea drinks analyzer could be a fast and reliable alternative for tea drinks quality testing.

  7. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions ... for system response and updating-recording frequency for continuous gas analyzers that output a single... change the system response. (b) Measurement principles. This procedure verifies that the updating and...

  8. Test of a two-dimensional neutron spin analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falus, Peter; Vorobiev, Alexei; Krist, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this measurement was to test the new large-area spin polarization analyzer for the EVA-SERGIS beamline at Institute Laue Langevin (ILL). The spin analyzer, which was built in Berlin selects one of the two spin states of a neutron beam of wavelength 5.5 A impinging on a horizontal sample and reflected or scattered from the sample. The spin is analyzed for all neutrons scattered into a detector with an area of 190 mmx190 mm positioned 2.7 m behind the sample, thus covering an angular interval of 4 o x4 o . The tests were done at the HMI V14 beamline followed by tests at the EVA beamline at ILL. The transmission for the two spin components, the flipping ratio and small angle scattering were recorded while scanning the incoming beam on the analyzer. It was clearly visible, that due to the stacked construction the intensity is blocked at regular intervals. Careful inspection shows that the transmission of the good spin component is more than 0.72 for 60% of the detector area and the corrected flipping ratio is more than 47 for 60% of the detector area. Although some small-angle scattering is visible, it is notable that this analyzer design has small scattering intensities

  9. Test of a two-dimensional neutron spin analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falus, Péter; Vorobiev, Alexei; Krist, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this measurement was to test the new large-area spin polarization analyzer for the EVA-SERGIS beamline at Institute Laue Langevin (ILL). The spin analyzer, which was built in Berlin selects one of the two spin states of a neutron beam of wavelength 5.5 Å impinging on a horizontal sample and reflected or scattered from the sample. The spin is analyzed for all neutrons scattered into a detector with an area of 190 mm×190 mm positioned 2.7 m behind the sample, thus covering an angular interval of 4°×4°. The tests were done at the HMI V14 beamline followed by tests at the EVA beamline at ILL. The transmission for the two spin components, the flipping ratio and small angle scattering were recorded while scanning the incoming beam on the analyzer. It was clearly visible, that due to the stacked construction the intensity is blocked at regular intervals. Careful inspection shows that the transmission of the good spin component is more than 0.72 for 60% of the detector area and the corrected flipping ratio is more than 47 for 60% of the detector area. Although some small-angle scattering is visible, it is notable that this analyzer design has small scattering intensities.

  10. A Vector Network Analyzer Based on Pulse Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schulte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast four channel network analyzer is introduced to measure S-parameters in a frequency range from 10MHz to 3GHz. The signal generation for this kind of analyzer is based on pulse generators, which are realized with bipolar transistors. The output signal of the transistor is differentiated and two short pulses, a slow and a fast one, with opposite polarities are generated. The slow pulse is suppressed with a clipping network. Thus the generation of very short electrical pulses with a duration of about 100ps is possible. The structure of the following network analyzer is similar to the structure of a conventional four channel network analyzer. All four pulses, which contain the high frequency information of the device under test, are evaluated after the digitalization of intermediate frequencies. These intermediate frequencies are generated with sampling mixers. The recorded data is evaluated with a special analysis technique, which is based on a Fourier transformation. The calibration techniques used are the same as for conventional four channel network analyzers, no new calibration techniques need to be developed.

  11. Health Services Cost Analyzing in Tabriz Health Centers 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massumeh gholizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Health Services cost analyzing is an important management tool for evidence-based decision making in health system. This study was conducted with the purpose of cost analyzing and identifying the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in urban health centers in Tabriz. Material and Methods : This study was a descriptive and analytic study. Activity Based Costing method (ABC was used for cost analyzing. This cross–sectional survey analyzed and identified the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in Tabriz urban health centers. The statistical population of this study was comprised of urban community health centers in Tabriz. In this study, a multi-stage sampling method was used to collect data. Excel software was used for data analyzing. The results were described with tables and graphs. Results : The study results showed the portion of different factors in various health services. Human factors by 58%, physical space 8%, medical equipment 1.3% were allocated with high portion of expenditures and costs of health services in Tabriz urban health centers. Conclusion : Based on study results, since the human factors included the highest portion of health services costs and expenditures in Tabriz urban health centers, balancing workload with staff number, institutionalizing performance-based management and using multidisciplinary staffs may lead to reduced costs of services. ​

  12. Applications of Electronstatic Lenses to Electron Gun and Energy Analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.

    2004-01-01

    Focal properties and geometries are given for several types of electrostatic lens systems commonly needed in electron impact studies. One type is an electron gun which focuses electrons over a wide range of energy onto a fixed point, such as target, and the other type is an analyzer system which focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position, such as the entrance plane of an analyzer. There are many different types and geometries of these lenses for controlling and focusing of the electron beams. In this presentation we discussed the criteria used for the design of the electrostatic lenses associated with the electron gun and energy analyzers and determined the fundamental relationships between the operation and behaviour of multi-element electrostatic lenses, containing five, six and seven elements. The focusing of the electron beam was achieved by applying suitable voltages to the series of these lens elements, Design of the lens system for electron gun was based on our requirements that the beam at the target had a small spot size and zero beam angle, that is, afocal mode. For energy analyzer systems we considered the entrance of the hemispherical analyzer which determines the energy of the electron beam and discussed the focusing condition of this lens systems

  13. Pseudocode Interpreter (Pseudocode Integrated Development Environment with Lexical Analyzer and Syntax Analyzer using Recursive Descent Parsing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lester D. Gimeno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available –This research study focused on the development of a software that helps students design, write, validate and run their pseudocode in a semi Integrated Development Environment (IDE instead of manually writing it on a piece of paper.Specifically, the study aimed to develop lexical analyzer or lexer, syntax analyzer or parser using recursive descent parsing algorithm and an interpreter. The lexical analyzer reads pseudocodesource in a sequence of symbols or characters as lexemes.The lexemes are then analyzed by the lexer that matches a pattern for valid tokens and passes to the syntax analyzer or parser. The syntax analyzer or parser takes those valid tokens and builds meaningful commands using recursive descent parsing algorithm in a form of an abstract syntax tree. The generation of an abstract syntax tree is based on the specified grammar rule created by the researcher expressed in Extended Backus-Naur Form. The Interpreter takes the generated abstract syntax tree and starts the evaluation or interpretation to produce pseudocode output. The software was evaluated using white-box testing by several ICT professionals and black-box testing by several computer science students based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9126 software quality standards. The overall results of the evaluation both for white-box and black-box were described as “Excellent in terms of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability”.

  14. A nuclear facility Security Analyzer written in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1987-08-01

    The Security Analyzer project was undertaken to use the Prolog ''artificial intelligence'' programming language and Entity-Relationship database construction techniques to produce an intelligent database computer program capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a nuclear facility's security systems. The Security Analyzer program can search through a facility to find all possible surreptitious entry paths that meet various user-selected time and detection probability criteria. The program can also respond to user-formulated queries concerning the database information. The intelligent database approach allows the program to perform a more comprehensive path search than other programs that only find a single ''optimal'' path. The program also is more flexible in that the database, once constructed, can be interrogated and used for purposes independent of the searching function

  15. A nuclear facility Security Analyzer written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Security Analyzer project was undertaken to use the Prolog artificial intelligence programming language and Entity-Relationship database construction techniques to produce an intelligent database computer program capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a nuclear facility's security systems. The Security Analyzer program can search through a facility to find all possible surreptitious entry paths that meet various user-selected time and detection probability criteria. The program can also respond to user-formulated queries concerning the database information. The intelligent database approach allows the program to perform a more comprehensive path search than other programs that only find a single optimal path. The program also is more flexible in that the database, once constructed, can be interrogated and used for purposes independent of the searching function

  16. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.C.; Fan, C.Y.; Hsieh, K.C.; McCullen, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  17. Coherent error study in a retarding field energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.; Zou, Y.; Reiser, M.; Kishek, R.A.; Haber, I.; Bernal, S.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    A novel cylindrical retarding electrostatic field energy analyzer for low-energy beams has been designed, simulated, and tested with electron beams of several keV, in which space charge effects play an important role. A cylindrical focusing electrode is used to overcome the beam expansion inside the device due to space-charge forces, beam emittance, etc. In this paper, we present the coherent error analysis for this energy analyzer with beam envelope equation including space charge and emittance effects. The study shows that this energy analyzer can achieve very high resolution (with relative error of around 10 -5 ) if taking away the coherent errors by using proper focusing voltages. The theoretical analysis is compared with experimental results

  18. Correction of surface aberration in strain scanning method with analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Takahisa; Mizuki, Junichiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke

    2006-01-01

    When a gauge volume sank below a specimen surface, the diffraction angle shifts. Thus, it is required to correct the surface aberration. For the annealed specimen of S45C, the shift in the diffraction angle was investigated using a strain scanning method with Ge (111) analyzer. This phenomenon was caused by the difference in the centroid between the geometric and the instrumental gauge volumes. This difference is explained by the following factors; 1) the change in the gauge volume by the divergence of the analyzer, 2) the X-ray penetration depth, 3) the gap of the centre line between the double receiving slits due to mis-setting the analyzer. As a result, the correcting method considered into these factors was proposed. For the shot-peened specimens of S45C, the diffraction angles were measured and corrected by our method. The distribution of the residual stress agreed with that obtained by the removal method. (author)

  19. The Common Technique for Analyzing the Financial Results Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasternak Maria M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the theoretical approaches to the structure and elements of the technique for analysis of the Financial results report (Cumulative income report and providing suggestions for its improvement. The current methods have been analyzed, relevance of the application of a common technique for such analysis has been substantiated. A common technique for analyzing the Financial results report has been proposed, which includes definition of the objectives and tasks of analysis, subjects and objects of analysis, sources of its information. Stages of such an analysis were allocated and described. The findings of the article can be used to theoretically substantiate and to practically develop a technique for analyzing the Financial results report in the branches of Ukrainian economy.

  20. Breath acetone analyzer: diagnostic tool to monitor dietary fat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S K; Bruzek, J A; Nair, R; Judilla, A M

    1993-01-01

    Acetone, a metabolite of fat catabolism, is produced in excessive amounts in subjects on restricted-calorie weight-loss programs. Breath acetone measurements are useful as a motivational tool during dieting and for monitoring the effectiveness of weight-loss programs. We have developed a simple, easy-to-read method that quantifies the amount of acetone in a defined volume of exhaled breath after trapping the sample in a gas-analyzer column. The concentration of acetone, as measured by the length of a blue color zone in the analyzer column, correlates with results obtained by gas chromatography. Using the breath acetone analyzer to quantify breath acetone concentrations of dieting subjects, we established a correlation between breath acetone concentration and rate of fat loss (slope 52.2 nmol/L per gram per day, intercept 15.3 nmol/L, n = 78, r = 0.81). We also discussed the possibility of using breath acetone in diabetes management.

  1. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  2. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Development of a Telemetric, Miniaturized Electrochemical Amperometric Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyo Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we developed a portable, three-electrode electrochemical amperometric analyzer that can transmit data to a PC or a tablet via Bluetooth communication. We performed experiments using an indium tin oxide (ITO glass electrode to confirm the performance and reliability of the analyzer. The proposed analyzer uses a current-to-voltage (I/V converter to convert the current generated by the reduction-oxidation (redox reaction of the buffer solution to a voltage signal. This signal is then digitized by the processor. The configuration of the power and ground of the printed circuit board (PCB layer is divided into digital and analog parts to minimize the noise interference of each part. The proposed analyzer occupies an area of 5.9 × 3.25 cm2 with a current resolution of 0.4 nA. A potential of 0~2.1 V can be applied between the working and the counter electrodes. The results of this study showed the accuracy of the proposed analyzer by measuring the Ruthenium(III chloride ( Ru III concentration in 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with a pH of 7.4. The measured data can be transmitted to a PC or a mobile such as a smartphone or a tablet PC using the included Bluetooth module. The proposed analyzer uses a 3.7 V, 120 mAh lithium polymer battery and can be operated for 60 min when fully charged, including data processing and wireless communication.

  4. Nonlinear analysis for the electrostatic analyzers with lie algebraic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhai; Lv Jianqin

    2005-01-01

    With the Lie algebraic methods, the charged particle trajectories in electrostatic analyzers are analyzed and the third order solutions obtained. The authors briefly describe the Lie algebraic methods and the procedures of calculating the nonlinear orbits. The procedures are: first, set up the Hamiltonian; then expand the Hamiltonian into a sum of homogeneous polynomials of different degrees; next, calculate the Lie map associating to the Hamiltonian; finally, apply the Lie map on the particle initial coordinates in the phase space, and obtain the particle nonlinear trajectories of the first order, the second order, and the third order approximations respectively. Higher orders solutions could be obtained if needed. (author)

  5. A novel design for a small retractable cylindrical mirror analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlroy, D.N.; Dowben, P.A.; Knop, A.; Ruehl, E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we will review the performance of a ''miniature'' single pass cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) which we have used successfully in a variety of experiments. The underlying premise behind this CMA design was to minimize spatial requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of instrumental resolution. While we are presenting the results of a single pass cylindrical mirror analyzer, improvements on the present design, such as going to a double pass design, will undoubtedly improve the instrumental resolution. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  6. A Timing Single Channel Analyzer with pileup rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, J.; Nachbar, H.U.

    1981-07-01

    A Timing Single Channel Analyzer is described as normally used in nuclear physics applications for measuring certain ranges of energy spectra. The unit accepts unipolar or bipolar gaussian shaped or rectangular pulses and includes a special pileup rejection circuit. Because of its good timing performance high resolution timing and coincidence measurements are possible. The differential analyzer, trigger and timing modes and the function of external strobe and gate signals are explained. Parts of the circuit are illustrated by help of block diagrams and pulse schematics. An essential part of the unit is the pileup rejection circuit. Following theoretical reflections the circuit is described and some measurement results are reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Analyzing solid waste management practices for the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    S.T. Pham Phu; M.G. Hoang; T. Fujiwara

    2018-01-01

    The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room...

  8. [Collective health in Brazil: analyzing the institutionalization process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    This work first analyzes the construction of a typology of the studies on collective health and its institutionalization process in Brazil, in which three stages are proposed: the preventive project, social medicine and collective health. Secondly, the work examines the phases of institutionalization, disciplinarization and professionalization of collective health in Brazil. Within the institutionalization phase, the study analyzes connectivity and communication, regularization of discourses and practices, the construction of a separate identity and political actions, and the incorporation and legitimation of these elements. It is concluded that the trajectory of the construction of collective health is marked by three dimensions: the theoretical-critical, the political-sanitary and the pedagogical-professional.

  9. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  10. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Analyze Multiattribute Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in assisting researchers to analyze decisions is discussed. The AHP is compared with other decision-analysis techniques, including multiattribute utility measurement, conjoint analysis, and general linear models. Insights that AHP can provide are illustrated with data gathered in an auditing context.…

  11. Watch out for superman: first visualize, then analyze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    A visit from Superman shows why data visualization should come before data analysis. The Web extra is a dataset that comprises 100 observations of the quantitative variables y and x plus the qualitative variable group. When analyzed correctly, this dataset exhibits an interesting pattern.

  12. Theories Analyzing Communicative Approach in China's EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Communicative Approach is applied widely in primary and middle schools, when various modern teaching methods pour in China's EFL classes. However, the development of this effective language teaching method cannot show its advantages in China during years' practice. This paper analyzed the constraining factors, such as teaching habits, examination…

  13. Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT TEAM

    During the period 2006-2010, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit analyzed 583 samples. The samples comprised 50.6% local and 49.4% imported products. Samples were subjected to compendial or in-house specifications. The failure rate was 12.2% for local products and 14.2% for imports. Antibacterial products ...

  14. Analyzing Program Termination and Complexity Automatically with AProVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, Jürgen; Aschermann, Cornelius; Brockschmidt, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In this system description, we present the tool AProVE for automatic termination and complexity proofs of Java, C, Haskell, Prolog, and rewrite systems. In addition to classical term rewrite systems (TRSs), AProVE also supports rewrite systems containing built-in integers (int-TRSs). To analyze p...

  15. Analyzing Financial Flows from Emerging Economies to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analyzing Financial Flows from Emerging Economies to the Developing World. The context of development assistance is changing, with private financial flows now well exceeding official development assistance levels. In addition, growth in emerging economies in the coming 10-to-15 years will likely result in sizable ...

  16. So you want to buy an EDXRF analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In an effort to save costs many companies are considering energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzers as an alternative to wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) analyzers. In many cases, particularly in geological applications, this begins with a desire to either replace an in-house WDX system, or reduce the number of samples sent to an outside laboratory. The differences between the two go far beyond a simple reversal of the order of spectral peaks. In order to decide if an EDX analyzer is a suitable substitute for WDX, or any other analytical method, a number of questions must be answered. These include: 1. What is the normal error associated with comparing methods; 2. What additional sources of error are important in EDXRF; 3. How do changes in sample preparation methods affect the results; 4. How to design an application study that determines if EDX is a suitable method. Each of these questions will be answered in enough detail to provide someone with the tools they need to determine if an EDXRF analyzers meets their requirements. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  17. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2015-01-01

    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  18. Processing of Mining Induced Seismic Events by Spectra Analyzer Software

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Lyubushin, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2011), s. 75-83 ISSN 1896-3145. [Ochrona środowiska w górnictwie podziemnym, odkrywkowym i otworowym. Walbrzych, 18.05.2011-20.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mining seismicity * Spectra Analyzer Software * wavelet decomposition * time-frequency map Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  19. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  20. Analyzing Traffic Problem Model With Graph Theory Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper will contribute to a practical problem, Urban Traffic. We will investigate those features, try to simplify the complexity and formulize this dynamic system. These contents mainly contain how to analyze a decision problem with combinatorial method and graph theory algorithms; how to optimize our strategy to gain a feasible solution through employing other principles of Computer Science.