WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytical organic indicators

  1. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  2. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  3. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  4. Carbon Impact Analytics - Designing low carbon indices based on Carbon Impact Analytics indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Investors are increasingly exposed to carbon risks and now face the challenge of managing these risks and developing climate-resilient investment strategies. Carbon Impact Analytics (CIA), an innovative methodology for analyzing the full carbon impact of a portfolio or index, equips investors and asset managers with the tools necessary to reduce their climate-related risks but also to seize the opportunities offered by the ongoing energy transition. Investors, asset managers and other financial institutions may use CIA results to: - measure and manage risks, - optimize their contribution to the energy transition, - seize opportunities associated with climate change mitigation, - report on GHG emissions and savings (for regulatory purposes or voluntarily), - engage in dialogue with companies, - reallocate investment portfolios, - and build new low-carbon indices. In this report, Carbone 4 offers a detailed look into how CIA indicators can be used to either 1) reallocate an existing portfolio or index to achieve maximal carbon performance or 2) build new low carbon indices from the ground up, drawn from Carbone 4's ever-growing database of CIA-analyzed firms. Two main levers were used to optimize CIA output: 1. Sectorial reallocation: exclusion of fossil fuel-related sectors or insertion of low carbon pure players; 2. Intra-sectorial reallocation: best-in-class approach within a sector. Sectorial and intra-sectorial methods may be applied in conjunction with one another to maximize results. For example, a best-in-class + fossil fuel-free index may be constructed by first excluding the fossil fuel sector and then applying a CIA best-in-class approach to all remaining sectors. This report offers a detailed look into how CIA indicators can be used to rework portfolios or indices to maximize carbon performance or to build low carbon indices from the ground up. These methods are illustrated via two preliminary examples of indices designed by Carbone 4: the

  5. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  6. A Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LACE project has established a first version of a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics, based on a group concept mapping study with experts. The group concept mapping approach is explained, and steps in the framework creation process described, as well as the framework itself.

  7. Indicator organisms of pollution in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Indicator organisms of organic pollution in two localities in the Cochin backwaters are identified The two sites have different sources of pollution, one from retting of coconut husk and the other from discharge of municipal wastes @i...

  8. Analytical authentication of organic products: an overview of markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' interest in organic foods is increasing and so is the need for robust analytical tools for their authentication. This review focuses on the most promising biomarkers/analytical approaches that are available for the authentication of organic produce. Food products have been subdivided into

  9. Methodological procedures and analytical instruments to evaluate an indicators integrated archive for urban management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S.

    1998-01-01

    This guide provides the results of a research developed at ENEA (National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment) Casaccia center (Rome, Italy) aimed to define methodological procedures and analytical instruments needed to carry out an indicators integrated archive for urban management. The guide also defines the scheme of a negotiation process aimed to reach and exchange data and information among governmental and local administrations, non-governmental organizations and scientific bodies [it

  10. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  12. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    ) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only......The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC...

  13. Prioritizing of performance indicators of quality - effectiveness areas of general hospitals using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Jabbari Beyrami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of health care includes some degree of services provided to individuals and communities to increase the likelihood of desired results and are updated in accordance with professional knowledge. To assess the quality of services provided in hospitals, indicators and performance standards are needed to be identified, because these indicators are the structure of the hospital evaluation. This study aimed to determine the performance indicators in general- public hospitals in area of quality and effectiveness and prioritization of these indicators. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-qualitative and practical research was done through a systematic review of literature and data were obtained from the hospital authorities. In order to prioritize public hospital performance indicators, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used and the results were analyzed by the Expert Choice software. Results: In the field of quality and effectiveness, 73 performance indicators were considering at various texts. Indicators such as the rate of hospital infections (100%, the incidence of hospital events (72%, Net hospital mortality(63%, Percentage of patients' satisfaction(53% selected as key performance indicators. Conclusion: Performance indicators in the field of quality and effectiveness has important place in health system and hospital organization. By evaluating the quality of services in health centers, the problems and shortcomings can be seen, and consequently analyzing information can lead to a try to reduce them.

  14. Co-evolving prisoner's dilemma: Performance indicators and analytic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Choi, C. W.; Li, Y. S.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the intrinsic relation between the dynamical processes in a co-evolving network and the necessary ingredients in formulating a reliable theory is an important question and a challenging task. Using two slightly different definitions of performance indicator in the context of a co-evolving prisoner's dilemma game, it is shown that very different cooperative levels result and theories of different complexity are required to understand the key features. When the payoff per opponent is used as the indicator (Case A), non-cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates in a large part of the parameter space formed by the cutting-and-rewiring probability and the strategy imitation probability. When the payoff from all opponents is used (Case B), cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates the parameter space. Two distinct phases, one homogeneous and dynamical and another inhomogeneous and static, emerge and the phase boundary in the parameter space is studied in detail. A simple theory assuming an average competing environment for cooperative agents and another for non-cooperative agents is shown to perform well in Case A. The same theory, however, fails badly for Case B. It is necessary to include more spatial correlation into a theory for Case B. We show that the local configuration approximation, which takes into account of the different competing environments for agents with different strategies and degrees, is needed to give reliable results for Case B. The results illustrate that formulating a proper theory requires both a conceptual understanding of the effects of the adaptive processes in the problem and a delicate balance between simplicity and accuracy.

  15. Human Resource Predictive Analytics HRPA For HR Management In Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet N. Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource predictive analytics is an evolving application field of analytics for HRM purposes. The purpose of HRM is measuring employee performance and engagement studying workforce collaboration patterns analyzing employee churn and turnover and modelling employee lifetime value. The motive of applying HRPA is to optimize performances and produce better return on investment for organizations through decision making based on data collection HR metrics and predictive models. The paper is divided into three sections to understand the emergence of HR predictive analytics for HRM. Firstly the paper introduces the concept of HRPA. Secondly the paper discusses three aspects of HRPA a Need b Approach amp Application c Impact. Lastly the paper leads to the conclusion on HRPA.

  16. Incidence of indicator organisms, opportunistic and pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia from the supermarkets and tilapia and catfish from street vendors were analyzed for the microbial load, presence of indicator microorganisms, opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria using conventional microbiological methods. Though coliforms were found in 84% of fish from the street vendors, only 16% of the fish ...

  17. Fulton's condition, organ indices and haematological response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fulton's condition, organ indices and haematological response of catfish hybrid ( Heterobranchus longifilis, ♂ x Clarias gariepinus, ♀ ) to aqueous extracts of leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides.

  18. An analytical solution for contact resistance of staggered organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Hamidreza; Katebi-Jahromi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    We have developed analytical models for bias dependent contact resistance (RC) and output characteristics of staggered organic field-effect transistors (OFETS) based on a bulk resistance-approximated and mobility-modified current-crowding method. Numerical evaluations of RC and its resistive components show that the bias dependency of the bulk resistance is negligible. Consequently, the properties of the active layer interfaces determine RC and its characteristics. Effective parameters include a normally constant charge injection barrier at the organic-metal interface (Eb) and a gate induced surface carrier-concentration (PS0) at the organic-insulator boundary. The energy barrier pertains to the fabrication process, and its related resistance (rc) can be determined as the fitting parameter of the theoretical model. However, PS0 is strongly gate bias dependent and the results of the numerical model indicate that the resulting component (rch) is dominant and has a considerable effect on RC and its characteristics. More importantly, PS0 as the key parameter of the contact resistance is analytically expressible and by using a proposed mobility-modified current-crowding model, the contact resistance can be analytically formulated. Accordingly, the output characteristics of the OFETs in the triode region can be also analytically modeled using the developed relation of RC.

  19. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Using Print Media Indicators in Researching Organization Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, J.; Nijholt, J.; Heusinkveld, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative empirical research into 'management fashions' or 'organization concepts' is dominated by studies using print media indicators (PMI). Such research builds on the simple premise that the number of publications on an organization concept in the course of time reflects managerial interest

  1. An analytical procedure to assist decision-making in a government research organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Dean Claxton; Giuseppe Rensi

    1972-01-01

    An analytical procedure to help management decision-making in planning government research is described. The objectives, activities, and restrictions of a government research organization are modeled in a consistent analytical framework. Theory and methodology is drawn from economics and mathe-matical programing. The major analytical aspects distinguishing research...

  2. Faecal indicator organisms in the Renoster Spruit system of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... The impact of a variety of urban discharges from Bloemfontein on the numbers of microbiological faecal indicator organisms in the water of the Renoster Spruit subcatchment was investigated using E. coli, C. perfringens and somatic coliphages as microbial indicators. The no-observed-adverse-effect-levels ...

  3. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

  4. Associations between and development of welfare indicators in organic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Riber, Anja Brinch; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    , keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained......The retail market share of organic eggs in Denmark is high, and the consumers expect high animal welfare standards in the organic production. Documentation of animal welfare is important, however, knowledge about the associations between animal-based welfare indicators is limited. The aims...... of the study were to investigate the associations between selected welfare indicators at two ages (peak and end of lay), and to examine the development with age of the chosen welfare indicators. The chosen welfare indicators were Ascaridia galli (roundworm) infection, Heterakis sp. (caecal worm) infection...

  5. A Hierarchical Aggregation Approach for Indicators Based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Pakkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a hierarchical aggregation approach using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP for indicators. The core logic of the proposed approach is to reflect the hierarchical structures of indicators and their relative priorities in constructing composite indicators (CIs, simultaneously. Under hierarchical structures, the indicators of similar characteristics can be grouped into sub-categories and further into categories. According to this approach, we define a domain of composite losses, i.e., a reduction in CI values, based on two sets of weights. The first set represents the weights of indicators for each Decision Making Unit (DMU with the minimal composite loss, and the second set represents the weights of indicators bounded by AHP with the maximal composite loss. Using a parametric distance model, we explore various ranking positions for DMUs while the indicator weights obtained from a three-level DEA-based CI model shift towards the corresponding weights bounded by AHP. An illustrative example of road safety performance indicators (SPIs for a set of European countries highlights the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  6. Analytic network process model for sustainable lean and green manufacturing performance indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable manufacturing is regarded as the most complex manufacturing paradigm to date as it holds the widest scope of requirements. In addition, its three major pillars of economic, environment and society though distinct, have some overlapping among each of its elements. Even though the concept of sustainability is not new, the development of the performance indicator still needs a lot of improvement due to its multifaceted nature, which requires integrated approach to solve the problem. This paper proposed the best combination of criteria en route a robust sustainable manufacturing performance indicator formation via Analytic Network Process (ANP). The integrated lean, green and sustainable ANP model can be used to comprehend the complex decision system of the sustainability assessment. The finding shows that green manufacturing is more sustainable than lean manufacturing. It also illustrates that procurement practice is the most important criteria in the sustainable manufacturing performance indicator.

  7. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C

    2017-12-01

    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further

  8. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.

  9. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  10. Study on Quality Indicator System of Rhythmic Gymnasts in Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is a sport item with the direct aim of winning as well as a good ornamental value. The scientific selection by the rhythmic gymnasts is necessary for the success, and also the beginning for the scientific training of the gymnasts in their special training stage. According to RG characteristics and the physical characteristics of the gymnasts, also in combination with the investigations & interviews to the coaches who have years of training experience in RG, the experts & scholars on RG study & teaching in universities, and by referring to relevant documents, this paper established the quality indicator system in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We summarized and selected several indicators obviously influencing the RG training and divided them into the three types of factors: physical factors, flexibility & strength factors, and speed & dexterity factors, according to which 12 specific indicators, their weights and comprehensive evaluation coefficients. Based on these indicators, we established the quality indicator system of the gymnasts, and developed corresponding software system, providing scientific theoretical basis & practical application basis for the selection & evaluation of the gymnasts.

  11. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.

  12. Analytic study of organic matters in Lodeve uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exploitation of uranium in the Permian basin of Lodeve is difficult because of simultaneous extraction of organic matters which are found, in small proportion, in ammonium diuranate and a supplementary purification is required. Available information on natural organic matters are briefly reviewed. Natural organic matters contained in the Lodeve uranium ore processing fluid is separated and fractionated. Physicochemical properties of ligands in each fraction are studied. The existence of bonds between these ligands and dissolved uranium is experimentally demonstrated [fr

  13. Green analytical chemistry - the use of surfactants as a replacement of organic solvents in spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Daniel Y.

    2017-07-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to the many practical uses of surfactants in analytical chemistry in replacing organic solvents to achieve greener chemistry. Taking a holistic approach, it covers some background of surfactants as chemical solvents, their properties and as green chemicals, including their environmental effects. The achievements of green analytical chemistry with micellar systems are reviewed in all the major areas of analytical chemistry where these reagents have been found to be useful.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  15. Effect of organotins on fecal pollution indicator organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettibone, G.W.; Cooney, J.J.

    1986-09-01

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis and environmental water samples were examined for the possibility that pollution involving organotin compounds could decrease the values for indicator organisms when standard methods were applied to the analysis of water samples. (CH/sub 3/)2SnC/sub 2/ and (CH/sub 3/)3SnCl decreased viable counts at about 10 to 100 mg of Sn liter-1 (8.4 X 10(-5) to 8.4 X 10(-4) mol of Sn liter-1), and tributyltin chloride was effective at about 0.1 to 1.0 mg of Sn liter-1 (8.4 X 10(-7) to 8.4 X 10(-6) mol of Sn liter-1. These concentrations, particularly for the methyltin compounds, are greater than the concentrations reported to date for these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, organotin compounds alone would not be likely to cause reductions in counts of indicator organisms measured by standard methods. However, it is suggested that, when combined with other environmental stressors or upon long exposure, organotins such as butyltins may contribute to the injury of indicator organisms.

  16. The Development of a Decision Aid with a Multi Criterial Analytic Approach for Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulbæk, Mette; Primdahl, Jette; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    The Development of a Decision Aid with a Multi Criterial Analytic Approach for Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse.......The Development of a Decision Aid with a Multi Criterial Analytic Approach for Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse....

  17. Theoretical development and analytical solutions for transport of volatile organic compounds in dual-porosity soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantush, Mohamed M.; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2003-08-01

    Predicting the behavior of volatile organic compounds in soils or sediments is necessary for managing their use and designing appropriate remedial systems to eliminate potential threats to the environment, particularly the air and groundwater resources. In this effort, based on continuity of mass flux, we derive a mass flux boundary condition of the third type in terms of physically based mass transfer rate coefficients, describing the resistance to mass inflow of the soil-air interface, and obtain one-dimensional analytical solutions for transport and degradation of volatile organic compounds in semi-infinite structured soils under steady, unsaturated flow conditions. The advective-dispersive mass balance formulation allows for mobile-immobile liquid phase and vapor diffusive mass transfer, with linear equilibrium adsorption and liquid-vapor phase partitioning in the dynamic and stagnant soil regions. The mass transfer rate coefficients of volatile organic chemicals across the soil-air interface are expressed in terms of solute properties and hydrodynamic characteristics of resistive soil and air-boundary layers. The solutions estimate solute vapor flux from soil surface and describe mobile-phase solute concentration as a function of depth in the soil and time. In particular, solutions were derived for: (1) zero-initial concentration in the soil profile subject to a continuous and pulsed source at the soil surface; and (2) depletion from the soil following an initially contaminated soil profile. Sensitivity analysis with respect to different dimensionless parameters is conducted and the effect on solute concentration and vapor flux of such parameters as volatilization mass transfer velocity relative to infiltration, soil Peclet number, biochemical decay, and diffusive mass transfer into the immobile phase, is plotted and the results are discussed. The mass transfer rate coefficients and the analytical solutions are applied to simulate transport of an example

  18. Indicator electrodes from d-elements for application in different types of potentiometric analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kunasheva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of metal electrodes from titanium, tungsten, molybdenum as indicator electrodes at potentiometric method of analysis. The condition of measuring operation in dependence on pH, ionic strength of solutions is described in the article. Electrode potential of testing electrodes are measured in the interval of concentration of salts from 0,1∙10-1 mole/l till 0,1∙10-6 mole/l. The results of testing of electrical-analytical description of metal electrodes made of d-elements, in particular, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum in solutions of cations of some metals and anions were mentioned. As ions of metal cations Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and anions Cl-, I-, F- were chosen.It is identified that titanic electrode has different response to ions of copper (II, zinc and cadmium. However, dependence of electrode potential on concentration of ions of metal is rectilinear, that is vequired of indicator electrodes in the direct potential metrics.  

  19. A computerized system to monitor resilience indicators in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; de Souza, Alan Pinheiro; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2012-01-01

    The concepts developed by resilience engineering allow the understanding and monitoring the functioning of organizations and, particularly, to map the role of human activities, in success or in failure, enabling a better comprehension about how people make decisions in unexpected situations. The capture of information about human activities in the various organization levels gives managers a deeper real-time understanding of what is influencing the people performance, providing awareness of the factors that influence positively or negatively the organizational goals initially projected. The monitoring is important because the correct functioning of complex systems depends on the knowledge that people have to perform their activities and how the system environment provides tools that actually support the human performance. Therefore, organizations should look forward through precursors in operating signals to identify possible problems or solutions in the structure of tasks and activities, safety, quality, schedule, rework, and maintenance. We apply the concepts of resilience engineering to understand the organization by the analysis of cognitive tasks and activities. The aim is the development of a computerized system to monitor human activities to produce indicators to access system resilience. The validation of the approach was made in a real organization and the results show the successful applicability of the system. Based on findings obtained after the experiment of the system in a real organization, and managers and workers opinions, it was possible to show that the use of system provided an anticipated (real-time) perception about how activities are effectively being performed, allowing managers and workers to make decisions more consistent with daily problems, and also to anticipate solutions to cope with unexpected situations.

  20. Volatilization of volatile organic compounds from showers—I. Analytical method and quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancrède, M.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Wilson, R.

    To provide data to test mathematical models developed to predict human exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) volatilizing from showers, an analytical method was developed to analyze the simultaneous volatilization of VOCs in the water and humid air of showers. Five VOCs with a wide range of Henry's law constants were used. Experiments, conducted in a full-scale shower, were performed at initial water concentrations nearing tap water VOC concentrations (a few μgλ -1). VOCs in water and humid air samples were concentrated by purge-and-trap, thermally desorbed from a Tenax trap and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. The fraction of the VOCs volatilized from showers at various water temperatures and flow rates were calculated. Mass-balane equations indicated the presence of sinks of VOCs in the experimental shower other than those due to the airflow. An experimental method to measure the residence time of the water in the shower is presented.

  1. Proposal of indicators to evaluate complementary feeding based on World Health Organization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; de Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2016-09-01

    This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Paraná, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Peculiarities of organization and methodology of indicative control in nonbudget unprofitable organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Vysochan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of development and the results of activity of organizations representing noncommercial economic sector depend on a properly organized and effectively operated system of control about payments and funds, property, reporting and other items. To arrange the control function of management for nonbudget unprofitable organizations we single out four groups of control according to the feature of entity initiative, they are: state, public, donative, managerial. Each of them differs in its application form and sphere of interests. The article establishes common and distinct features of organizations of commercial and noncommercial economic sectors, which influence upon the organization and methodology of their control. The most significant for nonbudget unprofitable organizations are: the aim and direction of activity, the absence of production, the sources of financing, the ways of efficiency control. The paper substantiates the importance of indicative control for increasing the efficiency of the activity of nonbudget unprofitable organizations. It describes the main financial indicators of possible inefficiency for nonbudget unprofitable organization activity: debit and credit indebtedness; the mobility of own funds; a part of stocks in current assets; the rhythm of movement of funds; penalty sanctions on the part of controlling bodies; monetary circulation related to counteragents; the deviation of actual indices from planned (estimated; atypical operations for an organization; the concentration of the capital attracted; the specific gravity of administrative costs in the costs of operating activity.

  3. Soil organic matter as sole indicator of soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obalum, S E; Chibuike, G U; Peth, S; Ouyang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils. Emphasis is placed particularly on the effect of SOM on soil structure and availability of plant nutrients. Although these properties are discussed separately, the soil system is of dynamic and interactive nature, and changes in one property will likely affect other soil properties as well. Thus, functions of SOM almost always affect various soil properties and processes and engage in multiple reactions. In view of its role in soil aggregation and erosion control, in availability of plant nutrients and in ameliorating other forms of soil degradation than erosion, SOM has proven to be an important indicator of soil degradation. It has been suggested, however, that rather than the absolute amount, temporal change and potential amount of SOM be considered in its use as indicator of soil degradation, and that SOM may not be an all-purpose indicator. Whilst SOM remains a candidate without substitute as long as a one-parameter indicator of soil degradation is needed, narrowing down to the use of its labile and microbial components could be more appropriate, since early detection is important in the control and management of soil degradation.

  4. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  5. Hematologic iron analyte values as an indicator of hepatic hemosiderosis in Callitrichidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristine M; McAloose, Denise; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Raphael, Bonnie L; Calle, Paul P; Moore, Robert P; James, Stephanie B

    2008-07-01

    Hepatic hemosiderosis is one of the most common postmortem findings in captive callitrichid species. Noninvasive evaluation of hematologic iron analytes has been used to diagnose hepatic iron storage disease in humans, lemurs, and bats. This study evaluated the relationship between hematologic iron analyte values (iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and percent transferrin saturation) and hepatic hemosiderosis in callitrichids at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park and Bronx Zoos. Results revealed that both ferritin and percent transferrin saturation levels had strong positive correlations with hepatic iron concentration (Phemosiderosis in callitrichids.

  6. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  7. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  8. NO and PO photofragments as trace analyte indicators of nitrocompounds and organophosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J.; Bar, I.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2000-11-01

    Laser photolysis that releases characteristic photofragments, combined with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) that subsequently monitors them, facilitate detection of trace-vapor analytes in air. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated for nitrocompounds and organophosphonates detection. Using one-color and two-color lasers, respectively, the representative NO and PO photofragments were tagged. Employment of longer wavelengths for photodissociation, and where possible also for LIF, than for fluorescence collection, obstructs background fluorescence and in the former compounds also prevents interference of ambient ground state NO.

  9. Changes in Visual/Spatial and Analytic Strategy Use in Organic Chemistry with the Development of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlacholia, Maria; Vosniadou, Stella; Roussos, Petros; Salta, Katerina; Kazi, Smaragda; Sigalas, Michael; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2017-01-01

    We present two studies that investigated the adoption of visual/spatial and analytic strategies by individuals at different levels of expertise in the area of organic chemistry, using the Visual Analytic Chemistry Task (VACT). The VACT allows the direct detection of analytic strategy use without drawing inferences about underlying mental…

  10. Total organic carbon in aggregates as a soil recovery indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria; Amorim Faria, Glaucia; Dubbin, William

    2015-04-01

    The soil aggregation promotes physical protection of organic matter, preservation of which is crucial to improve soil structure, fertility and ensure the agro-ecosystems sustainability. The no-tillage cultivation system has been considered as one of the strategies to increase total soil organic carbono (TOC) contents and soil aggregation, both are closely related and influenced by soil management systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of soil aggregates and the total organic carbon inside aggregates, with regard to soil recovery, under 3 different soil management systems, i.e. 10 and 20 years of no-tillage cultivation as compared with soil under natural vegetation (Cerrado). Undisturbed soils (0-5; 5-10; and 10-20 cm depth) were collected from Brazil, Central Region. The soils, Oxisols from Cerrado, were collected from a field under Natural Vegetation-Cerrado (NV), and from fields that were under conventional tillage since 1970s, and 10 and 20 years ago were changed to no-tillage cultivation system (NT-10; NT-20 respectively). The undisturbed samples were sieved (4mm) and the aggregates retained were further fractionated by wet sieving through five sieves (2000, 1000, 500, 250, and 50 μm) with the aggregates distribution expressed as percentage retained by each sieve. The TOC was determined, for each aggregate size, by combustion (Thermo-Finnigan). A predominance of aggregates >2000 μm was observed under NV treatment (92, 91, 82 %), NT-10 (64, 73, 61 %), and NT-20 (71, 79, 63 %) for all three depths (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 cm). In addition greater quantities of aggregates in sizes 1000, 500, 250 and 50 μm under NT-10 and NT-20 treatments, explain the lower aggregate stability under these treatments compared to the soil under NV. The organic C concentration for NV in aggregates >2000 μm was 24,4; 14,2; 8,7 mg/g for each depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 cm, respectively), higher than in aggregates sized 250-50 μm (7,2; 5,5; 4,4 mg/g) for all depths

  11. Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2013-08-06

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring business performance using indicators of ecologically sustainable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Charles G., Jr.; Snow, Charles C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of ecology-based performance measures as a way of augmenting the Balanced Scorecard approach to organizational performance measurement. The Balanced Scorecard, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton, focuses on four primary dimensions; financial, internal-business-process, customer, and learning and growth perspectives. Recently, many 'green' organizational theorists have developed the concept of "Ecologically Sustainable Organizations" or ESOs, a concept rooted in open systems theory. The ESO is called upon to consider resource use and conservation as a strategy for long-term viability. This paper asserts that in order to achieve ESO status, an organization must not only measure but also reward resource conservation measures. Only by adding a fifth perspective for ecological dimensions will the entity be truly motivated toward ESO status.

  13. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, D.; Cornaton, F.; Höhener, P.; Hunkeler, D.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experiment...

  14. Roselle calyx (Zoborodo) as a substitute to organic indicator (methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roselle calyx samples were dried, pulverized into powder and extracted with distilled water for 24 hours by maceration method. The acidity and alkalinity indicator properties of the extracts were tested with prepared acid and base solutions. The results showed colour change with all the samples. But titration using the ...

  15. Recent advances in analytical pyrolysis to investigate organic materials in heritage science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2018-03-09

    The molecular characterization of organic materials in samples from artworks and historical objects traditionally entailed qualitative and quantitative analyses by HPLC and GC. Today innovative approaches based on analytical pyrolysis enable samples to be analysed without any chemical pre-treatment. Pyrolysis, which is often considered as a screening technique, shows previously unexplored potential thanks to recent instrumental developments. Organic materials that are macromolecular in nature, or undergo polymerization upon curing and ageing can now be better investigated. Most constituents of paint layers and archaeological organic substances contain major insoluble and chemically non-hydrolysable fractions that are inaccessible to GC or HPLC. To date, molecular scientific investigations of the organic constituents of artworks and historical objects have mostly focused on the minor constituents of the sample. This review presents recent advances in the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of organic materials in heritage objects based on analytical pyrolysis coupled with mass spectrometry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  17. Luminescent lanthanide complexes as analytical tools in anion sensing, pH indication and protein recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Satoshi; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2011-02-07

    Although lanthanide complexes are recently used in luminescence labeling of bio-targets, this review focuses on sensing profiles of synthetic and biological lanthanide complexes. Rational design and combinatorial screening approaches toward synthetic lanthanide complexes applicable as luminescent sensing materials are described. Iron-carrying transferrin and ferritin proteins further form lanthanide complexes working as pH indicators and protein recognition reagents.

  18. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF USING CLOUD SERVICES FOR THE INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign experience of using cloud services for the information-analytical support of the organization of international cooperation of universities is presented in the article. The best practices of using cloud services like new analytical tools and platforms for solving complex problems of optimization of the management of scientific and international activities of universities are analyzed. Architecture of the cloud computing environment as a system is analysed; it consists of 4 blocks: hardware; infrastructure; platforms and applications and cloud taxonomy for the organization of the scientific, academic and international activities of the University support, as well as taxonomy of the main cloud technologies to support the University's academic and international activities. The activities of the leading universities of the world for 2016-2017 are monitored and the expert results of Quacquarelli Symonds specialists’ are presented according to the World University Ratings. The evaluation was carried out based on more than 50 different indicators, such as: academic reputation; employer's reputation; faculty / student rate; reference (quotation about the faculty; international correlation of faculties; international student rate; assessment of the quality of researches of scientists and determination of productivity of the university; number of quotes; graduate university rewards; assessment of teaching quality; employment opportunity; Internationalization, which includes statistical indicators for the number of foreign students styding at University; number of exchange students; number of international partnership Agreements with other universities; accessibility; the possibility of distance learning; social responsibility; innovation; art and culture; inclusiveness, etc.

  19. Enhancing Competitiveness Business Strategy of Organic Vegetables Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristiana Widyastuti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Public awareness about healthy lifestyles leads people to want to understand more about the food they consume. Choosing organic vegetables is one alternative choices when seeking to have a healthy body and healthy lifestyle. Unfortunately, not a lot of organic vegetable farmers in Indonesia succeed in seizing the organic vegetable market rather than the non-organic and the competition with imported organic vegetables into Indonesia prevents farmers from thriving. This study aims to: 1 Analyze the factors affecting the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 2 Analyze the appropriate strategy for increasing the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 3 Analyze the factors priority strategies for improving the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market. Porter's Generic Model and Analysis Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to determine the best strategy. The research found that organic vegetables marketing channels are still dominated by conventional market; the higher cost for intensive cultivation of organic vegetables. The main strategies are derived from the analysis is focusing on market delivery. There needs to be retailers of organic vegetables either modern or traditional to display these products. The establishment of organic vegetable outlets and online marketing that are not dependent on large retail (hypermarket become recommendations in this study. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Kesadaran masyarakat tentang gaya hidup sehat memberi pilihan kepada masyarakat untuk memahami makanan yang mereka konsumsi. Pilihan sayuran organik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk memiliki tubuh sehat dan gaya hidup sehat bagi masyarakat. Sayangnya, tidak banyak petani sayuran organik di Indonesia yang berhasil merebut pasar sayuran organik daripada non organic. Persaingan produk impor sayuran organik ke Indonesia membuat petani tidak bisa berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: 1 Menganalisis faktor-faktor yang

  20. Effects of Bimolecular Recombination on Impedance Spectra in Organic Semiconductors: Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Masashi; Takagi, Kenichiro; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    An analytical expression for impedance spectra in the case of double injection (both electrons and holes are injected into an organic semiconductor thin film) has been derived from the basic transport equations (the current density equation, the continuity equation and the Possion's equation). Capacitance-frequency characteristics calculated from the analytical expression have been examined at different recombination constants and different values of mobility balance defined by a ratio of electron mobility to hole mobility. Negative capacitance appears when the recombination constant is lower than the Langevin recombination constant and when the value of the mobility balance approaches unity. These results are consistent with the numerical results obtained by a device simulator (Atlas, Silvaco).

  1. Determining the effective indices on export development of Iran’s office furniture thereby analytical hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry is one of the most important employment and wealth productive industries, and also one major category in developing countries. This study aimed on determining the effective indices on export development of office furniture throughout the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and also by group decision. For this, imports and exports of office furniture were determined through visiting the custom office of Islamic Republic of Iran. By then, after initial studies, furniture industry and relevant experts were interviewed to recognize the effective indices on export development, and specified indices were categorized on six main groups and forty-eight sub-index. After receiving the comments of experts, degree of importance of indices and sub-indices determined thereby Expert Choice software. Results showed that raw material and product has been chosen among the major indices. Among the 48 influential sub-indices also product designing, guaranty and costumer services, quality control, custom tariffs, and strategic marketing had highest value-weighted priorities in export development of office furniture, respectively. Regarding to government’s policies and decisions in wood raw materials extent, monetary and banking system and marketing infrastructures, to maintain the productivity competitiveness of Iran’s furniture industry in first step, and to achieve to the export markets in second step, full cooperation of government with furniture industry is necessary provision for participating of this industry in global markets.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  3. Analytical and preparative separation of organic acids from water by extraction with trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoyer, O.; Knobel, K.P.; Hodenberg, S. von

    1977-12-01

    The extraction of pure organic acids and of humic and ligninsulfonic acid from water by a solution of trioctylamine in chloroform was investigated (technical grade amine = ALAMINE). Quantitative separation is achieved by double extraction with 5% ALAMINE at pH 3,5 - 4. The acids may be back-extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Procedures are described for the analytical extraction of water samples of 200 to 2.000 ml and for the flow-through processing of large water volumes. (orig.) [de

  4. An analytical expression of electric potential and field of organic thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankalla, S; Glesner, M

    2012-01-01

    The two-dimensional electric potential and field of an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is derived by conformal mapping using the Schwarz-Christoffel-transformation of the Poisson equation. In this paper we compare this analytical closed-form solution to field simulation results from Silvaco TCAD. Inter alia the potential close to the surface is calculated and we found excellent accordance to the numerical simulations and thus proofed its usability for charge transport calculations. Thus, it is used for calculation of the drain-source-current in the channel.

  5. Electro-spun organic nanofibers elaboration process investigations using comparative analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, A; Boubaker, K

    2014-01-30

    In this paper Enhanced Variational Iteration Method, EVIM is proposed, along with the BPES, for solving Bratu equation which appears in the particular elecotrospun nanofibers fabrication process framework. Elecotrospun organic nanofibers, with diameters less than 1/4 microns have been used in non-wovens and filtration industries for a broad range of filtration applications in the last decade. Electro-spinning process has been associated to Bratu equation through thermo-electro-hydrodynamics balance equations. Analytical solutions have been proposed, discussed and compared. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical model for current distribution in large-area organic light emitting diodes with parallel metal grid lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barink, M.; Harkema, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an analytical solution for the current distribution of a large-area organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with parallel equidistant gridlines is derived. In contrast to numerical methods, this analytical solution allows for a very quick scan of the OLED design space, even for very

  7. SOMFlow: Guided Exploratory Cluster Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps and Analytic Provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Dominik; Kraus, Matthias; Bernard, Jurgen; Behrisch, Michael; Schreck, Tobias; Asano, Yuki; Keim, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    Clustering is a core building block for data analysis, aiming to extract otherwise hidden structures and relations from raw datasets, such as particular groups that can be effectively related, compared, and interpreted. A plethora of visual-interactive cluster analysis techniques has been proposed to date, however, arriving at useful clusterings often requires several rounds of user interactions to fine-tune the data preprocessing and algorithms. We present a multi-stage Visual Analytics (VA) approach for iterative cluster refinement together with an implementation (SOMFlow) that uses Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to analyze time series data. It supports exploration by offering the analyst a visual platform to analyze intermediate results, adapt the underlying computations, iteratively partition the data, and to reflect previous analytical activities. The history of previous decisions is explicitly visualized within a flow graph, allowing to compare earlier cluster refinements and to explore relations. We further leverage quality and interestingness measures to guide the analyst in the discovery of useful patterns, relations, and data partitions. We conducted two pair analytics experiments together with a subject matter expert in speech intonation research to demonstrate that the approach is effective for interactive data analysis, supporting enhanced understanding of clustering results as well as the interactive process itself.

  8. Is it all grist to the mill? Wandering between indications for psychoanalytic treatment and the analytic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the indications and contraindications for psychoanalytic treatment seems crucial to achieve therapeutic success and improve treatment effectiveness. In reviewing the classic literature on the topic, aspects such as age, diagnosis, motivation for treatment, present moment in life, ability to gain insight, psychic suffering when seeking treatment, defensive behaviors, and frustration tolerance are clearly analyzed by therapists/analysts when indicating psychoanalytic treatments. However, traditionally, most criteria underlying such indications date back to a time when the therapeutic relationship was viewed merely as a therapist treating a patient, with no regard to the therapeutic relationship itself. The goal of this article was to critically review the relevance and current adequacy of indications for psychoanalytic treatment, in view of advancements in knowledge on the analytic field. Considering cases that do not evolve as expected according to the indications, patients who are better suited to certain therapists, and therapist-patient pairs that modify their interaction over the course of treatment, the main question remains on how to identify the necessary elements in evaluating a candidate patient for psychoanalytic treatment, as well as the significant elements of therapeutic action.

  9. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Tzu; Lin, Jou-Wei

    2014-04-11

    The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty's eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the "Attitudes and Traits" or "Beliefs and Values" dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan.

  10. Applications of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory Indices to Organic Chemistry Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Luis R; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Pérez, Patricia

    2016-06-09

    Theoretical reactivity indices based on the conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool for the semiquantitative study of organic reactivity. A large number of reactivity indices have been proposed in the literature. Herein, global quantities like the electronic chemical potential μ, the electrophilicity ω and the nucleophilicity N indices, and local condensed indices like the electrophilic P k + and nucleophilic P k - Parr functions, as the most relevant indices for the study of organic reactivity, are discussed.

  11. Analytical pyrolysis-based study on intra-skeletal organic matrices from Mediterranean corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiano, Alessio; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren; Fermani, Simona; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Off-line analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), directly or after trimethylsilylation, along with infrared spectroscopy and amino acid analysis was applied for the first time to the characterization of the intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) extracted from four Mediterranean hard corals. They were diverse in growth form and trophic strategy namely Balanophyllia europaea and Leptopsammia pruvoti—solitary corals, only the first having zooxanthelle—and Cladocora caespitosa and Astroides calycularis—colonial corals, only the first with zooxanthelle. Pyrolysis products evolved from OM could be assigned to lipid (e.g. fatty acids, fatty alcohols, monoacylglicerols), protein (e.g. 2,5-diketopiperazines, DKPs) and polysaccharide (e.g. anhydrosugars) precursors. Their quantitative distribution showed for all the species a low protein content with respect to lipids and polysaccharides. A chemometric approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was applied on OM mean amino acidic compositions. The small compositional diversity across coral species was tentatively related with coral growth form. The presence of N-acetyl glucosamine markers suggested a functional link with other calcified tissues containing chitin. The protein fraction was further investigated using novel DKP markers tentatively identified from analytical pyrolysis of model polar linear dipeptides. Again, no correlation was observed in relation to coral ecology. These analytical results revealed that the bulk structure and composition of OMs among studied corals are similar, as it is the textural organization of the skeleton mineralized units. Therefore, they suggest that coral’s biomineralization is governed by similar macromolecules, and probably mechanisms, independently from their ecology.

  12. Multi-indicator Evaluation System for Broadsword, Rod, Sword and Spear Athletes Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In the practical selection of Wushu athletes, the objective evaluation of the level of athletes lacks sufficient technical indicators and often relies on the coach’s subjective judgments. It is difficult to accurately and objectively reflect the overall quality of the athletes without a fully quantified indicator system, thus affecting the level improvement of Wushu competition. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a systemic analysis method combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. This paper realizes structured, hierarchized and quantified decision-making process of evaluating broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes in the AHP. Combing characteristics of the athletes, analysis is carried out from three aspects, i.e., the athlete’s body shape, physical function and sports quality and 18 specific evaluation indicators established, and then combining expert advice and practical experience, pairwise comparison matrix is determined, and then the weight of the indicators and comprehensive evaluation coefficient are obtained to establish the evaluation model for the athletes, thus providing a scientific theoretical basis for the selection of Wushu athletes. The evaluation model proposed in this paper has realized the evaluation system of broadsword, rod, sword and spear athletes, which has effectively improved the scientific level of Wushu athletes selection in practical application.

  13. [Efficiency indicators to assess the organ donation and transplantation process: systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine

    2016-08-01

    To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S and GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S and GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  15. Side-by-side comparison of analytical techniques; organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions in PWR secondary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, S.A.; Byers, W.A.; Miller, M.R.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Total Organic Carbon TOC samples should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken and they should be stored in a refrigerated condition, if at all possible. It can be inferred that for TOC levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppb, state-of-the-art sampling and analysis techniques can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppb. Any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Agreement between anion results appeared to improve over the course of the project. Both contractors agree that increased attention and care with sampling and analytical techniques probably accounted for this improvement. Utility personnel can therefore conclude that proper employee training, supervision, and motivation for proper sampling and analysis are critical if accurate anion results are to be obtained. Resonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggest that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  16. Assessment of neutron fluence to organ dose conversion coefficients in the ORNL analytical adult phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri Hakimabad, H; Rafat Motavalli, L; Karimi Shahri, K

    2009-03-01

    Neutron fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients have been evaluated for the analytical ORNL modified adult phantom in 21 body organs using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The calculation used 20 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10(-9)-20 MeV, under four irradiation conditions: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT) and right-lateral (RLAT). Then the conversion coefficients are compared with the data reported in ICRP publication 74 for mathematical MIRD type phantoms and by Bozkurt et al for the VIPMAN voxel model. Although the ORNL results show fewer differences with the ICRP results than the Bozkurt et al data, one can deduce neither complete agreement nor disparity between this study and other data sets. This comparison shows that in some cases any differences in applied Monte Carlo codes or simulated body models could significantly change the organ dose conversion factors. This sensitivity should be considered for radiological protection programmes. For certain organs, the results of two models with major differences can be in a satisfactory agreement because of the similarity in those organ models.

  17. Monitoring and analytics of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Zabiegała, Bożena; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews literature information on the behaviour of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment, as well as the most likely emission sources. The consecutive stages of analytical procedures used for monitoring SVOCs in indoor environments are described. The most common approaches used for collecting samples from the gas and particulate phases are mentioned. The paper discusses and compares various types of sorbents and filters applied in dynamic, passive and denudational techniques, as well as the techniques used to liberate the SVOCs, including Soxhlet, sonication and microwave extraction. The main advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed, together with possible future trends. The approaches commonly used during the final determination step, such as gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, are presented together with their possible drawbacks, and ways of eliminating them are suggested. The review makes brief reference to the effects of human exposure to SVOCs in house dust and discusses the main aspects of the analytical procedures used to monitor the presence of SVOCs in this medium.

  18. Analytical modeling of the subsurface volatile organic vapor concentration in vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that intrude from a subsurface contaminant source into indoor air has become the subject of health and safety concerns over the last twenty years. Building subslab and soil gas contaminant vapor concentration sampling have become integral parts of vapor intrusion field investigations. While numerical models can be of use in analyzing field data and in helping understand the subslab and soil gas vapor concentrations, they are not widely used due to the perceived effort in setting them up. In this manuscript, we present a new closed-form analytical expression describing subsurface contaminant vapor concentrations, including subslab vapor concentrations. The expression was derived using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. Results from this analytical model match well the numerical modeling results. This manuscript also explores the relationship between subslab and exterior soil gas vapor concentrations, and offers insights on what parameters need to receive greater focus in field studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting organic food consumption: A meta-analytic structural equation model based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Andrea; Noventa, Stefano; Sartori, Riccardo; Ceschi, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    During the last decade, the purchase of organic food within a sustainable consumption context has gained momentum. Consequently, the amount of research in the field has increased, leading in some cases to discrepancies regarding both methods and results. The present review examines those works that applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework in order to understand and predict consumers' motivation to buy organic food. A meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the strength of the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as between intention and behavior. Results confirm the major role played by individual attitude in shaping buying intention, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Intention-behavior shows a large effect size, few studies however explicitly reported such an association. Furthermore, starting from a pooled correlation matrix, a meta-analytic structural equation model has been applied to jointly evaluate the strength of the relationships among the factors of the original model. Results suggest the robustness of the TPB model. In addition, mediation analysis indicates a potential direct effect from subjective norms to individual attitude in the present context. Finally, some issues regarding methodological aspects of the application of the TPB within the context of organic food are discussed for further research developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical Method Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Stability-Indicating Study of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Intravaginal Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medroxyprogesterone acetate is widely used in veterinary medicine as intravaginal dosage for the synchronization of breeding cycle in ewes and goats. The main goal of this study was to develop reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of medroxyprogesterone acetate in veterinary vaginal sponges. A single high-performance liquid chromatography/UV isocratic run was used for the analytical assay of the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone. The chromatographic system consisted of a reverse-phase C18 column as the stationary phase and a mixture of 60% acetonitrile and 40% potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as the mobile phase; the pH was adjusted to 5.6. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were also performed to evaluate the stability-indicating properties and specificity of the method. Medroxyprogesterone was eluted at 5.9 minutes. The linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 0.0576 to 0.1134 mg/mL ( R 2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification was shown to be 3.9 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy ranges were found to be %RSD <0.2 and 98% to 102%, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone capacity factor value of 2.1, tailing factor value of 1.03, and resolution value of 3.9 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results, a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone in vaginal sponges. This analytical method is the only available method to analyse medroxyprogesterone in veterinary intravaginal dosage form.

  1. Advances in Alkenone Paleotemperature Proxies: Analytical Methods, Novel Structures and Haptophyte Species, Biosynthesis, New indices and Ecological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Longo, W. M.; Zheng, Y.; Richter, N.; Dillon, J. T.; Theroux, S.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Toney, J. L.; Wang, L.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alkenones are mature, well-established paleo-sea surface temperature proxies that have been widely applied for more than three decades. However, recent advances across a broad range of alkenone-related topics at Brown University are inviting new paleoclimate and paleo-environmental applications for these classic biomarkers. In this presentation, I will summarize our progress in the following areas: (1) Discovery of a freshwater alkenone-producing haptophyte species and structural elucidation of novel alkenone structures unique to the species, performing in-situ temperature calibrations, and classifying alkenone-producing haptophytes into three groups based on molecular ecological approaches (with the new species belonging to Group I Isochrysidales); (2) A global survey of Group I haptophyte distributions and environmental conditions favoring the presence of this alga, as well as examples of using Group I alkenones for paleotemperature reconstructions; (3) New gas chromatographic columns that allow unprecedented resolution of alkenones and alkenoates and associated structural isomers, and development of a new suite of paleotemperature and paleoenvironmental proxies; (4) A new liquid chromatographic separation technique that allows efficient cleanup of alkenones and alkenoates (without the need for saponification) for subsequent coelution-free gas chromatographic analysis; (5) Novel structural features revealed by new analytical methods that now allow a comprehensive re-assessment of taxonomic features of various haptophyte species, with principal component analysis capable of fully resolving species biomarker distributions; (6) Development of UK37 double prime (UK37'') for Group II haptophytes (e.g., those occurring in saline lakes and estuaries), that differs from the traditional unsaturation indices used for SST reconstructions; (7) New assessment of how mixed inputs from different alkenone groups may affect SST reconstructions in marginal ocean environments and

  2. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Daniel; Cornaton, Fabien; Höhener, Patrick; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experimental data from a one-dimensional laboratory column and a radial-symmetric field experiment. The comparison yielded a satisfying agreement. The model results clearly illustrate the significant isotope fractionation by gas phase diffusion under transient state conditions. This leads to an initial depletion of heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the source. The isotope evolution of the source is governed by the combined effects of isotope fractionation due to vaporisation, diffusion and biodegradation. The net effect can lead to an enrichment or depletion of the heavy isotope in the remaining organic phase, depending on the compound and element considered. Finally, the isotope evolution of molecules migrating away from the source and undergoing degradation is governed by a combined degradation and diffusion isotope effect. This suggests that, in the unsaturated zone, the interpretation of biodegradation of VOC based on isotopic data must always be based on a model combining gas phase diffusion and degradation.

  3. Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

  4. On the Use of In-memory Analytics Workflows to Compute eScience Indicators from Large Climate Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAnca, Alessandro; Palazzo, Cosimo; Elia, Donatello; Fiore, Sandro; Bistinas, Ioannis; Bottcher, Kristin; Bennett, Victoria; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The need to apply complex algorithms on large volumes of data is boosting the development of technological solutions able to satisfy big data analytics needs in Cloud and HPC environments. In this context Ophidia represents a big data analytics framework for eScience offering a cross-domain solution

  5. Organic compounds as indicators for transport in an urban characterized complex karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, R.; Licha, T.; Nödler, K.; Geyer, T.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    In northern Hesse (Germany), sediments of the Upper Permian (Zechstein-Formations) are outcropping in a coastal facies along the western rim of the Rhenish Massif. The geologic section is characterized by a sequence of carbonate rocks (carbonates of the Werra-, Staßfurt- and Leine-Formations) and predominantly fine clastic sediments. The carbonate aquifers of the Werra-Formation and the Leine-Formation are used for drinking water abstraction of a provincial town and surrounding communities. Concurrently, the urban area is characterized by industrial and commercial uses. The groundwater flow system is composed of three potential karst aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes within a complex tectonically faulted area. The study area is divided into three spring catchment areas. However, the locations of the subsurface water divides are unknown. Traditional methods to determine the catchment areas (e.g. artificial tracer tests) are difficult to apply, due to a lack of adequate injection points. The presented work deals with the use of organic compounds as indicators for subsurface flow paths. Medical drugs, pesticides, corrosion inhibitors and such typical waste water compounds as caffeine (NÖDLER ET AL. 2010) are observed in approximately fifty groundwater observation points by regular sampling. The seasonal variability of the distribution pattern of organic compounds is low. The most common compounds are atrazine and its metabolites desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine, as well as the corrosion inhibitor 1H-benzotriazole. Since these substances are applied in different regions different input functions can be assumed. However, the highest concentrations are detected along a North-orientated axis, which also exhibits the greatest compound variety. This distribution pattern indicates preferential flow and transport pathways in the subsurface. The absence of organic compounds in other parts of the investigation area implies the existence of a water divide between

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.G.; Meznarich, H.K.; Olsen, J.R.; Ross, G.A.; Stauffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively

  7. FAPIG's activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    FAPIG organizes a visit to nuclear power station in every November. It is an object that visitors acquire the correct knowledge of nuclear power by looking at the various facilities in the nuclear power stations. The paper showed the analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The visitors were 18 women. The questionnaire was carried out by the same problems before and after seminar and a conducted tour. Their impressions and opinions and the changes are analyzed. The speakers used easy words, video, OHP, pamphlet and experimental equipment. These means showed very good results to visitors. The seminar had very large effect on just recognition of safety and need of it. The change of answer proved from 3 to 6 of need and from 0 to 7 of safety of it. Nine members indicated good understanding of seminar content. The interested items in the seminar were measurement of radiation, effects of radiation, reason of decreasing average life, Chernobyl accident, difference between nuclear power and atomic bomb and nuclear power dose not generate carbon dioxide and recycle plutonium after nuclear fission of uranium. (S.Y.)

  8. HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF RAT ORGANISMS UNDER CONDITIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPOSOMAL PREPARATION ACTION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khariv; B. V. Gutyj; V. Butsyak; І. Khariv

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the results of search of the influence of developed complex liposomal drug on dynamics of hematological parameters of rat organisms under conditions of simulated oxidative stress caused by the use of carbon tetrachloride. Intramuscular injection of 50% tetrachloromethane to rats at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body weight causes antigenic load on the body and leads to disruption of physiologic level of hematological indices of experimental animal organisms. This indic...

  9. Recursive organizer (ROR): an analytic framework for sequence-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Huang, Xin

    2013-07-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies affords the ability to sequence thousands of subjects cost-effectively, and is revolutionizing the landscape of genetic research. With the evolving genotyping/sequencing technologies, it is not unrealistic to expect that we will soon obtain a pair of diploidic fully phased genome sequences from each subject in the near future. Here, in light of this potential, we propose an analytic framework called, recursive organizer (ROR), which recursively groups sequence variants based upon sequence similarities and their empirical disease associations, into fewer and potentially more interpretable super sequence variants (SSV). As an illustration, we applied ROR to assess an association between HLA-DRB1 and type 1 diabetes (T1D), discovering SSVs of HLA-DRB1 with sequence data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Specifically, ROR reduces 36 observed unique HLA-DRB1 sequences into 8 SSVs that empirically associate with T1D, a fourfold reduction of sequence complexity. Using HLA-DRB1 data from Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium as cases and data from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as controls, we are able to validate associations of these SSVs with T1D. Further, SSVs consist of nine nucleotides, and each associates with its corresponding amino acids. Detailed examination of these selected amino acids reveals their potential functional roles in protein structures and possible implication to the mechanism of T1D.

  10. Measuring the grafting density of nanoparticles in solution by analytical ultracentrifugation and total organic carbon analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Denise N; Zhu, Huiguang; Lilierose, Michael H; Verm, Raymond A; Ali, Naushaba; Morrison, Adam N; Fortner, John D; Avendano, Carolina; Colvin, Vicki L

    2012-11-06

    Many of the solution phase properties of nanoparticles, such as their colloidal stability and hydrodynamic diameter, are governed by the number of stabilizing groups bound to the particle surface (i.e., grafting density). Here, we show how two techniques, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and total organic carbon analysis (TOC), can be applied separately to the measurement of this parameter. AUC directly measures the density of nanoparticle-polymer conjugates while TOC provides the total carbon content of its aqueous dispersions. When these techniques are applied to model gold nanoparticles capped with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol), the measured grafting densities across a range of polymer chain lengths, polymer concentrations, and nanoparticle diameters agree to within 20%. Moreover, the measured grafting densities correlate well with the polymer content determined by thermogravimetric analysis of solid conjugate samples. Using these tools, we examine the particle core diameter, polymer chain length, and polymer solution concentration dependence of nanoparticle grafting densities in a gold nanoparticle-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate system.

  11. Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards the Use of CRM’s Analytical Tools in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebjan Urban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Information solutions for analytical customer relationship management CRM (aCRM IS that include the use of analytical tools are becoming increasingly important, due organizations’ need for knowledge of their customers and the ability to manage big data. The objective of the research is, therefore, to determine how the organizations’ orientations (process, innovation, and technology as critical organizational factors affect the attitude towards the use of the analytical tools of aCRM IS.

  12. Best practices on institutional performance indicators system in R and D and I public organizations - the case of military organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Maria Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects the partial results of a Master degree research, performed in IPEN and CTMSP in Brazil. The focus of this research is to establish the best practices for an Institutional Performance Indicators System in Public Research, Development and Innovation (R and D and I) Organizations, particularly, the military ones. In public sector, especially military Institutes that are strongly committed to R and D and I, there have been changes in order to modernize the organization management. The focus, in our days, is on the Performance Indicator System, financial or not, strategic, tactic and operational, as a tool for the organizational control over the accomplishment of settled plans, the completion of the mission, everything according to a continuous improvement process. Among the many approaches underlying the development of a Performance Indicator System, since the 90s, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC stands out. It is based on the studies developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1986. By using the BSC approach, it is possible to construct a Performance Indicator System that makes available the information, financial or non-financial data, in logical format. This paper presents the results of the international and national experiences review of Institutional Performance Indicator Systems, applicable to the public organizations of R and D and I, preferably military organizations, and identify the best practices of these Systems. At the end of this paper, it is conducted a comparison among the experiences analyzed, in operation or planned, and are established some suggestions for an Institutional Performance Indicator System for a Military R and D and I Organization. (author)

  13. Best practices on institutional performance indicators system in R and D and I public organizations - the case of military organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria Cecilia [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Superintendencia da Qualidade]. E-mail: mcecilia37@hotmail.com; ctmsp-70b1@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dmzouain@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper reflects the partial results of a Master degree research, performed in IPEN and CTMSP in Brazil. The focus of this research is to establish the best practices for an Institutional Performance Indicators System in Public Research, Development and Innovation (R and D and I) Organizations, particularly, the military ones. In public sector, especially military Institutes that are strongly committed to R and D and I, there have been changes in order to modernize the organization management. The focus, in our days, is on the Performance Indicator System, financial or not, strategic, tactic and operational, as a tool for the organizational control over the accomplishment of settled plans, the completion of the mission, everything according to a continuous improvement process. Among the many approaches underlying the development of a Performance Indicator System, since the 90s, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC stands out. It is based on the studies developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1986. By using the BSC approach, it is possible to construct a Performance Indicator System that makes available the information, financial or non-financial data, in logical format. This paper presents the results of the international and national experiences review of Institutional Performance Indicator Systems, applicable to the public organizations of R and D and I, preferably military organizations, and identify the best practices of these Systems. At the end of this paper, it is conducted a comparison among the experiences analyzed, in operation or planned, and are established some suggestions for an Institutional Performance Indicator System for a Military R and D and I Organization. (author)

  14. Methodological procedures and analytical instruments to evaluate an indicators integrated archive for urban management; Guida metodologica per la costruzione di un archivio integrato di indicatori urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This guide provides the results of a research developed at ENEA (National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment) Casaccia center (Rome, Italy) aimed to define methodological procedures and analytical instruments needed to carry out an indicators integrated archive for urban management. The guide also defines the scheme of a negotiation process aimed to reach and exchange data and information among governmental and local administrations, non-governmental organizations and scientific bodies. [Italian] Il lavoro presenta una sintesi dei risultati di una ricerca condotta presso il C.R. Casaccia dell'ENEA, relativia alla definizione di procedure metodologiche e strumenti di analisi ed elaborazione per realizzare un archivio integrato di indicatori per la gestione dei sistemi urbani. La guida, rivolta ai responsabili delle politiche urbane, deifinisce uno schema dei processi di condivisione degli indicatori urbani attraverso l'organizzazione di opportuni tavoli negoziali, costituiti da rappresentanti delle amministrazioni locali, dell'amministrazione centrale, delle categorie produttive e sociali e delle strutture tecniche operanti sul territorio.

  15. HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF RAT ORGANISMS UNDER CONDITIONS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPOSOMAL PREPARATION ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khariv

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of search of the influence of developed complex liposomal drug on dynamics of hematological parameters of rat organisms under conditions of simulated oxidative stress caused by the use of carbon tetrachloride. Intramuscular injection of 50% tetrachloromethane to rats at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body weight causes antigenic load on the body and leads to disruption of physiologic level of hematological indices of experimental animal organisms. This indicates the number reduce of red blood cells, hemoglobin content, hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte, increasing the number of leukocytes, mass of hemoglobin in erythrocyte and increased of color index. To normalize the hematological indices of rat organisms for the development of oxidative stress it is advisable to apply the liposomal drug that incorporates contains butafosfan, interferon, milk thistle and vitamins. When using liposomal drug to rats, under conditions of oxidative stress, the normalization of hematological indices comes in blood, namely on 14th day within physiological variables were indicators of the number of erythrocytes of hemoglobin content, white blood cell count and indices of red blood cells compared to controls, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of marrow.

  16. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR HEALTHCARE RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS BETWEEN 2011 AND 2015

    OpenAIRE

    ANISKEVICH A.S.; HALFIN R.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we identify 16 key indicators to evaluate the performance of healthcare research organizations. These indicators comprehensively characterize such aspects of performance as research output and relevance, human resource development, integration into the international scientific community, distribution of scientific knowledge, promotion of the prestige of science, and resource provision. Below, we review the existing classification of medical research institutions and their key fea...

  17. Comparison of learning organization indicators in 2 universities in Shiraz as viewed by the personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Yazdani, Zahra; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    The Higher Education Center in third-world countries is in charge of training competent manpower as well as science production, thereby widely affecting the society's cultural, political, and social affairs. Therefore, to survive and adapt to the environment, higher education needs personnel who function in accordance with today's evolving world. One of the ways to adapt is to shift to the form of learning organization. This study reports on a descriptive field study conducted on 499 university staff (208 from Shiraz University and 291 from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences). Data were collected using Sanga's learning-organization questionnaire. Face and content validities were determined using the academic staff's viewpoints, and reliability was proved to be 97%. According to the staff working in the 2 universities, the null hypothesis of the equality of the universities as to learning-organization indicators was rejected (0.05) because the significance level was less than 0.001. Therefore, there was a significant difference between these 2 universities in the aforementioned dimensions. The mean and total scores of the 5 indicators of the learning organization were higher for Shiraz University personnel as compared with those working in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Considering the important role of universities, it is necessary to take measures to promote learning-organization indicators to an ideal level, thereby contributing to our country's success and advancement.

  18. Application of surface analytical methods for hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea: monitoring of organic matter dynamics and oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletikapić, Galja; Ivošević DeNardis, Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Surface analytical methods are applied to examine the environmental status of seawaters. The present overview emphasizes advantages of combining surface analytical methods, applied to a hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea, such as monitoring of the first aggregation phases of dissolved organic matter in order to potentially predict the massive mucilage formation and testing of oil spill cleanup. Such an approach, based on fast and direct characterization of organic matter and its high-resolution visualization, sets a continuous-scale description of organic matter from micro- to nanometre scales. Electrochemical method of chronoamperometry at the dropping mercury electrode meets the requirements for monitoring purposes due to the simple and fast analysis of a large number of natural seawater samples enabling simultaneous differentiation of organic constituents. In contrast, atomic force microscopy allows direct visualization of biotic and abiotic particles and provides an insight into structural organization of marine organic matter at micro- and nanometre scales. In the future, merging data at different spatial scales, taking into account experimental input on micrometre scale, observations on metre scale and modelling on kilometre scale, will be important for developing sophisticated technological platforms for knowledge transfer, reports and maps applicable for the marine environmental protection and management of the coastal area, especially for tourism, fishery and cruiser trafficking.

  19. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  20. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: Model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evalu...

  1. Bio indicator organisms available to use for determination of radioactive elements in Turkey's seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbas, F.; Guener, H.

    2006-01-01

    In determination of radioactive concentration and monitoring alive and lifeless environmental samples possess a significant place. Thus, intense study is carried out related to natural and artificial radionuclides sediment. Bio indicator living organisms inhabiting in sea ecosystems; are being evaluated in researches such as determinations of environmental pollution, natural and artificial radioactive elements. Turkey's seas are rich related to diversification of various types. In determining and monitoring radioactivity concentration widespread implementation of some sorts appeal attention and on the other hand inadequate usage of many types is observed. In the present study, providing information about the bio indicator organisms keep living in seas and plays important role in food supply chain and increasing the numbers of the types of organisms used are aimed

  2. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  3. Soil organic matter stability as indicated by compound-specific radiocarbon analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Zell, Claudia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Eglinton, Timothy Ian

    2017-04-01

    Carbon storage in soils is increasingly recognized as a key ecosystem function, and molecular-level analyses could be a valuable potential indicator of this storage potential. In this framework, radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling soil carbon dynamics on both decadal as well as centennial and millennial timescales. In this study, we look at the radiocarbon signature of specific compounds (fatty acids and n-alkanes) in two forested ecosystems (temperate and pre-alpine) with the aim of attaining a better understanding of soil organic carbon stability on a molecular level. Radiocarbon dating of the fatty acids and n-alkanes has been coupled to abundance data of these compounds and additionally lignin phenols. We hypothesize that potentially, these long-chain apolar compounds could be a representative indicator of the mineral-bound soil organic carbon pool. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Therefore, a wide suite of ancillary climatic and textural data is available for these sites. Initial results show a wide range of ages in the specific compounds which constitute a much larger range than the ages indicated by the density fractions done on the same samples. Overall, this study explores the use of molecular-level indicators to study soil organic matter dynamics, which could help assess the overall potential vulnerability of soil carbon in various ecosystems.

  4. SPECTRAL COLOR INDICES BASED GEOSPATIAL MODELING OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN CHITWAN DISTRICT, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. K. Mandal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Space Technology provides a resourceful-cost effective means to assess soil nutrients essential for soil management plan. Soil organic matter (SOM is one of valuable controlling productivity of crops by providing nutrient in farming systems. Geospatial modeling of soil organic matter is essential if there is unavailability of soil test laboratories and its strong spatial correlation. In the present analysis, soil organic matter is modeled from satellite image derived spectral color indices. Brightness Index (BI, Coloration Index (CI, Hue Index (HI, Redness Index (RI and Saturation Index (SI were calculated by converting DN value to radiance and radiance to reflectance from Thematic Mapper image. Geospatial model was developed by regressing SOM with color indices and producing multiple regression model using stepwise regression technique. The multiple regression equation between SOM and spectral indices was significant with R = 0. 56 at 95% confidence level. The resulting MLR equation was then used for the spatial prediction for the entire study area. Redness Index was found higher significance in estimating the SOM. It was used to predict SOM as auxiliary variables using cokringing spatial interpolation technique. It was tested in seven VDCs of Chitwan district of Nepal using Thematic Mapper remotely sensed data. SOM was found to be measured ranging from 0.15% to 4.75 %, with a mean of 2.24 %. Remotely sensed data derived spectral color indices have the potential as useful auxiliary variables for estimating SOM content to generate soil fertility management plans.

  5. Use of Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict Indicator Organism Concentrations in an Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, D. M.; Ahlfeld, D. P.

    2004-05-01

    Forecasting stream water quality is important for numerous aspects of resource protection and management. Fecal coliform and enteroccocus are primary indicator organisms used to assess potential pathogen contamination. Consequently, modeling the occurrence and concentration of fecal coliform and enterococcus is an important tool in watershed management. In addition, analyzing the relationship between model input and predicted indicator organisms is useful for elucidating possible sources of contamination and mechanisms of transport. While many process-based, statistical, and empirical models exist for water quality prediction, artificial neural network (ANN) models are increasingly being used for forecasting of water resources variables because ANNs are often capable of modeling complex systems for which behavioral rules are either unknown or difficult to simulate. The performance of ANNs compared to more established modeling approaches such as multiple linear regression (MLR) remains an importance research question. Data collected the U.S. Geological Survey in the lower Charles River in Massachusetts, USA in 1999-2000 was examined to determine correlation between various water quality constituents and indicator organisms and to explore the relationship between rainfall characteristics and indicator organism concentrations. Using the results of the statistical analysis to guide the selection of explanatory variables, MLR was performed to develop predictive equations for wet weather and dry weather conditions. The results show that the best-performing predictor variables are generally consistent for both indicator organisms considered. In addition, the regression equations show increasing indicator organism concentrations as a function of suspended sediment concentrations and length of time since last precipitation event, suggesting accumulation and wash off as a key mechanism of pathogen transport under wet weather conditions. This research also presents the

  6. Re-parameterization of a quasi-analytical algorithm for colored dissolved organic matter dominant inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogashawara, Igor; Mishra, Deepak R.; Nascimento, Renata F. F.; Alcântara, Enner H.; Kampel, Milton; Stech, Jose L.

    2016-12-01

    Quasi-Analytical Algorithms (QAAs) are based on radiative transfer equations and have been used to derive inherent optical properties (IOPs) from the above surface remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) in aquatic systems in which phytoplankton is the dominant optically active constituents (OACs). However, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non Algal Particles (NAP) can also be dominant OACs in water bodies and till now a QAA has not been parametrized for these aquatic systems. In this study, we compared the performance of three widely used QAAs in two CDOM dominated aquatic systems which were unsuccessful in retrieving the spectral shape of IOPS and produced minimum errors of 350% for the total absorption coefficient (a), 39% for colored dissolved matter absorption coefficient (aCDM) and 7566.33% for phytoplankton absorption coefficient (aphy). We re-parameterized a QAA for CDOM dominated (hereafter QAACDOM) waters which was able to not only achieve the spectral shape of the OACs absorption coefficients but also brought the error magnitude to a reasonable level. The average errors found for the 400-750 nm range were 30.71 and 14.51 for a, 14.89 and 8.95 for aCDM and 25.90 and 29.76 for aphy in Funil and Itumbiara Reservoirs, Brazil respectively. Although QAACDOM showed significant promise for retrieving IOPs in CDOM dominated waters, results indicated further tuning is needed in the estimation of a(λ) and aphy(λ). Successful retrieval of the absorption coefficients by QAACDOM would be very useful in monitoring the spatio-temporal variability of IOPS in CDOM dominated waters.

  7. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ai-Tzu; Lin, Jou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework wa...

  8. Graphical statistical approach to soil organic matter resilience using analytical pyrolysis data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, Gonzalo; Hernández, Zulimar; Sanz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Jiménez-González, Marco A; González-Pérez, José A

    2018-01-19

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) of humic acids (HAs) from 30 agricultural soils from a volcanic island (Tenerife, Spain) was used to discern the molecular characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) associated to resilience. For faster perceptual identification of the results, the yields of the pyrolysis products in the form of surface density plots were compared in an update of the Van Krevelen graphical statistical method. This approach, with respect to data reduction and visualization, was also used to collectively represent statistical indices that were obtained after simple and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The resulting plots illustrate different SOM structural domains (for example, carbohydrate- and lignin-derived and condensed lipid). The content of SOM and total mineralization coefficient (TMC) values can be well estimated from the relative abundance of 57 major pyrolysis compounds: SOM content and composition parallels the accumulation of lignin- and carbohydrate-derived structures (lignocellulosic material) and the depletion of condensed polyalkyl structures. In other words, in the volcanic ash soils that were studied, we found that the higher the amount of SOM, the lower its quality in terms of resilience. Although no cause-and-effect is inferred from this fact, it is evident that the resistance to biodegradation of the SOM is related to its molecular composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial source tracking markers associated with domestic rainwater harvesting systems: Correlation to indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-01

    Domestic rainwater harvesting (tank water) systems were screened for the presence of a panel of microbial source tracking (MST) markers and traditional indicator organisms. The indicator organisms were enumerated utilizing traditional culture-based methods, while the MST markers were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci were also quantified using qPCR. Correlations and concurrence between these parameters were then investigated to determine which markers could be utilized to supplement traditional indicator analysis. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that Bacteroides HF183, adenovirus, Lachnospiraceae and E. coli were detected and quantifiable in 100% of the tank water samples collected throughout the sampling period, while human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantifiable in 90% of the tank water samples and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (B. adolescentis) and enterococci were quantifiable in 67% of the tank water samples, respectively. Significant positive correlations were recorded for Lachnospiraceae versus heterotrophic bacteria (p = 0.000), adenovirus versus E. coli (culturing) (p = 0.000) and heterotrophic bacteria (p = 0.024), the HF183 marker versus E. coli (qPCR) (p = 0.024) and B. adolescentis versus fecal coliforms (p = 0.037). In addition, 100% concurrence was observed for the HF183 marker, adenovirus and Lachnospiraceae versus E. coli (qPCR), enterococci (qPCR) and heterotrophic bacteria, amongst others. Based on the correlations and the concurrence analysis, the HF183 marker, Lachnospiraceae and adenovirus may be utilized to supplement indicator organism analysis for the monitoring of harvested rainwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  11. Indices, multispecies and synthesis descriptors in benthic assessments: Intertidal organic enrichment from oyster farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Azevedo, Ana; Magalhães, Luísa; Sampaio, Leandro; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Elliott, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Intertidal off-bottom oyster culture is shown to cause organic enrichment of the shore and although there are two stressors of interest (the presence of a structure, the trestles, and also the sediment and organic waste from the oysters), these can be separated and their relative impacts determined using an appropriate nested experimental design and data treatments. Although no artificial food sources are involved, the oysters feeding activity and intensity of culture enhances biodeposition and significantly increases the sediment fines content and total organic matter. This in general impoverished the benthic community in culture areas rather than a species succession with the installation of opportunists or a resulting increase in the abundance and biomass of benthic species; the findings can be a direct consequence of the intertidal situation which is less-amenable recruitment of species more common to the subtidal environment. Thus the most appropriate biological descriptors to diagnose the effects associated with the organic enrichment were the multispecies abundance data as well as the primary biological variables species richness and abundance. The effects were however spatially and statistically significantly confined to the area located directly underneath the culture bags compared to the corridors located between the trestles, which do not show such enrichment effects. Synthesis biotic indices were much less effective to diagnose the benthic alterations associated with this organic enrichment. These results show that special attention must be paid when using indices in areas where the organic enrichment induces an impoverishment of the benthic community but not necessarily a species replacement with the installation of opportunists.

  12. Accounting and analytical support internal audit of fixed assets in commercial organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukonozhenko Zh.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available the article presents arguments justifying the need for regular control procedures of fixed assets. The paper explains the impact on the reliability in the light of such factors as the degree of automation of accounting data, the human factor, the specifics of the internal reporting and accounting policy. The requirements for the implementation of analytical procedures in the conduct of internal audit of fixed assets are formulated.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT TRENDS AND MODELING OF SAFETY INDICES IN AN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunku Venkata Siva Rajaprasad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has been recognized as a hazardous industry in many countries due to distinct nature of execution of works.The accident rate in construction sector is high all over the world due to dynamic nature of work activities. Occurrence of accidents and its severity in construction industry is several times higher than the manufacturing industries. The study was limited to a major construction organization in India to examine the trends in construction accidents for the period 2008-2014. In India, safety performance is gauged basing on safety indices; frequency, severity and incidence rates. It is not practicable to take decisions or to implement safety strategies on the basis of indices. The data used for this study was collected from a leading construction organization involved in execution of major construction activities all over India and abroad. The multiple regression method was adopted to model the pattern of safety indices wise .The pattern showed that significant relationships exist between the three safety indices and the related independent variables.

  14. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  15. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisvert, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.chisvert@uv.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Leon-Gonzalez, Zacarias [Unidad Analitica, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Fundacion Hospital La Fe, 46009 Valencia (Spain); Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Giokas, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of

  16. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisvert, Alberto; León-González, Zacarías; Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo; Giokas, Dimosthenis

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. ► Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. ► The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. ► New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of the biological matrix and the low concentration levels of these compounds inevitably impose sample

  17. A meta-analytic study of the factors driving the purchase of organic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Maria; O'Cass, Aron; Otahal, Petr

    2018-06-01

    Interest in the consumption of organic food has steadily risen over the past two decades. Yet after considerable research addressing a range of issues related to organic food consumption no research systematically examines which factors explain consumers' perceptions and purchase of organics. Through a meta-analysis we examine factors underpinning the purchase of organic food using a sample of 124,353 consumers reported in 150 manuscripts over the period from 1991 to 2016. The results demonstrate that credence attributes of organic food are valued more than search and experience attributes. This shows that the market is guided by the perceived benefits of organic over conventionally grown food. These findings do not diminish the importance of search and experience attributes, but suggest that credence attributes have a prominent role in consumer organic food purchases. From the perspective of organic producers and sellers an understanding of consumer perceptions, set within search, experience and credence attributes, has the potential to offer a unique selling proposition and point of differentiation in the market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water Gender Indicators in Agriculture: A Study of Horticultural Farmer Organizations in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Alice Centrone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to contribute to the debate on gender equality and water within the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs 5 and 6. Farmers organizations are often considered key stakeholders whose participation should be fostered to achieve a good water governance in agriculture and irrigation programs. Nonetheless, many water management interventions tackle participation as an instrumental and formal process. A common assumption is that granting sufficient space for women in water management will automatically ensure a greater gender empowerment. Nevertheless, often low importance is given to assessing who really actively participates and benefits from water development projects, favoring the technical aspects. This paper addresses the articulation between gender, water management and indicators, using male, female and mixed farmer organizations as touchstones in three regions of Senegal. The authors defines a system of water gender indicators grouped into five sections. The first results show more similarities between mixed and female organizations, while the main gender inequalities are visible in the water technique and economic domains. Thanks to this study, we can see how a gender-based analysis may allow to more deeply understand some more or less “hidden” water governance mechanisms and their related implications in terms of project management and policy making.

  19. Diffuse and point pollution impacts on the pathogen indicator organism level in the Geum River, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geonha; Choi, Euiso; Lee, Dongryul

    2005-11-01

    The pathogens originating from diffuse pollution have raised much concern recently. In many countries, pathogen levels are monitored in surface water by measuring the pathogen indicator organism level, which indicates the concentration of pathogen associated microorganisms to determine contamination. Among indicator organisms, total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were selected for study, and their concentration as well as their flow rate were monitored at monitoring stations from October, 2001 to April, 2003. Monitoring stations include six sampling stations in the Geum River, two small watersheds used for forestry and agricultural land, one large wastewater treatment plant, one separate sewer overflow site, and one separate sewer overflow site in the Geum River basin. The coliform concentration of the combined sewer overflow was the highest, followed by the runoff from agricultural land use, the separate sewer overflow, and the runoff from forestry land use. The Pearson correlation coefficient for flow rate against total coliform concentration was 0.71 and was significant at 0.01 level, while the Pearson coefficient for other water quality constituents showed weak correlation (-0.36 to +0.37) against flow rate. Coliform concentration showed higher correlation against suspended solid concentration or flow rate during storm flow condition than during low flow condition. Two different relationship lines could explain the relationships between the flow rate and coliform loadings. Load duration curve technique was presented to assess the relative contributions of diffuse and point source pollution to the pathogen level at monitoring sites in the Geum River.

  20. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  1. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  2. Halogenated hydrocarbon pesticides and other volatile organic contaminants provide analytical challenges in global trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Fahrenholtz, Svea; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver

    2010-04-01

    Protection against infestation of a container cargo by alien species is achieved by mandatory fumigation with pesticides. Most of the effective fumigants are methyl and ethyl halide gases that are highly toxic and are a risk to both human health and the environment. There is a worldwide need for a reliable and robust analytical screening procedure for these volatile chemicals in a multitude of health and environmental scenarios. We have established a highly sensitive broad spectrum mass spectrometry method combined with thermal desorption gas chromatography to detect, identify and quantify volatile pesticide residues. Using this method, 1201 random ambient air samples taken from freight containers arriving at the biggest European ports of Hamburg and Rotterdam were analyzed over a period of two and a half years. This analytical procedure is a valuable strategy to measure air pollution from these hazardous chemicals, to help in the identification of pesticides in the new mixtures/formulations that are being adopted globally and to analyze expired breath samples after suspected intoxication in biomonitoring.

  3. Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-05-03

    The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n($\\tilde{u}$)and k($\\tilde{u}$), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.

  4. Carbon balance indicates a time limit for cultivation of organic soils in central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sonja; Ammann, Christof; Alewell, Christine; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands serve as important carbon sinks. Globally, more than 30% of the soil organic carbon is stored in organic soils, although they cover only 3% of the land surface. The agricultural use of organic soils usually requires drainage thereby transforming these soils from a net carbon sink into a net source. Currently, about 2 to 3 Gt CO2 are emitted world-wide from degrading organic soils (Joosten 2011; Parish et al. 2008) which is ca. 5% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Besides these CO2 emissions, the resulting subsidence of drained peat soils during agricultural use requires that drainage system are periodically renewed and finally to use pumping systems after progressive subsidence. In Switzerland, the Seeland region is characterised by fens which are intensively used for agriculture since 1900. The organic layer is degrading and subsequently getting shallower and the underlying mineral soil, as lake marl or loam, is approaching the surface. The questions arises for how long and under which land use practises and costs these soils can be cultivated in the near future. The study site was under crop rotation until 2009 when it was converted to extensively used grassland with the water regime still being regulated. The soil is characterised by a degraded organic horizon of 40 to 70 cm. Since December 2014 we are measuring the carbon exchange of this grassland using the Eddy-Covariance method. For 2015, the carbon balance indicates that the degraded fen is a strong carbon source, with approximately 500 g C m-2 a-1. The carbon balance is dominated by CO2 emissions and harvest. Methane emissions are negligible. With the gained emission factors different future scenarios are evaluated for the current cultivation practise of organic soils in central Switzerland. Joosten, H., 2011: Neues Geld aus alten Mooren: Über die Erzeugung von Kohlenstoffzertifikaten aus Moorwiedervernässungen. Telma Beiheft 4, 183-202. Parish, F., A. Sirin, D. Charman, H. Joosten, T

  5. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  6. Organization of a cognitive activity of students when teaching analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Tapalova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis allows using basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry for the solution of practical problems, disclosure the chemism of the processes that are fundamental for  the methods of analysis. Systematic qualitative analysis develops analytical thinking, establishes a scientific style of thinking of students.Сhemical analysis requires certain skills and abilities and develops the general chemical culture of the future teachers оn chemistry. The result can be evaluated in the course of self-control, peer review, and solving creative problems. Mastering the techniques of critical thinking (comparison, abstraction, generalization and their use in a particular chemical material - are necessary element in the formation of professional thinking of the future chemistry teacher.

  7. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  8. Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR): An Analytical Diffusion Propagator Reconstruction for Hybrid Diffusion Imaging and Computation of q-Space Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble average propagator (EAP) describes the 3D average diffusion process of water molecules, capturing both its radial and angular contents. The EAP can thus provide richer information about complex tissue microstructure properties than the orientation distribution function (ODF), an angular feature of the EAP. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed, such as diffusion propagator imaging (DPI) and spherical polar Fourier imaging (SPFI). In this study, a new analytical EAP reconstruction method is proposed, called Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition, and is validated on both synthetic and real datasets. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to comparing BFOR, SPFI, and DPI using hybrid, non-Cartesian sampling for multiple b-value acquisitions. Ways to mitigate the effects of Gibbs ringing on EAP reconstruction are also explored. In addition to analytical EAP reconstruction, the aforementioned modeling bases can be used to obtain rotationally invariant q-space indices of potential clinical value, an avenue which has not yet been thoroughly explored. Three such measures are computed: zero-displacement probability (Po), mean squared displacement (MSD), and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). PMID:22963853

  9. Density functional theory modeling of the adsorption of small analyte and indicator dye 9-(diphenylamino)acridine molecules on the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchikhin, Vladimir; Rykova, Elena; Bagaturyants, Alexander

    2011-01-28

    The adsorption of small analyte molecules (H(2)O, NH(3), C(2)H(5)OH, and (CH(3))(2)CO) and an indicator dye, 9-(diphenylamino)acridine (DPAA), on the surface of amorphous silica particles is studied using electronic structure calculations at the DFT-D level of theory taking into account explicit corrections for van der Waals forces. Cluster models of three different types are used; two of them have been constructed using classical MD methods. The effect of particle size, local environment, and the choice of the exchange-correlation functional and basis set on the adsorption energies is studied, and adsorption energies are extrapolated to nanosized clusters. It is shown that the dye is more strongly bound to amorphous silica particles than the studied analyte molecules and that the energy of DPAA adsorption increases with the particle size, being at least twice as high as the energy of analyte adsorption for nanosized clusters. Electrostatic interactions play an important role in the adsorption of acridine dyes on the surface of silica nanoparticles.

  10. Assessment of environmental stability of agroserous soil according to indicator of energy potential of organic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, S. G.; Gaffarova, L. G.; Murtazin, MG

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the group and fractional composition of humus have determineded that the long-term use of soil (for 20 years) without the use of fertilizers (control) leads to a decrease in the content of humic acids and fulvic acids relative to the initial soil, which indicates an increase in mineralization of the soil humus. Under the influence of a long application of high doses of mineral fertilizers, the content of mobile fractions of humic and fulvic acids in the field rotation increases in the humus content. In systems of agriculture that are not balanced by organic matter, which are predominant in most farms of the Republic of Tatarstan, the use of very high doses of potassium fertilizers is not justified energetically. To compensate for losses of humus and its energy potential in calculating organic fertilizers on backgrounds with high doses of mineral fertilizers, the humification coefficients of organic residues should be increased by 30-40% during the rotational period of 5-6 years, which will reduce the loss of energy reserves and thereby improve the ecological stability of soils and the stability of agricultural landscapes

  11. Evaluation of Trichoptera as an indicator organism for environmental pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Shoichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Akatsuka, Masayoshi; Inoue, Sadao; Akaiwa, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    A method of analysis for heavy metals in trichopteran larvae by AAS was established to evaluate this aquatic insect as an indicator organism for environmental pollution by heavy metals. A wet digestion method with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be suitable for the decomposition of trichopteran larva samples. No serious variation in heavy metal contents was found in individual samples collected from one sampling point. A weak negative correlation was observed between the body length and the heavy metal contents of trichopteran larvae. In addition, the heavy metal content of trichopteran larvae seems to show a seasonal fluctuation. Trichopteran larvae in the Watarase River, which has abandoned copper and manganese mines along its upper stream, show an enriched heavy metal content as compared with those in other non-polluted rivers. Moreover, this aquatic insect in the Kiryu River also shows enrichment of manganese due to abandoned manganese mines situated upstream. These facts suggest that the trichopteran larva in a useful indicator organism for environmental pollution by heavy metals. (author)

  12. Soil organic matter status in forest soils - possible indicators for climate change induced site shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Nadine; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2010-05-01

    The quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) and SOM pools and thus the soil properties related to carbon sequestration and water retention are not constant but exhibit considerable variation through changing climate. In total changes in soil fertility and an increase in plant stress are expected. This is relevant for northwest Europe as well and may have economic and social impacts since functions of forests for wood production, groundwater recharge, soil protection and recreation might be affected. The study is done by comparative investigation of selected sites at four watersheds that represent typical forest stands in the region of Luxembourg and South West Germany. The aim is to identify SOM storage and stability in forest soils and its dependence on site properties and interaction with tree stand conditions. According to state of the art fractionation schemes functional C pools in forest soils and their stabilization mechanisms are investigated. In particular, distribution patterns are determined depending on location, tree stand and climatic conditions. Aim is to identify characteristics of SOM stability through fractionation of SOM according to density, particle size and chemical extractability and their subsequent analytical characterization. So far, reasons about the origin, composition and stabilization mechanisms underlying the different SOM pools are not fully understood. Presented are different patterns of distribution of SOM in relation to land use and site conditions, as well as similarities and differences between the different forest soils and results in addition to passive OM pool, which is mainly responsible for long-term stabilization of carbon in soils. These are aligned with selected general' soil properties such as pH, CEC and texture.

  13. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  14. An Analytical Approach for Relating Boiling Points of Monofunctional Organic Compounds to Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2011-01-01

    The boiling point of a monofunctional organic compound is expressed as the sum of two parts: a contribution to the boiling point due to the R group and a contribution due to the functional group. The boiling point in absolute temperature of the corresponding RH hydrocarbon is chosen for the contribution to the boiling point of the R group and is a…

  15. Analytical study of PPV-oligomer- and C-60-based devices for optimising organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geens, W.; Poortmans, J.; Jain, S.C.; Nijs, J.; Mertens, R.; Veenstra, S.C.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Hadziioannou, G

    2000-01-01

    A blend of a 5-ring n-octyloxy-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) and C60, sandwiched between two electrodes, has been used as the active layer for an organic solar cell. It delivered external quantum efficiencies up to 60% in the visible and 70% in the UV part of the spectrum. To unambiguously

  16. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation by ozone oxidation: Development of indicator and surrogate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Daniels, Kevin D; Wu, Shimin; Ziska, Austin D; Snyder, Shane A

    2017-08-01

    Ozone oxidation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment process for the attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs); however, predicting TOrC attenuation by ozone processes is challenging in wastewaters. Since ozone is rapidly consumed, determining the exposure times of ozone and hydroxyl radical proves to be difficult. As direct potable reuse schemes continue to gain traction, there is an increasing need for the development of real-time monitoring strategies for TOrC abatement in ozone oxidation processes. Hence, this study is primarily aimed at developing indicator and surrogate models for the prediction of TOrC attenuation by ozone oxidation. To this end, the second-order kinetic equations with a second-phase R ct value (ratio of hydroxyl radical exposure to molecular ozone exposure) were used to calculate comparative kinetics of TOrC attenuation and the reduction of indicator and spectroscopic surrogate parameters, including UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA 254 ) and total fluorescence (TF). The developed indicator model using meprobamate as an indicator compound and the surrogate models with UVA 254 and TF exhibited good predictive power for the attenuation of 13 kinetically distinct TOrCs in five filtered and unfiltered wastewater effluents (R 2 values > 0.8). This study is intended to help provide a guideline for the implementation of indicator/surrogate models for real-time monitoring of TOrC abatement with ozone processes and integrate them into a regulatory framework in water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of environmental radioactivity in three important Italian rivers using sediment mineral organic detritus indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.; Musumeci, R.G.; Sogni, R.; Borio, R.; Bucci, S.; Giannardi, C.; Magnoni, M.; Margini, G.

    1997-01-01

    When studying radionuclides introduced into the environment because of accidental spillage of radioactive substances from the atmosphere into running water and rivers, as in the accident at Chernobyl, a series of measurements and a knowledge of appropriate indicators are needed in order to best use the information. Radionuclides enter the water in the following way: they fall directly onto the surface of the water and then spread and sink, forming sediment on the river bed. S.M.O.D., sediments mineral organic detritus, is an important matrix for research on contaminants present in running water.This has been demonstrated in Italy where repeated research was done in various portions of the Po River. The studies have shown that S.M.O.D. is a good indicator for many radionuclides, both of fission as in Cs-137, Cs-134, Sb-125, Ru-106, and activation as in Mn-54 and Co-60. S.M.O.D. reveals the spatial radio contamination both of a diffuse source present in the river as in the case of fall-out from the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl or of a specific source as in spillage from a nuclear power plant or from hospital or industrial waste.It has been shown that S.M.O.D. is also an efficient indicator for other kinds of containments like heavy metals and pesticides. The work carried out on three major rivers: the Po, the Arno and the Tiber. (authors)

  18. Screening Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Clostridium perfringens as Indicator Organisms in Evaluating Pathogen-Reducing Capacity in Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify an indicator organism(s) in evaluating the pathogen-reducing capacity of biogas plants. Fresh cow manure containing 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis along with an inoculated Clostridium...... as indicator organisms to evaluate pathogen-reducing capacity in biogas plants at high temperatures of 55A degrees C and 70A degrees C while at 37A degrees C E. coli could also be included as indicator organism....

  19. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  20. Seaweeds and plastic debris can influence the survival of faecal indicator organisms in beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jamieson, Julie; Oliver, David M

    2014-07-15

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (rBWD) introduces more stringent standards for microbial water quality and promotes more pro-active management of the beach environment through the production of a bathing water profile (BWP). The aim of this study was to determine whether living seaweeds in the littoral zone are colonised by faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), and to quantify the survival dynamics of waterborne Escherichia coli in microcosms containing senescing seaweeds. Living seaweed (Fucus spiralis) was not associated with FIO colonisation, although could be providing a protected environment in the underlying sand. Senescing seaweeds enhanced waterborne E. coli survival compared to plastic debris, with the brown seaweed Laminaria saccharina facilitating greater E. coli persistence than either Chondrus crispus or Ulva lactuca. This has important implications for FIO survival on bathing beaches as the majority of beach-cast biomass is composed of brown seaweeds, which could support significant levels of FIOs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of various organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the high intensive agriculture, more chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil that resulting in soil degradation and environment deterioration. Application of organic manure is an important approach for maintaining and improving the soil fertility and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on growth indices and biological yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2008-2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, vermicompost, chemical NPK fertilizers and control (no fertilizer. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers significantly increased seed and biological yield of basil compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The maximum and the minimum dry weights were observed at 105 days after planting, in sheep and cow manures, respectively. Gradually during the period of plant growth and development to reproduction phase percent of stem decreased and dry weight of inflorescence increased. The highest and the lowest leaf area index were observed at 90 days after planting, in cow manure and control, respectively, and then decreased in all treatments. The maximum crop growth rate in most of treatments at 90 days after planting was obtained, except the control which plant growth rate was lowest. Net assimilation rate (NAR in most treatments increased until 75 days after planting and then declined. While the highest and the lowest NAR were observed at 75 days after planting in chicken manure and chemical treatment, respectively.

  2. Identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalilazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research is identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations. According to widespread permeation of technology, especially social media in different organizational dimensions and functional view to this phenomenon in knowledge management, performance measurement of this kind of media in order to meet organizational goals seems necessary. KM2.0 key performance indicators in this article has been identified and weighted through Delphi methodology, via questionnaire in three rounds. KM2.0 KPIs which are identified and weighted in this article are applicable in organizations that are eager to implement KM2.0 initiative and they can measure the performance of KM2.0 activities therefore this research is applicable in goal oriented approach. According to the results, KM2.0 participation process consists of 3 stages and 8 steps as mentioned below: First stage which is presence, consists of 3 steps which are registration, visit and download. Second stage which is feedback consists of 3 steps which are conversation, applause and amplification. Finally, third stage which is creation consists of 2 steps which are codification and personalization. Ultimate contribution of this research is identifying and weighting KPIs of KM2.0 in conceptual framework of KM2.0. Based on developing a conceptual framework and participation process in KM2.0 and listing related KPIs as an applicable solution in order to measure and improve the performance of organizational social media, this research has unique innovation among related and other articles.

  3. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical high resolution microscopic investigation of organic coating on co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Mihaela; Mayrhofer, Claudia; Hagemann, Nikolas; Joseph, Stephen; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Aged and/or co-composted biochar amendment improves soil fertility by changing certain proprieties like the porosity and sorption capacity, the redox properties, water holding capacity and nutrient transformations in soil. The beneficial properties have been correlated with surface functional groups resulting from the interactions between black carbon particles, inorganic and organic matter in the soil and soil biota, manure or other compost feedstock. As a result, porous organic layer and organo-mineral phases on the biochar surfaces are formed. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the porous layer and organo-mineral phases formed on co-composted biochar by using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss (EELS) as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The fine structure fingerprints of carbon and nitrogen edges have been used to identify the functional groups, while EDX was used to identify the mineral phases. However, in order to achieve undoubtable results a novel preparation technic of the sample has been developed. The preparation involved 3D gold sputtering on the black carbon particles in order to preserve the surface intact, embedding in resin and, ultrathin microtome cutting. The investigation was carried out using a probe corrected Titan 3G, at a voltage of 60 kV and in cryo-condition, with an EELS energy resolution of 0.15 eV and a spatial resolution down to atomic layers. We proved the presence of both C and N functional groups in the porous, heterogeneous and hydrophilic organic layer and organo-mineral agglomerates. The organic layer fully covered the outer surface of the black carbon piece, but also the surface of internal pores. Its thickness varied from 500-1000 nm on the outer surface down to a couple of nanometres on internal pores. The observed C functional groups have been identified to correspond to: aromatic, aromatic with side chain, ketone, aliphatic, carboxyl/amine carbon

  5. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Licha, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L −1 and 6.1/522 ng L −1 , respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two

  6. Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lorraine T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc. and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway. Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (-3 was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non

  7. Technogenic impact on physiological and cytogenic indices of reproductive organs of Tilia genus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Iusypiva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of technogenic pollution which is a dramatic stress-factor for plants effectively acting as a green filter for cleaning air, water, and soil. It results in their growth rate changes, seasonal development speed deviations and plant appearance variations. Green belt to consume industrial emissions and to create the esthetic look seems to be an urgent matter to deal with technogenic pollution. Lime tree decorative characteristics depend significantly on the state of their reproductive organs (flower, inflorescence and fruit. On the other hand, biometric indices of woody plant reproductive organs are sensitive parameters characterizing the plant response to pollutants. The study discusses complex environmental pollution impact caused by sulfur (IV and nitrogen (IV oxides as well as heavy metals on physiological and cytogenetic characteristics of reproductive organs of Tіlia L. genus representatives in conditions of steppe Prydniprovye. The research objectives were T. amurensis L. аnd T. cordаta Mill. Samples were collected in May and June 2014 on two sample areas. The research area borders with both heavy traffic road and Interpipe NTRP CJSC, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, that features such pollutants as SO2, NO2, iron, manganese, zinc, mercury, chrome. The control area is located in the Botanical garden of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. The research proved that biometric and cytogenetic parameters of generic organo of Tilia genus representatives were dramatically sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, T. cordаta was the most sensitive among species under study to multicomponent environmental pollution when assessed by criteria of suppression of woody plant reproductive capacity formation. The other benefit of this study consisted in monitoring of the blossom rate of both species that appeared to scale down substantially in the technogenic environment. Man-induced stress factors caused

  8. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA. Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC, improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C, cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI, and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years.

  9. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  10. Using self-organizing maps to detail synoptic connections between climate indices and Alaska weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnan, Reynir C.

    Seasonal forecasts for Alaska strongly depend on the phases of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and warm water in the North Pacific called the North Pacific Mode or more popularly the "Pacific blob." The canonical descriptions of these climate indices are based on seasonal averages, and anomalies that are based on a long-term mean. The patterns highlight general geographical placement and display a sharp contrast between opposing phases, but this may be misleading since seasonal averages hide much of the synoptic variability. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) are a way of grouping daily sea level pressure (SLP) patterns, over many time realizations into a specified set of maps (e.g. 35 maps) that describe commonly occurring patterns. This study uses the SOMs in the context of climate indices to describe the range of synoptic patterns that are relevant for Alaska. This study found that the patterns common during a given phase of the PDO include subtle differences that would result in Alaska weather that is very different from what is expected from the canonical PDO description, thus providing some explanation for recent studies that find the PDO link to Alaska climate is weakening. SOMs analysis is consistent with recent studies suggesting that the pattern responsible for the 2014 Pacific warm blob is linked to tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) forcing. An analysis of the summer SLP SOMs in the context of Alaska wildland fires was also conducted. This analysis identified several commonly occurring patterns during summers with large areas burned. These patterns are characterized by low pressure in the Bering Sea, which would be consistent with increased storm activity and thus an ignition source for the fires. Identifying synoptic patterns that occur during a particular phase of a teleconnection index contributes towards understanding the mechanisms of how these indices influence the weather and climate of Alaska.

  11. Diffusive transport of organic vapors in the unsaturated zone with kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution: analytical model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Jacob; Russo, David

    1994-12-01

    Kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPL's) in the unsaturated (vadose) zone are a more general model as compared to the usually used local equilibrium model of mass transfer. This paper presents a one-dimensional vertical model of kinetically-controlled diffusive transport of organic vapors pertinent to pollution caused by a relatively long, ground surface-originating, mainly horizontally-spread leak of NAPL, the volatile compound of which undergoes sorption and degradation in the soil. Analytical solutions of this model are applicable to homogeneous soils with ground surface fully open to the atmosphere. Application of the solutions to several examples demonstrates the role of kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution at both early and advanced stages of the transport process. Asymptotic analysis of the outlined solutions is employed in order to examine the depletion of the contaminant source.

  12. Volatile organic silicon compounds in biogases: development of sampling and analytical methods for total silicon quantification by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chottier, Claire; Chatain, Vincent; Julien, Jennifer; Dumont, Nathalie; Lebouil, David; Germain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Current waste management policies favor biogases (digester gases (DGs) and landfill gases (LFGs)) valorization as it becomes a way for energy politics. However, volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiCs) contained into DGs/LFGs severely damage combustion engines and endanger the conversion into electricity by power plants, resulting in a high purification level requirement. Assessing treatment efficiency is still difficult. No consensus has been reached to provide a standardized sampling and quantification of VOSiCs into gases because of their diversity, their physicochemical properties, and the omnipresence of silicon in analytical chains. Usually, samplings are done by adsorption or absorption and quantification made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this objective, this paper presents and discusses the optimization of a patented method consisting in VOSiCs sampling by absorption of 100% ethanol and quantification of total Si by ICP-OES.

  13. Speciation of organic matter in sandy soil size fractions as revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; de la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    , the C fraction from the PA soil presented a higher abundance of lignin derived pyrolysis products than the soils under the other vegetation. This is somehow unexpected since PA is a pteridophyte, not arboreal vegetation, i.e. low lignin content and, these lignin moieties probably remain in the soil from past vegetation or originate from surrounding woody arboreal vegetation. In contrast the F fractions released mainly lipids and aromatic compound of unspecific origin. Series of alkane/alkene pairs were present in all the pyrograms with varying abundance and composition. Lignin and polysaccharide derived pyrolysis compounds were scarce in the F fractions in all the cases, in fact, no sugar derived compounds were found in the HH sample. Regarding the composition of the LF soil fractions, the pyrolytic behavior of the LFC fractions was quite similar to the not extracted corresponding C soil fraction, showing a high proportion of lignin and sugar derived pyrolysis compounds. The LFF fractions also showed the same behavior as the C fraction, but with no lipid derived compounds which effectively indicates the occurrence of a selective and efficient removal of soil free lipids. Agreement was found between analytical pyrolysis results and FT-IR spectral features highlighting functional differences between fractions i.e. a decrease of OH- groups and an increase in aliphatics in the F fraction. With respect to the LF fractions, FT-IR spectra analysis was also consistent with the pyrolysis results with a slight increase in the lignin signals for LFF soil fractions under PA, PP and HH. For the soil under QS no differences were found between the LFF fractions and the whole organic matter in the F fraction, probably due to the high amount of organic matter in this fraction. In conclusion, despite the "a priori" low organic complexity of the collection of soils studied here, ostensible differences were found in the organic matter present in C and F soil size fractions under

  14. Organic layer sampling for SST 241-C-103 background, and Data Quality Objectives, and analytical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Willingham, C.E.; Campbell, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    A layer of organic material floating on the surface of the high level radioactive waste in single-shell tank 241-C-103 has been declared an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). This designation is motivated by concern that a ''pool fire'' in this layer could release radioactive material from the tank. This layer is believed to consist largely of Tri-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) and Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon (NPH), but its composition is not known definitively. Resolution of this USQ hinges on a more complete and detailed understanding of the flammability potential of this layer and vapors that could evolve from it, and to a lesser extent on the propagation and energetics of such a pool ire if initiated, and the source-term associated with a release event following a pool fire. This increased understanding of the risk posed by this layer in turn requires better information on its composition. This report documents a Data Quality Objectives (DQO) study conducted to define this information in detail

  15. Maths for medications: an analytical exemplar of the social organization of nurses' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjur, Louise; Rankin, Janet; Lane, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Within the literature that circulates in the discourses organizing nursing education, there are embedded assumptions that link student performance on maths examinations to safe medication practices. These assumptions are rooted historically. They fundamentally shape educational approaches assumed to support safe practice and protect patients from nursing error. Here, we apply an institutional ethnographic lens to the body of literature that both supports and critiques the emphasis on numeracy skills and medication safety. We use this form of inquiry to open an alternate interrogation of these practices. Our main argument posits that numeracy skills serve as powerful distraction for both students and teachers. We suggest that they operate under specious claims of safety and objectivity. As nurse educators, we are captured by taken-for-granted understandings of practices intended to produce safety. We contend that some of these practices are not congruent with how competency actually unfolds in the everyday world of nursing practice. Ontologically grounded in the materiality of work processes, we suggest there is a serious disjuncture between educators' assessment and evaluation work where it links into broad nursing assumptions about medication work. These underlying assumptions and work processes produce contradictory tensions for students, teachers and nurses in direct practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  17. Hematological Indices in Children with Non-organic Failure to Thrive: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Nodoshan, A H; Hashemi, A; Golzar, A; Karami, F; Akhondzaraini, R

    2016-01-01

    Non-organic failure to thrive (NFTT) is the most common cause of failure to thrive (FTT) which is attributed to inadequate nutrition due to economic factors or parental neglect . NFTT can lead to a vicious cycle of poor and inadequate eating and severity of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological indices in children with NFTT. In a cross sectional case control study, iron status and blood indices of forty five aged 6-60 months children with NFTT were evaluated and compared with 45 healthy control children (with matching of age and sex). In this study, the prevalence of anemia was 48.9% in NFTT compared to 11.4% in the control group (p<0.001). Microcytic anemia was significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (77.8% versus 27.3%; p<0. 001). The serum iron level was 73.2 and 62.8 mcg/dl for the case and control groups (P=0.29). The ferritin level in the study group was 29.8 versus 35.47 ng/ml in the control group (p=0.227). The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among children with mild, moderate, and severe underweight was 44.4%, 45.5%, and 48%, respectively. The highest prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia was seen between age group of 12 and 24 months (p<0.05). Based on the results of this study, a correlation between malnutrition and anemia was found. However, further studies are needed to assess and confirm the current outcomes.

  18. Developing a semi-analytical algorithm to estimate particulate organic carbon (POC) levels in inland eutrophic turbid water based on MERIS images: A case study of Lake Taihu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Shi, Lei; Li, Yunmei; Wang, Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water due to its biological pump process. In the open ocean, algorithms can accurately estimate the surface POC concentration. However, no suitable POC-estimation algorithm based on MERIS bands is available for inland turbid eutrophic water. A total of 228 field samples were collected from Lake Taihu in different seasons between 2013 and 2015. At each site, the optical parameters and water quality were analyzed. Using in situ data, it was found that POC-estimation algorithms developed for the open ocean and coastal waters using remote sensing reflectance were not suitable for inland turbid eutrophic water. The organic suspended matter (OSM) concentration was found to be the best indicator of the POC concentration, and POC has an exponential relationship with the OSM concentration. Through an analysis of the POC concentration and optical parameters, it was found that the absorption peak of total suspended matter (TSM) at 665 nm was the optimum parameter to estimate POC. As a result, MERIS band 7, MERIS band 10 and MERIS band 12 were used to derive the absorption coefficient of TSM at 665 nm, and then, a semi-analytical algorithm was used to estimate the POC concentration for inland turbid eutrophic water. An accuracy assessment showed that the developed semi-analytical algorithm could be successfully applied with a MAPE of 31.82% and RMSE of 2.68 mg/L. The developed algorithm was successfully applied to a MERIS image, and two full-resolution MERIS images, acquired on August 13, 2010, and December 7, 2010, were used to map the POC spatial distribution in Lake Taihu in summer and winter.

  19. Engineered bakers yeast as a sensitive bioassay indicator organism for the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Shamsozoha; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Spadiut, Oliver; Peruci, Michaela; Weindorfer, Hanna; Lucyshyn, Doris; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Lemmens, Marc; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards trichothecene toxins, in particular to deoxynivalenol (DON), in order to improve the utility of this yeast as a bioassay indicator organism. We report the construction of a strain with inactivated genes (PDR5, PDR10, PDR15) encoding ABC transporter proteins with specificity for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol, with inactivated AYT1 (encoding a trichothecene-3-O-acetyltransferase), and inactivated UBI4 and UBP6 genes. Inactivation of the stress inducible polyubiquitin gene UBI4 or the ubiquitin protease UBP6 increased DON sensitivity, the inactivation of both genes had a synergistic effect. The resulting pdr5 pdr10 pdr15 ayt1 ubp6 ubi4 mutant strain showed 50% growth inhibition at a DON concentration of 5 mg/l under optimal conditions. The development of a simple two step assay for microbial DON degradation in 96 well microtiter format and its testing with the DON detoxifying bacterium BBSH 797 is reported.

  20. Analytical approaches for the determination of personal care products and evaluation of their occurrence in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Checchini, Leonardo; Del Bubba, Massimo; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan

    2018-03-23

    Contamination of the aquatic environment caused by multiple human activities may exert a negative impact on all living organisms. Several contaminants of emerging concern such as personal care products (PCPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment where they are biologically active and persistent. This work reviews the current knowledge, provided by papers published after 2010 and indexed by SciFinder, Scopus, and Google search engines, about the determination and occurrence of PCPs in marine biota. Analytical methodologies have been critically reviewed, emphasizing the importance of green and high-throughput approaches and focusing the discussion on the complexity of the solute-matrix interaction in the extraction step, as well as the matrix effect in the instrumental determination. Finally, the worldwide distribution of PCPs is surveyed, taking into account the concentrations found in the same organism in different marine environments. Differences among various world areas have been highlighted, evidencing some critical aspects from an environmental point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  2. δ15N, δ13C and radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon as indicators of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, S.; Kalbitz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Decomposition, humification, and stabilization of soil organic matter are closely related to the dynamics of dissolved organic matter. Enhanced peat decomposition results in increasing aromatic structures and polycondensation of dissolved organic molecules. Although recent studies support the concept that DOM can serve as an indicator for processes driven by changing environmental processes in soils affecting the C and N cycle (like decomposition and humification) and also permit insight in former conditions some 1000 years ago, it is unknown whether dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) have an equal response to these processes. (author)

  3. Assessing the impacts of international volunteer tourism in host communities: A new approach to organizing and prioritizing indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Anthony Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of indicators to evaluate the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities, based on an online questionnaire sent to 183 volunteer tourism organizations. Little research exists demonstrating how volunteer tourism programs impact host communities or how impacts can be assessed, but the literature suggests the use of indicators to do so....

  4. Evaluation of a top predator from Norway as indicator organism[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle tissue of 748 Norwegian lynx were collected from different parts of Norway during 1986-2001. The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in lynx muscle samples ranged from 90 to 124 614 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weights. The highest average activity concentrations were found in lynxes from Nordland and Nord-Troendelag. These counties had also quite high {sup 137}Cs ground deposition with respectively 4641 and 9364 Bq m{sup -2}. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in lynx were fairly well correlated to ground deposition in different counties. The relatively high values seem also to be connected with consumption of caesium-137 contaminated reindeer, which periodically represents an essential part of the lynx diet. 67% of the lynx diet in Norway is mainly composed of roe deer and semi-domestic reindeer. These two species differ in their regional distribution with the roe deer occurring mainly in the southern half of the country, and semi-domestic husbandry being widespread in the northern part of Norway. The aggregated transfer factor of {sup 137}Cs in lynx varied from 0.001 to 18.16 (m{sup -2} kg{sup -1}) and differed for different counties. Similar to {sup 137}Cs activity concentration, T{sub ag} values for lynx appear to dependent on whether there are reindeer present within the county or not. Differences in Tag values between areas with and without reindeer may be explained by considerably higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in reindeer than in other prey, e.g. roe deer and mountain hare. Roe deer is probably the main prey in most of the counties outside reindeer herding areas. The {sup 137}Cs decline was generally more rapid in high-contaminated counties, corresponding to an effective ecological half-life (Teff) of 3-5 years. The results of the present investigation show that also predators on reindeer in contaminated areas may reach high levels of radiocaesium in their bodies but are not considered as a good indicator

  5. An uncovered XIII century icon: Particular use of organic pigments and gilding techniques highlighted by analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Moretti, Patrizia; Grazia, Chiara; Romani, Aldo; Fiorin, Enrico; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Vagnini, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of a panel painting depicting a Madonna and Child listed as an unknown Tuscan artist of the nineteenth century, permitted the hidden original version, a XIII century Medieval icon to be uncovered. It is discovery provided the opportunity for an extensive in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations by portable imaging and spectroscopic techniques (infrared, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and emission), followed by aimed micro-destructive investigations (Raman and SEM-EDS). This approach permitted characterization of the original ground and paint layers by complementary techniques. Furthermore, this protocol allowed supplementary particularities of great interest to be highlighted. Namely, numerous original gilding techniques have been accentuated in diverse areas and include the use of surrogate gold (disulphur tin), orpiment as a further false gold and an area with an original silver rich layer. Moreover, pigments including azurite mixed with indigo have been non-invasively identified. Micro-invasive analyses also allowed the diagnosis of organic colorants, namely, an animal anthraquinone lake, kermes and an unusual vegetal chalcone pigment, possibly safflower. The identification of the latter is extremely rare as a painting pigment and has been identified using an innovative adaption to surface enhanced Raman techniques on a cross-section. The resulting data contributes new hypotheses to the historic and artistic knowledge of materials and techniques utilized in XIII century icon paintings and ultimately provides scientific technical support of the recent restoration.

  6. Indicators of ecological change: comparison of the early response of four organism groups to stress gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, R.K.; Hering, D.; Furse, M.T.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    A central goal in monitoring and assessment programs is to detect change early before costly or irreversible damage occurs. To design robust early-warning monitoring programs requires knowledge of indicator response to stress as well as the uncertainty associated with the indicator(s) selected.

  7. Quantitative characterization of organic diffusion using an analytical diffusion-reaction model and its application to assessing BOD removal when treating municipal wastewater in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Kao, Chen-Fei; Liu, Yu-Hsi

    2017-09-15

    The present study aimed to derive an analytical formula to quantify the diffusion of organic contaminant in a biofilm. The experiments were conducted to investigate the BOD degradation under the conditions of influent COD concentration from 50 to 300 mg/L, COD:N:P ratios of 100:5:1 and 100:15:3, with and without auxiliary aeration. The BOD removal rate was around 73% for non-aerated influent COD of 50 mg/L with 1-h hydraulic retention time. The BOD removal rate increased as the influent loading and hydraulic retention time increased while the influent COD was no more than 150 mg/L. Without aeration, the removal rate dropped significantly when influent COD increased to the range no less than 200 mg/L, due to the fact that the BOD diffusive flux driven by the biomass uptake was not further enhanced by higher ambient organic loading. The diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 1.12 × 10 -6  m 2 /d with influent COD of 50 mg/L at COD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and 1 h hydraulic retention time and aeration, and the coefficient increased to 3.35 × 10 -6  m 2 /d as the influent COD concentration increased to 300 mg/L. The diffusion coefficient decreased to 4.09 × 10 -7  m 2 /d as the retention time increased to 3 h. The overall diffusion coefficients showed an increasing trend as the influent organic loading increased. The difference in diffusion coefficients between 1 and 2 h was apparently greater than that between 2 and 3 h, indicating a smaller overall diffusive flux due to a longer retention time. Further analysis revealed that BOD diffusion activity exhibited a declining trend as the wastewater travelled through the system. An analytical diffusion-reaction model was developed to characterize the diffusion behaviour, and applied to estimating the treatment efficiency for real domestic sewage. The result showed that the estimated effluent BOD concentrations were quite comparable to those from experimental measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Evaluation of various approaches for assessing dose indicators and patient organ doses resulting from radiotherapy cone-beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, Osvaldo; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Rossetti, Veronica; Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ropolo, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate various approaches for assessing patient organ doses resulting from radiotherapy cone-beam CT (CBCT), by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms, a Monte Carlo based dose calculation software, and different dose indicators as presently defined. Dose evaluations were performed on a CBCT Elekta XVI (Elekta, Crawley, UK) for different protocols and anatomical regions. The first part of the study focuses on using pcxmc software (pcxmc 2.0, STUK, Helsinki, Finland) for calculating organ doses, adapting the input parameters to simulate the exposure geometry, and beam dose distribution in an appropriate way. The calculated doses were compared to readouts of TLDs placed in an anthropomorphic Rando phantom. After this validation, the software was used for analyzing organ dose variability associated with patients' differences in size and gender. At the same time, various dose indicators were evaluated: kerma area product (KAP), cumulative air-kerma at the isocenter (Kair), cone-beam dose index, and central cumulative dose. The latter was evaluated in a single phantom and in a stack of three adjacent computed tomography dose index phantoms. Based on the different dose indicators, a set of coefficients was calculated to estimate organ doses for a range of patient morphologies, using their equivalent diameters. Maximum organ doses were about 1 mGy for head and neck and 25 mGy for chest and pelvis protocols. The differences between pcxmc and TLDs doses were generally below 10% for organs within the field of view and approximately 15% for organs at the boundaries of the radiation beam. When considering patient size and gender variability, differences in organ doses up to 40% were observed especially in the pelvic region; for the organs in the thorax, the maximum differences ranged between 20% and 30%. Phantom dose indexes provided better correlation with organ doses than Kair and KAP, with average

  9. Analytical interferences of mercuric chloride preservative in environmental water samples: Determination of organic compounds isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction or closed-loop stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, W.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Falres, L.M.; Werner, M.G.; Leiker, T.J.; Rogerson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical interferences were observed during the determination of organic compounds in groundwater samples preserved with mercuric chloride. The nature of the interference was different depending on the analytical isolation technique employed. (1) Water samples extracted with dichloromethane by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed a broad HgCl2 'peak' eluting over a 3-5-min span which interfered with the determination of coeluting organic analytes. Substitution of CLLE for separatory funnel extraction in EPA method 508 also resulted in analytical interferences from the use of HgCl2 preservative. (2) Mercuric chloride was purged, along with organic contaminants, during closed-loop stripping (CLS) of groundwater samples and absorbed onto the activated charcoal trap. Competitive sorption of the HgCl2 by the trap appeared to contribute to the observed poor recoveries for spiked organic contaminants. The HgCl2 was not displaced from the charcoal with the dichloromethane elution solvent and required strong nitric acid to achieve rapid, complete displacement. Similar competitive sorption mechanisms might also occur in other purge and trap methods when this preservative is used.

  10. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  11. ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS AND ACTIONS OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS ACCORDING TO THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Callado, Aldo Leonardo; Cunha Callado, Antônio André; Araújo Almeida, Moisés

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the article is to identify the use of both performance indicators and actions related to the various perspectives proposed by the Balanced Scorecard among agribusiness organizations from Paraíba as instruments that drive performance. The empirical field research involved 21 organizations, investigating various perspectives, such as finance, clients, internal processes, development and growth. A questionnaire was used for data collection; both the Pearson correlation coefficie...

  12. The indication for hysterectomy as a risk factor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    , the HR for POP was 6.57 (95% confidence interval 5.91 - 7.30). The HR for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), pain, endometriosis, and "other indications" was significantly higher than the reference. POP surgery was performed predominantly in the posterior compartment for all indications except benign...

  13. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and life. This is the first study to conduct proof-of-concept testing for a rapid compliance detection tool using freshly collected harbour water concomitantly with in situ ballast water; our results demonstrate that it is important to challenge potential compliance tools with water samples spanning a range of biotic and abiotic conditions.

  14. Mathematical Analysis for the Optimization of a Design in a Facultative Pond: Indicator Organism and Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Cortés Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilization ponds are easy to operate and their maintenance is simple. Treatment is carried out naturally and they are recommended in developing countries. The main disadvantage of these systems is the large land area they occupy. The aim of this study was to perform an optimization in the design and cost of a facultative pond, considering a mathematical analysis of the traditional methodology to determine the model constraints (fecal coliforms and organic matter. Matlab optimization toolbox was used for nonlinear programming. A facultative pond with the traditional method was designed and then the optimization system was applied. Both analyses meet the treated water quality requirements for the discharge to the receiving bodies. The results show a reduction of hydraulic retention time by 4.82 days, and a decrease in the area of 17.9 percent over the traditional method. A sensitivity analysis of the mathematical model is included. It is recommended to realize a full-scale study in order to verify the results of the optimization.

  15. Different Analytical Procedures for the Study of Organic Residues in Archeological Ceramic Samples with the Use of Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Rosiak, Angelina; Kwapińska, Marzena; Kwapiński, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the composition of organic residues present in pottery is an important source of information for historians and archeologists. Chemical characterization of the materials provides information on diets, habits, technologies, and original use of the vessels. This review presents the problem of analytical studies of archeological materials with a special emphasis on organic residues. Current methods used in the determination of different organic compounds in archeological ceramics are presented. Particular attention is paid to the procedures of analysis of archeological ceramic samples used before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Advantages and disadvantages of different extraction methods and application of proper quality assurance/quality control procedures are discussed.

  16. Influence of organic amendments on soil quality potential indicators in an urban horticultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mirta; Gomez, Elena; Comese, Romina; Quesada, Mariano; Conti, Marta

    2010-11-01

    The short-term response of some soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and the growth of beet, to the application of vermicompost-compost mix and/or bone meal at different doses in an organic system was evaluated in the present work. Fractions of soil organic matter after amendment application were also evaluated. Though no differences were found in oxidizable carbon, the particulate organic carbon was incremented in treatments with the application of vermicompost-compost mix (VC) and the combination of compost and bone meal (VC-BM). When analyzing the fulvic, humic and humin fractions, the highest fulvic acids were found in vermi-compost and bone meal mix, at the higher dose (VC2-BM2). In general, the addition of compost and/or bone meal stimulated microbial respiration. The treatments produced a slight but significant increase in electrical conductivity, thought it was still far from limits that involve risk of salinization. An increment in extractable P was found in all the treatments with amendment application with the exception of bone meal applied at the lower dose (1kgm(-2)). The cation exchange capacity showed a significant increment in VC2-BM2. A single application of VC at dose of 2kgm(-2) was enough to significantly reduce bulk density. An increment in kg dry matter m(-2) of beet was observed in all the treatments, but it only was significant in VC2-BM2. However, the highest N and P concentration was found in beet aerial tissues from the treatments with the higher dose of the compost-vermicompost mix (VC2 and VC2-BM2). Particulate organic carbon, fulvic acid fraction, C from respiration, and bulk density were the soil properties that showed a positive change after amendment application. Treatment combining vermicompost-compost and bone meal (VC2-BM2) seemed to be the best option to achieve an improvement both in soil and crop production and quality.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and occurrence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in organic and conventional chicken meat: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the occurrence of pathogenic and indicator bacteria, and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from organic and conventional chicken carcasses. Fifty frozen chickens were assessed from five different commercial brands purchased at retail stores in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Of these chickens, 25 were conventionally farmed and 25 were organically farmed. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts were made, as well as counts for total coliform, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and the assessment of Salmonella sp. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, and Tukey´s test was used to compare means between brands within the organic and conventional groups. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to compare bacterial counts between organic and conventional group. Differences of antimicrobial resistance between groups were calculated using the Chi square test (P<0.05. The organic chicken carcasses showed higher microbiological contamination (P<0.05 compared to conventional carcasses; however, Enterobacteriaceae from the organic chicken showed lower antimicrobial resistance. The highest frequency of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from both organic and conventional chicken was tetracycline. The restricted use or absence of antibiotics in organic farming practices can lower the risk of dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria when chicken is consumed.

  18. Analytical and numerical analysis of charge carriers extracted by linearly increasing voltage in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure relevant to bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Nivedita; Hirwa, Hippolyte; Wagner, Veit

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is conducted on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors in a structure relevant to organic solar cells. For this analysis, an analytical model is developed and is used to determine the conductivity of the active layer. Numerical simulations of the transient current were performed as a way to confirm the applicability of our analytical model and other analytical models existing in the literature. Our analysis is applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) : phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) which allows to determine the electron and hole mobility independently. A combination of experimental data analysis and numerical simulations reveals the effect of trap states on the transient current and where this contribution is crucial for data analysis.

  19. Blood profile and organ2.O-somatic indices of albino rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects Used Engine Oil (UEO) otherwise known as mineral-based crankcase oil on blood profile and organo-somatic indices of albino rats were studied. Twenty four male albino rats divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 rats each were used. Rats in three groups (A, B and C) received graded dose levels of UEO ...

  20. Use of non vascular plant organisms as indicators of urban air pollution (Tunja, Boyaca, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simijaca Salcedo, Diego Fernando; Vargas Rojas, Diana Lucia; Morales Puentes, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are useful organisms in air quality determination. In the city of Tunja (Boyaca, Colombia), is evident the lack of green areas by the increase of building, which contributes to the detriment of the atmospheric purity making unhealthy conditions to the citizens and habitats and population reduction of cryptogamic plants. Using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) we identified the greater influence air pollutants areas. Parmotrema austrosinense has the highest frequency; and the normal femenina station with an IAP of 52,2196 is an atmospheric pollutants influenced area; Parque Santander and semaforos, are the most contaminated (IAP 8,5333) with only two species (Heterodermia albicans and Lobariaceae sp.). We highlight the evaluation in the reserva forestal protectora el Malmo with an IAP of 34,0281 and 23 species. IAP values were grouped in isocontamination areas to be represented cartographically. The use of bioindicators organisms is a natural and economic strategy allowing us to mapping urban areas and makes revegetation cities designs, generating the contaminants diminution air impact improving the citizen's life quality.

  1. Time Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Benthic and Pelagic Indicator Fishes from Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James E; O'Neill, Sandra M; Ylitalo, Gina M

    2017-08-01

    We modeled temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in two indicator fish species representing benthic and pelagic habitats in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. English sole (Parophrys vetulus, benthic) index sites and larger-scale Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii, pelagic) foraging areas represented a wide range of possible contamination conditions, with sampling locations situated adjacent to watersheds exhibiting high, medium and low development. Consistency in analytical data throughout the study was maintained by either calculating method-bias-correction factors on paired samples as methods evolved or by analyzing older archived samples by current methods. PCBs declined moderately in two herring stocks from a low-development basin (2.3 and 4.0% annual rate of decline) and showed no change in the highly developed and moderately developed basins during a 16- to 21-year period. PCBs increased in English sole from four of ten sites (2.9-7.1%), and the remaining six exhibited no significant change. PBDEs and DDTs declined significantly in all herring stocks (4.2-8.1%), although analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting DDT results. PBDEs declined in English sole from two high-development and one low-development site (3.7-7.2%) and remained unchanged in the remaining seven. DDTs increased in English sole from one high-development site (Tacoma City Waterway) and declined in two high-development and one low development site. As with herring, analytical challenges warrant caution in interpreting the English sole DDT results. It is likely that source controls and mitigation efforts have contributed to the declines in PBDEs and DDTs overall, whereas PCBs appear to have persisted, especially in the pelagic food web, despite bans in PCB production and use.

  2. Behavioural Resistance in Insects: Its Potential Use as Bio Indicator of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J. A.; García-Marín, F. J.; Sáinz-Pérez, M.; González-Ruiz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the investigations carried out on the resistance of insects to pesticides have been focused on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the behavioural answers that pesticide induces in the insects have received very little attention. The symptoms from getting pesticides on the cuticular surface of insects, as neurotoxical pre mortem effects, include spasmodic activity, hyperactivity and leak of the surfaces impregnated by the pesticides. These reactions provides a first barrier of defense, named behavioural resistance. Previous experiments carried out on olive groves usually subjected to pesticide application have allowed to visualize a reaction of leak of the natural enemies from treated areas, which is reflected as an increase of its rate of capture in sticky chromatic traps, in relation to the free of pesticides areas, on olive groves, usually subjected to pesticide application. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the reaction of these insects’ species under different agricultural pest management: i- A conventional olive grove, where pesticides are usually applied; and ii- An organic olive grove, where pest management depends exclusively on the role of the natural enemies. During the spring of 2016, experimental applications have been carried out in two olive groves of the province of Jaén (south of Spain) by means of a commercial pesticide application, in order to evaluate the reactions induced in the main species of olive predators. Six pairs of plots were randomly selected in both conventional and organic olive groves, three of these were pesticide sprayed, whereas a second series of three plots were free of pesticide application. Sticky yellow traps were installed in both treated and control plots just after application of pesticide. The results allow to determine the existence of two different reactions of the predators in both types of olive groves. In the plots of the conventional management, a significant increase of

  3. Mathematical Analysis for the Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Systems in Facultative Pond Indicator Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarsih; Widowati; Kartono; Sutrisno

    2018-02-01

    Stabilization ponds are easy to operate and their maintenance is simple. Treatment is carried out naturally and they are recommended in developing countries. The main disadvantage of these systems is large land area they occupy. The aim of this study was to perform an optimization of the wastewater treatment systems in a facultative pond, considering a mathematical analysis of the methodology to determine the model constrains organic matter. Matlab optimization toolbox was used for non linear programming. A facultative pond with the method was designed and then the optimization system was applied. The analyse meet the treated water quality requirements for the discharge to the water bodies. The results show a reduction of hydraulic retention time by 4.83 days, and the efficiency of of wastewater treatment of 84.16 percent.

  4. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... subject to contrasting management regimes (cutting, slurry injection, grazing). Enchytraeid density, biomass and species composition was determined in 0–18 cm soil sampled in October, and again in March and May before and after slurry application, respectively. For soils retrieved in October, ley age had...... no consistent impact on enchytraeid density and biomass. Injection of slurry significantly affected the enchytraeid community at one sampling only but tended to sustain higher enchytraeid abundance in 1-year old leys throughout the year. One persistent feature was a larger enchytraeid community in the autumn...

  5. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment — A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera, E-mail: vhomem@fe.up.pt; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3 mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  6. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  7. Evaluation of various approaches for assessing dose indicators and patient organ doses resulting from radiotherapy cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, Osvaldo, E-mail: orampado@cittadellasalute.to.it; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Rossetti, Veronica; Ropolo, Roberto [Struttura Complessa Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Corso Bramante 88, Torino 10126 (Italy); Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Turin, Torino 10126 (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate various approaches for assessing patient organ doses resulting from radiotherapy cone-beam CT (CBCT), by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms, a Monte Carlo based dose calculation software, and different dose indicators as presently defined. Methods: Dose evaluations were performed on a CBCT Elekta XVI (Elekta, Crawley, UK) for different protocols and anatomical regions. The first part of the study focuses on using PCXMC software (PCXMC 2.0, STUK, Helsinki, Finland) for calculating organ doses, adapting the input parameters to simulate the exposure geometry, and beam dose distribution in an appropriate way. The calculated doses were compared to readouts of TLDs placed in an anthropomorphic Rando phantom. After this validation, the software was used for analyzing organ dose variability associated with patients’ differences in size and gender. At the same time, various dose indicators were evaluated: kerma area product (KAP), cumulative air-kerma at the isocenter (K{sub air}), cone-beam dose index, and central cumulative dose. The latter was evaluated in a single phantom and in a stack of three adjacent computed tomography dose index phantoms. Based on the different dose indicators, a set of coefficients was calculated to estimate organ doses for a range of patient morphologies, using their equivalent diameters. Results: Maximum organ doses were about 1 mGy for head and neck and 25 mGy for chest and pelvis protocols. The differences between PCXMC and TLDs doses were generally below 10% for organs within the field of view and approximately 15% for organs at the boundaries of the radiation beam. When considering patient size and gender variability, differences in organ doses up to 40% were observed especially in the pelvic region; for the organs in the thorax, the maximum differences ranged between 20% and 30%. Phantom dose indexes provided better correlation with organ

  8. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter

    2017-08-30

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN THE CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS PROCESSES REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Gagarinskii

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of the effective work of managers of industrial enterprises, which is the basis of economic development in modern Russia. The authors suggest that the management of the system of performance indicators in managers in the conditions of realization of various business processes can reduce the risk of crises in the enterprise, and improve the efficiency of labour management and productivity in the company in a whole. According to the authors, improving the efficiency of management in the conditions of implementation of the various business processes of industrial enterprises is an integral element of the overall strategic development of the company. The article presents the results of work performance assessment of managers in the implementation of business process management. In this article there is developed performance business process management on the example of the metal cutting enterprise management levels: the corporate level, the first operational level, the second operational level, and the line level. For these indicators the performers are defined and criteria are given.

  10. Application of the World Stroke Organization health system indicators and performance in Australia, Singapore, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Tamara; Carey, Leeanne; Cadilhac, Dominique; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Baum, Carolyn

    2016-10-01

    Aim To examine how Australia, Singapore and the United States of America (USA) match to the World Stroke Organization Global Stroke Services health system monitoring indicators (HSI). Design Descriptive comparative study Participants The health systems of Australia, Singapore, the USA. Outcome measures Published data available from each country were mapped to the 10 health system monitoring indicators proposed by the World Stroke Organization. Results Most health system monitoring indicators were at least partially met in each country. Thrombolytic agents were available for use in acute stroke. Stroke guidelines and stroke registry data were available in all three countries. Stroke incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates were available but at non-uniform times post-stroke. The International Classification of Disease 9 or 10 coding systems are used in all three countries. Standardized clinical audits are routine in Australia and the USA, but not in Singapore. The use of the modified Rankin Scale is collected sub-acutely but not at one year post-stroke in all three countries. Conclusions The three developed countries are performing well against the World Stroke Organization health system monitoring indicators for acute and sub-acute stroke care. However, improvements in stroke risk assessment and at one-year post-stroke outcome measurement are needed.

  11. Quality of care indicators for the structure and organization of inpatient rehabilitation care of children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M; Ennis, Stephanie K; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Mangione-Smith, Rita; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Rivara, Frederick P

    2012-03-01

    To develop evidence-based and expert-driven quality indicators for measuring variations in the structure and organization of acute inpatient rehabilitation for children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to survey centers across the United States to determine the degree of variation in care. Quality indicators were developed using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi method. Adherence to these indicators was determined from a survey of rehabilitation facilities. Inpatient rehabilitation units in the United States. A sample of rehabilitation programs identified using data from the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, and the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities yielded 74 inpatient units treating children with TBI. Survey respondents comprised 31 pediatric and 28 all age units. Not applicable. Variations in structure and organization of care among institutions providing acute inpatient rehabilitation for children with TBI. Twelve indicators were developed. Pediatric inpatient rehabilitation units and units with higher volumes of children with TBI were more likely to have: a census of at least 1 child admitted with a TBI for at least 90% of the time; adequate specialized equipment; a classroom; a pediatric subspecialty trained medical director; and more than 75% of therapists with pediatric training. There were clinically and statistically significant variations in the structure and organization of acute pediatric rehabilitation based on the pediatric focus of the unit and volume of children with TBI. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford

  13. Neurotization indicators and state of mental desadaptation in personnel of internal affairs organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnichenko S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data of psychological testing of personnel of internal affairs organs, using LNP test: levels of neuroticism and psychopathsation, prevalence of levels of neuroticism among the personnel, the relationship between neuroticism level and clinical groups (mentally healthy, with burnout syndrome and with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism reflects both dynamic and static (states and properties personality characteristics, i.e. neuroticism is elective personality variable. The clinical picture is characterized by manifestations of asthenonevurotic and psycho-vegetative syndromes. More often among those with non-psychotic mental disorders a high (100% level of neuroticism, increased (87.5% and in the zone of uncertain diagnosis (50% occur, than among those with burnout syndrome, and lower than normal (36.36% and low (19.08% neuroticism level – more often among with burnout syndrome, than in those with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism on the verge of normal and pathological conditions occurs mostly in people with burnout syndrome (50% and non-psychotic mental disorders (50%.

  14. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

  15. Health indicators, social support, and intimate partner violence among women utilizing services at a community organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Parekh, Asha; Olson, Lenora M

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a significant public health concern. This study examines the physical and mental health status and relationship to social support for women seeking services to end IPV at a walk-in community organization that serves the community at large, including a shelter for abused women. One hundred seventeen (117) English-speaking women between the ages of 18 and 61 years participated in a self-administered survey. Physical, mental, and oral health, social support, and IPV homicide lethality were measured using standardized instruments. Social support was the most important factor related to better health. The participants who had more social support reported better physical (p oral health (p health (p health (p oral health problems, whereas older age, low education level, and unemployment were related to poor mental health. The present study adds to the evidence that social support contributes to improving physical and mental health for women who experience IPV. The findings also suggest the importance of providing or referring women to mental health services. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The brain sizes of living elasmobranchii as their organization level indicator. I. General analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkov, N A

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between brain and body masses of 64 species and subspecies of modern sharks and skates was investigated. It was established that the level of their encephalization in terms of the polygons of encephalization and the allometry coefficient (alpha), shows quite obviously the general organization level of one or another taxon of sharks and skates. Alpha = 0.56 for the class of cartilaginous fishes, and for the superorder of sharks and skates alpha = 0.54 and 0.61, accordingly. For several orders alpha constitutes: sharks--common for relict Hexanchiformes and Heterodontiformes 0.44, Squaliformes 0.43 and Carcharhiniformes 0.52 and skates--Rajiformes 0.44 and Dasyatiformes 0.52. All values are similar to those of other vertebrates and the theoretically calculated value of alpha (0.67). It was established the "place" of present-day Elasmobranchii and all cartilaginous fishes in the evolutionary row of Gnathostomata and Craniata on the developing and relative sizes of CNS, and the corrected alpha value for this particular vertebrate class was specified which was found to be sensationally high also in the works of foreign and native authors (Bauchot et al., 1976; Northcutt, 1978; Ebbesson, 1980; Kreps, 1980).

  17. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, operating in negative ion mode). The ESI voltages were optimized for each sample, and all spectra were internally calibrated following the procedure of (Sleighter and Hatcher, 2007), after which, peaks were assigned unique molecular formulas using a MatLab script written in house by Dr. Wassim Obeid of Old Dominion University. Results: The van Krevelen diagrams together with the relative intensity of each chemical compound, both obtained by FT-ICR-MS, allowed us to assess SOM quality for each sample and size fractions. The chemical compounds were grouped into the 7 main families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the

  18. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Por un año estudiamos las abejas de la tribu Euglossini (abejas de las orquídeas, especialmente el género Euglossa en Atenas y San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica, para identificar su potencial como bioindicadoras de fincas orgánicas y fincas "convencionales" de café. Usamos como atrayente aceite de eucalipto (1.8-cineole. Las abejas son más abundantes en las fincas de café orgánico (t-Student. Sin embargo, el relativamente bajo número de abejas en la menor de las dos fincas orgánicas sugiere que el tamaño de una finca orgánica y la proximidad a las fincas convencionales, podrían tener efectos negativos en la orgánica. Estas abejas podrían servir como bioindicadores de fincas orgánicas.

  19. Monitoring of natural and artificial radionuclides in Thrace Region by using bio indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belivermis, M.; Kilic, O.; Cotuk, Y.; Topcuoglu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Moss and lichen have been used commonly as bio indicators of fall-out radionuclides such as 1 37Cs and naturally occurring radionuclides such as 7 Be, 2 32Th, 2 38U. Moss and lichens have crucial advantages for determining atmospheric fall-out radionuclides with regard to vascular plants because of great surface/volume ratio, lack of cuticle and well developed root systems. 1 37Cs considered as one of the most hazardous artificial radionuclides in the environment because of its similar physicochemical properties to potassium and long physical half-life (30.14 years). 1 37Cs accumulation studies in moss and lichen are useful because of the reflect atmospheric deposition. In addition to 1 37Cs, the behavior of natural radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystems has been the centre of attraction for radioecology studies in view of their toxic influences on the human by entering food chains. It is noted in the literature that, recently, concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides have been increased in biota as a result of fossil fuel combustion. In the current study, 1 37Cs, 4 0K, 2 32Th and 2 38U radioactivity concentrations of moss, lichen and pine bark samples which were collected from Thrace Region were measured by using gamma spectrometry equipped with high-purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K, 2 32Th and 2 38U in the moss samples found in the range of 0.36-8.13, 85.4-162.9, 1.62-6.17, 1.69-6.73 Bq kg - 1, respectively.

  20. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  1. Proposal of a system of indicators to assess the training of experts in a high-tech organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elías Hardy, Lidia Lauren; González Olaguive, Elizabeth Vicenta; Martínez Martínez, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: present a proposal of a system of indicators to assess actions aimed at the training and development of experts in a high-tech organization. Methods: an analysis was conducted of the various theories dealing with the training and development of experts, examining their features and components. Design of the system of indicators was based on surveys and direct observation. The system of indicators thus designed was validated with the Delphi method, the application of the Likert scale and the statistical treatment of answers provided by experts, using median and interquartile range values to establish the consensus of experts. Results: a working definition is proposed of the concept expert based on two dimensions: qualification and performance, and individual and collective variables, indicators and measurement criteria. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0,8655) showed the internal consistency of the tool used. The median and interquartile range values obtained made it possible to establish the consensus of participants in the validation of the system of indicators. Conclusions: the system of indicators developed and its two dimensions make it possible to assess the training and development of experts at the Cuban Neuroscience Center, as well as the system of actions performed. The indicator showing the lowest results is that of productivity of experts in the training of human resources of high academic level. (author)

  2. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2018-03-24

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  3. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  4. Meta-analytic study of organic acids as an alternative performance-enhancing feed additive to antibiotics for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpo, G V; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Cruz-Polycarpo, V C; Dadalt, J C; Rodrigues, P H M; Albuquerque, R

    2017-10-01

    The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables. Moreover, the effects of organic acids, used individually or in blends, were evaluated. Relative values of average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were obtained in relation to control: ΔADG and ΔADFI, respectively. Analysis of variance-covariance revealed lower ADG with organic acids when compared to antibiotics (P organic acids improved broilers' FCR (P 0.05). Under challenge, the organic acids were again effective on FCR (-5.67% in relation to control, P organic acids, but not by the organic acids used alone (P > 0.05). ADFI and production factor were not influenced by the treatments (P > 0.05). ΔADFI of organic-acid supplemented group showed a linear influence on ΔADG, which increases 0.64% at every 1% increase in ΔADFI. In conclusion, organic acids can be utilized as performance enhancing, but the results are lower than those found with antibiotics, particularly under microbial challenge. The blends of organic acids provide better results than the utilization of one organic acid alone. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  6. Labelling indices after /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation during organ culture of duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L. (Bergen Univ. (Norway))

    1980-01-01

    Incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine during organ culture of duodenal biopsy specimens from 34 coeliac and 10 non-coeliac patients was studied by autoradiography. High labelling indices were found in flat, coeliac mucosas. Gluten fractions, which provoked histological deterioration during culture, induced labelling of a greater proportion of crypt cells and higher migration rate than parallelly cultured specimens on gluten-free medium. No influence on clypt cell kinetics could be observed after culture with gluten fractions incapable of producing histological damage or with alpha-lactalbumin. In coeliac remission mucosas, labelling indices were at the same level as in non-coeliac biopsis, and no significant effects of gluten were observed. Autoradiography seems to be a fairly sensitive and reliable determinant of gluten toxicity by organ culture in coeliac desease and should supplement the histological appraisal of the biopsies. The increment of labelling indices provoked by gluten exposure seemed not merely to be a concequence of increased desquamation of cells from the biopsy surface but could imply a direct influence of gluten on crypt cell kinetics in coeliac disease.

  7. Complex refractive indices of thin films of secondary organic materials by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 220 to 1200 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Yue; Martin, Scot T

    2013-01-01

    The complex refractive indices of three different types of secondary organic material (SOM) were obtained for 220 to 1200 nm using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. Aerosol particles were produced in a flow tube reactor by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, including the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene and the aromatic catechol (benzene-1,2-diol). Optically reflective thin films of SOM were grown by electrostatic precipitation of the aerosol particles onto silicon substrates. The ellipsometry analysis showed that both the real and imaginary components of the refractive indices decreased with increasing wavelength. The real part n(λ) could be parametrized by the three-term form of Cauchy's equation, as follows: n(λ) = B + C/λ(2) + D/λ(4) where λ is the wavelength and B, C, and D are fitting parameters. The real refractive indices of the three SOMs ranged from 1.53 to 1.58, 1.49-1.52, and 1.48-1.50 at 310, 550, and 1000 nm, respectively. The catechol-derived SOM absorbed light in the ultraviolet (UV) range. By comparison, the UV absorption of the monoterpene-derived SOMs was negligible. On the basis of the measured refractive indices, optical properties were modeled for a typical atmospheric particle population. The results suggest that the wavelength dependence of the refractive indices can vary the Angstrom exponent by up to 0.1 across the range 310 to 550 nm. The modeled single-scattering albedo can likewise vary from 0.97 to 0.85 at 310 nm (UV-B). Variability in the optical properties of different types of SOMs can imply important differences in the relative effects of atmospheric particles on tropospheric photochemistry, as well as possible inaccuracies in some satellite-retrieved properties such as optical depth and mode diameter.

  8. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  9. Five key pillars of an analytics center of excellence, which are required to manage populations and transform organizations into the next era of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jim; Furlong, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Acute care facilities are experiencing fiscal challenges as noted by decreasing admissions and lower reimbursement creating an unsustainable fiscal environment as we move into the next era of health care. This situation necessitates a strategy to move away from acting solely on hunches and instinct to using analytics to become a truly data-driven organization that identifies opportunities within patient populations to improve the quality and efficiency of care across the continuum. A brief overview of knowledge management philosophies will be provided and how it is used to enable organizations to leverage data, information, and knowledge for operational transformation leading to improved outcomes. This article outlines the 5 key pillars of an Analytics Center of Excellence; governance, organizational structure, people, process, and technology, that are foundational to the development of this strategy. While culture is the most important factor to achieve organizational transformation and improved care delivery, it is the 5 pillars of the ACoE that will enable the culture shift necessary to become a truly data-driven organization and thus achieve transformation into the next era of health care.

  10. Perbandingan Metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) dan Metode Preference Ranking Organization Method For Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) untuk Pemilihan Hardisk Eksternal

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Didi

    2015-01-01

    Decision support system is an alternative solution to the decision maker to decide the choice. Many kinds of an External Hard Drive with functions different and uses are a new problem for the decision maker. The purpose of this research is how to choose a choice of an External Hard Drive which based on to user needs, based on the value of the selection criteria, and by paying attention to kind of decision. Decision support system used in this study is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method...

  11. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  12. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hassard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA. Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC. Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical

  13. Evaluation of Soil Quality Using Labile Organic Carbon and Carbon Management Indices in Agricultural Lands of Neyriz, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Salmanpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil organic matter is considered as an indicator of soil quality, because of its role on the stability of soil structure, water holding capacity, microbial activity, storage and release of nutrients. Although changes and trends of organic matter are assessed on the basis of organic carbon, it responds slowly to changes of soil management. Therefore, identifying sensitive components of organic carbon such as carbon labile lead to better understanding of the effect of land use change and soil management on soil quality. The main components of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions are the amount of water; and soil and water salinity. Water deficit and irrigation with saline water are important limiting factors for cropping and result in adverse effects on soil properties and soil quality. Soil carbon changes is a function of addition of plant debris and removal of it from soil by its decomposition. If the amount of organic carbon significantly reduced due to the degradation of the soil physical and chemical properties and soil quality, agricultural production will face serious problems. To this end, this study was done to evaluate soil quality using soil labile carbon and soil carbon management indices in some agricultural lands of Neyriz area, Fars province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Five fields were selected in two regions, Dehfazel and Tal-e-mahtabi, consisted of irrigated wheat and barley with different amount of irrigation water and water salinity levels. Three farms were located in Dehfazel and two farms in Tal-e-Mahtabi region. In each farm, three points were randomly selected and soil samples were collected from 0-40 cm of the surface layer. Plant samples were taken from a 1x1 square meter and grain crop yield was calculated per hectare. Water samples were obtained in each region from the wells at the last irrigation. Physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and water samples were determined. Soil

  14. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM (Life Technologies, a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  15. Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Melnychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High levels of anthropogenic impact on the environment requires a detailed study of the features of the influence of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on living organisms, and provides for the development and use of effective means of protecting the body from its negative influence. The purpose of the work was to study the characteristics of the exchange of bile pigments of rats under the action of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium on the organism and the corrective properties of liposomes on the basis of milk phospholipids. An analysis of the chromatographic studies of bilirubin and derivatives (nonconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin sulfate, billirubin glucuronide, urobilin and stercobilin in the whole blood, liver, jejunum contents and feces under the action on the animal organism of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium indicate material violation of the exchange bile pigments that may be due to the destabilization of the structural and functional hot hepatocytes. Correction of the liposomal form of biologically active additive (BAA FLP-MD is reco­mmended; the latter is a mixture of phospholipids isolated from milk, with a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and antioxidants (α-tocopherol and retinol acetate. The additive components exhibit the reparative effect of the action in respect of the damaged membrane structures with simultaneous improving of cholepoietic and billiation liver function, and therefore contribute to the normalization of exchange og bile pigments in terms of action on the body ecopathogenic factors.

  16. Alterations of morphology of lymphoid organs and peripheral blood indicators under the influence of gold nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Bucharskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, gold nanoparticles (GNPs are widely used in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnostics and therapy. Accordingly, the potential toxicity hazards of these nanomaterials and human safety concerns are gaining significant attention. Here, we report the effects of prolonged peroral administration of GNPs with different sizes (2, 15 and 50nm on morphological changes in lymphoid organs and indicators of peripheral blood of laboratory animals. The experiment was conducted on 24 white mongrel male rats weighing 180–220g, gold nanospheres sizes 2, 15 and 50nm were administered orally for 15 days at a dosage of 190μg/kg of animal body weight. The GNPs were conjugated with polyethylene glycol to increase their biocompatibility and bioavailability. The size-dependent decrease of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in the study of peripheral blood, especially pronounced after administration of GNPs with size of 50nm. The stimulation of myelocytic germ of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The signs of strengthening of the processes of differentiation and maturation of cellular elements were found in lymph nodes, which were showed as the increasing number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes. The quantitative changes of cellular component morphology of lymphoid organs due to activation of migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells indicate the presence of immunostimulation effect of GNPs.

  17. Application and further development of an analytical method for the determination of biogenic total-non methane organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Dindorf, Tamara; Kesselmeier, Juergen

    2010-05-01

    Most of the organic carbon which is present in the atmosphere is found as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A known dominant source for these volatile organic compounds is the biosphere. Approximately 1.1 Gt of carbon is emitted from biogenic sources every year on a global scale. In comparison only app. 0.15 Gt are emitted from anthropogenic sources. The emission of VOCs has a high influence on the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere as they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). One major limitation in advancing the understanding of this ozone and aerosol generation is the technical ability to accurately measure these volatile organics. Previous studies focused on the detection of a defined set of NMOC (non-methane organic carbon) compounds. However, the integration of these single compound measurements to the sum of organic carbon might only represent a lower limit of atmospheric carbon concentrations, since none of these methods is able to analyze all organic compounds present in the atmosphere as a whole. A few studies are known that report on total NMOC concentration measurements in ambient air but measurements of the total NMOC exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere are missing. The analysis of the total NMOC concentrations is realized by collecting these compounds on a solid adsorbent material. Due to the special characteristics of the utilized adsorbents a separation of the stable gases CO, CO2 and CH4 from the volatile NMOC fraction is achieved. By subsequent heating of the NMOC adsorbent trap the volatiles are desorbed and converted to CO2 in an oxidation unit. The CO2 is collected on a second preconcentration unit followed by thermal desorption and is detected by an infrared gas analyzer. The system was tested with a set of single calibrated VOC species from permeation devices and compared with a data set obtained under field conditions.

  18. Organic matter compounds as source indicators and tracers for marine pollution in a western Mediterranean coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorri, Jalila; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Aïssa, Patricia; Ksibi, Mohamed; Amblès, André

    2011-11-01

    Complex organic compounds found in oil and sediments linked with a particular source (such as algae, bacteria or vascular plants) are defined as biomarkers and are useful dating indicators in organic geochemistry. This paper presents the composition of the organic matter (OM) on marine surface sediments from a degraded Tunisian coast analysed by pyrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High total OM contents (0.3-4.2%) were detected with high levels of saturated linear hydrocarbons. The aliphatic lipids had contributed with up to 11.7% of the total OM, and their distribution had consisted of resolved compounds (n-alkanes and fatty acid (FAs)) and an unresolved complex mixture. Hydrocarbons, primarily n-alkanes, were ranged from 368 to 3,886 μg g(-1). The FAs (674-2,568 μg g(-1)) were dominated by derived primary production, and the short chain FAs (C16 and C18) were the most abundant throughout. The ubiquitous presence of petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration, discharge of pollutants from rivers, shipping activities and atmospheric deposition was found in all samples. The Gabès littoral seems to be quite to very polluted near the industrial zone of Ghannouch. The C/H ratio (generally around 5.9), the thermal analysis and GC-MS of n-alkanes and FAs showed that the OM in the studied area was composed of anthropogenic/petrogenic, marine and continental sources. Our study represents an innovative approach to assessing environmental pollution. The evaluation of organic matter by examination of sterols, alkanes and fatty acids allows the identification of source, both anthropogenic and natural.

  19. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P. A.; Zagatto, Maurício R. G.; Brandani, Carolina B.; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R.; Gonçalves, José L. M.; Cardoso, Elke J. B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results are

  20. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P A; Zagatto, Maurício R G; Brandani, Carolina B; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R; Gonçalves, José L M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0-20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis , and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results

  1. Development and application of an analytical method for the determination of total atmospheric biogenic non-methane organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J.; Dindorf, T.; Hacker, L.; Andres, S.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the organic carbon which is present in the atmosphere is found as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dominantly emitted by the biosphere. This biogenic emission has a major impact on the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere by contributing to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). One major limitation in advancing the understanding of this ozone and aerosol generation is the technical ability to accurately measure the sum of these volatile organics. Frequently used methods focus on the detection of a defined set of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). However, adding these single compound concentrations might only represent a lower limit of atmospheric carbon concentrations, since no available method is able to analyze all organic compounds present in the atmosphere. A few studies are known that report on total NMOC concentration measurements in ambient air but measurements of the total NMOC exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere are missing. Therefore, we investigated the analysis of the total NMOC concentration by collecting these compounds on a solid adsorbent material for subsequent total carbon analysis. This first step is necessary to separate the stable gases CO, CO2 and CH4 from the volatile NMOC fraction. NMOC was desorbed and converted to CO2 by passing an oxidation unit. The CO2 is collected on a second preconcentration unit followed by thermal desorption and detection by an infrared gas analyzer. As major difficulties we identified the separation of CO2 from the NMOC compounds on the solid adsorbent unit and the choice of the catalytic material. The measurements were accompanied by GC analysis of single calibrated VOC species from permeation devices and measurements by a PTR-MS. Plant chamber measurements with Quercus ilex showed an expected diurnal course which was confirmed by the NMOC analyzer though with a discrepancy during the day of up to 40 %.

  2. Elucidation of molecular and elementary composition of organic and inorganic substances involved in 19th century wax sculptures using an integrated analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regert, M.; Langlois, J.; Laval, E.; Le Ho, A.-S.; Pages-Camagna, S.

    2006-01-01

    Wax sculptures contain several materials from both organic and inorganic nature. These works of art are particularly fragile. Determining their chemical composition is thus of prime importance for their preservation. The identification of the recipes of waxy pastes used through time also provides valuable information in the field of art history. The aim of the present research was to develop a convenient analytical strategy, as non-invasive as possible, that allows to identify the wide range of materials involved in wax sculptures. A multi-step analytical methodology, based on the use of complementary techniques, either non- or micro-destructive, was elaborated. X-ray fluorescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used in a non-invasive way to identify inorganic pigments, opacifiers and extenders. The combination of structural and separative techniques, namely infrared spectroscopy, direct inlet electron ionisation mass spectrometry and high temperature gas chromatography, was shown to be appropriate for unravelling the precise composition of the organic substances. A micro-chemical test was also performed for the detection of starch. From this study it has been possible to elucidate the composition of the waxy pastes used by three different sculptors at the end of the 19th century. Complex and elaborated recipes, in which a large range of natural substances were combined, were highlighted

  3. Face-validation of quality indicators for the organization of palliative care in hospitals in Indonesia: a contribution to quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effendy, C.; Vissers, K.; Woitha, K.; Paap, J.; Tejawinata, S.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Engels, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Quality indicators (QIs) for the organization of palliative care (PC) can contribute to quality improvement as they assess the key elements for adequate organization of care. They might differ between health care organization, cultures and economic resources. The aim of this study was

  4. Testing feasibility and reliability of a set of quality indicators to evaluate the organization of palliative care across Europe: a pilot study in 25 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitha, K.; Hasselaar, J.G.; Beek, K.; Ahmed, N.; Jaspers, B.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Radbruch, L.; Vissers, K.; Engels, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A well-organized palliative care service is a prerequisite for offering good palliative care. Reliable and feasible quality indicators are needed to monitor the quality of their organization. AIM: To test feasibility and reliability of a previously developed set of quality indicators in

  5. Soil organic matter dynamics in Mediterranean A-horizons-The use of analytical pyrolysis to ascertain land-use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.; Barbera, G.G.; Buurman, P.; Perez-Jorda, G.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.

    2013-01-01

    In archaeology and nature conservation studies, knowledge about (pre)historical land-use is important. The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) supplies information about its history, as its composition is controlled by input material and decay processes. In this study, the molecular

  6. Cesium-137 inventories in Alaskan Tundra, lake and marine sediments: An indicator of recent organic material transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebmeier, J.M.; Cooper, L.W.; Larsen, I.L.; Solis, C.; Olsen, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Tundra sampling was accomplished in 1989--1990 at Imnavait Creek, Alaska (68 degree 37' N, 149 degree 17' W). Inventories of 137 Cs (102--162 mBq/cm 2 ) are close to expectations, based upon measured atmospheric deposition for this latitude. Accumulated inventories of 137 Cs in tundra decrease by up to 50% along a transect to Prudhoe Bay (70 degree 13' N, 148 degree 30' W). Atmospheric deposition of 137 Cs decreased with latitude in the Arctic, but declines in deposition would have been relatively small over this distance (200 km). This suggests a recent loss of 137 Cs and possibly associated organic matter from tundra over the northern portions of the transect between Imnavait Creek and Prudhoe Bay. Sediments from Toolik Lake (68 degree 38' N, 149 degree 38' W) showed widely varying 137 Cs inventories, from a low of 22 mBq/cm 2 away from the lake inlet, to a high between 140 to >200 mBq/cm 2 near the main stream inflow. This was indicative of recent accumulation of cesium and possibly organic material associated with it in arctic lakes, although additional sampling is needed

  7. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe; Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen; Salthammer, Tunga

    2010-01-01

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO x , total volatile organic compounds (TVOC PAS ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO x signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC PAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  8. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NO{sub x} in exhaled human breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe [Hannover Medical School, Sports Physiology and Sports Medicine, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga, E-mail: tunga.salthammer@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO{sub x}, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC{sub PAS}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO{sub x} signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC{sub PAS} are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  9. Climate and landscape influence on indicators of lake carbon cycling through spatial patterns in dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Seekell, David A; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are strongly influenced by both climate and the surrounding landscape, yet the specific pathways connecting climatic and landscape drivers to the functioning of lake ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that the links that exist between spatial patterns in climate and landscape properties and the spatial variation in lake carbon (C) cycling at regional scales are at least partly mediated by the movement of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic component of the landscape. We assembled a set of indicators of lake C cycling (bacterial respiration and production, chlorophyll a, production to respiration ratio, and partial pressure of CO2 ), DOC concentration and composition, and landscape and climate characteristics for 239 temperate and boreal lakes spanning large environmental and geographic gradients across seven regions. There were various degrees of spatial structure in climate and landscape features that were coherent with the regionally structured patterns observed in lake DOC and indicators of C cycling. These different regions aligned well, albeit nonlinearly along a mean annual temperature gradient; whereas there was a considerable statistical effect of climate and landscape properties on lake C cycling, the direct effect was small and the overall effect was almost entirely overlapping with that of DOC concentration and composition. Our results suggest that key climatic and landscape signals are conveyed to lakes in part via the movement of terrestrial DOC to lakes and that DOC acts both as a driver of lake C cycling and as a proxy for other external signals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  11. Characterization of performance reference compound kinetics and analyte sampling rate corrections under three flow regimes using nylon organic chemical integrative samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-09-30

    Performance reference compounds (PRCs) can be spiked into passive samplers prior to deployment. If the dissipation kinetics of PRCs from the sampler corresponds to analyte accumulation kinetics, then PRCs can be used to estimate in-situ sampling rates, which may vary depending on environmental conditions. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of PRC corrections on prediction accuracy of water concentrations were evaluated using nylon organic chemical integrative samplers (NOCIS). Results from PRC calibrations suggest that PRC elimination occurs faster under higher flow conditions; however, minimal differences were observed for PRC elimination between fast flow (9.3cm/s) and slow flow (5.0cm/s) conditions. Moreover, minimal differences were observed for PRC elimination from Dowex Optipore L-493; therefore, PRC corrections did not improve results for NOCIS configurations containing Dowex Optipore L-493. Regardless, results suggest that PRC corrections were beneficial for NOCIS configurations containing Oasis HLB; however, due to differences in flow dependencies of analyte sampling rates and PRC elimination rates across the investigated flow regimes, the use of multiple PRC corrections was necessary. As such, a "Best-Fit PRC" approach was utilized for Oasis HLB corrections using caffeine-(13)C3, DIA-d5, or no correction based on the relative flow dependencies of analytes and these PRCs. Although PRC corrections reduced the variability when in-situ conditions differed from laboratory calibrations (e.g. static versus moderate flow), applying PRC corrections under similar flow conditions increases variability in estimated values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Progressing towards more quantitative analytical pyrolysis of soil organic matter using molecular beam mass spectroscopy of whole soils and added standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddix, Michelle L.; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Evans, Robert J.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Morris, Sherri J.; Calderón, Francisco; Paul, Eldor A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is extremely complex. It is composed of hundreds of different organic substances and it has been difficult to quantify these diverse substances in a dynamic-ecosystem functioning standpoint. Analytical pyrolysis has been used to compare chemical differences between soils, but its ability to measure the absolute amount of a specific compound in the soil is still in question. Our objective was to assess whether utilizing pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectroscopy (py-MBMS) to define the signature of known reference compounds (adenine, indole, palmitic acid, etc.) and biological samples (chitin, fungi, cellulose, etc.) separately and when added to whole soils it was possible to make py-MBMS more quantitative. Reference compounds, spanning a wide variety of compound categories, and biological samples, expected to be present in SOM, were added to three soils from Colorado, Ohio, and Massachusetts that have varying total C, % clay, and clay type. Py-MBMS, a rapid analysis technique originally developed to analyze complex biomolecules, flash pyrolyzes soil organic matter to form products that are often considered characteristic of the original molecular structure. Samples were pyrolyzed at 550 degrees C by py-MBMS. All samples were weighed and %C and %N determined both before and after pyrolysis to evaluate mass loss, C loss, and N loss for the samples.An average relationship of r2 = 0.76 (P = 0.005) was found for the amount of cellulose added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C relative to the ion intensity of select mass/charge of the compound.There was a relationship of r2 = 0.93 (P < 0.001) for the amount of indole added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C and the ion intensity of the associated mass variables (mass/charge). Comparing spectra of pure compounds with the spectra of the compounds added to soil and isolated clay showed that interference could occur based on soil type and compound with the Massachusetts soil with high C (55

  13. Comparison of commercial organic polymer-based and silica-based monolithic columns using mixtures of analytes differing in size and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyviurska, Olga; Lv, Yongqin; Mann, Benjamin F; Svec, Frantisek

    2018-01-02

    Commercially available silica-based monolithic columns Chromolith RP-8e, Chromolith RP-18, and Chromolith HR RP-18, and polymer-based monolithic columns ProSwift RP-1S, ProSwift RP-2H, and ProSwift RP-3U varying in pore size and bonded phase have been tested for the fast separation of selected sets of analytes. These mixtures of analytes included small molecules (uracil, caffeine, 1-phenylethanol, butyl paraben, and anthracene), acylated insulins, and intact proteins (ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, transferrin, apomyoglobin, and thyroglobulin), and covered wide range of chemistries and sizes. Small molecules were well separated with a height equivalent to theoretical plate of 11-26 μm using silica-based monolithic columns, while organic polymer-based monoliths excelled in the fast sub 1 min baseline separations of large molecules. A peak capacity of 37 was found for separation of acylated insulins on Chromolith columns using a 3 min gradient at a flow rate of 3 ml/min. Poor recovery of proteins from Chromolith columns and significant peak tailing of small molecules using ProSwift columns were the major obstacles in using monolithic columns in those applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An analytical method for estimating the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of organic compounds with complex free induction decays for radiation effects studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of 14 N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as a radiation dosimetry tool has only recently been explored. An analytical method for analyzing 14 N NQR complex free induction decays is presented with the background necessary to conduct pulsed NQR experiments. The 14 N NQR energy levels and possible transitions are derived in step-by-step detail. The components of a pulsed NQR spectrometer are discussed along with the experimental techniques for conducting radiation effects experiments using the spectrometer. Three data analysis techniques -- the power spectral density Fourier transform, state space singular value decomposition (HSVD), and nonlinear curve fitting (using the downhill simplex method of global optimization and the Levenberg-Marquart method) -- are explained. These three techniques are integrated into an analytical method which uses these numerical techniques in this order to determine the physical NQR parameters. Sample data sets of urea and guanidine sulfate data are used to demonstrate how these methods can be employed to analyze both simple and complex free induction decays. By determining baseline values for biologically significant organics, radiation effects on the NQR parameters can be studied to provide a link between current radiation dosimetry techniques and the biological effects of radiation

  15. Analysis of indicators of an efficiency estimation of work of the employee and the business model of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury G. Odegov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of increasing competition, the problems of efficiency increase of activity of the company are significantly actualized, which directly depends on efficiency of labour activity of every employee and the implemented business model of the organization. On this basis the aim of the research is to analyze existing indicators of performance evaluation of the labour activities of both the employee and the business model of the organization.The theoretical basis of the study consists of principles of the economic theory, the works of native and foreign experts in the field of job evaluation. The information base of the research consists of economic and legal literature dealing with problems of this study, the data published in periodicals, materials of Russian scientific conferences, seminars, and Internet resources.In this article I have used and found the application of scientific methods of data collection, methods of research and methods of assessing their credibility: quantitative, comparative, logical analysis and synthesis.The modern business concern about the accumulation of wealth of shareholders, giving the company stability, growth and efficiency inevitably leads to necessity of creation and development of technologies aimed at improving the productivity of employees. The paper presents a comparative analysis of different approaches to assessing the labour effectiveness.The performance of the work is the ratio of the four essential parameters that determine the measure of efficiency of persons’ activity: the quantity and quality of result of work (a service, material product or technology in relation to spend time and cost on its production. The use of employees («performance» should be in the following way that they could achieve the planned results in the workplace. The authors have noted that to develop of technologies for the measurement of productivity it is very important to use the procedures and indicators that are

  16. Indoor air quality in hair salons: Screening of volatile organic compounds and indicators based on health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, Lucrezia; Mazzone, Antonio; Porcelli, Francesca; Tutino, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common ingredients in cosmetic products which can impact human health. This study monitored 12 hairdressing salons in order to assess the individual exposure of the people working in or frequenting these environments as well as identify the main products or activities responsible for the presence of these compounds. In each site halogenated, oxygenated, aliphatic and aromatic compounds were monitored during the work week with diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption and analysed using GC-MS. The study of indoor-outdoor concentration ratios and a knowledge of the composition of most of the products, whether ecological or traditional, used in the hair salons verified the presence of compounds linked to hairdressing activities. In particular, compounds widely used in products for hair care as spray lacquer and foam (butane), shampoo, balms, hair masks and oils (camphene, camphor, limonene, eucalyptol, alpha pinene, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, n-butanol and menthol), and hair dye (benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, limonene, hexane and methyl ethyl ketone) were found at much higher levels inside rather than outside the salons (mean I/O > 10). The importance of this finding is linked to the potential health hazards of some of the VOCs detected. Integrated indicators of health risk were proposed in this study to assess the criticality level and rank the investigated environments accordingly. The results of this study indicate that the level of VOC concentrations was most affected by the type of products used while the size of the environment, the efficiency of air exchange and the number of customers had less impact on those levels.

  17. A synthesis of light absorption properties of the Pan-Arctic Ocean: application to semi-analytical estimates of dissolved organic carbon concentrations from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2013-11-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aφ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aφ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC vs. CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  18. A Synthesis of Light Absorption Properties of the Arctic Ocean: Application to Semi-analytical Estimates of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Belanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2014-01-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean [e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012], the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher 74 than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained 75 by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian 76 side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off 77 North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (a()) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific a() values [Matsuoka et al., 2013], this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately erived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  19. Distribution and nature of sedimentary organic matter in a tropical estuary: An indicator of human intervention on environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Chakraborty, P.; Nath, B.N.

    Sediment texture controls the spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in the Vembanad Lake. Influences of marine derived organic matter (OM) on SOM decreased inner-wards in the northern part of the lake. However, SOM from...

  20. Effect of design and operational conditions on the performance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands: Emerging organic contaminants as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Stefanie; Nivala, Jaime; van Afferden, Manfred; Müller, Roland A; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2017-11-15

    Six pilot-scale subsurface flow treatment wetlands loaded with primary treated municipal wastewater were monitored over one year for classical wastewater parameters and a set of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) serving as process indicators for biodegradation: caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, benzotriazole, diclofenac, acesulfame, and carbamazepine. The wetland technologies investigated included conventional horizontal flow, unsaturated vertical flow (single and two-stage), horizontal flow with aeration, vertical flow with aeration, and reciprocating. Treatment efficiency for classical wastewater parameters and EOCs generally increased with increasing design complexity and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The two aerated wetlands and the two-stage vertical flow system showed the highest EOC removal, and the best performance in warm season and most robust performance in the cold season. These three systems performed better than the adjacent conventional WWTP with respect to EOC removal. Acesulfame was observed to be removed (>90%) by intensified wetland systems and with use of a tertiary treatment sand filter during the warm season. Elevated temperature and high oxygen content (aerobic conditions) proved beneficial for EOC removal. For EOCs of moderate to low biodegradability, the co-occurrence of aerobic conditions and low content of readily available carbon appears essential for efficient removal. Such conditions occurred in the aerated systems and with use of a tertiary treatment sand filter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indications of field-directing and self-templating effects on the formation of organic lines on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikovsky, Janik; Dogel, Stanislav A; Salomons, Mark H; Pitters, Jason L; DiLabio, Gino A; Wolkow, Robert A

    2011-03-21

    It has previously been shown that multimolecular organic nanostructures form on H-Si(100)-2×1 via a radical mediated growth process. In this mechanism, growth begins through the addition of a molecule to a silicon surface dangling bond, followed by the abstraction of a neighboring H atom and generation of a new dangling bond on the neighboring site. Nanostructures formed by this mechanism grow along one edge of a dimer row. Here, we explored the possibility of using lithographically prepared, biased metal contacts on the silicon surface to generate an electric field that orients molecules during the growth process to achieve growth in the perpendicular-to-row direction. The formation of some nanostructures in a direction that was nearly perpendicular to the dimer rows was achieved, whereas such features were not formed in the absence of the field. Analysis of the scanning tunneling microscopy images suggests that the formation of these nanostructures may involve self-templating effects in addition to dangling bond diffusion rather than a straightforward addition∕abstraction mechanism. These initial results offer some indication that a molecular pattern writer can be achieved.

  2. Development and validation of a 48-target analytical method for high-throughput monitoring of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Li, Yunjing; Long, Likun; Li, Feiwu; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-05

    The rapid increase in the number of genetically modified (GM) varieties has led to a demand for high-throughput methods to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We describe a new dynamic array-based high throughput method to simultaneously detect 48 targets in 48 samples on a Fludigm system. The test targets included species-specific genes, common screening elements, most of the Chinese-approved GM events, and several unapproved events. The 48 TaqMan assays successfully amplified products from both single-event samples and complex samples with a GMO DNA amount of 0.05 ng, and displayed high specificity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, a preamplification step for 48 pooled targets was added to enrich the amount of template before performing dynamic chip assays. This dynamic chip-based method allowed the synchronous high-throughput detection of multiple targets in multiple samples. Thus, it represents an efficient, qualitative method for GMO multi-detection.

  3. Development and Validation of A 48-Target Analytical Method for High-throughput Monitoring of Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Li, Yunjing; Long, Likun; Li, Feiwu; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of genetically modified (GM) varieties has led to a demand for high-throughput methods to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We describe a new dynamic array-based high throughput method to simultaneously detect 48 targets in 48 samples on a Fludigm system. The test targets included species-specific genes, common screening elements, most of the Chinese-approved GM events, and several unapproved events. The 48 TaqMan assays successfully amplified products from both single-event samples and complex samples with a GMO DNA amount of 0.05 ng, and displayed high specificity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, a preamplification step for 48 pooled targets was added to enrich the amount of template before performing dynamic chip assays. This dynamic chip-based method allowed the synchronous high-throughput detection of multiple targets in multiple samples. Thus, it represents an efficient, qualitative method for GMO multi-detection. PMID:25556930

  4. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  5. ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF RELIGIOUS ATTITUDE CONSTRUCTION MODEL AT LPTK ORGANIZING PROFESSIONAL POST SM-3T TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Suresman, dkk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrack, A successful education is influenced by various factors, one of which is method or approach to education to build a religious attitude for students. One of Islamic values-based learning methods that have been implemented at UPI in an effort to build religious attitude of PPG Post SM-3T participants is targhib and tarhib learning model and the results are very effective. The focus of problem in this study is on whether targhib - tarhib model was used in other LPTKs in building religious attitude for PPG Post SM-3T participants? The purpose of this study is to understand what learning model is applied in LPTK organizing PPG Post SM-3T in building religious attitude for PPG participants? This study was conducted by using a descriptive approach, qualitative-interpretative. The techniques of data collection used are questionnaire in the form of religious attitude distributed to PPG Post SM-3T participants, religious builder in a dormitory, and manager, and participation observation in the field. The data analysis was performed in five steps: verification of the data, presentation of the serial number for answer sheets, scoring of answer sheet, calculation of religious attitude trends by estimating the population and its percentage, and analysis of trends to differences in the effectiveness of each method used to mold religious attitude in each of LPTK organizing PPG. The results of the study suggest any variation of models used in each of LPTK, i.e., lectures, tutorials, thariqah shufis and targhibs - tarhibs. The targhib - tarhib have the most successful position than other models. Targhib – tarhib are 84%, lectures, 50%, shufis, 80%, tutorials, 70%.   Keywords: Construction Model, Religious Attitude, PPG Post SM-3T.   Abstrak, Keberhasilan pendidikan dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor, salah satu faktor tersebut adalah metode atau pendekatan pendidikan yang dapat membangun sikap religius bagi peserta didik. Salah satu metode

  6. Pyrolytic indices of diagenetic transformation of lignin as biogeochemical proxies for soil organic matter quality and C storage potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; Almendros, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Ana M.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors involved in soil organic carbon sequestration remain unclear. The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) and its resilience has been a constant in classical biogeochemical models. Other more recent hypotheses have postulated that preservation by soil minerals may play a chief role in the accumulation of stable SOM forms. However, additional experimental data are required to demonstrate a cause-to-effect relationship between preservation and stabilization. Some authors might consider that models neglecting the role of macromolecular structure are swapping cause and effect i.e., that SOM structurally flexible, weakly condensed and having 'open' structures is the one with high potential to interact with the soil mineral matrix, leading to stable microaggregates. In this study up to 35 topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected from different Spanish soils with contrasted values of organic C (the dependent variable), geological substrate and vegetation type. A wide array of uni- and multivariate chemometric models were applied to independent variables consisting of total abundances of the major aromatic compounds, i.e., alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols released from whole soil samples using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These two families of compounds were selected since they are classically considered to inform on the degree of microbial reworking of lignins, which is an important precursor of the aromatic moiety of the SOM. A series of pyrolytic surrogate indices (aiming to express SOM diagenetic transformation in relation to the original biogenic molecular composition) were especially successful in forecasting SOC, viz: a) ratio between alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols, b) ratio between short-chain (C0-C4) and long-chain (>C4) alkylbenzenes, c) ratio between methoxyphenols and short-chain alkylbenzenes, and d) ratios between methoxyphenols with different side

  7. Analytical chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila

    -, č. 22 (2011), s. 718-719 ISSN 1472-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : analytical chemistry * analytical methods * nanotechnologies Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/launch.aspx?referral=other&pnum=&refresh=M0j83N1cQa91&EID=82bccec1-b05f-46f9-b085-701afc238b42&skip=

  8. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  9. Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Adler, Gabriela; Lee, H-J; Segev, Lior; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Brown, Steven; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-05-14

    Atmospheric absorption by brown carbon aerosol may play an important role in global radiative forcing. Brown carbon arises from both primary and secondary sources, but the mechanisms and reactions for the latter are highly uncertain. One proposed mechanism is the reaction of ammonia or amino acids with carbonyl products in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We generated SOA in situ by reacting biogenic alkenes (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) with excess ozone, humidifying the resulting aerosol, and reacting the humidified aerosol with gaseous ammonia. We determined the complex refractive indices (RI) in the 360 – 420 nm range for these aerosols using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES). The average real part (n) of the measured spectral range of the NH3-aged α-pinene SOA increased from n = 1.50 (±0.01) for the unreacted SOA to n = 1.57 (± 0.01) after a 1.5h exposure to 1.9 ppm NH3; whereas,the imaginary component (k) remained below k < 0.001 (± 0.002). For the limonene and α-humulene SOA the real part did not change significantly, and we observed a small change in the imaginary component of the RI. The imaginary component increased from k = 0.0 to an average k= 0.029 (± 0.021) for α-humulene SOA, and from k < 0.001 (± 0.002) to an average k = 0.032 (±0.019) for limonene SOA after a 1.5 h exposure to 1.3 and 1.9 ppm of NH3, respectively. Collected filter samples of the aged and unreacted α-pinene SOA and limonene SOA were analyzed off-line with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI/HR-MS), and in-situ with a Time-of-Fligh Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, confirming that the SOA reacted and that various nitrogen-containing reaction products formed. If we assume that NH3 aging reactions scale linearly with time and concentration, then a 1.5 h reaction with 1 ppm NH3 in the laboratory is equivalent to 24 h reaction with 63 ppbv NH3, indicating that the observed aerosol absorption will be limited

  10. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren H Sumner-Rooney

    Full Text Available The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001. We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  11. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive study of the electrochemical generation of Tc-MDP complexes at reticulated vitreous carbon is in progress. Results thus far indicate that high yields of the same complexes that are formed by electrochemical generation at mercury electrodes and by chemical reduction by NaBH 4 at various values of solution pH are formed. Reticulated vitreous carbon offers the advantage of a flow through electrode with a large surface area for the rapid generation of Tc-MDP complexes at very low cost. It is a suitable electrode material for the proposed electrochemical syringe. A prototype TcO 4 - sensor has been fabricated by coating a graphite electrode with a thin film of the polymer poly(dimethyl-diallylammonium chloride). The polymer concentrates electroactive anions at the electrode surface as demonstrated with ferricyanide and thereby enhances the analytical signal for their detection. 2 figs

  12. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  13. Environmental Contaminants, Metabolites, Cells, Organ Tissues, and Water: All in a Day’s Work at the EPA Analytical Chemistry Research Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    The talk will highlight key aspects and results of analytical methods the EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) Analytical Chemistry Research Core (ACRC) develops and uses to provide data on disposition, metabolism, and effects of environmenta...

  14. Hydrocarbon prospects of the western continental slope of India as indicatEd. by surficial enrichment of organic carbon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    The sediments from the continental mid-slope (150-1500 m depth) of the western margin are highly enriched in organic carbon (upto 16%) occurring as a long and wide band off Bombay to southern tip of India. Organic carbon is essentially of marine...

  15. Changes in the nature of dissolved organics during pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment: a multivariate statistical study combining data from three analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Emma L; Smernik, Ronald J; van Leeuwen, John; Greenwood, Paul; Macdonald, Lynne M

    2014-03-01

    The paper-making process can produce large amounts of wastewater (WW) with high particulate and dissolved organic loads. Generally, in developed countries, stringent international regulations for environmental protection require pulp and paper mill WW to be treated to reduce the organic load prior to discharge into the receiving environment. This can be achieved by primary and secondary treatments involving both chemical and biological processes. These processes result in complex changes in the nature of the organic material, as some components are mineralised and others are transformed. In this study, changes in the nature of organics through different stages of secondary treatment of pulp and paper mill WW were followed using three advanced characterisation techniques: solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Each technique provided a different perspective on the changes that occurred. To compare the different chemical perspectives in terms of the degree of similarity/difference between samples, we employed non-metric multidimensional scaling. Results indicate that NMR and HPSEC provided strongly correlated perspectives, with 86 % of the discrimination between the organic samples common to both techniques. Conversely, py-GCMS was found to provide a unique, and thus complementary, perspective.

  16. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  17. GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS (GOS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ READING COMPREHENSION IN LEARNING ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT (A CASE OF ENGLISH LESSON AT MA SHOLAHUDDIN DEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ayiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading class for EFL high school students tends to be boring. Many students are not interested in reading due to the complicated structures of a text. The curriculum 2013 now has been changed back into the previous curriculum, that is the school based curriculum (KTSP, which requires students at senior high school to learn many kinds of texts. One of the texts students have to learn is analytical exposition text which usually becomes problem for them to comprehend. This paper investigates the effects of Graphic Organizers (GOs on reading comprehension achievement of EFL students. GOs are visual frameworks which can help EFL students in the comprehension of a text. Its use is like a map which locates particular information of a text and enables students easily to find particular information in a text. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study. 60 EFL students participated for this study. 30 students formed as the experimental group and the others as the control group. The participants were given the reading comprehension achievement test before the treatment. After the treatment, both groups were given the reading comprehension achievement test again. Based on the statistical analysis, it was found that there was significant difference in the reading comprehension achievement of the groups in favor of the experimental one. The results have shown that the instruction of GOs in EFL reading class can be an alternative to help students in the comprehension of reading materials in English.

  18. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION It is known that soil water repellency (WR) is induced by organic substances covering the surface of minerals particles and aggregates or present as interstitial substances in the soil matrix. It has also been suggested that the persistence of WR is largely conditioned by specific chemical characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM). Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released into soils as exudates of roots, organic residues in decomposition, or secretions by fungi and other microorganisms. Soil free lipids correspond to a diverse collection of hydrophobic substances including complex substances as sterols, terpenes, polynuclear hydrocarbons, chlorophylls, fatty acids, waxes, and resins. Some of these organic substances, responsible of soil water repellency may be studied using analytical pyrolisis (de la Rosa et al., 2011; González-Pérez et al., 2011). This research aims to study the relation between soil WR and SOM quantity and quality, assessing the impact of organic fractions and its distribution in soil particles of different size on soil WR from sandy soils. 2. METHODS Soil samples were collected under selected species growing in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain), cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Soil WR and physical chemical characteristics including SOM content were assessed in fine earth soil samples (PA>PP>HH. A positive correlation was observed between WR from each sieve size fraction and SOM content. The most severe WR was detected in QS for all sieve size fractions, followed by the finer fractions form PA, PP and HH samples, which that also shows the highest SOM content, ranging between 20.9% (PP) and 46.9% (QS). Coarser soil fractions (1-2 mm) under PA, PP and HH showed the highest long-chain-even C numbered fatty acids (LCE-FA) in the order PP>PA>HH. No fatty acids were detected neither

  19. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2011-07-22

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate 'green' reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  20. An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Liess, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR organic (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR organic is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR organic as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants. - Indicator for organic toxicants at community level can be independent of natural environmental factors

  1. Evaluation of sugar-cane vinasse treated with Pleurotus sajor-caju utilizing aquatic organisms as toxicological indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz F Romanholo; Aguiar, Mario M; Messias, Tamara G; Pompeu, Georgia B; Lopez, Ana M Queijeiro; Silva, Daniel P; Monteiro, Regina T

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool in the evaluation, prediction and detection of the potential effect of pollutants from environmental samples in living organisms. Vinasse, a highly colored effluent, is a sub-product rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, with high pollutant potential when disposed in the environment. Assays for vinasse decolorization were performed using the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju CCB020 in vinasse biodegradation study, were occurred reductions of 82.8% in COD, 75.3% in BOD, 99.2% in the coloration and 99.7% in turbidity. The vinasse toxicity reduction was determined by the exposition to the following organisms: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Daphnia similis and Hydra attenuata. This work concluded that the systematic combination of P. sajor-caju and vinasse can be applied in the bioprocess of color reduction and degradation of complex vinasse compounds, with reduction in the toxicity and improving its physical-chemical properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of histopathology and elemental accumulation in different organs of two benthophagous fish species as indicators of river pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašković, Božidar; Poleksić, Vesna; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Skorić, Stefan; Gačić, Zoran; Djikanović, Vesna; Jarić, Ivan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2015-09-01

    The bottom feeding fish species have a good potential to be used for assessments of pollution, as they are under pressure from pollutants from both water and sediments. In this study, the level of similarity of histopathological responses to pollution in gills and liver between barbel (Barbus barbus) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) from the Danube River was assessed, and compared with elemental concentrations in their gills, liver, and muscle. Results indicate that the detected metal concentrations were likely cause of different tissue responses in gills and liver of the two investigated fish species. Statistical analysis indicated a clear differentiation of the two species based on elemental concentrations and the level of histopathological changes in gills and liver. Metal concentrations exceeded maximum acceptable concentrations in a number of analyzed specimens, which indicates the importance of this type of monitoring. Results indicate that barbel is a better indicator for specific, rather narrow sites, whereas sterlet is a better indicator of larger (longer) water current segments. Obtained information could be of importance for both scientists and fishery and water management authorities working on the development of water monitoring programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Use of Non Vascular Plant Organisms as Indicators of Urban Air Pollution (Tunja, Boyacá, Colombiano)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fernando Simijaca Salcedo; Maria Eugenia Morales Puentes; Diana Lúcia Vargas Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are useful organisms in air quality determination. In the city of Tunja (Boyacá, Colombia), is evident the lack of green areas by the increase of building, which contributes to the detriment of the atmospheric purity making unhealthy conditions to the citizens and habitats and population reduction of cryptogamic plants. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) we identified the greater influence air pollutants areas. Parmotrema  austrosinense has the highest frequenc...

  4. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Milstein, David

    2011-08-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate ‘green’ reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  5. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  6. Estimation of atmospheric columnar organic matter (OM) mass concentration from remote sensing measurements of aerosol spectral refractive indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Yele; Lv, Yang; Xie, Yisong

    2018-04-01

    Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN), dust-like (DU) components and aerosol water content (AW). In the algorithm, the microphysical characteristics (i.e. volume distribution and complex refractive index) of particulates are preliminarily separated to fine and coarse modes, and then aerosol components are retrieved using bimodal parameters. We execute the algorithm using remote sensing measurements of sun-sky radiometer at AERONET site (Beijing RADI) in a period from October of 2014 to January of 2015. The results show a reasonable distribution of aerosol components and a good fit for spectral feature calculations. The mean OM mass concentration in atmospheric column is account for 14.93% of the total and 56.34% of dry and fine-mode aerosol, being a fairly good correlation (R = 0.56) with the in situ observations near the surface layer.

  7. Functional grouping and establishment of distribution patterns of invasive plants in China using self-organizing maps and indicator species analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we introduce two techniques - self-organizing maps (SOM and indicator species analysis (INDVAL - for understanding the richness patterns of invasive species. We first employed SOM to identify functional groups and then used INDVAL to identify the representative areas characterizing these functional groups. Quantitative traits and distributional information on 127 invasive plants in 28 provinces of China were collected to form the matrices for our study. The results indicate Jiangsu to be the top province with the highest number of invasive species, while Ningxia was the lowest. Six functional groups were identified by the SOM method, and five of them were found to have significantly representative provinces by the INDVAL method. Our study represents the first attempt to combine self-organizing maps and indicator species analysis to assess the macro-scale distribution of exotic species.

  8. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  10. Covariation and photoinactivation of traditional and novel indicator organisms and human viruses at a sewage-impacted marine beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Yamahara, Kevan M; Love, David C; Peterson, Britt M; McNeill, Kristopher; Nelson, Kara L

    2009-11-01

    Sunlight modulates concentrations of Escherichia coli and enterococci in marine waters. However, the mechanism of photoinactivation is poorly understood. Additionally, little is known about photoinactivation of other fecal indicators and human viruses in recreational waters. We sampled nearshore waters at Avalon Beach, California hourly for 72 h for reactive oxygen species (ROS), traditional indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci, and QPCR-based detection of enterococci), F+ (DNA and RNA) and somatic coliphages, the human-specific marker in Bacteroidales (HF marker), human enterovirus, and human adenovirus. E. coli and enterococci (regardless of measurement technique) covaried with each other and the coliphages suggesting similar sources and fates. The occurrence of the HF and enterovirus markers was correlated, but their occurrence was not positively correlated with the other indicators. Lower concentrations or occurrence of all microbes, excluding the HF and enterovirus markers, were observed during sunlit as opposed to dark hours, pointing to the importance of photoinactivation. Empirical-deterministic models for a subset of microbial indicators were created to determine field-relevant sunlight inactivation rates while accounting for time dependent sources and sinks. Photoinactivation rates of enterococci and E. coli, enterococci measured by QPCR, and somatic coliphage were estimated at 7, 6, 3, and 28 d(-1) I(-1), respectively, where I is UVB intensity in W/m(2). Average H(2)O(2) was 183 nM and the maximum singlet oxygen steady state concentration was 6.6 fM. Given the clarity of the water, direct genomic damage of bacteria and coliphage, as well as indirect endogenous damage of bacteria, were likely the most important inactivation mechanisms, but we cannot rule out a contribution by indirect mechanisms involving the H(2)O(2) and singlet oxygen produced exogenously.

  11. Effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on vegetative indices and essential oil content of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghhavani Shajari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of single and combined application of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of vegetative part of coriander, (Coriandrum sativum L.. The experiment was carried out as split plot in time based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications and 12 treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments included: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, (2 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp., (3 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (4 cow manure, (5 vermicompost, (6 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (7 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (8 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (9 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (10 biosulfur + cow manure, (11 biosulfur + vermicompost and (12 control. Vegetative parts of coriander were cut at 5% of flowering stage in two dates (19 May and 5 June. Results showed that the highest plant height (28 cm and lateral branches (5.2 were obtained in combined application of biosulfur with cow manure treatment. The highest fresh and dry leaf weight, fresh and dry matter yield and stem dry matter weight were obtained in single application of chemical fertilizer. Single application of biosulfur increased leaf/stem ratio. The highest essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were observed in cow manure treatment (0.2% and 1753 g.ha-1, respectively. The maximum leaf/stem ratio were observed in the first cutting, while the highest lateral branches, stem fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were obtained in second cut. Overall, results of this study showed that the plant vegetative yield increased by using chemical fertilizer, while essential oil percentage and essential oil yield of coriander were improved by using organic and biological fertilizers.

  12. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  13. Correlation between some indices of microelement metabolism, vitamin-C sufficiency, and immune protection of an organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasolodin, V.V.; Rusin, V.IA.; Suvorov, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    Correlations between the characteristics of iron and copper metabolism on the one hand and indices of vitamin-C sufficiency and immunity status on the other were investigated in 28 young human subjects. A table is presented showing the correlation coefficients for various combinations of the following factors analyzed in these subjects: plasma and/or blood-cell concentrations of iron, copper, hemoglobin, peroxidase, lysozyme, erythrocytes, alpha-globulin, complement, and vitamin-C. Evidence concerning the effects of vitamin-C, Fe, and/or Cu insufficiency is discussed. 12 references.

  14. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  15. The Global Organic Food Market and Transformation: Deductive Definition of Empiric Indicators, The Demand Explanation, The Institutional Explanation & Comparative Country Report: Denmark versus Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    The present study is part of the project “Public Policies and Demand for Organic Food: An International Comparison of Policy Effects and Policy Determinants” (COP). It is carried out in WP II that concerns the supply-side policies and demand. In the WP it has been an initial task to formulate...... for indicators to explain which factors can explain increase in organic foods production and consumption. It reaches the conclusion that the picture concerning the demand side is very blurred and that it is impossible to reveal which elements are crucial. However, the study also concludes that institutional...

  16. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with

  17. Soil color indicates carbon and wetlands: developing a color-proxy for soil organic carbon and wetland boundaries on sandy coastal plains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, M L; Van Huyssteen, C W; Brown, L R

    2017-10-13

    A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 300 mm in three transects in each wetland type and analyzed for soil organic carbon. The matrix color was described using a Munsell soil color chart. Various color indices were correlated with soil organic carbon. The relationship between color and carbon were further elucidated using segmented quantile regression. This showed that potentially maximal carbon contents will occur at values of low color indices, and predictably minimal carbon contents will occur at values of low or high color indices. Threshold values can thus be used to make deductions such as "when the sum of dry and wet Value and Chroma values is 9 or more, carbon content will be 4.79% and less." These threshold values can then be used to differentiate between wetland and non-wetland sites with a 70 to 100% certainty. This study successfully developed a quantifiable correlation between color and carbon and showed that wetland boundaries can be determined based thereon.

  18. Mapping and spatial analysis of the distribution of indicator organisms for water quality in the stream of Ayura (Envigado, Antioquia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Rojas, Adriana; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluates and analyzes the spatial distribution communities of periphyton and aquatic macroinvertebrates used in determining water quality, considering the work done previously by de GAIA group at the University of Antioquia on water stream Ayura. We used the functions of hydrological models preset into GIS tool, which was conducted the layout of the stream netting with. Through the overlay of thematic layers, was obtained a mapping tool that allowed us to determine the relationship between land uses given to near areas where the sampling stations were located and the population of collected organisms, they were identified at each point. The results allow us to say that, both communities of protists and aquatic macroinvertebrates as indexes established, BMWP Colombia, Dinius and INSG, show a good quality of water resources for the station 1, which are coniferous forest, high and low stubbles; in station 2, it has an acceptable quality, and it has been noticed some buildings there, pastures and monocultures; finally at station 3, located in urban areas, the water quality is lower than previous stations

  19. Linking Governance to Sustainable Management Outcomes: Applying Dynamic Indicator Profiles to River Basin Organization Case Studies around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bouckaert, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Institutional best practice for integrated river basin management advocates the river basin organisation (RBO) model as pivotal to achieve sustainable management outcomes and stakeholder engagement. The model has been widely practiced in transboundary settings and is increasingly adopted at national scales, though its effectiveness remains poorly studied. A meta-analysis of four river basins has been conducted to assess governance models and linking it to evaluation of biophysical management outcomes. The analysis is based on a Theory of Change framework, and includes functional dynamic governance indicator profiles, coupled to sustainable ecosystem management outcome profiles. The governance and outcome profiles, informed by context specific indicators, demand that targets for setting objectives are required in multiple dimensions, and trajectory outlines are a useful tool to track progress along the journey mapped out by the Theory of Change framework. Priorities, trade-offs and objectives vary in each basin, but the diagnostics tool allows comparison between basins in their capacity to reach targets through successive evaluations. The distance between capacity and target scores determines how program planning should be prioritized and resources allocated for implementation; this is a dynamic process requiring regular evaluations and adaptive management. The findings of this study provide a conceptual framework for combining dimensions of integrated water management principles that bridge tensions between (i) stakeholder engagement and participatory management (bottom-up approach) using localized knowledge and (ii) decision-making, control-and-command, system-scale, accountable and equitable management (top-down approach).The notion of adaptive management is broadened to include whole-of-program learnings, rather than single hypothesis based learning adjustments. This triple loop learning combines exploitative methods refinement with explorative evaluation of

  20. A modeling approach to estimate the solar disinfection of viral indicator organisms in waste stabilization ponds and surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tamar; Mattle, Michael J; Minella, Marco; Vione, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Sunlight is known to be a pertinent factor governing the infectivity of waterborne viruses in the environment. Sunlight inactivates viruses via endogenous inactivation (promoted by absorption of solar light in the UVB range by the virus) and exogenous processes (promoted by adsorption of sunlight by external chromophores, which subsequently generate inactivating reactive species). The extent of inactivation is still difficult to predict, as it depends on multiple parameters including virus characteristics, solution composition, season and geographical location. In this work, we adapted a model typically used to estimate the photodegradation of organic pollutants, APEX, to explore the fate of two commonly used surrogates of human viruses (coliphages MS2 and ϕX174) in waste stabilization pond and natural surface water. Based on experimental data obtained in previous work, we modeled virus inactivation as a function of water depth and composition, as well as season and latitude, and we apportioned the contributions of the different inactivation processes to total inactivation. Model results showed that ϕX174 is inactivated more readily than MS2, except at latitudes >60°. ϕX174 inactivation varies greatly with both season (20-fold) and latitude (10-fold between 0 and 60°), and is dominated by endogenous inactivation under all solution conditions considered. In contrast, exogenous processes contribute significantly to MS2 inactivation. Because exogenous inactivation can be promoted by longer wavelengths, which are less affected by changes in season and latitude, MS2 exhibits smaller fluctuations in inactivation throughout the year (10-fold) and across the globe (3-fold between 0 and 60°) compared to ϕX174. While a full model validation is currently not possible due to the lack of sufficient field data, our estimated inactivation rates corresponded well to those reported in field studies. Overall, this study constitutes a step toward estimating microbial water

  1. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  2. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  3. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  4. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  5. Oxygen flux as an indicator of physiological stress in aquatic organisms: a real-time biomonitoring system of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Yale, Gowri; Chatni, Rameez; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo G.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Mclamore, Eric S.; Sepúlveda, María S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection of harmful chemicals and biological agents in real time is a critical need for protecting water quality. We studied the real-time effects of five environmental contaminants with differing modes of action (atrazine, pentachlorophenol, cadmium chloride, malathion, and potassium cyanide) on respiratory oxygen consumption in 2-day post-fertilization fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) eggs. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of fathead minnow eggs using the self-referencing micro-optrode technique to detect instantaneous changes in oxygen consumption after brief exposures to low concentrations of contaminants. Oxygen consumption data indicated that the technique is indeed sensitive enough to reliably detect physiological alterations induced by all contaminants. After 2 h of exposure, we identified significant increases in oxygen consumption upon exposure to pentachlorophenol (100 and 1000 μg/L), cadmium chloride (0.0002 and 0.002 μg/L), and atrazine (150 μg/L). In contrast, we observed a significant decrease in oxygen flux after exposures to potassium cyanide (5.2, 22, and 44 μg/L) and atrazine (1500 μg/L). No effects were detected after exposures to malathion (200 and 340 μg/L). We have also tested the sensitivity of Daphnia magna embryos as another animal model for real-time environmental biomonitoring. Our results are so far encouraging and support further development of this technology as a physiologically coupled biomonitoring tool for the detection of environmental toxicants.

  6. UV-screening Organic Matter (CDOM and MAA) as indicators for monitoring changes of the polar marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, M. O.; Kang, S. H.; Ha, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    At Kongsfjorden bay, DOC, CDOM, FDOM, composition of phytoplankton and MAAs were measured from seawater. The relationship between CDOM, DOC vs Chl a was also investigated. DOC of seawater in 2010 and 2011 was increased 68% and 34% respectively in average compared to DOC in 2009. CDOM was in the range of acdom(375): 0.1855 m-1 ~ 0.0965 m-1, and it showed clear decreasing gradient form inside bay to offshore. CDOM vs DOC and Chl a was inversely related in the study area. Biomass of phytoplankton during 2009~2011 was 0.43~ 0.76 mg/m3 and little change was observed, but the composition and dominant classes have changed. Phaeocystis sp. was rare and diatom and cryptophyte were dominant in the center of bay and coastal area, respectively. 5 different MAAs, shinorine, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, porphyra-334, asterine-330 are identified and separated from Arctic phytoplanktons by HPLC and an unknown MAA was identified from Phaeocystis pouchetti. The spatial distribution pattern of MAAs in the study area was similar with the distribution of Phaeocystis sp. in 2009. The concentration of MAA in 2011 was decreased upto 50% with maximum concentration and seems to related with very low abundance of Phaeocystis sp. in the bay. The results from UV B exposure experiment with Phaeocystis pouchetti. and Porosira glacialis revealed clear discrepancy in the response to carbon uptake rate and photo-inhibition, and also the organic matter from these phytoplankton showed a different photo reactivity. Porosira glacialis, larger than Phaeocystis pouchetti. was more resistant to harmful UV B effect and result of carbon uptake rate using 13C support this tendency. In case Phaeocystis pouchetti becomes the dominant species, it is likely CDOM will be easily degraded and the UV screening effect of seawater will be reduced. acdom(375) 0.14m-1in spring in the arctic was higher than 0.11m-1 in the antarctic at monitoring station. These 3 year monitoring in the arctic Kongsfjorden showed a

  7. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  8. Analytical strategy based on the use of liquid chromatography and gas chromatography with triple-quadrupole and time-of-flight MS analyzers for investigating organic contaminants in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarch Arquimbau, María Elena; Portolés Nicolau, Tania; Marín Ramos, José Manuel; Ibáñez Martínez, María; Albarrán, Fernando; Hernández Hernández, Félix

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a wide variety of organic pollutants with different physico-chemical characteristics has been investigated in wastewater samples from a municipal solid waste treatment plant placed at Castellón, Spain. An advanced analytical strategy has been applied, consisting on the combined used of two powerful and complementary techniques, GC and LC, both hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzers. The GC-MS/MS method was based on sample extraction using C18...

  9. Prevalence of Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in Home Kitchens and Correlation with Unsafe Food Handling Practices and Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrusso, Patricia A; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2017-04-01

    Despite education efforts, consumers often practice unsafe food handling and storage behaviors. Little is known about how these unsafe practices contribute to contamination of the home kitchen with foodborne pathogens. In addition, only a limited number of studies have examined the role of the kitchen as a reservoir for pathogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize microbial contamination and foodborne pathogens found in home kitchens and determine whether contamination was significantly associated with unsafe or unsanitary conditions observed in the kitchen. Swab samples were collected from food contact and preparation surfaces in homes (n = 100) in Philadelphia, PA. The samples were tested for coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria. Fecal coliforms were found in 44% of homes (most often in samples from kitchen sinks, sponges, and dishcloths), and E. coli was found in 15% of homes (mostly in samples from kitchen sinks). Nearly half (45%) of the homes tested positive for a foodborne pathogen, and 12% had multiple pathogens present in the kitchen. S. aureus was isolated from 39% of homes, most often from countertops and refrigerator door handles. Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes and L. innocua , were present in 15% of homes, most often in samples from refrigerator meat drawers. C. jejuni was isolated from 3% of homes. Contamination with Listeria was significantly associated with higher refrigerator temperatures. The contamination of surfaces with fecal coliforms and S. aureus was significantly associated with a lack of cleaning materials: dish soap and paper or cloth towels in the kitchen, and any type of towel in the nearest bathroom. The contamination of a sponge or dishcloth with either fecal coliforms or S. aureus was predictive of other surfaces in the kitchen having the same contamination, indicating that sponges and dishcloths are both reservoirs and vectors for

  10. A psychometric assessment of Disturbances in Self-Organization symptom indicators for ICD-11 Complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Roberts, Neil P; Bisson, Jonathan I; Brewin, Chris R; Cloitre, Marylene

    2018-01-01

    Background : Two 'sibling disorders' have been proposed for the 11 th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11): Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). To date, no research has attempted to identify the optimal symptom indicators for the 'Disturbances in Self-Organization' (DSO) symptom cluster. Objective : The aim of the current study was to assess the psychometric performance of scores of 16 potential DSO symptom indicators from the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ). Criteria relating to score variability and their ability to discriminate were employed. Method : Participants ( N  = 1839) were a nationally representative household sample of non-institutionalized adults currently residing in the US. Item scores from the ITQ were examined in relation to basic criteria associated with interpretability, variability, homogeneity, and association with functional impairment. The performance of the DSO symptoms was also assessed using 1- and 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) models. Results : The distribution of responses for all DSO indicators met the criteria associated with interpretability, variability, homogeneity, and association with functional impairment. The 1-parameter graded response model was considered the best model and indicated that each set of indictors performed very similarly. Conclusions : The ITQ contains 16 DSO symptom indicators and they perform well in measuring their respective symptom cluster. There was no evidence that particular indicators were 'better' than others, and it was concluded that the indicators are essentially interchangeable.

  11. The analytical utility of thermally desorbed polydimethylsilicone membranes for in-vivo sampling of volatile organic compounds in and on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanskaia, S; Blackburn, G; Harker, M; Taylor, D; Thomas, C L P

    2008-08-01

    A thermally-desorbed polydimethylsilicone (PDMS) membrane approach with analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed and characterised, to enable the VOC arising in, and on skin, from glandular secretions, exogenous materials, products of perfusion from blood, and microbiological metabolites to be sampled in a single procedure. In-vitro studies using a series of volatile fatty acid standards indicated that the recovery efficiency of the technique increased with decreasing volatility; for example, the recovery of hexanoic acid was 3.3 times greater than that for 2-methylpropanoic acid. The relative standard deviation of the methodology decreased with decreasing volatility; RSD = 19% for 2-methylpropanoic acid and RSD = 7% for hexanoic acid. Sampled-mass vs. response relationships were modelled satisfactorily using linear regression analysis with regression coefficients in the range 0.95 to 0.998. In-vivo reproducibility was assessed though the analysis of the responses of 1-dodecane, 3,7-dimethyloct-1-ene, 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, butanoic, 2-ethylhexylester, and junipen (1,4-methanoazulene, decahydro-4,8,8-trimethyl-9-methylene-); six compounds selected at random retention times from a GC-MS chromatographic VOC profile of human skin containing several hundred resolved and partially resolved compounds. Five samples were obtained simultaneously from the forearm of a healthy male participant. The in-vivo sample masses were estimated to be in the range 50 pg to 100 ng per sample with observed RSD falling between 15% and 32%; in line with a Horwitz trend. Increasing the sample time from 5 min to 120 min generally resulted in an enrichment of the VOC recovered, and for many VOC substantial increases in sensitivity (x7) were observed over this time range as the PDMS sampling-patch approached equilibrium with the underlying skin. Nevertheless, more volatile components, 2,4,6-trimethylcarbazole for instance, were

  12. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Distante, Cosimo; Hua, Gang

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  13. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  14. Analytical continuation in coupling constant method; application to the calculation of resonance energies and widths for organic molecules: Glycine, alanine and valine and dimer of formic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Paidarová, Ivana; Horáček, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 418, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 8-13 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/12/0665 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : analytic continuation * resonances * vertical attachment energy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2013

  15. Industrial Guidelines for Undertaking a Hard-Core Employment Program: An Analytic Case Study of the Experience of an Urban Industrial Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Irwin; And Others

    Based on an analytically evaluative case study of a New York City furniture department store's experiences with a Manpower Administration contract, this report deals with the development and progress of the program as analyzed by one investigator through interviews with almost all of the participants in the program. As a result of the study,…

  16. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  18. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacometo, Carolina B; Osorio, Johan S; Socha, Michael; Corrêa, Marcio N; Piccioli-Cappelli, Fiorenzo; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    Organic trace mineral (ORG) supplementation to dairy cows in substitution of sulfate (INO) sources has been associated with improvement in immune function during stressful states such as the peripartal period. However, the effect of supplemental ORG during pregnancy on the neonatal calf is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of ORG supplementation during late pregnancy on the immune system and growth of the neonatal calf. Of specific interest was the evaluation of inflammation-related microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in blood neutrophils as indicators of possible nutritional programming. Forty multiparous cows were supplemented for 30d prepartum with 40 mg/kg of Zn, 20 mg/kg of Mn, 5 mg/kg of Cu, and 1mg/kg of Co from either organic (ORG) or sulfate (INO) sources (total diet contained supplemental 75 mg/kg of Zn, 65 mg/kg of Mn, 11 mg/kg of Cu, and 1 mg/kg of Co, and additional Zn, Mn, and Co provided by sulfates), and a subset of calves (n=8/treatment) was used for blood immunometabolic marker and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) gene and miRNA expression analyses. Samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding), 1d (24 h after colostrum intake), and 7 and 21d of age. Data were analyzed as a factorial design with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. No differences were detected in BW, but maternal ORG tended to increase calf withers height. Calves from INO-fed cows had greater concentrations of blood glucose, GOT, paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites. Antioxidant capacity also was greater in INO calves. The PMNL expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes indicated a pro-inflammatory state in INO calves, with greater expression of the inflammatory mediators MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, NFKB, and NFKBIA. The lower expression of miR-155 and miR-125b in ORG calves indicated the potential for maternal organic trace minerals in regulating the PMNL inflammatory response at least via alterations in mRNA and

  19. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO{sub 2} in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV–Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie; Vettier, Ludovic [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Broch, Laurent [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Fleury, Benjamin, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO{sub 2} to a N{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc–Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV–visible (270–600 nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc–Lorentz model, as the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ∼177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV–vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.

  20. Effects of different doses of organic fertilizer type bocashi in morphological and productive indicators of pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L. var. California wonder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Between June and September 2012 in field condition in agroecological farm was carried out an investigation using a randomised block experimental design with four treatments and four repetitions with the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi in pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L..The treatment consisted in the application of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi (1.66, 2.22, 2.78 tha-1 and a control treatment without application. The results were evaluated by means of the pro-gram Statistica version 8.0, for windows, where the indicators used showed significant differences multiple comparison of Tukey was applied to p ≤ 0.05. The variable evaluated were: height of the plants (cm, steam diameter (cm,yield and their components (number fruit.plant -1, average weigh of fruit (g, average diameter of fruit (cm and average large of fruit (cm. The treatment where was applied doses of 2.22 and 2.78 tha-1 of organic fertilizer bocashi was obtained the best results in productive indicator evaluated with securities in the agricultural yield of 33.4 and 32.9 tha-1

  1. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.

  2. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  3. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  4. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  5. How to conduct External Quality Assessment Schemes for the pre-analytical phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gunn B B; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory medicine, several studies have described the most frequent errors in the different phases of the total testing process, and a large proportion of these errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Schemes for registration of errors and subsequent feedback to the participants have been conducted for decades concerning the analytical phase by External Quality Assessment (EQA) organizations operating in most countries. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of different types of EQA schemes for the pre-analytical phase, and give examples of some existing schemes. So far, very few EQA organizations have focused on the pre-analytical phase, and most EQA organizations do not offer pre-analytical EQA schemes (EQAS). It is more difficult to perform and standardize pre-analytical EQAS and also, accreditation bodies do not ask the laboratories for results from such schemes. However, some ongoing EQA programs for the pre-analytical phase do exist, and some examples are given in this paper. The methods used can be divided into three different types; collecting information about pre-analytical laboratory procedures, circulating real samples to collect information about interferences that might affect the measurement procedure, or register actual laboratory errors and relate these to quality indicators. These three types have different focus and different challenges regarding implementation, and a combination of the three is probably necessary to be able to detect and monitor the wide range of errors occurring in the pre-analytical phase.

  6. Sources and transformation of dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre indicated by compound-specific δ15N analysis of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the use of compound-specific nitrogen isotopes of amino acids (δ15NAA) of coupled dissolved and particulate organic nitrogen (DON, PON) samples as a new approach to examine relative sources, transformation processes, and the potential coupling of these two major forms of N cycle in the ocean water column. We measured δ15NAA distributions in high-molecular-weight dissolved organic nitrogen (HMW DON) and suspended PON in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) from surface to mesopelagic depths. A new analytical approach achieved far greater δ15NAA measurement precision for DON than earlier work, allowing us to resolve previously obscured differences in δ15NAA signatures, both with depth and between ON pools. We propose that δ15N values of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) represents a proxy for proteinaceous ON δ15N values in DON and PON. Together with bulk δ15N values, this allows δ15N values and changes in bulk, proteinaceous, and ;other-N; to be directly evaluated. These novel measurements suggest three main conclusions. First, the δ15NAA signatures of both surface and mesopelagic HMW DON suggest mainly heterotrophic bacterial sources, with mesopelagic HMW DON bearing signatures of far more degraded material compared to surface material. These results contrast with a previous proposal that HMW DON δ15NAA patterns are essentially ;pre-formed; by cyanobacteria in the surface ocean, undergo little change with depth. Second, different δ15NAA values and patterns of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the surface NPSG suggest that sources and cycling of these two N reservoirs are surpisingly decoupled. Based on molecular δ15N signatures, we propose a new hypothesis that production of surface HMW DON is ultimately derived from subsurface nitrate, while PON in the mixed layer is strongly linked to N2 fixation and N recycling. In contrast, the comparative δ15NAA signatures of HMW DON vs. suspended PON in the mesopelagic also suggest a

  7. Dificultades para incorporar la telemedicina en las organizaciones sanitarias: perspectivas analíticas Difficulties of incorporating telemedicine in health organizations: analytical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Roig

    2009-04-01

    communication technologies to health care systems, which has been called «e-Health», has created enormous expectations in this context. Telemedicine has been one of pioneer experiences. Despite the early beginnings of telemedicine and the efforts invested, more widespread use of this technology remains difficult and controversial. Most projects last just the feasibility phase and are then forgotten. The traditional model of medical technologies assessment explains this phenomenon, based on the difficulty of obtaining the empirical evidence needed to support widespread adoption of telemedicine, as a consequence of the problems of conducting traditional studies of clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. In the last few years, a different analytical approach has emerged. This perspective indicates that the consolidation (or otherwise of telemedicine projects will depend on the results of interaction between technology and the context where it is applied and not only on clinical results. Better and deeper empirical knowledge of these interaction processes is needed to increase the spread of telemedicine.

  8. Effects of fatigue and time-out on physiological, time-motion indicators and in patterns of spatial organization of the teams in basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of fatigue on physiological variables, time-motion indicators and patterns of spatial organization of the teams in basketball. The study sample consisted of 10 basketball players of the under-18 with a mean age of 17.5 ± 0.3 years. There were two sessions: session a) game continuous (C1) 10 minutes - yo-yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) - 1 minute timeout – game continuous (C2) 10 minutes. Session b) game interrupted (I1) 5 minutes - 1 m...

  9. GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS (GOS): AN ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ READING COMPREHENSION IN LEARNING ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT (A CASE OF ENGLISH LESSON AT MA SHOLAHUDDIN DEMAK)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ayiz

    2017-01-01

    Reading class for EFL high school students tends to be boring. Many students are not interested in reading due to the complicated structures of a text. The curriculum 2013 now has been changed back into the previous curriculum, that is the school based curriculum (KTSP), which requires students at senior high school to learn many kinds of texts. One of the texts students have to learn is analytical exposition text which usually becomes problem for them to comprehend. This paper investigates t...

  10. Assessing of organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on normal alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedel Aziz Elfadly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Semi-enclosed Suez Gulf records various signals of high anthropic pressures from surrounding regions and the industrialized Suez countries. The sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied in 6 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Suez. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS to assess organic content in surface sediments of Suez Gulf, Egypt depending on alkanes, terpanes and steranes biological markers indicators. The results showed that the hydrocarbons are originated from multiple terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic. Several ratios of hydrocarbons indicated the predominance of petrogenic in combination with biogenic hydrocarbons. Al-Attaqa harbor, Suez oil processing company, Al-Nasr Oil Company, AL-Kabanon and EL-Sukhna of Loloha Beach are the main sources of petroleum contamination.

  11. Evaluation of rational drug use based on World Health Organization core drug use indicators in selected public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mekonnen; Mengistu, Getnet; Molla, Bereket; Amare, Firehiwot; Gabriel, Tesfaye

    2017-02-23

    Despite the complexity of drug use, a number of indicators have been developed, standardized and evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO). These indicators are grouped in to three categories namely: prescribing indicators, patient care indicators and facility indicators. The study was aimed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO-core drug use indicators in Dilchora referral hospital, Dire Dawa; Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, Harar and Karamara general hospital, Jigjiga, eastern Ethiopia. Hospital based quantitative cross sectional study design was employed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO core drug use indicators in selected hospitals. Systematic random sampling for prescribing indicators and convenient sampling for patient care indicators was employed. Taking WHO recommendations in to account, a total of 1,500 prescription papers (500 from each hospitals) were investigated. In each hospital, 200 outpatient attendants and 30 key essential drugs were also selected using the WHO recommendation. Data were collected using retrospective and prospective structured observational check list. Data were entered to EPI Data Version 3.1, exported and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Besides, the data were evaluated as per the WHO guidelines. Statistical significance was determined by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for some variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, tabular presentation was used to present the data. Mean, 2.34 (±1.08) drugs were prescribed in the selected hospitals. Prescriptions containing antibiotics and that of injectables were 57.87 and 10.9% respectively. The average consultation and dispensing time were 276.5 s and 61.12 s respectively. Besides, 75.77% of the prescribed drugs were actually dispensed. Only 3.3% of prescriptions were adequately labeled and 75.7% patients know about the dosage of the prescription. Not more than, 20(66.7%) key drugs were available in

  12. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of coastal areas of the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Indications for long-term downward trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Martellini, Tania; Corsolini, Simonetta; Harner, Tom; Estellano, Victor; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D; Lammel, Gerhard; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m -3 . In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs. While HCB concentrations were in the same range as those reported in the atmosphere of other Antarctic sampling areas and did not show a decline, HCHs and DDTs levels were lower or similar to those determined one or two decades ago. In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver transplantation in the context of organ shortage: toward extension and restriction of indications considering recent clinical data and ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Valerio; Gustot, Thierry; Moreno, Christophe; Donckier, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The scarcity of liver grafts requires to optimize the results of transplantation. Extensions and alternatives of liver transplantation have to be regularly evaluated. Acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe alcoholic hepatitis may represent potential extensions of transplant indications. In these diseases, selected patients could obtain a significant benefit from liver transplantation, whereas long-term outcomes and global impact on waiting lists remain to be evaluated prospectively. Alternatives to transplantation may be represented by recent progress in the management of hepatitis C and the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In hepatitis C, new drug combinations may improve the disease control, reducing the progression to cirrhosis and also the risk of post-transplant reinfection allowing to anticipate a future decrease in the indications for transplantation and retransplantation in these patients. In hepatocellular carcinoma, thanks to improvements in operative techniques and better identification of prognostic factors of cancer recurrency, surgical resection or radiofrequency destruction could appear now as true alternatives to transplant in highly selected patients. Before implementation of these potential changes into decisional algorithms for listing and organ allocation, their consequences, either for patient's individual benefit or for global transplant outcomes, should be closely evaluated using objective long-term end points and taking into account the ethical recommendations for organ transplantation.

  14. Characterization and mutual comparison of new electrolytic cell designs for hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry with a quartz tube atomizer using Se as a model analyte and Se-75 as a radioactive indicator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hraníček, J.; Červený, V.; Kratzer, Jan; Vobecký, Miloslav; Rychlovský, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2012), s. 1761-1771 ISSN 0267-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1783 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : electrochemical hydride generation AAS * selenium hydride * radiotracer study Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2012

  15. Dose-response analysis indicating time-dependent neurotoxicity caused by organic and inorganic mercury-Implications for toxic effects in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletz, Julia; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Tennekes, Henk A

    2016-03-10

    A latency period preceding neurotoxicity is a common characteristic in the dose-response relationship induced by organic mercury. Latency periods have typically been observed with genotoxicants in carcinogenesis, with cancer being manifested a long time after the initiating event. These observations indicate that even a very small dose may cause extensive adverse effects later in life, so the toxicity of the genotoxic compound is dose and time-dependent. In children, methylmercury exposure during pregnancy (in utero) has been associated with delays in reaching developmental milestones (e.g., age at first walking) and decreases in intelligence, increasing in severity with increasing exposure. Ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal in some vaccines has been associated, in some studies, with autism and other neurological disorders in children. In this paper, we have examined whether dose-response data from in vitro and in vivo organic mercury toxicity studies fit the Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation c·t(n)=constant (c=exposure concentration, t=latency period), first established for genotoxic carcinogens, and whether or not irreversible effects are enhanced by time of exposure (n≥1), or else toxic effects are dose-dependent while time has only minor influence on the adverse outcome (ntime-dependent toxicity is irreversible binding to critical receptors causing adverse and cumulative effects. The results indicate that the Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation describes well the dose-response characteristics of organic mercury induced neurotoxic effects. This amounts to a paradigm shift in chemical risk assessment of mercurial compounds and highlights that it is vital to perform toxicity testing geared to investigate time-dependent effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analytical applications of aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  17. Competing on analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  18. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  19. Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Momeni, Mansour; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Hamidi, Yadollah; Soltanian, Alireza

    2017-06-01

    Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems are becoming more widespread in organizations. Consequently, their effectiveness has become a core topic for researchers. This paper evaluates the performance of the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 specification in certified companies in Iran. The evaluation is based on a comparison of specific criteria and indictors related to occupational health and safety management practices in three certified and three noncertified companies. Findings indicate that the performance of certified companies with respect to occupational health and safety management practices is significantly better than that of noncertified companies. Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001-certified companies have a better level of occupational health and safety; this supports the argument that Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems play an important strategic role in health and safety in the workplace.

  20. Attenuation of bulk organic matter, nutrients (N and P), and pathogen indicators during soil passage: Effect of temperature and redox conditions in simulated soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2012-07-22

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a costeffective natural wastewater treatment and reuse technology. It is an environmentally friendly technology that does not require chemical usage and is applicable to both developing and developed countries. However, the presence of organic matter, nutrients, and pathogens poses a major health threat to the population exposed to partially treated wastewater or reclaimed water through SAT. Laboratory-based soil column and batch experiments simulating SAT were conducted to examine the influence of temperature variation and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions on removal of bulk organic matter, nutrients, and indicator microorganisms using primary effluent. While an average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of 17.7 % was achieved in soil columns at 5 °C, removal at higher temperatures increased by 10 % increments with increase in temperature by 5 °C over the range of 15 to 25 °C. Furthermore, soil column and batch experiments conducted under different redox conditions revealed higher DOC removal in aerobic (oxic) experiments compared to anoxic experiments. Aerobic soil columns exhibited DOC removal 15 % higher than that achieved in the anoxic columns, while aerobic batch showed DOC removal 7.8 % higher than the corresponding anoxic batch experiments. Ammonium-nitrogen removal greater than 99 % was observed at 20 and 25 °C, while 89.7 % was removed at 15 °C, but the removal substantially decreased to 8.8 % at 5 °C. While ammonium-nitrogen was attenuated by 99.9 % in aerobic batch reactors carried out at room temperature, anoxic experiments under similar conditions revealed 12.1 % ammonium-nitrogen reduction, corresponding to increase in nitrate-nitrogen and decrease in sulfate concentration. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

  1. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  2. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and DNA damage as an indicator of environmental stress in fish of different feeding habits of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mille, Donaji J; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ize-Lema, Irina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús

    2010-10-01

    The region of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz hosts one of the largest and most important industrial areas of Mexico and Latin America. Industrial development and rapid population growth, have triggered a severe impact on aquatic ecosystems of the region. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of POPs in sediment and in muscle tissue of five fish species from different trophic levels in downstream residents of the Coatzacoalcos River, and their integration with DNA damage in the fish, evaluated with the comet assay in whole blood as a biological indicator of stress, in order to obtain a baseline of the ecological condition of the region. The compounds detected in sediment and in muscle tissue were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sediment concentrations of these pollutants (except for mirex) exceeded the values of protection provided by international guidelines, suggesting a potential risk to aquatic life in the region. DNA damage recorded in the fish species is evidence of exposure to a mix of genotoxic pollutants, which combined with exposure to POPs, reflects the degree of environmental stress of aquatic organisms in the region. The results of this study show the importance of determining the presence of contaminants in the environment, the bioaccumulation in tissues and their effects on exposed organisms, providing an integrated approach in assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Biomarker-indicated extent of oxidation of plant-derived organic carbon (OC) in relation to geomorphology in an arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifer, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Daniel; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Bryant, Charlotte; Jones, Merren; van Dongen, Bart E

    2017-10-12

    The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene. Analyses shows that the concentration of OC in the sediments is strongly inversely correlated to grainsize. Furthermore, the type of OC is also related to grain size with the clay containing mostly (immature) plant derived OC and sand containing mostly thermally mature derived OC. Finally, analyses indicate that within the plant derived OC relative oxidation is strongly grouped by stratigraphy with the older bound OC more oxidised than younger OC.

  4. Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division progress report for the period January 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides brief summaries of progress in the Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division (CASD) during 1993 and 1994. The first four chapters, which cover the research mission, are organized to mirror the major organizational units of the division and indicate the scope of the research portfolio. These divisions are the Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Nuclear and Radiochemistry Section, Organic Chemistry Section, and Physical and Materials Chemistry Section. The fifth and sixth chapters summarize the support activities within CASD that are critical for research progress. Finally, the appendices indicate the productivity and recognition of the staff in terms of various forms of external publications, professional activities, and awards.

  5. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary

  6. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  7. Analytical chemical system for the determination of heavy metals and organic compounds. Annual progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggia, S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress has been made in the synthesis and characterization of new resins for sequestering inorganic and organic compounds. The capabilities of the poly(dithiocarbamate) resin have been extended, a new poly(acrylamidoxime) resin prepared and characterized, and a series of resins for organic compounds prepared and tested. Limited actual sample analyses have been performed with these resins. A new inductively coupled plasma source, spectrometer, and computer system have been received and they are undergoing tests and installation. With this system in place, the multielement analysis of metals during the forthcoming period will insure the application of sequestering resins to practical analysis of energy-related materials. An automated sample handling and data system has been designed, some components purchased, and construction is scheduled for 1980

  8. Analytical chemical system for the determination of heavy metals and organic compounds. Annual progress report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siggia, S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1979-10-24

    Progress has been made in the synthesis and characterization of new resins for sequestering inorganic and organic compounds. The capabilities of the poly(dithiocarbamate) resin have been extended, a new poly(acrylamidoxime) resin prepared and characterized, and a series of resins for organic compounds prepared and tested. Limited actual sample analyses have been performed with these resins. A new inductively coupled plasma source, spectrometer, and computer system have been received and they are undergoing tests and installation. With this system in place, the multielement analysis of metals during the forthcoming period will insure the application of sequestering resins to practical analysis of energy-related materials. An automated sample handling and data system has been designed, some components purchased, and construction is scheduled for 1980.

  9. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  10. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  11. Evaluasi Kinerja Organisasi Publik Dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Balanced Scorecard dan Analytic Network Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Mora Tunggul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced scorecard is a strategic business management method that links performance evaluation to vision and strategies using a multidimensional set of financial and nonfinancial performance metrics. This study examined both quantitative data for the proposed Analytic Network Process method. The purpose of this research is to build a model that combines the Balanced Scorecard approach and Analytical Network Process to assist in the performance evaluation of public organizations tax services. Balanced Scorecard concept is applied to determine the hierarchy of the financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business processes, and learning and growth perspective as well as their respective performance indicators of public organizations and then Analytical Network Process used to tolerate vagueness and ambiguity of information and built an information system that is applied to facilitate the performance evaluation process. The study provides recommendations to the management of public organizations regarding the tax service strategy to improve the performance of public organizations.

  12. A survey on trace organic chemicals in a German water protection area and the proposal of relevant indicators for anthropogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Wolfram; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites. Cyclamate occurred with the highest median concentration of 44 μg l -1 in untreated wastewater and acesulfame occurred with a concentration of 20 μg l -1 in treated wastewater. In runoff water from roads, the most relevant compounds were tolyltriazole with 2.3 μg l -1 and the desphenyl-chloridazon with 1.2 μg l -1 . In the stream waters, the highest median concentrations were found for melamine and acesulfame both at 0.61 μg l -1 . High elimination during conventional wastewater treatment was observed for 5 out of 49 compounds. These are acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, aciclovir, cyclamate, ibuprofen and saccharin. Based on the survey results, we propose a set of nine compounds to be used as indicators for wastewater, untreated wastewater and runoff water from roads for an efficient surveillance. The indicators are intended to detect anthropogenic influences in surface, ground and drinking water.

  13. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign) and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated

  14. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A., E-mail: sameckaa@biol.uni.wroc.p [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Stankiewicz, A.; Kolon, K. [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Kempers, A.J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Olesnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wroclaw to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. - Once trained, SOFM could be used in the future to recognize types of pollution.

  15. Statistical analysis of long-term monitoring data for persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere at 20 monitoring stations broadly indicates declining concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deguo; MacLeod, Matthew; Hung, Hayley; Cousins, Ian T

    2014-11-04

    During recent decades concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere have been monitored at multiple stations worldwide. We used three statistical methods to analyze a total of 748 time series of selected POPs in the atmosphere to determine if there are statistically significant reductions in levels of POPs that have had control actions enacted to restrict or eliminate manufacture, use and emissions. Significant decreasing trends were identified in 560 (75%) of the 748 time series collected from the Arctic, North America, and Europe, indicating that the atmospheric concentrations of these POPs are generally decreasing, consistent with the overall effectiveness of emission control actions. Statistically significant trends in synthetic time series could be reliably identified with the improved Mann-Kendall (iMK) test and the digital filtration (DF) technique in time series longer than 5 years. The temporal trends of new (or emerging) POPs in the atmosphere are often unclear because time series are too short. A statistical detrending method based on the iMK test was not able to identify abrupt changes in the rates of decline of atmospheric POP concentrations encoded into synthetic time series.

  16. Combined Stable Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in the Bang Pa kong River Estuary, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonphakdee, Thanomsak; Kasai, Akihide; Fujiwara, Tateki; Sawangwong, Pichan; Cheevaporn, Voravit

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids and surficial sediment were used to define the spatial and temporal variability in an anthropogenic tropical river estuary, the Bang Pa kong River Estuary. Samples were taken along salinity gradients during the four different river discharges in the beginning, high river discharge and at the end of the wet season, and low river discharge during the dry season. The values of [C/N]a ratio and d13C in the river estuary revealed significant differences from those of the offshore station. Conservative behaviors of [C/N]a and d13C in the estuary during the wet season indicated major contribution of terrigenous C3 plants derived OM. By contrast, during the dry season, marine input mainly dominated OM contribution with an evidence of anthropogenic input to the estuary. These compositions of the bulk sedimentary OM were dominated by paddy rice soils and marine derived OM during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These results show that the combined stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios can be used to identify the source and fate of OM even in a river estuary. This tool will be useful to achieve sustainable management in coastal zone

  17. Indoor and outdoor monitoring of volatile organic compounds in school buildings: indicators based on health risk assessment to single out critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Farella, Genoveffa; Marzocca, Annalisa; Mazzone, Antonio; Tutino, Maria

    2013-11-25

    Children are more sensitive to pollutants than adults and yet they spend large amounts of time in school environments where they are exposed to unknown levels of indoor pollutants. This study investigated the concentrations of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in eight naturally ventilated school buildings in Italy. The schools were chosen to include areas with different urbanization and traffic density characteristics in order to gather a more diverse picture of exposure risks in the different areas of the city. VOCs were sampled for one week in the presence/absence of pupils using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption inside three classrooms at each school. The samples were then analyzed with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). In addition, outdoor measurements were carried out in the yard at each school. VOC identification and quantification, and indoor/outdoor concentration plots were used to identify pollutant sources. While some classrooms were found to have very low VOC levels, others had a significant indoor contribution or a prevalent outdoor contribution. High concentrations of terpenes were found in all monitored classrooms: a-pinene and limonene were in the range of 6.55-34.18 µg/m3 and 11.11-25.42 µg/m3 respectively. Outdoor concentrations were lower than indoors for each monitored school. Indicators based on health risk assessment for chronic health effects associated with VOCs (either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic) were proposed to rank sites according to their hazard level.

  18. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  19. Stratum Corneum Hydration and Skin Surface pH Variation Indicate that Organ Blood Flow Is Regulated by Meridian Activity at Certain Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fan Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”. By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period

  1. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W. S. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  2. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  3. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in these conference proceedings. The topics covered include: analytical chemistry and the environment; environmental radiochemistry; automated instrumentation; advances in analytical mass spectrometry; Fourier transform spectroscopy; analytical chemistry of plutonium; nuclear analytical chemistry; chemometrics; and nuclear fuel technology

  4. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  5. High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) determination of dissolved organic matter molecular weight revisited: Accounting for changes in stationary phases, analytical standards, and isolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C.; Aiken, George R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Arnold, William A.; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA280.

  6. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) Determination of Dissolved Organic Matter Molecular Weight Revisited: Accounting for Changes in Stationary Phases, Analytical Standards, and Isolation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C; Aiken, George R; McKnight, Diane M; Arnold, William A; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-16

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA 280 ) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA 280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA 280 .

  7. Critical review of the impacts of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon storage and other soil quality indicators in extensively managed grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M; Hastings, A; Chadwick, D R; Jones, D L; Evans, C D; Jones, M B; Rees, R M; Smith, P

    2018-02-01

    Livestock grazing intensity (GI) is thought to have a major impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and soil quality indicators in grassland agroecosystems. To critically investigate this, we conducted a global review and meta-analysis of 83 studies of extensive grazing, covering 164 sites across different countries and climatic zones. Unlike previous published reviews we normalized the SOC and total nitrogen (TN) data to a 30 cm depth to be compatible with IPCC guidelines. We also calculated a normalized GI and divided the data into four main groups depending on the regional climate (dry warm, DW; dry cool, DC; moist warm, MW; moist cool, MC). Our results show that taken across all climatic zones and GIs, grazing (below the carrying capacity of the systems) results in a decrease in SOC storage, although its impact on SOC is climate-dependent. When assessed for different regional climates, all GI levels increased SOC stocks under the MW climate (+7.6%) whilst there were reductions under the MC climate (-19%). Under the DW and DC climates, only the low (+5.8%) and low to medium (+16.1%) grazing intensities, respectively, were associated with increased SOC stocks. High GI significantly increased SOC for C4-dominated grassland compared to C3-dominated grassland and C3-C4 mixed grasslands. It was also associated with significant increases in TN and bulk density but had no effect on soil pH. To protect grassland soils from degradation, we recommend that GI and management practices should be optimized according to climate region and grassland type (C3, C4 or C3-C4 mixed).

  8. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  9. Indoor and Outdoor Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds in School Buildings: Indicators Based on Health Risk Assessment to Single out Critical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi de Gennaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are more sensitive to pollutants than adults and yet they spend large amounts of time in school environments where they are exposed to unknown levels of indoor pollutants. This study investigated the concentrations of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs in eight naturally ventilated school buildings in Italy. The schools were chosen to include areas with different urbanization and traffic density characteristics in order to gather a more diverse picture of exposure risks in the different areas of the city. VOCs were sampled for one week in the presence/absence of pupils using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption inside three classrooms at each school. The samples were then analyzed with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS. In addition, outdoor measurements were carried out in the yard at each school. VOC identification and quantification, and indoor/outdoor concentration plots were used to identify pollutant sources. While some classrooms were found to have very low VOC levels, others had a significant indoor contribution or a prevalent outdoor contribution. High concentrations of terpenes were found in all monitored classrooms: a-pinene and limonene were in the range of 6.55–34.18 µg/m3 and 11.11–25.42 µg/m3 respectively. Outdoor concentrations were lower than indoors for each monitored school. Indicators based on health risk assessment for chronic health effects associated with VOCs (either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic were proposed to rank sites according to their hazard level.

  10. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  11. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  12. Review: Rainer Diaz-Bone & Gertraude Krell (Eds. (2009. Diskurs und Ökonomie. Diskursanalytische Perspektiven auf Märkte und Organisationen [Discourse and Economy. Discourse Analytical Perspectives on Markets and Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt-Wellenburg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainer DIAZ-BONE and Gertraude KRELL's anthology "Discourse and Economy" offers a comprehensive insight into the wide array of discourse analytical perspectives on markets and organizations that have cropped up in recent years in the fields of sociology, economics, business administration, management, and organization studies. All contributions share the presupposition that economic phenomena are genuinely discursive. Hence, investigating the discursive dimension of economic phenomena becomes a core task of economic research. The foundations for such a "strong" research program are laid out in the introduction and first part of the anthology, devoted to theoretical discussion. In the second part, DIAZ-BONE and KRELL assemble empirical research that convincingly demonstrates the economic insights that discourse analysis can produce and the reflexive benefits that such an approach can contribute to economic research. All contributing authors, in addition to presenting their own research findings, also devote considerable effort to describing the logic and praxis of the research process. The anthology is thus not only informative, but may also prove effective in stimulating one's own research. DIAZ-BONE and KRELL's work helps to sketch the trans-disciplinary position from which economic speech and thought can be studied, introduces various research methods, and opens up the discussion on the methodological consequences of employing these in the research process. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101265

  13. Assessment of the World Health Organization's HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholus Mutenda

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO early warning indicators (EWIs of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR.In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites: On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression. Comparisons were made between main and outreach sites and between 2014 and 2012 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in a matched analysis.The national estimates were: On-time pill pick-up 81.9% (95% CI 81.1-82.8 for adults and 82.4% (81.3-83.4 for pediatrics, Retention in care 79% retained on ART after 12 months for adults and 82% for pediatrics, Pharmacy stock-outs 94% of months without a stock-out for adults and 88% for pediatrics, and Dispensing practices 0.01% (0.001-0.056 dispensed mono- or dual-therapy for adults and 0.01% (0.001-0.069 for pediatrics. Viral load suppression was significantly affected by low rates of Viral load completion. Main sites had higher On-time pill pick-up than outreach sites for adults (p<0.001 and pediatrics (p<0.001, and no difference between main and outreach sites for Retention in care for adults (p = 0.761 or pediatrics (p = 0.214. From 2012 to 2014 in adult sites, On-time pill pick-up (p = 0.001, Retention in care (p<0.001, and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.002 worsened. In pediatric sites, On-time pill pick-up (p<0.001 and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.012 worsened.Results of EWIs monitoring in Namibia provide evidence about ART programmatic functioning and contextualize results from national surveys of HIVDR. These results are worrisome as they show a decline in program performance over time. The national ART program is taking steps to minimize the emergence of HIVDR by strengthening adherence and retention of patients on ART

  14. Nanopore analytics: sensing of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2009-08-01

    In nanopore analytics, individual molecules pass through a single nanopore giving rise to detectable temporary blockades in ionic pore current. Reflecting its simplicity, nanopore analytics has gained popularity and can be conducted with natural protein as well as man-made polymeric and inorganic pores. The spectrum of detectable analytes ranges from nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, and biomolecular complexes to organic polymers and small molecules. Apart from being an analytical tool, nanopores have developed into a general platform technology to investigate the biophysics, physicochemistry, and chemistry of individual molecules (critical review, 310 references).

  15. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  16. FPI: FM Success through Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The APPA Facilities Performance Indicators (FPI) is perhaps one of the most powerful analytical tools that institutional facilities professionals have at their disposal. It is a diagnostic facilities performance management tool that addresses the essential questions that facilities executives must answer to effectively perform their roles. It…

  17. Insights in the analytical performance of neat metal-organic frameworks in the determination of pollutants of different nature from waters using dispersive miniaturized solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Pasán, Jorge; López-Hernández, Irene; Ayala, Juan H; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M

    2018-03-01

    Five metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically HKUST-1, MOF-5(Zn), MIL-53(Al), UiO-64 and MOF-74(Zn) are synthesized, characterized, and utilized in a miniaturized solid-phase extraction method under dispersive mode (D-µSPE) for the determination of six pollutants of different nature, including one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, two hormones, two drugs, and one disinfectant, from environmental waters (tap water and wastewater). A discussion of possible interactions justifying the partitioning of target analytes to the MOFs is included, considering not only the analytes' physicochemical characteristics but also those of MOFs: metal nature, structural environment of MOF pores, pore size and pore aperture widths, among others. MIL-53(Al) is selected for its versatility and high extraction efficiency for the target compounds. The D-µSPE method using MIL-53(Al) is optimized and used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) or liquid-chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (LC-TOF). Under optimum conditions, only 5mg of MIL-53(Al) are required for 10mL of water, with the aid of 5min of vortex and 5min of centrifugation. Elution is accomplished with 200µL of acetonitrile (3 times), and evaporation down to 100µL before LC injection. Detection limits down to 0.040μgL -1 for triclosan and 0.013μgL -1 for atrazine are obtained for the entire method using HPLC-DAD and LC-TOF, respectively. The method, operating at low spiked levels (2µgL -1 for HPLC-DAD and 0.7µgL -1 for LC-TOF), is also characterized for average relative recoveries of 109% and 105%; relative standard deviation values lower than 8.7% and 7.5%; and average extraction efficiencies of 41.2% and 49.1%; using HPLC-DAD and LC-TOF, respectively; while demonstrating adequate analytical performance with complex samples such as wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10

    microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the

  19. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  20. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  1. Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Ivan; Langlois, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor in overall efforts to achieve sustainable development. Countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view toward planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. This paper summarizes the outcome of an international partnership initiative on indicators for sustainable energy development that aims to provide an analytical tool for assessing current energy production and use patterns at a national level. The proposed set of energy indicators represents a first step of a consensus reached on this subject by five international agencies-two from the United Nations system (the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the International Atomic Energy Agency), two from the European Union (Eurostat and the European Environment Agency) and one from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the International Energy Agency). Energy and environmental experts including statisticians, analysts, policy makers and academics have started to implement general guidelines and methodologies in the development of national energy indicators for use in their efforts to monitor the effects of energy policies on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development

  2. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  3. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The second panel on the Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials was organized for two purposes: first, to advise the Seibersdorf Laboratory of the Agency on its future programme, and second, to review the results of the Second International Comparison of routine analysis of trace impurities in uranium and also the action taken as a result of the recommendations of the first panel in 1962. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  5. Combined Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in a Poorly Flushed, Tropical Estuary: Hunts Bay, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. E.; Greenaway, A. M.; Dennis, P. F.

    1998-05-01

    Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids, surficial sediments and sediment cores were used to define the spatial and temporal variability of POM in a poorly flushed, urbanized, eutrophic tropical estuary (Hunts Bay, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica). C/N variation in the sediment surface POM is a function of initial suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) (or other POM) type and the alteration of C/N ratios in the water column or on the sediment surface. The δ 13C SPOM(-20 to -25‰) values suggest that this material is a mixture of: (1) in situphytoplankton organic matter; (2) terrestrial river-borne SPOM; (3) terrestrial river-borne bottom sediment POM; and (4) sewage. Downcore variation in organic carbon content, C/N and δ 13Cis attributed mainly to change in the supply rate and type of organic matter. In the NE of Hunts Bay, down core variation in sedimentology and geochemistry are consistent with a change from fully marine to freshwater runoff-dominated sedimentation with increasing organic matter input from sewage in recent times. Despite large overlaps in the C/N and δ 13C org' end-members ' pollutant POM, in this case sewage, was the only source which could account for the amount of POM deposited, the surface sediment C/N and δ 13C orgvalues and the trajectories of evolution in C/N and δ 13C orgvalues in cores. The data show that the combined δ 13C and C/N successfully identifies the source, fate and history of POM even in a poorly-mixed estuary.

  6. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  7. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  9. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  10. Chemometric Modelling and Remote Sensing of Arable Land Soil Organic Carbon as Mediterranean Land Degradation Indicator - A Case Study in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    BOETTCHER Kristin; KEMPER Thomas; MACHWITZ Miriam; MEHL Wolfgang; SOMMER Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The application of chemometric models for the quantitative estimation of soil organic matter (SOM) from laboratory reflectance data from samples taken on the regional/national level from Italian sites is explored in Part 1 of this report. In addition, the possibility to transfer the developed models from the spectral resolution of lab/field instrumentation to the one of operational satellite systems has been evaluated, by using the laboratory spectra to simulate the respective soil reflectanc...

  11. Planning for Low End Analytics Disruptions in Business School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Thomas; Chen, Kuanchin

    2018-01-01

    Analytics is getting a great deal of attention in both industrial and academic venues. Organizations of all types are becoming more serious about transforming data from a variety of sources into insight, and analytics is the key to that transformation. Academic institutions are rapidly responding to the demand for analytics talent, with hundreds…

  12. Analytical strategy based on the use of liquid chromatography and gas chromatography with triple-quadrupole and time-of-flight MS analyzers for investigating organic contaminants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, E; Portolés, T; Marín, J M; Ibáñez, M; Albarrán, F; Hernández, F

    2010-08-01

    The presence of a wide variety of organic pollutants with different physicochemical characteristics has been investigated in wastewater samples from a municipal solid-waste-treatment plant in Castellón, Spain. An advanced analytical strategy was applied--combined used of two powerful and complementary techniques, GC and LC, both hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry with triple-quadrupole analyzers. The GC-MS-MS method was based on sample extraction using C(18) SPE cartridges and enabled the determination of approximately 60 compounds from different chemical families, for example PAHs, octyl/nonylphenols, PCBs, organochlorine compounds, insecticides, herbicides, and PBDEs. Most of the compounds selected are included as priority contaminants in the European Union (EU) Water Directive. The UHPLC-MS-MS method, which provided high chromatographic resolution and sensitivity and short analysis time, used sample extraction with Oasis HLB SPE cartridges and enabled the determination of 37 (more polar) pesticides. The methodology developed was applied to the analysis of 41 water samples (20 untreated raw leachates and 21 treated samples) collected between March 2007 and February 2009. Amounts of the contaminants investigated rarely exceeded 0.5 microg L(-1) in the treated (reverse osmosis) water samples analyzed. As expected, in untreated leachates the number of compounds detected and the concentrations found were notably higher than in treated waters. The most commonly detected pollutants were herbicides (simazine, terbuthylazine, terbutryn, terbumeton, terbacil, and diuron), fungicides (thiabendazole and carbendazim), and 4-t-octylphenol. The results obtained proved that use of reverse osmosis for water treatment was efficient and notably reduced the amounts of organic contaminants found in raw leachate samples. In order to investigate the presence of other non-target contaminants, water samples were also analyzed by using GC-TOF MS and LC-QTOF MS. Several organic

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSALS ON RATING EVALUATION OF SELF-REGULATING ORGANIZATIONS OF ARBITRATION MANAGERS AND RELEVANT INDICATORS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Alferov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of the effectiveness of self-regulatory organizations of arbitration managers (SRO AU and the arbitration managers playing a key role in the bankruptcy law and financial restructuring of Russian enterprises. Despite the increasing demands imposed on the arbitration managers, professionalism and quality of their work remains low, the number of administrative offenses is not reduced. The article discusses various approaches to build-rated activities of CPO AU and the corresponding figures for the implementation of the evaluation.

  14. Bond-based linear indices of the non-stochastic and stochastic edge-adjacency matrix. 1. Theory and modeling of ChemPhys properties of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Martínez-Albelo, Eugenio R; Casañola-Martín, Gerardo M; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Echevería-Díaz, Yunaimy; Zaldivar, Vicente Romero; Tygat, Jan; Borges, José E Rodriguez; García-Domenech, Ramón; Torrens, Francisco; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo

    2010-11-01

    Novel bond-level molecular descriptors are proposed, based on linear maps similar to the ones defined in algebra theory. The kth edge-adjacency matrix (E(k)) denotes the matrix of bond linear indices (non-stochastic) with regard to canonical basis set. The kth stochastic edge-adjacency matrix, ES(k), is here proposed as a new molecular representation easily calculated from E(k). Then, the kth stochastic bond linear indices are calculated using ES(k) as operators of linear transformations. In both cases, the bond-type formalism is developed. The kth non-stochastic and stochastic total linear indices are calculated by adding the kth non-stochastic and stochastic bond linear indices, respectively, of all bonds in molecule. First, the new bond-based molecular descriptors (MDs) are tested for suitability, for the QSPRs, by analyzing regressions of novel indices for selected physicochemical properties of octane isomers (first round). General performance of the new descriptors in this QSPR studies is evaluated with regard to the well-known sets of 2D/3D MDs. From the analysis, we can conclude that the non-stochastic and stochastic bond-based linear indices have an overall good modeling capability proving their usefulness in QSPR studies. Later, the novel bond-level MDs are also used for the description and prediction of the boiling point of 28 alkyl-alcohols (second round), and to the modeling of the specific rate constant (log k), partition coefficient (log P), as well as the antibacterial activity of 34 derivatives of 2-furylethylenes (third round). The comparison with other approaches (edge- and vertices-based connectivity indices, total and local spectral moments, and quantum chemical descriptors as well as E-state/biomolecular encounter parameters) exposes a good behavior of our method in this QSPR studies. Finally, the approach described in this study appears to be a very promising structural invariant, useful not only for QSPR studies but also for similarity

  15. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...... is offered free of charge. The report on activities of DAC during 2008 was published in journals of analytical chemistry where Manfred Grasserbauer contributed with his personal view on analytical chemistry in the assessment of climate changes and sustainable application of the natural resources to human...... directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in preparation...

  17. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  18. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  19. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  20. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  1. Analytic practice: convergences and divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laks Eizirik, Cláudio

    2010-04-01

    The author discusses current convergences and divergences concerning analytic practice. After presenting a clinical vignette that can be understood differently according to different theoretical approaches, he discusses Wallerstein's proposal of a common ground in psychoanalysis and suggests that the present state of the art indicates that psychoanalysis is a pluralistic discipline, with different ways of training and practising it, and that the main challenge is to improve our ability to listen to and to learn from different approaches.

  2. Application of CWC analytical procedures for safeguards; Analysis of phosphorus-containing organic chemical signatures from environmental samples; Final report on task FIN A844 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, M.; Bjoerk, H.; Haekkinen, V.; Kostiainen, O.; Kuitunen, M.L.; Lehtonen, P.; Mesilaakso, M.; Soederstroem, M.

    1995-03-01

    Solvent extraction can be used for the recovery of U and Pu from irradiated fuel. The most potential organic chemical signatures are extractants and solvents used in reprocessing plants. The PUREX process is widely used in reprocessing. It uses tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as extractant in an organic solvent for U and Pu from irradiated fuel and U from its ores. TBP is a strong extractant for tetra and hexavalent actinides from nitric acid media. Stable complexes are formed between actinide nitrate and TBP which are soluble in the organic phase. Sample containing TBP and some radiolysis products can indicate that TBP is used for reprocessing nuclear fuel. The TBP will decompose in the PUREX process to mono-and dibutyl phosphates (MBP and DBP). TBP, DBP and MBP have been analysed from air, water, soil, and sediment samples according to slightly modified procedures presented in Recommended Operating Procedures for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament. The limits of detection for the phosphates have been determined for air, water and soil samples. (orig.) (12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  3. Sociological indices: Methodological reflection on the construction patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K G Gerasimova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author asserts the need for the methodological reflection on the logic and basic approaches to the construction of sociological indices under the growing interest to mathematical modeling in sociology in the nowadays context of information saturation. Due to the constant increase of information flows, there is an evident need for methodological improvements in some areas of data analysis and modeling in sociology. The author believes that indices as generalized (integrated indicators can represent complex social phenomena adequately and comprehensively. Despite the current widest usage of sociological indices in empirical research (both by international organizations and in small research projects, there is not enough methodological reflection to ‘regulate’ the procedure of indices development and verification. Thus, the author defines the category ‘sociological index’; introduces different groups of indices - sociometric, universal, and ‘classic’; and considers the specifics of constructing logical and analytical indices. The article focuses on methods for constructing sociological indices (substantive and mathematical logic, and on the potential and limitations of such methodological experience. For instance, it allows to apply the existing indices for solving quite new tasks and for studying various social phenomena. The author suggests a general algorithm for constructing sociological indices as a mathematical model based on three sequential steps: methodological, technical and empirical-analytical.

  4. Gaining competitive advantage through business analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sprongl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry for business analytics within the BI sphere is growing significantly and the distinction in organizations between transactional information systems and decision-oriented systems breaks down. Firms need to understand both the opportunity and the potential of business analytics. Reporting, which is getting a handle on what happened in organizations, is complemented by analytics that is rather explanatory and predictive. Leveraging business analytics means to use analytics applications in order to analyse business problems and produce related business recommendations to improve business process performance. Business analytics must but be a part of a value creating process operating together with other systems and organisational factors in a synergistic manner, including people, processes, knowledge and relationship assets, culture, structure, and policies. In order for companies to be efficient, they need to automate processes, workflows and make rules. Effectiveness, on the other hand, is about making better decisions, perhaps using the same data that their competitors may have. What matters is not necessarily the technologies deployed, but emerging competence that the firm uses to support its business. A specific “mindset” needs to be installed for companies to invest into business analytics. Organisations need to better understand how best to exploit their data and convert them into information and sense-making capabilities. Business capabilities can be enhanced not only by exploitation of analytical tools, but also by the sophisticated use of information. This leads to a truly sense-making capability or “analytical mindset”. The primary data covers 398 data sets, where firms have been asked about the specifics of their information management. The data is used as input to statistical tests and the value of business analytics is being analyzed in an empirical way.

  5. Coupling databases and advanced analytic tools (R)

    OpenAIRE

    Seakomo, Saviour Sedem Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Today, several contemporary organizations collect various kinds of data, creating large data repositories. But the capacity to perform advanced analytics over these large amount of data stored in databases remains a significant challenge to statistical software (R, S, SAS, SPSS, etc) and data management systems (DBMSs). This is because while statistical software provide comprehensive analytics and modelling functionalities, they can only handle limited amounts of data. The data management sys...

  6. Analytical chemistry in Brazil: healthy and growing

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical sciences in Brazil are growing fast and being one of the main supports for the continuous development of the country. Inspired on the 15th Brazilian Meeting on Analytical Chemistry, ENQA, with a record number of participants and communications, we have decided to review recent developments in analytical chemistry in Brazil. We have chosen the same application areas used for the thematic organization of the ENQA and have searched papers published by Brazilian authors in 7 major and ge...

  7. Gestão de processos, indicadores analíticos e impactos sobre o desempenho competitivo em grandes e médias empresas brasileiras dos setores da indústria e de serviços Process management, analytical indicators, and impacts on competitive performance at large and midsized brazilian companies in the industry and services sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bronzo Ladeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo compila os principais achados de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi o de investigar a natureza dos relacionamentos entre os construtos de orientação para processos de negócio (business process orientation - BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho competitivo de uma amostra de 368 empresas brasileiras, de grande e médio portes, atuantes em diferentes setores da indústria e de operações de serviços no âmbito da economia brasileira. Por meio de um survey, a pesquisa envolveu o teste de hipóteses e uso de técnicas de estatística bivariada e multivariada. Foram realizados testes para se mensurar a consistência interna das escalas do instrumento de pesquisa, bem como para se avaliar a composição estrutural do modelo, por meio da modelagem de equações estruturais. As escalas e o modelo foram validados. Os resultados apontam a importância estratégica dos fatores de BPO e de indicadores analíticos como preditores do desempenho competitivo das empresas. Por meio da equação estrutural do modelo, esses fatores preditores foram capazes de explicar 66,3% das variações do desempenho das empresas da amostra, sendo igualmente significativos os efeitos diretos (coeficientes de caminho verificados entre os construtos da BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho.This article compiles the main findings of a study that aimed to investigate the nature of the relationships between business process orientation (BPO constructs, analytical indicators, and competitive performance from a sample of 368 large and midsized Brazilian companies that are present in different sectors of industry and services operations within the Brazilian economy. By means of a survey, this research involved the use of hypothesis testing and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Tests were carried out to measure the internal consistency of the research tool scales as well as to assess the model structure using structural equation modeling. Both the

  8. Elemental composition of peat organic matter as an indicator of trophic conditions of marsh ecosystems in the south of the Baikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, E. N.; Bezrukova, E. V.; Mamontova, E. A.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    Based on measurements of the concentrations of C, N, P, and chlorophyll- a, as well as on palynological analysis of the core Vdr 2011 of peaty sediments from the Vydrinaya River along the southern coast of Lake Baikal, the geochemical characteristics of eutrophy were compared to pollen indices of changes in the environment and the mode of marsh ecosystem transformations into various trophic states was specified. It was shown that geochemical parameters of the changes in the environment may be considered as the characteristics of trophic conditions in ecosystems in the course of paleo-reconstructions.

  9. Optimal self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Vicsek, Tamás

    1999-08-01

    We present computational and analytical results indicating that systems of driven entities with repulsive interactions tend to reach an optimal state associated with minimal interaction and minimal dissipation. Using concepts related to those from non-equilibrium thermodynamics as well as game theoretical ideas, we generalize this finding to an even wider class of self-organizing systems which have the ability to reach a state of maximal overall `success'. This principle is expected to be relevant for driven systems in physics such as sheared granular media, but it is also applicable to biological, social and economic systems, for which only a limited number of quantitative principles are yet available.

  10. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  11. Anthropometric indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, V. M.; Nwose, E. U.; Skinner, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study...

  12. Applicability of Visual Analytics to Defence and Security Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Gestalt laws of organization describe how people perceive visual components as organized patterns or wholes, instead of many different parts...IEEE. Koffka, K. (1935), Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt Brace, New York. Kohlhammer, J. and Keim, D. (2007), Visual Analytics in...Applicability of Visual Analytics to Defence and Security Operations Primary Topic: Primary Topic: 4 - Information and Knowledge Exploitation Alternate

  13. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  14. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics....

  15. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  16. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  17. Of the Analytical Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with me, at breakfast, the various powers of the Analytical Engine. After a long conversa- tion on the subject, he inquired what the machine could do if, .... The following conditions relate to the algebraic portion of the Analytical Engine: (e) The number of literal constants must be unlimited. (f) The number of variables must be ...

  18. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for Eur...

  19. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  20. Self-organizing maps for indications of airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) dependence on spatial and meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Vuković, Gordana; Klinčić, Darija; Antanasijević, Davor

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air samples with meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) using the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). Both gas- and particle-adsorbed phase of 20 PCB congeners and 7 OCPs including the three new ones (α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH) listed in the Stockholm Convention were collected during a one-year period at urban locations in Zagreb (Croatia). Moving beyond existing studies, the SOM analysis showed that the meteorological characteristics of transient seasons such as spring had no influence on the dissimilarities in the behavior of PCBs and OCPs. Towards the identification of pollutant spatial patterns, the SOM did not isolate a clear phenomenon probably due to the absence of local pollution sources contributing to the elevated concentrations of these compounds. Overall, our results have shown that the SOM method, by recognizing significant differences among PCB and OCP seasonality, could be recommended in the analysis of pollutant distribution depending on temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  2. Effects of silver adsorbed on fumed silica, silver phosphate glass, bentonite organomodified with silver and titanium dioxide in aquatic indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomacheski, Daiane; Pittol, Michele; Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2017-06-01

    In order to reduce the level of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, the development of antimicrobial additives for use in personal care, hygiene products, clothing and others has increased. Many of these additives are based on metals such as silver and titanium. The disposal of these products in the environment has raised concerns pertaining to their potential harmfulness for beneficial organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the shape, surface chemistry, size and carrier of three additives containing silver and one with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) on microcrustacean survival. Daphnia magna was used as a bioindicator for acute exposure test in suspensions from 0.0001 to 10,000ppm. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used for chronic test in TiO 2 suspensions from 0.001 to 100ppm. D. magna populations presented high susceptibility to all silver based additives, with 100% mortality after 24hr of exposure. A different result was found in the acute experiments containing TiO 2 suspensions, with mortality rates only after 48hr of incubation. Even on acute and chronic tests, TiO 2 did not reach a linear concentration-response versus mortality, with 1ppm being more toxic than 10,000ppm on acute test and 0.001 more toxic than 0.01ppm on chronic assay. Silver based material toxicity was attributed to silver itself, and had no relation to either form (nano or ion) or carrier (silica, phosphate glass or bentonite). TiO 2 demonstrated to have a low acute toxicity against D. magna. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Controllable synthesis of nucleotide complex based on pH control: a small-molecule fluorescent probe as an auxiliary ligand to indicate the pre-organization of the nucleotide complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Qi-Ming; Yao, Jian-Feng; Sheng, Chuan-Fang; Li, Hui

    2015-10-28

    Different CMP-bpe-M(ii) (CMP = cytidine monophosphate, bpe = bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, M(ii) = Mn(2+) and Co(2+)) complexes are synthesized controllably based on pH control and well studied by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. Interestingly, the suitable pH conditions are explored by considering the pre-organization modes of CMP, bpe, and M(2+) in aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy based on acid/basic titration. The organic base bpe serves as a small-molecule fluorescent probe to indicate the changes of pre-organization modes along with the changes of the solution acidity. Furthermore, a perfect self-complementary sugar-base hydrogen bond is first reported based on the crystal structure analysis in this work, and different chiralities and SHG activities of CMP-bpe-Mn(ii) complexes obtained at different pH values are studied.

  4. Search Analytics for Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Any organization that has a searchable web site or intranet is sitting on top of hugely valuable and usually under-exploited data: logs that capture what users are searching for, how often each query was searched, and how many results each query retrieved. Search queries are gold: they are real data that show us exactly what users are searching for in their own words. This book shows you how to use search analytics to carry on a conversation with your customers: listen to and understand their needs, and improve your content, navigation and search performance to meet those needs.

  5. Big Data Analytics Methodology in the Financial Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Firms in industry continue to be attracted by the benefits of Big Data Analytics. The benefits of Big Data Analytics projects may not be as evident as frequently indicated in the literature. The authors of the study evaluate factors in a customized methodology that may increase the benefits of Big Data Analytics projects. Evaluating firms in the…

  6. 5 keys to business analytics program success

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, John; Green, Brian; Harris, Tracy; Van De Vanter, Kay

    2012-01-01

    With business analytics is becoming increasingly strategic to all types of organizations and with many companies struggling to create a meaningful impact with this emerging technology, this work-based on the combined experience of 10 organizations that display excellence and expertise on the subject-shares the best practices, discusses the management aspects and sociology that drives success, and uncovers the five key aspects behind the success of some of the top business analytics programs in the industry. Readers will learn about numerous topics, including how to create and manage a changing

  7. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  8. Measuring corruption indicators and indices

    OpenAIRE

    MALITO, Debora Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This Working Paper is a background paper delivered to frame the workshop ‘Global Governance by Indicators: Measuring corruption and corruption indicators’ convened by the Global Governance Programme of the European University Institute in Florence on 17 and 18 October 2013. Successively it was developed further in EUI RSCAS WP 2014/37 - http://hdl.handle.net/1814/30582 The development of more sophisticated corruption measures has been stimulated by consistent and compelling demands for mor...

  9. Chemometrics in analytical spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Mike J

    1995-01-01

    This book provides students and practising analysts with a tutorial guide to the use and application of the more commonly encountered techniques used in processing and interpreting analytical spectroscopic data...

  10. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  11. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  12. On complex functions analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    We analyse here the conventional definitions of analyticity and differentiability of functions of complex variable. We reveal the possibility to extend the conditions of analyticity and differentiability to the functions implementing the non-conformal mapping. On this basis we formulate more general definitions of analyticity and differentiability covering those conventional. We present some examples of such functions. By the example of a horizontal belt on a plane Z mapped non-conformally onto a crater-like harmonic vortex, we study the pattern of trajectory variation of a body motion in such field in case of field power function varying in time. We present the technique to solve the problems of such type with the help of dynamical functions of complex variable implementing the analytical non-conformal mapping

  13. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  14. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  15. Process Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Marcello G.; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2006-01-01

    Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC) is an important and growing area in analytical chemistry, that has received little attention in academic centers devoted to the gathering of knowledge and to optimization of chemical processes. PAC is an area devoted to optimization and knowledge acquisition of chemical processes, to reducing costs and wastes and to making an important contribution to sustainable development. The main aim of this review is to present to the Brazilian community the developmen...

  16. Analytical Calculations for CAMEA

    OpenAIRE

    Markó, Márton

    2014-01-01

    CAMEA is a novel instrument concept, thus the performance has not been explored. Furthermore it is a complex instrument using many analyser arrays in a wide angular range. The performance of the instrument has been studied by use of three approaches: McStas simulations, analytical calculations, and prototyping. Due to the complexity of the instrument all of the previously mentioned methods can have faults misleading us during the instrument development. We use Monte Carlo and analytical model...

  17. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  18. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  19. The IAEA's programme on analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radecki, Zbigniew

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA decided to launch a programme for the assessment of the reliability of low level radiochemical analysis and since then, the Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) has developed into a major organiser of world-wide intercomparison runs. Over the intervening years, the types of matrices studied and the analytes of interest have been extended beyond the limits of radioactivity measurements to encompass: trace elements, organic contaminants, stable isotopes and methyl mercury. The Agency provides assistance to its Member States through the AQCS programme to improve the standard of analytical results in their laboratories. These results must be of a certain quality (i.e. accuracy and precision) which is determined by their intended use and should be comparable with other analytical measurements produced elsewhere. In order to enable laboratories in Member States to generate analytical measurements with appropriate and internationally recognised quality the main objectives of AQCS programme are: to provide the analyst with tools to compare and evaluate their performance relative to other laboratories, to assess the accuracy and precision of the analytical method used, to provide objective evidence on the quality of the results, and to ensure comparable analytical results within projects and networks

  20. Analytic manifolds in uniform algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, T.V.

    1988-12-01

    Here we extend Bear-Hile's result concerning the version of famous Bishop's theorem for one-dimensional analytic structures in two directions: for n-dimensional complex analytic manifolds, n>1, and for generalized analytic manifolds. 14 refs

  1. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  2. Indicators of a Flowless Construction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bonke, Sten

    2012-01-01

    This paper is reviewing an ongoing research project which has two central aims. Firstly, to identify and analyse indicators of central importance to a successful construction process in the perspective of handing-over flawless buildings to clients. Secondly, from this knowledge, to deduce methods...... to the questionnaire. Processing of data and information from questionnaires has been carried out using different statistical and analytical methods. Focus has been on the number and graduation of seriousness of defects, on type of tender and organization of the construction process, on the type of client...... construction processes characterized by few or no defects compared to those with many serious defects. The planning of budgetary conditions, time schedules, and an early and continuous defects control proved to have the most significant influence on the final results related to defects in the building...

  3. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  4. Recent analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When chemiluminescence has been introduced to analytical chemistry as a detection technique, it has been shown to meet many ... luminescence has been extensively applied to bioanalysis and immunoassays. Most recently ... for the detection of fluorescent organic compounds (FOCs). The CL system is composed of an ...

  5. Recent analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    luminescence upon contact with iron in hemoglobin. When chemiluminescence takes place in living organisms, the phe- nomenon is called bioluminescence. A light stick emits light by chemiluminescence. Chemiluminescent techniques can be applied in two types of analytical methods: direct method and indirect method.

  6. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the

  7. Doing social media analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Brooker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the few years since the advent of ‘Big Data’ research, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of ‘grand’ social science methodological concepts for new social media research (i.e. they focus on general issues such as sampling, data validity, ethics, etc.. By contrast, we advance an abductively oriented methodological suite designed to explore the construction of phenomena played out through social media. To do this, we use a software tool – Chorus – to illustrate a visual analytic approach to data. Informed by visual analytic principles, we posit a two-by-two methodological model of social media analytics, combining two data collection strategies with two analytic modes. We go on to demonstrate each of these four approaches ‘in action’, to help clarify how and why they might be used to address various research questions.

  8. Analytical gradients for density functional calculations with approximate spin projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toru; Thiel, Walter

    2012-11-08

    We have derived and implemented analytical gradients for broken-symmetry unrestricted density functional calculations (BS-UDFT) with removal of spin contamination by Yamaguchi's approximate spin projection method. Geometry optimizations with these analytical gradients (AGAP-opt) yield results consistent with those obtained with the previously available numerical gradients (NAP-opt). The AGAP-opt approach is found to be more precise, efficient, and robust than NAP-opt. It allows full geometry optimizations for large open-shell systems. We report results for three types of organic diradicals and for a binuclear vanadium(II) complex to demonstrate the merits of removing the spin contamination effects during geometry optimization (AGAP-opt vs BS-UDFT) and to illustrate the superior performance of the analytical gradients (AGAP-opt vs NAP-opt). The results for the vanadium(II) complex indicate that the AGAP-opt method is capable of handling pronounced spin contamination effects in large binuclear transition metal complexes with two magnetic centers.

  9. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  10. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division has programs in inorganic mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. It maintains a transuranium analytical laboratory and an environmental analytical laboratory. It carries out chemical and physical analysis in the fields of inorganic chemistry, organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis. (WET)

  12. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  13. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  14. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  15. Analytical chemistry in the Aegean Sea region: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria F

    2012-12-01

    The Eighth Aegean Analytical Chemistry Days Conference took place in Urla, İzmir, Turkey, from 16-20 September 2012. This conference is held every 2 years, organized alternately by analytical chemistry departments of Turkish and Greek universities, so that analytical chemists from the region around the Aegean Sea can exchange experience and knowledge based on their research in a large number of fields. This report summarizes the most interesting presentations and posters pertaining to bioanalytical work.

  16. Implementing analytics a blueprint for design, development, and adoption

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, Nauman

    2013-01-01

    Implementing Analytics demystifies the concept, technology and application of analytics and breaks its implementation down to repeatable and manageable steps, making it possible for widespread adoption across all functions of an organization. Implementing Analytics simplifies and helps democratize a very specialized discipline to foster business efficiency and innovation without investing in multi-million dollar technology and manpower. A technology agnostic methodology that breaks down complex tasks like model design and tuning and emphasizes business decisions rather than the technology behi

  17. Cognitive Analytics: A Step Towards Tacit Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Maymir-Ducharme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tacit Knowledge (TK generally refers to information that is difficult to convey, store, or transfer explicitly. KT is a key challenge for corporations interested in capturing information in Knowledge Management (KM systems that is generally lost with attrition or other human factors (e.g., dimensia. In particular, the challenge is in the capture of implicit information (e.g., additional related data, perspectives, and other frames of reference – in a manner in which it can later be utilized. This paper suggests the use of Cognitive Computing (Analytics as an advanced approach to capture and extract tacit knowledge. KM involves the process of identifying, capturing, extending, sharing, and ultimately exploiting individual or organizational knowledge. Today's KM requires a multi-disciplinary approach, capable of extending itself to deal with large volumes of disparate data types and emerging technologies that provide a broad set of search and analytics capabilities to meet an organization's need to innovate and thrive. Many organizations have extended their KM to include a variety of unstructured text (e.g., documents and web pages and multimedia (e.g., pictures, audio and video. The last decade has shown a strong focus on analytics. Analytics provide large organizations the ability to deal with the exponential growth in data volumes and the complexities associated with effectively and efficiently exploiting corporate or organizational data – thus allowing them to dynamically meet internal goals, as well as survive in very competitive environments. This paper provides an overview of various analytic approaches that have been applied to KM over the years, and the state of the art in analytics (Cognitive Computing; and it identifies additional capabilities and technologies in the horizon.

  18. Analytics: Changing the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2013-01-01

    In this third and concluding discussion on analytics, the author notes that we live in an information culture. We are accustomed to having information instantly available and accessible, along with feedback and recommendations. We want to know what people think and like (or dislike). We want to know how we compare with "others like me."…

  19. Social Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  20. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  1. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  2. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  3. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  5. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and socia...

  6. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  7. Environmental analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental analytical chemistry has a big relation with the stochastic methods. The environmetry is an interdisciplinary science that is formed by the computer science, statistics science and environmental science. Today we must apply the logic of the laboratory and with the environmetry we can apply better the chemical analysis into the environmental control and pollutants control

  8. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  9. Analytics in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics provide a set of powerful tools to inform and support learners. They enable institutions and individuals to better understand and predict personal learning needs and performance. Universities already collect vast amounts of data about their student populations, but often this is underutilised. The current "state of the…

  10. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O'Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  11. Organic analyses of mixed nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lucke, R.B.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.; Hendren, D.J.; Myers, R.B.

    1987-04-01

    Analytical methods are being developed for the organic analysis of nuclear wastes. Our laboratory analyzed the organic content of three commercial wastes and an organic-rich, complex concentrate waste. The commercial wastes contained a variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. Alkyl phenols, chelating and complexing agents, as well as their degradation products, and carboxylic acids were detected in the commercial wastes. The complex concentrate waste contained chelating and complexing agents, as well as numerous degradation products, at millimolar concentrations. 75.1% of the complex concentrate waste's total organic carbon content has been identified. The presence of chelator fragments in all of the wastes analyzed, occasionally at elevated concentrations, indicates that organic diagenesis, or degradation, in nuclear wastes is both widespread and quite vigorous. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Recent topics in differential and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 18-I: Recent Topics in Differential and Analytic Geometry presents the developments in the field of analytical and differential geometry. This book provides some generalities about bounded symmetric domains.Organized into two parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of harmonic mappings and holomorphic foliations. This text then discusses the global structures of a compact Kähler manifold that is locally decomposable as an isometric product of Ricci-positive, Ricci-negative, and Ricci-flat parts. Other chapters con

  13. Cognitive computing and big data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Bowles, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    MASTER THE ABILITY TO APPLY BIG DATA ANALYTICS TO MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED DATA Cognitive computing is a technique that allows humans and computers to collaborate in order to gain insights and knowledge from data by uncovering patterns and anomalies. This comprehensive guide explains the underlying technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, and big data analytics. It then demonstrates how you can use these technologies to transform your organization. You will explore how different vendors and different industries are a

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this contractual effort is the development and demonstration of a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system to meet the unique needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system will be designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics, and explosive materials. The planned laboratory system will consist of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  15. Building Credible Human Capital Analytics for Organizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress the import...

  16. Developing a Code of Practice for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Ethical and legal objections to learning analytics are barriers to development of the field, thus potentially denying students the benefits of predictive analytics and adaptive learning. Jisc, a charitable organization that champions the use of digital technologies in UK education and research, has attempted to address this with the development of…

  17. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  18. Internet Of Things And Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini G

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things IoT helps to encompass many aspects of life from connecting homes and cities to connecting cars and roads roads to devices that helps in examining individuals behavior and then the data collected is used.IoT is to make lives better secure and enjoyable. IoT solutions will promote cleaner environment improve peoples health with preventative care mechanisms and the constant supervision of elderly family members. It provides a platform for communication between objects where objects can organize and manage themselves. In this paper an attempt is made to understand how analytics can be applied to IoT data. Various statistical and data mining techniques will help to derive knowledge out of huge data collected by the IoT devices.

  19. OLAP – Online Analytical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoumana Kamagate

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este procesamiento analítico le da pautas al mundo empresarial, en permitir realizar análisis multidimensional de las bases de datos de gran volumen en las organizaciones, para realizar toma de decisiones de los mismos (que son el tema de consultas especiales. Un sistema OLAP debe cumplir las reglas del Dr. Codd: Se tiene que tener una visión multidimensional de los datos; Pensar en dimensiones y métricas de Negocio. No en tablas y en campos. Abstract This analytical process sets out the guidelines for the business world by carrying out a multidimensional analysis of high volume databases in organizations for decision-making. An OLAP system should obey the rules of Dr. Codd: you should have a multidimensional vision of the data: thinking in terms of the dimensions and metrics of business. Not tables and fields.

  20. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  1. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  2. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as 144 Nd/ 143 Nd, 187 Os/ 186 Os, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed

  3. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de; Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  4. Analytical caustic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    This document discusses the determination of caustic surfaces in terms of rays, reflectors, and wavefronts. Analytical caustics are obtained as a family of lines, a set of points, and several types of equations for geometries encountered in optics and microwave applications. Standard methods of differential geometry are applied under different approaches: directly to reflector surfaces, and alternatively, to wavefronts, to obtain analytical caustics of two sheets or branches. Gauss/Seidel aberrations are introduced into the wavefront approach, forcing the retention of all three coefficients of both the first- and the second-fundamental forms of differential geometry. An existing method for obtaining caustic surfaces through exploitation of the singularities in flux density is examined, and several constant-intensity contour maps are developed using only the intrinsic Gaussian, mean, and normal curvatures of the reflector. Numerous references are provided for extending the material of the present document to the morphologies of caustics and their associated diffraction patterns.

  5. Multifunctional nanoparticles: analytical prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Alejandro Simón; Díaz-García, Marta Elena

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Big Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Rasmus Brødsgaard; Beheshti-Kashi, Samaneh; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2018-01-01

    With the growth of textual data and the simultaneous advancements in Text Analytics enabling the exploitation of this huge amount of unstructured data, companies are provided with the opportunity to tap into the previously hidden knowledge. However, how to use this valuable source, still...... is not unveiled for various domains, such as also for the transportation sector. Accordingly, this research aims at examining the potential of textual data in transportation. For this purpose, a case study was designed on public opinion towards the adoption of driverless cars. This case study was framed together...... and tweets using topic modelling, document classification and sentiment analysis. These analyses have for instance shown that Text Analytics may be a supplementary tool to surveys, since they may extract additional knowledge which may not be captured through the application of surveys. In this case...

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division : annual report (for) 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, N.

    1986-01-01

    An account of the various activities of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during 1985 is presented. The main function of the Division is to provide chemical analysis support to India's atomic energy programme. In addition, the Division also offers its analytical services, mostly for measurement of concentrations at trace levels to Indian industries and other research organization in the country. A list of these determinations is given. The report also describes the research and development (R and D) activities - both completed and in progress, in the form of individual summaries. During the year an ultra trace analytical laboratory for analysis of critical samples without contamination was set up using indigenous material and technology. Publications and training activities of the staff, training of the staff from other institution, guidance by the staff for post-graduate degree and invited talks by the staff are listed in the appendices at the end of the report. (M.G.B.)

  8. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  9. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  10. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  11. Analytical Chemists: A New Breed of Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Examines the involvement of college faculty in small business activities, indicating that university administrators have become decidedly more supportive of such ventures in recent years. A list of 14 start-up companies (showing type of services) founded recently by university analytical chemists is included. (JN)

  12. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  13. GFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes under the inducible cyp1a promoter provide a sensitive and convenient biological indicator for the presence of TCDD and other persistent organic chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hwee Boon Ng

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are resistant to environmental degradation and can cause multitude of health problems. Cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1a is often up-regulated by POPs through the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway and is thus usually used as a biomarker for xenobiotics exposure. To develop a convenient in vivo tool to monitor xenobiotic contamination in the water, we have established GFP transgenic medaka using the inducible cyp1a promoter, Tg(cyp1a:gfp. Here we tested Tg(cyp1a:gfp medaka at three different stages, prehatching embryos, newly hatched fry and adult with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiebnzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a dioxin. While GFP induction was observed in all three stages, newly hatched fry were the most sensitive with the lowest observed effective concentration of 0.005 nM or 16.1 ng/L. The highly sensitive organs included the kidney, liver and intestine. With high concentrations of TCDD, several other organs such as the olfactory pit, tail fin, gills, lateral line neuromast cells and blood vessels also showed GFP expression. In addition, Tg(cyp1a:gfp medaka fry also responded to two other AhR agonists, 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, for GFP induction, but no significant GFP induction was observed towards several other chemicals tested, indicating the specificity of this transgenic line. The GFP inducibility of Tg(cyp1a:gfp medaka at both fry and adult stages may be useful for development of high-throughput assays as well as online water monitoring system to detect xenobiotic toxicity.

  14. Is it all grist to the mill? Wandering between indications for psychoanalytic treatment and the analytic field Caiu na rede é peixe? Entre as indicações de tratamento psicanalítico e o campo analítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the indications and contraindications for psychoanalytic treatment seems crucial to achieve therapeutic success and improve treatment effectiveness. In reviewing the classic literature on the topic, aspects such as age, diagnosis, motivation for treatment, present moment in life, ability to gain insight, psychic suffering when seeking treatment, defensive behaviors, and frustration tolerance are clearly analyzed by therapists/analysts when indicating psychoanalytic treatments. However, traditionally, most criteria underlying such indications date back to a time when the therapeutic relationship was viewed merely as a therapist treating a patient, with no regard to the therapeutic relationship itself. The goal of this article was to critically review the relevance and current adequacy of indications for psychoanalytic treatment, in view of advancements in knowledge on the analytic field. Considering cases that do not evolve as expected according to the indications, patients who are better suited to certain therapists, and therapist-patient pairs that modify their interaction over the course of treatment, the main question remains on how to identify the necessary elements in evaluating a candidate patient for psychoanalytic treatment, as well as the significant elements of therapeutic action.Determinar critérios de indicação e contraindicação para tratamentos psicanalíticos parece um ponto técnico crucial para a obtenção de sucesso terapêutico e a elevação de seus índices de efetividade. Na revisão da literatura clássica sobre o tema, percebe-se que a idade, o diagnóstico do paciente, a motivação para tratamento, o momento de vida, a capacidade de insight, o sofrimento psíquico apresentado no momento da busca de tratamento, o estilo defensivo e a tolerância à frustração são alguns dos pontos analisados pelos terapeutas/analistas para indicar tratamentos psicanalíticos. Contudo, classicamente, tais indica

  15. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OF MATRIX RICCATI EQUATIONS WITH ANALYTIC COEFFICIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth; Rodman, Leiba

    2010-01-01

    For matrix Riccati equations of platoon-type systems and of systems arising from PDEs, assuming the coefficients are analytic or rational functions in a suitable domain, analyticity of the stabilizing solution is proved under various hypotheses. General results on analytic behavior of stabilizing

  16. Stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Rosa A; Carro, Antonia M; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the fundamentals of stimuli-responsive materials and their applications to three common separation techniques, namely extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis. Although still little investigated, materials that switch their affinity for the analyte on and off as a function of tiny changes in physical and biochemical variables offer relevant advantages for analyte extraction, concentration, and separation. Temperature and/or pH-responsive polymers in the form of chains or networks, which are dispersed in the sample as free entities or after being grafted onto beads (which may incorporate magnetic cores), enable quantitative capture and/or elution of the analyte under mild conditions and without needing organic solvents. Regarding liquid-chromatography separation, responsive stationary phases enable the implementation of "all-in-water" procedures in which retention times are modulated by means of temperature or pH gradients. Other stimuli that can be externally applied, for example light or magnetic fields, can also be used for efficient extraction or separation of the target substance without altering the composition of the sample matrix. Moreover, stimuli-responsiveness enables straightforward recycling of solid and/or stationary phases for a prolonged lifetime. Improved understanding of the phase transitions of stimuli-responsive materials and design of suitable formats for analytical applications should enable wider and more successful application of stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separations.

  17. Decisions through data: analytics in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    The amount of data in healthcare is increasing at an astonishing rate. However, in general, the industry has not deployed the level of data management and analysis necessary to make use of those data. As a result, healthcare executives face the risk of being overwhelmed by a flood of unusable data. In this essay I argue that, in order to extract actionable information, leaders must take advantage of the promise of data analytics. Small data, predictive modeling expansion, and real-time analytics are three forms of data analytics. On the basis of my analysis for this study, I recommend all three for adoption. Recognizing the uniqueness of each organization's situation, I also suggest that practices, hospitals, and healthcare systems examine small data and conduct real-time analytics and that large-scale organizations managing populations of patients adopt predictive modeling. I found that all three solutions assist in the collection, management, and analysis of raw data to improve the quality of care and decrease costs.

  18. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  19. Beyond ‘Moneyball’ to Analytics Leadership in Sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Felix Ter Chian; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Since Michael Lewis’ thesis on Oakland Athletics’ analytical approach to assemble a competitive baseball team and the release of the feature film “Moneyball”, the interest in sports analytics has grown rapidly. Existing research on sports analytics, though nascent and limited, paints a rather...... different picture compared to data analytics in the business context, mostly due to the nature of the sports industry and its organizations. Therefore, it is our focus in this study to further unpack such differences through a case study of FC Bayern Munich and its digital transformation to achieve...... analytics leadership. More specifically, we strive to understand 1) what analytics leadership entails for professional sports teams; and 2) what type of IT-enabled capabilities are required to realize such leadership position within a sporting and entertainment ecosystem. Our initial analysis identified...

  20. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1989 (October 1988 through September 1989). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1989 (October 1988 through September 1989). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  3. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991). This is the eighth annual report for the ACL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  5. Healthcare Data Analytics on the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Bhattacharya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful analysis of voluminous health information has always been a challenge in most healthcare organizations. Accurate and timely information required by the management to lead a healthcare organization through the challenges found in the industry can be obtained using business intelligence (BI or business analytics tools. However, these require large capital investments to implement and support the large volumes of data that needs to be analyzed to identify trends. They also require enormous processing power which places pressure on the business resources in addition to the dynamic changes in the digital technology. This paper evaluates the various nuances of business analytics of healthcare hosted on the cloud computing environment. The paper explores BI being offered as Software as a Service (SaaS solution towards offering meaningful use of information for improving functions in healthcare enterprise. It also attempts to identify the challenges that healthcare enterprises face when making use of a BI SaaS solution.

  6. MERRA Analytic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  7. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  8. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  9. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  10. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  11. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  12. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  13. Data Analytics in Procurement Fraud Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lanclos, Joseph; Phillips, Thurman; Naval Postgraduate School Acquisition Research Program

    2014-01-01

    No PDF Available. Annual Acquisition Research Symposium The purpose of this research project is to explore the viability of detecting anomalies through using data analytics software as a tool in procurement fraud prevention and to analyze its potential policy implications on federal procurement stakeholders. According to a survey conducted in 2012 by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, organizations lose an estimated 5% of their revenues to fraud each year. In order to relate ...

  14. Geo-social visual analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis and social network analysis typically consider social processes in their own specific contexts, either geographical or network space. Both approaches demonstrate strong conceptual overlaps. For example, actors close to each other tend to have greater similarity than those far apart; this phenomenon has different labels in geography (spatial autocorrelation and in network science (homophily. In spite of those conceptual and observed overlaps, the integration of geography and social network context has not received the attention needed in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of their interaction or their impact on outcomes of interest, such as population health behaviors, information dissemination, or human behavior in a crisis. In order to address this gap, this paper discusses the integration of geographic with social network perspectives applied to understanding social processes in place from two levels: the theoretical level and the methodological level. At the theoretical level, this paper argues that the concepts of nearness and relationship in terms of a possible extension of the First Law of Geography are a matter of both geographical and social network distance, relationship, and interaction. At the methodological level, the integration of geography and social network contexts are framed within a new interdisciplinary field:~visual analytics, in which three major application-oriented subfields (data exploration, decision-making, and predictive analysis are used to organize discussion. In each subfield, this paper presents a theoretical framework first, and then reviews what has been achieved regarding geo-social visual analytics in order to identify potential future research.

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.

  16. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been used to separate components of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH 4 ) - DMAD formulations prepared as a function of pH, the presence or absence of air, and the time post reaction. The formulation pH is an effective variable for controlling the generation and interconversion of /sup 99m/Tc-DMAD components, and for allowing the preparation of large quantities of specific /sup 99m/Tc-DMAD complexes for biological evaluation. Individual components of /sup 99m/Tc(NaBH 4 )-DMAD mixtures, separated by anion exchange HPLC, have been evaluated as skeletal imaging agents in rats. Biodistribution data show that the evaluated exhibit markedly different bone uptake and soft tissue localization. Comparison of the Tc(NaBH 4 )-DMAD complex exhibiting the most favorable biological distribution with Osteoscan using an osteogenic rat model showed the DMAD complex to be slightly more efficacious. The total concentration of technetium in the eluants of commercially available 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc radionuclide generators has been determined by five different analytical procedures using four analytical techniques. Liquid scintillation beta counting, gas flow proportional beta counting, ionization chamber beta counting and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection were used to track 99 TcO 4 - in the eluants of clinically used generators from each of the four domestic (USA) manufactures. The relative merits and disadvantages of the five procedures for the analysis of total technetium in the eluants of commercially available generators have been evaluated. 9 references, 3 figures

  17. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens; Board on Life Sciences; Water Science and Technology Board; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    2004-01-01

    Recent and forecasted advances in microbiology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry have made it timely to reassess the current paradigm of relying predominantly or exclusively on traditional...

  18. Dissolved organic carbon and bioavailability of N and P as indicators of soil quality Carbono orgânico dissolvido e biodisponibilidade de N e P como indicadores de qualidade do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Azevedo Silveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality has become an important issue in soil science. Considerable attempts have been made to define soil quality, but a general concept has not yet been accepted by the scientific community. The selection of quantitative indices for soil quality is extremely difficult, and a considerable number of chemical, physical, and biochemical properties have been suggested as potential indicators of soil quality. Because soil organic matter (SOM can be associated with different soil chemical, physical and biological processes, it has been widely considered as one of the best soil quality indicator. Land use can significantly influence dynamics of organic carbon and N, P, and S cycle. However, changes in total soil organic carbon (SOC contents in response to land use may be difficult to detect because of the natural soil variability. In the short to medium term, biological properties and readily decomposable fractions of SOC, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC, are much more sensitive to soil management than is SOM as a whole, and can be used as a key indicator of soil natural functions. Despite the fact that labile C accounts for a small portion of the total organic matter in the soils, DOC is the most mobile and important C-source for microorganisms, and can easily reflect the effects of land use on soil quality. Although several methods are used to characterize DOC, the factors influencing mineralization and bioavailability of elements associated with organic matter (N, P, and S remains unclear. Future research should focus on the processes that govern DOC and nutrient dynamics and how they affect soil quality.Nas últimas décadas, qualidade do solo tem se tornado um tópico importante na ciência do solo. Embora esforços consideráveis tenham sido dedicados com o intuito de definir "qualidade do solo", ainda não há um conceito amplamente aceito pela comunidade cientifica. A seleção de índices qualitativos para definir qualidade do solo

  19. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance. (DLC)

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S.

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance