WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytic intermodal freight

  1. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  2. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  3. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  4. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  5. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  6. SUSTAINABLE INTERMODAL FREIGHT BY ROUTE CHOICE WITH PRACTICALITY CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadogo, Marie; Anciaux, Didier; Roy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The transfer of goods and raw materials from one point to another in a supply chain is by various transportation modes namely road, air, sea or inland water, railway... These transportation modes generate a variety of potentially harmful environmental impacts. Indeed, the growth of multimodal infrastructures and intermodal services contributes to intensify the environmental impacts. The levels and types of pollution due to transport mainly depend on the combination of ...

  7. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  8. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks: Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  9. Environmental Factors and Intermodal Freight Transportation: Analysis of the Decision Bases in the Case of Spanish Motorways of the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López-Navarro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is widespread consensus about the notable, yet simultaneously growing, negative environmental impacts generated by the transportation sector. Experts working in a number of different fields consider the current situation to be unsustainable and possible measures to reduce emissions and foster sustainability are being encouraged. The European Commission has highlighted the need to shift away from unimodal road transport toward a greater use of intermodal transport through, for example, motorways of the sea, in light of the evidence that the former makes a significant contribution to increased CO2 emissions. However, although there is a general perception that sea transport is environmentally preferable to road transport, recent studies are beginning to question this assumption. Moreover, little research has been conducted to quantify environmental aspects and incorporate them into the decision-making processes involved in the modal shift. This study first reviews the existing literature to examine the extent to which environmental aspects are relevant in the modal choice in the case of short sea shipping and motorways of the sea. Related to this, the study also evaluates the role that different agents may play in making decisions about choice of mode, taking into consideration environmental aspects. Secondly, we use the values the European Commission provides to calculate external costs for the Marco Polo freight transport project proposals (call 2013 to estimate the environmental costs for several routes (a total of 72, comparing the use of road haulage with the intermodal option that incorporates the Spanish motorways of the sea. The results of this comparative analysis show that the intermodal option is not always the best choice in environmental terms. Consequently, the traditional environmental argument to justify this alternative must be used carefully.

  10. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    transport flows through specific transport networks of own interest. Most transport firms are mobile in their activities by nature, but are in reality confined in their day-to-day operations to different forms of relative fixed network structure - e.g. railway lines, ferry routes and ports, cost......This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU...

  11. FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. REGGIANI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of European policy on the interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU. In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future – both international (EU and national (the Alpine countries – freight transport development. The paper is organised to briefly describe the main objectives of EU transport policy, to generally introduce the concept of intermodal transport with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport and to describe past, present and future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport. The scenarios of future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport have been particularly analysed.

  12. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  13. INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN EUROPE - OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wagener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport volume in ton-km in OECD countries will grow considerably up to 150 to 230 % in 2050 compared to 2010. Although the EU policy aims to shift 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030 the recent trends show a stable modal split of road at approx. 75%. Conventional intermodal transport on the major European routes has shown a steady but only limited organic growth through recent years. Therefore, new innovative concepts for intermodal transport and for the shift from road to rail are needed. Methods: Definitions of intermodal transport have been clarified and the development of combined transport in Europe and in Germany and Poland in particular has been analyzed on the basis of available data sources. New innovative concepts for intermodal transport have been identified on the basis of desk research, recent relevant projects (RETRACK, SCANDRIA, Rail Baltica and market intelligence. Results: The analysis leads to the conclusion that new innovative concepts in intermodal transport comprise new forms of organization as well as new technologies and new routes. The following three innovations to facilitate the shift from road to rail by intermodal transport are being introduced and discussed: multimodal operation of ocean carriers in maritime hinterland transportation, innovative handling technologies for non-crane able trainers and freight corridors for long distance intermodal transport within the TEN-T network and on the Europe-Asia corridor. Conclusions: Further accelerated growth in the shift from road to rail through intermodal transport requires new innovative concepts beyond the traditional combined transport in Western Europe. Three promising innovative concepts have been introduced. Further research is needed and should be focused on financial and economic appraisal as well as on the effectiveness of state intervention policies. 

  14. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  15. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  16. Dynamics of intermodal logistical systems on containerisation and road transportation in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Govender

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The underlying port operations in Durban, South Africa, epitomise intense global competitiveness in the intermodal logistics chain. The link between containerisation and theroad transport network can falter as a result of the dynamics of the logistics system. The main objective of the study was to establish the extent of the intermodal challenges of logistical systems on containerisation to which the role of intermodal sea–road freight transportation enhances the logistical competitiveness. It further examined the intermodal relationship on containerised freight between the challenges of containerisation processes and the effects on road freight transport mode. The impact of containerisation on intermodalism, the sea–road freight transport network and the technological attributes of security-based systems and logistical tracking protocols influence the systematic movement of containers on Durban’s public roads.

  17. Development of Intermodal Transport and Logistics in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Tadić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport and logistics play a key role in economic and social terms by ensuring the competitiveness, economic growth and employment. Intermodal transport has received an increased žattention due to problems of road congestion, environmental concerns and traffic’ safety. Strategic importance of speed, reliability and flexibility in the supply chain is forcing companies to re-examine traditional logistics services. As a result, interest in addressing the problem of intermodal transport and logistics is growing. In order to improve efficiency and sustainability of freight transport in Europe, the European Commission has launched a series of initiatives, projects and has defined the basic directions of development of intermodal transport and logistics. The paper presents the recommendations and measures for the further development of intermodal transport and logistics in Serbia.

  18. On Transport Service Selection in Intermodal Rail/Road Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bierwirth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal rail/road freight transport constitutes an alternative to long-haul road transport for the distribution of large volumes of goods. The paper introduces the intermodal transportation problem for the tactical planning of mode and service selection. In rail mode, shippers either book train capacity on a per-unit basis or charter block trains completely. Road mode is used for short-distance haulage to intermodal terminals and for direct shipments to customers. We analyze the competition of road and intermodal transportation with regard to freight consolidation and service cost on a model basis. The approach is applied to a distribution system of an industrial company serving customers in eastern Europe. The case study investigates the impact of transport cost and consolidation on the optimal modal split.

  19. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  20. Assessing the Contribution of Urban Freight Terminals in Last Mile Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanail Eftihia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multi-stakeholder multi-criteria evaluation framework, which can be used for the assessment of the last mile distribution performance of urban freight terminals. To this end, a comparative analysis is conducted addressing two Greek urban intermodal freight terminals located at the port of Thessaloniki (ThPA and Kuehne+Nagel (K+N’s premises. The assessment of the terminals’ performance relies on a tailored multi-criteria Key Performance Indicator (KPI-based evaluation framework, whereas the selection and significance of the incorporated criteria and KPIs is predetermined by the relevant responsible stakeholders, who imposed their viewpoint through an analytic hierarchy process. Results showed that ThPA was ranked first according to its performance pertaining to the role of an intermodal interchange; still, K+N’s performance index was only 8.5% lower than ThPA’s, while in specific KPIs it seems that it performs in a better way.

  1. A Study in Sea-Air Intermodal Port Selection: Strategic Decision Making for United States Southern Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    infrastructure and broader considerations on future investment in new infrastructure. Congestion at the intermodal line haul connectors and...ships like the newly created Emma Maersk . To take advantage of greater economies of scale, many ocean carriers are relying on larger vessels; putting...and can savings of 10-15 percent due to deduced line haul costs (27:2). Freight shipped on one intermodal train could take upwards of 200 to 280

  2. Description, analysis and calculation of pneumatic brake system used in a freight train using a specific example

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A freight train or goods train is a group of freight cars (US) or goods wagons (UIC) hauled by a locomotive on a railway, ultimately transporting cargo between two points as part of the logistics chain. Trains may haul bulk, intermodal containers or specialized cars. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. This kind of trains needs to have a good drive eq...

  3. Development of Intermodal Transport at Croatian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hurtiš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the railway transport in the EU, in particularthe acceptance of the E U instructions which regulate theright of "the open access to the railway" is the reason forchanges on the European intermodal transport market. TheCommunity of European Railways creates the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways which will exclusively perform railfreight transport. That freeway net has been created in EUmember countries, but they are also extended to the countrieswith the candidate status for the membership in the EU, as wellas to the countries outside the European Union where the qualityof the railway infrastructure enables transport service to beperformed at the required level. Transport at the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways will be performed, for the most part,by the contemporary technologies which enable redirection ofthe goods from the road ways to the railways. Croatian Railwaysis planning to build and open truck terminals by the beginningof the year 2007 in Spacva, Split, Rijeka, Koprivnica andZagreb. This is necessary in order to introduce its own trains forthe transportation of trucks (so calledRo-La trains, which willhelp redirect approximately 150,000 heavy trucks a year fromthe roads to the railways. That way Croatia will profit at theecological and economic level, as well as regarding transportsafety.

  4. The comprehensive intermodal planning system in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Dziamski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Goods distribution by containers has opened new opportunities for them in the global supply chain network. Standardization of transportation units allow to simplify transport logistics operations and enable the integration of different types of transport. Currently, container transport is the most popular means of transport by sea, but recent studies show an increase in its popularity in land transport. In the paper presented the concept of a comprehensive intermodal planning system in a distributed environment which enables more efficient use containers in the global transport. The aim of this paper was to formulate and develop new concept of Internet Intermodal Planning System in distribution environment, supporting the common interests of the consignors and the logistic service providers by integrating the transportation modes, routing, logistics operations and scheduling in order to create intermodal transport plans. Methods: In the paper presented and discussed the new approach to the management of logistics resources used in international intermodal transport. Detailed analysis of proposed classification of variety transportation means has been carried out along with their specific properties, which may affect the time and cost of transportation. Have been presented the modular web-based distribution planning system supporting container transportation planning. Conducted the analysis of the main planning process and curried out the discussion on the effectiveness of the new web-based container transport planning system. Result and conclusions: This paper presents a new concept of the distributed container transport planning system integrating the available on the market logistics service providers with freight exchange. Specific to container planning new transport categories has been identified which simplify and facilitate the management of intermodal planning process. The paper presents a modular structure of Integrated

  5. Design-as-inference: Probability-based design of intermodal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggans, Paul M.; Henderson, R. Wesley; Cao, Lei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a method for designing intermodal freight rail-to-highway terminals using Bayesian model selection. Each model consists of a unique network of cities and rail terminals. The model parameters are the amount of freight flowing on each individual path in the network. The prior distribution constrains the freight flowing on each path between each pair of origin and destination cities to Gaussian distributions with means corresponding to the estimated freight demand between the cities. The likelihood function favors low total cost in the network and penalizes routing schemes that exceed terminal capacities. Nested sampling is used to compute the Bayesian evidence for each model. The paper describes the generation of, results from, and conclusions drawn from a realistic test case.

  6. DETERMINATION OF OBJECTIVES FOR URBAN FREIGHT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kaszubowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  7. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  8. Modeling the Optimization of Intermodal Train Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    In order to see a shift in modal split in favour of trains as envisioned by the European Union it is necessary for intermodal transport solutions to compete with trucking. Assuming it is possible to compete on price it is necessary to achieve transit times in intermodal networks that are similar ...

  9. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  11. Reforming Rail Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2013-01-01

    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  12. The importance of disaggregated freight flow forecasts to inform transport infrastructure investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comprehensive disaggregated commodity flow model for South Africa. The wealth of data available enables a segmented analysis of future freight transportation demand in order to assist with the prioritisation of transportation investments, the development of transport policy and the growth of the logistics service provider industry. In 2011, economic demand for commodities in South Africa’s competitive surface-freight transport market amounted to 622 million tons and is predicted to increase to 1834m tons by 2041, which is a compound annual growth rate of 3.67%. Fifty percent of corridor freight constitutes break bulk; intermodal solutions are therefore critical in South Africa. Scenario analysis indicates that 80%of corridor break-bulk tons can by serviced by four intermodal facilities – in Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. This would allow for the development of an investment planning hierarchy, enable industry targeting (through commodity visibility, ensure capacity development ahead of demand and lower the cost of logistics in South Africa.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Provincial logistics costs in South Africa’s Western Cape province: Microcosm of national freight logistics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics costs are most commonly measured on a national level. An understanding of the provincial logistics landscape can add significant value both to provincial and national policy interventions; such measurements are however scarce. South Africa’s national freight logistics survey points to significant challenges in the structure of the freight transport market, most importantly the dominance of road freight transport on dense, longdistance corridors. The Cape Town-Gauteng corridor is the main economic artery linking the Western Cape province to the rest of the country.Objectives: The provincial government commissioned this research to develop an understanding of the province’s contribution to the national logistics challenges in order to alleviate both provincial and national logistics challenges.Results: The research results provide a distinct description of the key action required – to provide an intermodal solution for the dense flows of fast-moving consumer goods on the Cape Town-Gauteng corridor in order to reduce the significant transport and externality costs related to these flows and reduce exposure to exogenous cost drivers.Conclusion: Collaborative research between government and private industry into appropriate intermodal technologies must be prioritised within the ambit of South Africa’s socioeconomic environment. This shift can be further supported through the internalisation of road transport externalities to enable a total cost decision between modes, as well as through appropriate regulation of the freight transport industry.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Intermode beat stabilized laser with frequency pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Araki, T; Suzuki, N

    1994-01-20

    A frequency-stabilized two-mode He-Ne laser has been developed. The intermode beat frequency of the experimental laser was approximately 600 MHz for a 25-cm cavity. The laser frequency in which the mode stands is pulled to the center of the gain curve (frequency pulling). The degree of pulling depends on where the longitudinal modes stand in the broadened gain curve. Beat frequency is thereby changed periodically of the order of hundreds of kilohertz with respect to cavity expansion. The frequency pulling was effectively used for frequency stabilization of the laser. The standing position of the longitudinal mode lights was locked in the gain curve by controlling the change of intermode beat frequency. A microwave mixer was applied to extract the frequency change of the intermode beat. Excellent frequency stability (10(10) for the laser oscillation and 10(6) for the beat frequency) was attained. The polarization orthogonality of the proposed laser was superior to that of Zeeman lasers.

  18. Intermodal Barge Transport: Network Design, Nodes and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the opportunities and conditions to increase the market share of intermodal barge transport in Northwest Europe. In particular, it focuses on strategies to improve the performances of the different links of the intermodal transport chain: the barge transport services, the transh

  19. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  20. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  1. Intermodal Transport Security: Need for an Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Kula Degirmenci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation industry has been facing challenges due to various security-related issues such as piracy, terrorism, thefts and accidents. Intermodal transportation as a system that incorporates many players, transportation modes, interchange points as well as various technologies can also be considered as an important platform for securityrelated problems. Although intermodal transportation is quite vulnerable to security-related risks, recent literature heavily focused on the security problems of specific transportation modes. Since intermodal industry consists of many operations, vehicles and actors, responding to security-related issues for each transportation mode only may not be sufficient. In the light of these, this study mainly aims to provide a framework for overall understanding of the security concept in the intermodal transportation chain. The study firstly focuses on the security dimension of each transportation mode that can be a part of an intermodal transportation chain by considering mainly legal, technological and economic factors. Then, a framework is suggested which identifies the main components of security in intermodal transport by focusing on the need for an integrated approach. Since the evaluation of security dimension in transportation industry is only limited to the industry projects and analysis of specific transport modes; mainly sea transport, it is believed that this study will provide significant contribution to the understanding and the evaluation of security concept in intermodal transportation system. This will be achieved through the identification of main security gaps in the system and the analysis of the intermodal transportation security concept. Moreover, some suggestions will be provided in the light of the factors mentioned in order to provide an overall intermodal security framework and an integrated approach.

  2. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  3. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Alvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1 improvement of the city freight distribution, (2 implementation possibility, (3 short and medium term applicability and (4 impact on the citizens of Bilbao. Findings: The paper identifies some specific problems that must be faced during the last stage of the logistics chain, where products are usually delivered to final customers in the urban environment. Research limitations/implications: Not all good urban freight distribution practices can be applied universally to all types of towns. Therefore, it is necessary to design some practices specifically to each particular city according to the physical characteristics of the city, the companies’ motivation and the citizens’ habits. Practical implications: All the agents involved in the city freight distribution should be aware of the benefits and problems that their actions cause. Originality/value: This study was carried out from a wide perspective that included researchers, logistics operators and local authorities.

  4. 78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ....-flag vessel operator organized under the laws of a state of the United States, or the District of..., vessel space, intermodal systems and equipment, terminal facilities, and related management services,...

  5. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yong Shin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  6. To Forward The Freight Forwarding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's freight forwarding industry is suffering a lot as the country's foreign trade has slowed down. The dwindling overseas markets, the rising RMB exchange rates and the soaring prices of raw materials have been restraining the exports and the imports, and have thereby been depressing the freight volumes, Besides, the global leading freight forwarding companies have expanded their shares in the Chinese market. China'sfreight forwarders are losing the comparative advantages in local market and human resources,

  7. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...

  8. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  9. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  10. Urban freight transportation: challenges, failures and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.J.; Peeters, R.; Woensel, T. van

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  11. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  12. 75 FR 51419 - Requirements for Intermodal Equipment Providers and for Motor Carriers and Drivers Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... for intermodal equipment providers (IEPs) to have in place inspection, repair and maintenance programs... require IEPs to register and file with FMCSA an Intermodal Equipment Provider Identification Report (Form... mechanical defects and deficiencies. The regulations also require IEPs to mark each intermodal...

  13. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  14. SKF Freight Transports and CO{sub 2} emissions. A Study in Environmental Management Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Helen; Stenqvist, Christian

    2007-11-15

    In this study of CO{sub 2} emissions accounting, freight transports of the SKF company are examined. The identification of emission sources, the handling of transport activity data, the application of proper calculation methodologies, organizational aspects and questions of liability are all integrated parts of the study. Emission calculations are carried out for two specific logistics systems managed by SKF Logistics Services; the Daily Transport System (DTS) and the Global Air Freight Program. The DTS, which is based on road freight transports, operates the European distribution of finished products. It is estimated to contribute with 9 700 tonnes CO{sub 2} during 2007. Since the system is optimized to a reasonable degree, the CO{sub 2} impact per tonne-km is relatively low. Over the same period the air freight's estimated emissions are 40 000 tonnes. Together these transport activities contributes to about ten percent of the SKF total CO{sub 2} equivalents based on the reporting of 2006. Adding the emissions from the remaining transport activities that SKF utilizes will make this share increase considerably, particularly if also inbound transports are accounted for. The potential for CO{sub 2} reductions is covered by two change-oriented case studies. It can be concluded that short-sea transportation seldom is an alternative to road transports. Intermodal transports combining road and rail can, depending on the circumstances, reduce the CO{sub 2} impact considerably compared to only using road transports. Reducing transportation work by optimizing a transport activity is seen as the best option for CO{sub 2} reductions. Efforts should be put into reducing the need for air freight transports, considering the high emission levels per tonne-km. Monitoring emissions for all transport activities that falls under SKF responsibility will reduce the risk of sub optimization. Introducing system changes in order to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions will have a range of

  15. Visual-Proprioceptive Intermodal Perception Using Point Light Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuckler, Mark A.; Fairhall, Jennifer L.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments explored 5- and 7-month-olds' intermodal coordination of proprioceptive information produced by leg movements and visual movement information specifying these same motions. Results suggested that coordination of visual and proprioceptive inputs is constrained by infants' information processing of the displays and have…

  16. Arrangements of intermodal transport in the field of conflicting conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F. Haak (Krijn); M.A.I.H. Hoeks (Marian)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe continuing advance of containerization emphasizes the need for a more uniform legal approach to international intermodal transport. With the current lack of a uniform instrument regulating such transport, the next best solution - both in legal theory as well as in practice - seems to

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Teslenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizational structure of management of railway freight transportations based on product principle is offered that allows functioning of private operator companies and realizing of transportations on competition basis.

  18. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for Hearing... Florida, and OC is currently located at 4458 NW 74th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33166. Omar Collado is identified... its qualifying individual, Mr. Collado, lacked the requisite character to be licensed as an OTI....

  19. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an...

  20. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  1. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... identification of significant freight system trends, needs, and issues with respect to the State; ] A description... transportation system; Using advanced technology, performance management, innovation, competition, and..., and what supply chains (including the transportation modes that support them) are critical to...

  2. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : a performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal termina

  3. Intermodal Learning in Infancy: Learning on the Basis of Two Kinds of Invariant Relations in Audible and Visible Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the development of intermodal perception in infancy by means of a new method, the intermodal learning method. Results support the claim that only subjects who had been familiarized with appropriate and synchronous film and soundtrack pairs showed evidence of intermodal learning. (Author/RWB)

  4. The performance of intermodal inland waterway transport: Modeling conditions influencing its competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.; Konings, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, numerous obstacles have been identified which prevent the (extensive) use of intermodal transport. A major motivation to promote intermodal transport is that its cost performance is often assumed better than road-only transport. Considering that the cost of transport services remains one

  5. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  7. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...

  8. 78 FR 11727 - National Freight Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., labor, and environment; (4) freight customers and providers; and (5) government bodies. Specifically... address (2) Statement of interest limited to 250 words on why the nominee wants to serve on the NFAC and... recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation take into account the needs of the diverse groups served by...

  9. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  10. A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, D.

    1996-08-01

    Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.

  11. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  12. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Secretary, provides efficient, cost- effective, sustainable, and intermodal connectivity to a defined region...; land and maritime ports of entry; access to energy exploration, development, installation, or production areas; population centers; and network connectivity. The analysis will primarily use data from...

  13. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  14. 浅议国际多式联运中如何更好地分清各方责任%Liability Attribution Among Parties of International Inter-modal Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珉

    2011-01-01

    对国际多式联运的网状责任制原则与多式联运经营人的赔偿责任限制进行了理论综述,指出网状责任制的最大弊端和实践中国际货运市场供求关系决定责任归属的现状.通过尝试从企业实践中另辟蹊径,提出了货运单据和科技创新设备在划分各关系方责任方面的实际作用.%The paper reviews literatures on the principle of liabilities and liability limitation for inter-modal transport operators in inter-national inter-modal transportation, points out the most serious limitation of the net-structured distribution of liabilities among the concerned parties as well as the fact that, in practice, demand-supply relationship of the international freight forwarding market determines liability attribution. Then, in an effort at innovation, the paper studies enterprise practices, investigating the roles of BOL and high-tech equipment in the determination of liabilities of the various parties in the relationship.

  15. Situation and Perspectives of Intermodal Logistics in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Logistics has become one of the determining factors inHungarian economic policy. This is supported by the fact thatlogistics has been included into the key programmes of the 2"dHungarian National Development Plan. Intermodallogisticsservices belong to the most important instruments emphasisedby the Hungarian transport policy. Although there have beenseveral improvements in the field of logistics centres and combinedtransport the national intennodallogistics network cannotbe regarded as finished yet. That is why additional investmentsare needed. However, the new developments shall besupported by updated strategic conceptions taking into considerationthe current and future trends in technology and economy,with special regard to changed conditions coming fromjoining the EU This paper aims to analyse the national and internationalbackground of intermodal logistics strategy improvementsand furthermore to draw conclusions on the possibledevelopment directions applicable for specific Hungariancircumstances.

  16. Measurement of the intermodal crosstalk of a bent multimode waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Gencheng, Wang; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-09-20

    We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively. This work gives us a deep insight into how the guided modes actually propagate through the bent waveguide.

  17. On-chip Inter-modal Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kittlaus, Eric A; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interactions mediate nonlinear coupling between photons and acoustic phonons through an optomechanical three-wave interaction. Though these nonlinearities were previously very weak in silicon photonic systems, the recent emergence of new optomechanical waveguide structures have transformed Brillouin processes into one of the strongest and most tailorable on-chip nonlinear interactions. New technologies based on Brillouin couplings have formed a basis for amplification, filtering, and nonreciprocal signal processing techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate strong guided-wave Brillouin scattering between light fields guided in distinct spatial modes of a silicon waveguide for the first time. This inter-modal coupling creates dispersive symmetry breaking between Stokes and anti-Stokes processes, permitting single-sideband amplification and wave dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Combining these physics with integrated mode-multiplexers enables novel device topologies and elim...

  18. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.

  19. A distance meter using a terahertz intermode beat in an optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shuko; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Hagihara, Yuki; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2009-09-28

    We propose a distance meter that utilizes an intermode beat of terahertz frequency in an optical frequency comb to perform high resolution and high dynamic range absolute distance measurements. The proposed system is based on a novel method, called multiheterodyne cross-correlation detection, in which intermode beat frequencies are scaled down to radio frequencies by optical mixing of two detuned optical frequency combs with a nonlinear optical crystal. Using this method, we obtained a 1.056 THz intermode beat and achieved a distance resolution of 0.820 microm from its phase measurement. Absolute distance measurement using 1.056 THz and 8.187 GHz intermode beats was also demonstrated in the range of 10 mm, resulting in a precision of 0.688 microm.

  20. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  1. Agile Port and Intermodal Transport Operations Model to Secure Lean Supply Chains Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Beškovnik; Elen Twrdy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a strategic view of industry’s expectations from the lean supply chains concept in relation to the container shipping industry. The global market is putting the shipping industry under strong pressure as new trends in logistics seek new opportunities to cut unnecessary costs and players in the supply chain management and in the intermodal transport. For this reason we performed a research on how the intermodal transport can secure efficient transport operations. The emph...

  2. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; 4. Annual average daily truck traffic on principal arterials; 5. Land and maritime ports of entry; 6... 8. Network connectivity. Purpose of the Notice The purpose of this notice is to publish the draft... freight facilities where highway freight intersects with other modes--at rail yards, ports, and...

  3. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  4. Setting up a freight transportation model for Java in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baat, M.J.; Den Hertog, V.; De Jong, S.; De Regt, K.; Wijgergangs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The project consisted of the development of a freight transportation model for the island Java in Indonesia. A literature study concerning freight modelling has been performed to formulate an appropriate framework of such a model for the given situation. Different data sources have been identified,

  5. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    econometric models make use of a deterministic trend to explain fuel intensity and cannot accommodate long-run effects such as asymmetric diesel price effects and relationship between the variables in the freight demand. Our results do not confirm that decoupling truck freight has accelerated in recent years...

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Numerical analysis of intermodal delay in few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing in optical fiber communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Munir; XIN Xiang-jun; LIU Bo; Abdul Latif; Aftab Hussain; Shahab Ahmad Niazi

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve higher spectral efficiency,mode division multiplexing (MDM) in few-mode fibers is a new research area.The idea faces lots of technical issues including intermodal delay and mode coupling which limit the achievable length of the system.This paper is designated to complete the analysis of intermodal delay in step-index few-mode fibers.We analyze numerically all the parameters of fiber,which could impact intermodal delay in few-mode fibers and identify the conditions which can increase the number of multiplex modes without significant increase in maximum intermodal delay.

  8. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  9. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  10. RESEARCHES ON URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE MEXICAN CITY OF QUERETARO: FROM CENTRAL TO PERI-URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Betanzo-Quezada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While in developed countries the effects of urban freight transport on congestion levels, environment and quality of life of the population have been recognized and studied, in Latin American countries a limited amount of reports have been produced on this issue, focusing only on major urban agglomerations and capital cities. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the results and the key analytical concepts supporting a research work carried out in the Queretaro Metropolitan Area, within the 2003−2014 period. The methodological approach considered includes a multi-year research effort for creating analytical tools and evaluation methods. As a result of this effort, urban freight related issues have been characterized in a context of urban and peri-urban interacting environments for a medium-sized city. The resulting methods and tools can now be used for studying metropolitan areas on a nation-wide basis.

  11. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  12. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟永林; 张锦

    2002-01-01

    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  13. Intermodal auditory, visual, and tactile attention modulates early stages of neural processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M; Knight, Robert T

    2009-04-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and gamma band oscillatory responses (GBRs) to examine whether intermodal attention operates early in the auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. To control for the effects of spatial attention, we spatially coregistered all stimuli and varied the attended modality across counterbalanced blocks in an intermodal selection task. In each block, participants selectively responded to either auditory, visual, or vibrotactile stimuli from the stream of intermodal events. Auditory and visual ERPs were modulated at the latencies of early cortical processing, but attention manifested later for tactile ERPs. For ERPs, auditory processing was modulated at the latency of the Na (29 msec), which indexes early cortical or thalamocortical processing and the subsequent P1 (90 msec) ERP components. Visual processing was modulated at the latency of the early phase of the C1 (62-72 msec) thought to be generated in the primary visual cortex and the subsequent P1 and N1 (176 msec). Tactile processing was modulated at the latency of the N160 (165 msec) likely generated in the secondary association cortex. Intermodal attention enhanced early sensory GBRs for all three modalities: auditory (onset 57 msec), visual (onset 47 msec), and tactile (onset 27 msec). Together, these results suggest that intermodal attention enhances neural processing relatively early in the sensory stream independent from differential effects of spatial and intramodal selective attention.

  14. Ukraine in the process of freight market globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Primacheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the entire period of state construction in Ukraine, the strategy of stable economical growth of country’s freight potential has been practically ignored. The solution to this problem requires systematic study of mechanisms and methods of growth and operation of the most important sectors of international freight market. Despite world’s freight statistics being systematic, there is practically no established methodology to assess its sustainable development in the times of globalization. Typically, all that is available are insights into certain aspects of freight market parameters formation. Thus, this article focuses on systematization of the general principles of world’s marine trade development and evaluation of the most realistic directions for establishing Ukraine as a full-scale maritime.

  15. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  16. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  17. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  18. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  19. ORGANIZATION OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN UKRAINE IN THE REFORMATION CONDTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the former Soviet Union carries out railroad industry reformation according to different models depending on orienting points and the goals it establishes. All railway administrations have faced the problem of considerable reduction of freight and passenger transportation volumes, aging of main assets, lack of investments for their renovation. The purpose of the paper is the development of optimal management structure of freight cars in conditions of railway transport reformation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis for research is a systematic analysis of problems of providing the competitiveness of the transport industry in the field of freight railway transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the production efficiency, market economics transformation and management of the national economy. Findings. The author has developed an improved mechanism for freight traffic management, which differs from the existing one by its adaptation to the conditions of industry being reformed and the organization of management companies. These companies together with the Ukrainian transport and logistics center centralize management of all freight cars of both domestic and foreign operating companies. Originality. Author presents the theoretical generalization and new solution of the scientific problem. It appears in the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to the management structure of the freight cars by operating companies in conditions of railway transport reforming through the management companies organization in Ukraine. The above mentioned companies will combine two types of activity – the commercial one and the cars repair of different property, it will reduce car turnover, stay time of rolling stock in the inoperative park and thereby improve the efficiency of freight transportations. Particularly, they will lease and have the right to dispose universal cars of domestic

  20. Backcasting in freight transport demand modelling – chances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Peter; Huber, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport demand models are important tools to support policy decision-making by enabling decision makers to evaluate transport policies and correlated effects. This significance puts high pressure on freight models regarding their accuracy. In order to ensure model accuracy there are different methods within the wide area of quality assurance that can be applied. Although backcasting is such a method it is, however, often neglected or implemented insufficiently. The paper presents ma...

  1. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  2. Intermodal Čerenkov radiation in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an intermodal Čerenkov radiation effect in a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber with a mode crossing (i.e., two guided modes having the same propagation constant at the same wavelength). A frequency-shifted soliton in the vicinity of the mode-crossing wavelength emits a phase-matched dispersive wave in a different propagation mode. We develop a theoretical explanation for this nonlinear optical effect and demonstrate that the mode crossing in HOM fibers can be utilized to achieve simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion; the strength of this intermodal nonlinear interaction can be tuned by controlled fiber bending.

  3. Generation of spatially pure photon pairs in a multimode nonlinear waveguide using intermodal dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Michal; Banaszek, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental realization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) nonlinear waveguide. We demonstrate that by careful exploitation of intermodal dispersion in the waveguide it is feasible to produce photon pairs in well defined transverse modes without any additional spatial filtering at the output. Spatial characteristics is verified by measurements of the M2 beam quality factors. We also prepared a postselected polarization-entangled two-photon state shown to violate Bell's inequality. Similar techniques based on intermodal dispersion can be used to generate spatial entanglement and hyperentanglement.

  4. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  5. User manual for freight transportation analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Wilson, L.B.

    1976-12-01

    Under sponsorship of the Federal Energy Administration, The Center for Transportation Studies at M.I.T. developed and tested a methodology for analysis of the impacts of various government and carrier policies on the demand for freight transportation. The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the computer programs included in this methodology. The purpose of the computer software developed for this project is threefold. First, programs are used to calculate the cost of each of the transport alternatives available for the purchase of a given commodity by a receiver in a given industrial sector. Furthermore, these programs identify the least-cost alternative, and thus provide a forecasting capability at the disaggregate level. Given a description of the population of receivers in the destination city, a second group of programs applies the costing and forecasting programs to each receiver in a sample drawn from the population. The disaggregate forecasts are summed to produce an aggregate forecast of modal tonnages for the given origin/destination city-pair. Finally, a third group of programs computes fuel consumed in transportation from the aggregate modal tonnages. These three groups of programs were placed under the control of a master routine which coordinates the input and output of data.

  6. 76 FR 32906 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... a $.02 transaction cost is incurred by the IEP to retrieve the USDOT number through an electronic... the GIER [Global Intermodal Equipment Registry] system to retrieve the USDOT number at a transaction cost of $.02. For an estimated 38,491,440 no-defect DVIRs per year, IEPs would incur over...

  7. Optimizing Intermodal Train Schedules with a Design Balanced Network Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...

  8. Some approaches to reduce transport time of intermodal services: Smart rail investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rail intermodal services are an alternative to all-road services if the average transport time offered by these services is at least comparable. One of the determinants of transport time is how well actors in the transport chain cooperate. In this paper it is shown that substantial improvements in r

  9. Sea-Air Intermodal Port Pair Selection Criteria in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    are seen in papers from Lirn, Wiegmans , and Murphy with their associated co-writers. Each cover intermodal operations slightly differently, but...concepts in capability (physical characteristics), accessibility (location), and reliability (management). In a different paper, Wiegmans et al...the decisions, but there is overlap with the research indicated previously. The criteria Wiegmans et al indicate are listed in Table 1. 23

  10. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  11. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-04-19

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  12. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  13. Uncovering Document Fraud in Maritime Freight Transport Based on Probabilistic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A.J.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are ineffective in this regard since the creation of shipping documentation is uncontrollable by freight forwarders. In this paper, we propose a data mining approach that freight forwarders can use to ...

  14. Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport: Retail Distribution and Local Regulations in Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Quak (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAlthough our urbanized civilization requires freight transport in order to sustain it, urban freight transport is especially recognized for its unsustainable impacts. To reduce the unsustainable impacts of urban freight transport, many local governments develop policies that focus someti

  15. Interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with MR enterography and CT enterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael D; Ormstrup, Tina; Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel;

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) visualizes small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and its complications with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel CD....

  16. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  17. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  18. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  19. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. A Proposal for High-resolution X-ray Imaging of Intermodal Cargo Containers for Fissionable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, B J; Prussin, S G; Pohl, B; Hall, J; Trebes, J; Stone, G; Descalle, M

    2007-07-05

    The sensitivity for identification of high-Z objects in elemental form in the massive cargo of intermodal containers with continuous bremsstrahlung radiation depends critically on discriminating the weak signal from uncollided photons from the very intense flux of scattered radiations that penetrate the cargo. We propose that this might be accomplished by rejection of detected events with E {le} 2-3 MeV that contain the majority of multiply-scattered photons along with a correction for single-scattered photons at higher energies. Monte Carlo simulations of radiographs with a 9-MeV bremsstrahlung spectrum demonstrate that rejection of detected events with E {le} 3 MeV removes the majority of signals from scattered photons emerging through cargo with Z {le} 30 and areal densities of at least 145 g cm{sup -2}. With analytical estimates of the single-scattered intensity at higher energies, accurate estimates of linear attenuation coefficients for shielded and unshielded uranium spheres with masses as small as 0.08 kg are found. The estimated maximum dose is generally so low that reasonable order tomography of interesting portions of a container should be possible.

  1. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally...... by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%. (C) 2015 Optical...

  2. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  3. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while enhancin

  4. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  5. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t

  6. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  7. Operations Research for Freight Train Routing and Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven; Gorman, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the service design activities that plan and implement the rail freight operating plan. Elements of strategic service design include the setting of train frequency, the routing of cars among trains, and the consolidation of cars, called blocking. At the operational level, tr...

  8. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  9. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  10. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhu Ruan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs and assign medial aid points (MAPs to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is.

  11. Intermodal Raman Scattering between Full Vectorial Modes in Few Moded Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate intermodal Raman interaction. The pump is in the fundamental mode, HE11, and the signal is in either of two full vectorial modes, TM01 or TE01. The on-off gain is approximately 3 dB for both modes, using 4 km of few-moded fiber and 400 mW of pump power.......We experimentally investigate intermodal Raman interaction. The pump is in the fundamental mode, HE11, and the signal is in either of two full vectorial modes, TM01 or TE01. The on-off gain is approximately 3 dB for both modes, using 4 km of few-moded fiber and 400 mW of pump power....

  12. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  13. A deterministic annealing algorithm for the pre- and end-haulage of intermodal container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    CARIS, An; Janssens, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    The drayage of containers in the service area of an intermodal barge terminal is modelled as a full truckload pickup and delivery problem with time windows (FTPDPTW). Initial solutions are generated with an insertion heuristic and improved with three local search operators. In a post-optimization phase the three search operators are integrated in a deterministic annealing (DA) framework. The mechanism of the heuristic procedures is demonstrated with a numerical example. A sensitivity analysis...

  14. Neural mechanisms of intermodal sustained selective attention with concurrently presented auditory and visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Saupe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated intermodal attention effects on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR and the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. For this purpose, 40 Hz amplitude modulated tones and a stream of flickering (7.5 Hz random letters were presented concurrently. By means of an auditory or visual target detection task, participants’ attention was directed to the respective modality for several seconds. Attention to the auditory stream led to a significant enhancement of the ASSR compared to when the visual stream was attended. This attentional modulation was located mainly in the right superior temporal gyrus. Vice versa, attention to the visual stream especially increased the second harmonic response of the SSVEP. This modulation was focused in the inferior occipital and lateral occipitotemporal gyrus of both hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of amplitude modulation of the ASSR and the SSVEP by intermodal sustained attention. Our results open a new avenue of research to understand the basic neural mechanisms of intermodal attention in the human brain.

  15. Quality management in intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Foscaches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal terminals play a key role in the logistics system, since they are an important link between food production and distribution. In the agrifood chain, quality management isn´t seen as a competitive advantage, but as an issue of survival. This study thus aims to identify the quality management phase in which the intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain are found. To this end, interviews were conducted, using semi-structured questionnaires, with the managers of 28 intermodal terminals located in the Midwest, South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions. It was found that most terminals are in the Strategic Quality Management era, the fourth era of quality management. In addition, it was observed that the specific tools of the agrifood sector are widely used by terminals. In addition, many terminals use tools from the first and second quality era. Among the tools of the fourth era, product tracking is the most widely used. Finally, it was possible to determine that the terminals in the third quality era, Quality Assurance, have a higher average operating efficiency than terminals in the fourth era, Strategic Quality Management.

  16. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to freigh

  17. Location Analysis of Freight Distribution Terminal of Jakarta City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahry Nahry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently Jakarta has two freight terminals, namely Pulo Gebang and Tanah Merdeka. But, both terminals are just functioned for parking and have not been utilized properly yet, e.g. for consolidation. Goods consolidation, which is usually performed in distribution terminal, may reduce number of freight flow within the city. This paper is aimed to determine the best location of distribution terminal in Jakarta among those two terminals and two additional alternative sites, namely Lodan and Rawa Buaya. It is initialized by the identification of important factors that affect the location selection. It is carried out by Likert analysis through the questionnaires distributed to logistics firms. The best location is determined by applying Overlay Analysis using ArcGIS 9.2. Four grid maps are produced to represent the accessibility, cost, time, and environment factors as the important factors of location. The result shows that the ranking from the best is; Lodan, Tanah Merdeka, Pulo Gebang, and Rawa Buaya.

  18. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas;

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... efficiency actions is rather similar between the four countries. The simple and inexpensive actions, like choosing the lorry according to the cargo and idling avoidance, are most widely implemented. The energy efficiency index developed in this research proved to be a very useful tool for comparing...

  19. Freight tracking cost analysis to improve logistics management operations

    OpenAIRE

    De Coning, A.; Hoffman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-border freight industry suffers from inefficiencies that can be addressed by implementing technology based systems. Inefficiencies cause time delays at amongst others border posts and weigh stations that in turn increase turnaround times. Higher turnaround times affect the business bottom line as it reduces the turnover generated on capital assets and therefore decrease profit levels. Efficient logistics management will also ensure increased trade in Sub Saharan...

  20. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  1. Economic Valorisation of the Freight Transport Centre Kutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Badanjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the conditions for constructing a freight- transp01t centre in Kutilza with special emphasis on the positiveinfluences that such a project could have for the town ofKutina and the Moslavina region. The analysis of the locationhas shown that the conditions for its establishment have beenmet, provided that town administration determines the ways inwhich the project will be realised regarding the necesswy financialscheme.

  2. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D. [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  3. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  4. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  5. Prediction of Freight Transport Impacts on Urban Road Volumes: A Case Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Oral

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning paradigms, which aim to overcome urban transport problems, have to evaluate the mobility prediction of goods besides the mobility of individuals. This is a requirement and it comes up with different scales and features in the cities which contain high density of regional interactions. Urban roads respond from freight transport due to economy besides relation of productions and consumptions. This study is an instance to generate solutions for future which tries to evaluate respective interaction in the process of urban planning and transport planning. Study area has been stated as the city Izmir, TURKEY. The exact area is the legal responsibility border of the law 3030. The location and impact of freight transport generation stations cause total freight transport demands to rise up. Concurrently, there is a high ratio of freight transport in the transit traffic. Freight vehicles may be seen in every level of roads due to features of the road network. Therefore, it has been aimed to correlate freight transport moves with the location and impacts of the freight generation stations. This study also assumes that freight transport moves may have some measurable reasons and may contain usable parameters, for this purpose. The measurement of freight transport in Izmir, the density of the vehicles which interacts with the several aggregation areas and the location or impacts of the freight transport generation stations in those areas have been tried to evaluate simultaneously. The stages of the paradigm are determined as below: • To determine the categories of the freight transport generation stations and measurement values on urban roads,• To draw the borders of several aggregations areas and CBD area borders by determining enumeration points,• To measure density of freight vehicles move in terms of inner traffic,

  6. THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ROAD FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi YOSHIMOTO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying the recent trend toward e-commerce and computerization in the trucking industry, this paper establishes a framework for analyzing the impact of information and communication technology on road freight transportation in terms of commerce, logistics and fleet management, and proposes hypothetical mechanisms of influence. The authors note that the rapid growth of e-commerce and freight fleet management systems make it difficult to arrive at firm, statistics-based conclusions about their impact on road freight transportation, but suggest that more sophisticated government management of transportation demand as well as freight fleet management systems could cancel out the negative impact of e-commerce on road transportation.

  7. South Africa’s freight rail reform: A demand-driven perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, freight transport in South Africa was employed to attain politicoeconomic ideals, resulting in the overprotection of rail and overregulation of road transport. Increasing industry pressure, combined with the international deregulation trend, led to deregulation in 1988. Myopia resulted in a rail investment hiatus and exponential growth in high-value, long-distance road transport, causing excessive logistics and externality costs for the country. The aim of this study was to propose a freight rail reform agenda based on, (1 lessons from past freight transport policy efforts and (2 the results of freight transport market segmentation driven by models developed over the past two decades. For the study, freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravitymodelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. The standard management approach of founding strategy development on market-driven segmentation provides a neutral input to steer rail reform discussions in South Africa. Market segmentation points to a dualistic rail reform agenda, enabling both a profit-driven core and a development-driven branch line network. Freight flow insights are steering the policy reform debate towards long-term freight strategy development and optimal freight logistics network design.

  8. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2017-02-28

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21st century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  9. EEG investigations of duration discrimination: the intermodal effect is induced by an attentional bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Gontier

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that empty time intervals are better discriminated in the auditory than in the visual modality, and when delimited by signals delivered from the same (intramodal intervals rather than from different sensory modalities (intermodal intervals. The present electrophysiological study was conducted to determine the mechanisms which modulated the performances in inter- and intramodal conditions. Participants were asked to categorise as short or long empty intervals marked by auditory (A and/or visual (V signals (intramodal intervals: AA, VV; intermodal intervals: AV, VA. Behavioural data revealed that the performances were higher for the AA intervals than for the three other intervals and lower for inter- compared to intramodal intervals. Electrophysiological results indicated that the CNV amplitude recorded at fronto-central electrodes increased significantly until the end of the presentation of the long intervals in the AA conditions, while no significant change in the time course of this component was observed for the other three modalities of presentation. They also indicated that the N1 and P2 amplitudes recorded after the presentation of the signals which delimited the beginning of the intervals were higher for the inter- (AV/VA compared to the intramodal intervals (AA/VV. The time course of the CNV revealed that the high performances observed with AA intervals would be related to the effectiveness of the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of the ongoing interval. The greater amplitude of the N1 and P2 components during the intermodal intervals suggests that the weak performances observed in these conditions would be caused by an attentional bias induced by the cognitive load and the necessity to switch between modalities.

  10. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP01 mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP01 mode and a Stokes photon in the LP02 mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency w...

  11. Intermodal four-wave mixing from femtosecond pulse-pumped photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, H; Jiang, Z; Marks, D L; Boppart, S A

    2009-03-09

    Large Stokes-shift ( approximately 4700 cm(-1)) four-wave mixing is generated in a deeply normal dispersion regime from a 20 cm commercial large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber pumped by amplified approximately 800 nm femtosecond pulses. The phase-matching condition is realized through an intermodal scheme involving two pump photons in the fundamental fiber mode and a pair of Stokesanti-Stokes photons in a higher-order fiber mode. Over 7% conversion efficiency from the pump input to 586 nm anti-Stokes signal has been attained.

  12. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  13. Individual somatotopy of primary sensorimotor cortex revealed by intermodal matching of MEG, PET, and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, H; Kristeva, R; Knorr, U; Schlaug, G; Huang, Y; Steinmetz, H; Nebeling, B; Herzog, H; Seitz, R J

    1992-01-01

    A method for comparing estimated magnetoencephalographic (MEG) dipole localizations with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation areas is presented. This approach utilizes individual intermodal matching of MEG data, of rCBF measurements with [15O]-butanol and positron emission tomography (PET), and of anatomical information obtained from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The MEG data and the rCBF measurements were recorded in a healthy subject during right-sided simple voluntary movements of the foot, thumb, index finger, and mouth. High resolution 3D-FLASH MR images of the brain consisting of 128 contiguous sagittal slices of 1.17-mm thickness were used. MEG/MR integration was performed by superimposing the 3D head coordinate system constructed during the MEG measurement onto the MR image data using identical anatomical landmarks as references. PET/MR integration was achieved by a phantom-validated iterative front-to-back-projection algorithm resulting in one integrated MEG/PET/MR image. The estimated dipole locations followed the somatotopic organisation of the task-specific rCBF increases as evident from PET, although they did not match point-to-point. Our results demonstrate that intermodal matching of MEG, PET and MR data provides a tool for relating estimated neuromagnetic field locations to task-specific rCBF changes in individual subjects. Our method offers the perspective of refined dipole modelling.

  14. The Metalanguage of “Visual Design” into the Classroom for the Construction of Intermodal Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Papademetriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that little research has been conducted to date in the classroom about the exploitation of aspects of “visual grammar” for the teaching of literacy, the purpose of this study is to provide research data to support the adoption of a common image/text relations metalanguage in educational practice as an effective tool for critically negotiating, and mainly, for composing intermodal meanings. Forty-six sixth-grade students who attend a state primary school in the city of Ptolemaida, northern Greece participated in the study. The materials used in the study consisted of: (a informational, print-based multimodal texts and, (b compositions produced by students, at first individually and then in groups. The overall research is designed on a pre-test phase, an instructional intervention phase, and a post-test phase. The qualitative comparative analysis of student compositions manifests that the metalanguage of “visual design” constitutes a truly promising, pedagogically utilizable tool for the description, interpretation and comprehension of the interactions among the various semiotic modes co-existing in multimodal ensembles. This entails the development of multimodal and visual literacy skills by the primary education students. These findings highlight the need for adoption and incorporation of such a metalanguage for the design of curricula facilitating the teaching of literacy, in order to reframe the monomodal nature of communication. Keywords: metalanguage, visual grammar, social semiotic theory, semiotic functional linguistics, multimodality, school context/s, intersemiosis, intermodal synergies

  15. Analyzing Impact of Intermodal Facilities on Design and Management of Biofuel Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksioglu, Sandra D [ORNL; Li, Song [ORNL; Zhang, Shu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petrolia, Daniel [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    The impact of an intermodal facility on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants is analyzed. Location decisions affect the management of the inbound and outbound logistics of a plant. This supply chain design and management problem is modeled as a mixed integer program. Input data for this model are location of intermodal facilities and available transportation modes, cost and cargo capacity for each transportation mode, geographical distribution of biomass feedstock and production yields, and biomass processing and inventory costs. Outputs from this model are the number, location, and capacity of biofuel production plants. For each plant, the transportation mode used, timing of shipments, shipment size, inventory size, and production schedule that minimize the delivery cost of biofuel are determined. The model proposed in this research can be used as a decision-making tool for investors in the biofuels industry since it estimates the real cost of the business. The state of Mississippi is considered as the testing grounds for the model.

  16. Discrimination of two neighboring intra- and intermodal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Hasuo, Emi; Labonté, Katherine; Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the discrimination of two neighboring intra- or inter-modal empty time intervals marked by three successive stimuli. Each of the three markers was a flash (visual-V) or a sound (auditory-A). The first and last markers were of the same modality, while the second one was either A or V, resulting in four conditions: VVV, VAV, AVA and AAA. Participants judged whether the second interval, whose duration was systematically varied, was shorter or longer than the 500-ms first interval. Compared with VVV and AAA, discrimination was impaired with VAV, but not so much with AVA (in Experiment 1). Whereas VAV and AVA consisted of the same set of single intermodal intervals (VA and AV), discrimination was impaired in the VAV compared to the AVA condition. This difference between VAV and AVA could not be attributed to the participants' strategy to perform the discrimination task, e.g., ignoring the standard interval or replacing the visual stimuli with sounds in their mind (in Experiment 2). These results are discussed in terms of sequential grouping according to sensory similarity.

  17. The coastal transportation in Brazil - potential for the improvement of aiming intermodality logistic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes aspects related to coastal shipping in Brazil and its main actors and intermodal factors (road, rail, fluvial transportation etc. which corroborate to the increase of logistics competitiveness and efficiency of transportation in a large country like Brazil. The purpose of the study is bibliographic research on the topic, analyzing it inside the Brazilian scenario and also how it has been implemented in some countries. The objective of the study is also analyzing legislation which defines parameters to coastal shipping. This fact interferes directly with the logistics system and its intermodal aspects. If Brazil intends to reduce its logistics costs, coastal shipping should be an effective way to contribute to the Brazilian matrix of transport. Coastal shipping is supposed to bring competitive advantage and reduction of logistic costs. The conclusion is that integration is essential among the systems of domestic transportation and coastal shipping with its outstanding role in this environment, can contribute substantially to the Brazilian maritime industry.

  18. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  19. Uncovering document fraud in maritime freight transport based on probabilistic classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A. F.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  20. Incorporating Logistics in Freight Transport Demand Models: State-of-the-Art and Research Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ruijgrok, K.; Davydenko, I.

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport demand is a demand derived from all the activities needed to move goods between locations of production to locations of consumption, including trade, logistics and transportation. A good representation of logistics in freight transport demand models allows us to predict the effects

  1. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-indiv

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF MARINE PORT SERVICE WORK DISTRIBUTION AT THE TERMINAL ON FREIGHT STATION WORK PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Muzykina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of rational distribution at the terminal of sorting work with the local cars on selecting them by the destinations of freight fronts of marine trade port is conditioned. The results of analysis of the basic operation indices of the terminal freight station and marshalling yard are presented.

  3. Uncovering Document Fraud in Maritime Freight Transport Based on Probabilistic Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A.J.; Daniels, Hennie

    2015-01-01

    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  4. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing restric

  5. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  6. From freight partnerships to city logistics living labs - Giving meaning to the elusive concept of living labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.; Lindholm, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Browne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the growing importance of urban freight research given the increasing urban population trends. The complexity of urban freight systems means that it is essential for the public and private sectors to work together - one way to achieve this has been through freight partnerships. A

  7. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate Indices for U.S. Agricultural... received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and release container freight indices... Containerized Freight Index (SCFI, 2009), Container Trade Statistics Index (CTS Index, 2009), the...

  8. Multimode optical waveguide enabling microbends with low inter-mode crosstalk for mode-multiplexed optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin

    2014-11-01

    A vertical multimode waveguide enabling micro-bends is proposed for mode-multiplexed optical interconnect links. The multimode waveguide is designed to be singlemode in the lateral direction and support higher-order modes in the vertical direction. The characteristic analysis for an SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based vertical multimode waveguide with a ~0.3μm × ~1.5μm cross section is given as an example. The theoretical pure bending loss is negligible for all the lowest eight modes when the bending radius is even less than 5μm. When light goes through the structure consisting of a straight section connected with a bent section, it is found that some inter-mode crosstalk is caused by the significant mode hybridization happening in the sharply bent multimode waveguide. For the designed SOI-based vertical multimode waveguide, the inter-mode crosstalk is lower than -20dB even when the bending radius is chosen as small as R = 10μm, which is one order smaller than that for the traditional lateral multimode waveguide (whose minimal bending radius is about 130μm). The inter-mode crosstalk can be even reduced to -30dB when choosing R = 30μm. Such a multimode optical waveguide microbend with low inter-mode crosstalk is promising for realizing compact mode-multiplexing links.

  9. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  10. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  11. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...... for the success of intermodal chains using the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. The results obtained validate the utility of the models and they suggest possible changes to the current operation of this SSS service in order to increase the marked potential possibilities for the intermodal chains through Rosyth-Zeebrugge....

  12. Photon pair generation in multimode optical fibers via intermodal phase-matching

    CERN Document Server

    Pourbeyram, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of photon-pair generation in a multimode optical fiber via nonlinear four-wave mixing and intermodal phase-matching. We show that in multimode optical fibers, it is possible to generate correlated photon pairs in different fiber modes with large spectral shifts from the pump wavelength, such that the photon pairs are immune to contamination from spontaneous Raman scattering and residual pump photons. We also show that it is possible to generate factorable two-photon states exhibiting minimal spectral correlations between the photon pair components in conventional multimode fibers using commonly available pump lasers. It is also possible to simultaneously generate multiple factorable states from different FWM processes in the same fiber and over a wide range of visible spectrum by varying the pump wavelength without affecting the factorability of the states. Therefore, photon-pair generation in multimode optical fibers exhibits considerable potential for producing state engineered p...

  13. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP(01) mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP(01) mode and a Stokes photon in the LP(02) mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency with input pulse energy of 20 nJ. The guidance of the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves in the HOM fiber enhances system stability.

  14. Intermodal transfer in temporal discrimination. [of visual and acoustic stimuli duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, J. S.; Stutz, R. M.; Vassolo, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    This study determined if training for accuracy in temporal discrimination would transfer across sensory modalities. A fractionation method was used in which subjects bisected the durations of acoustic and visual signals at three standard intervals (6, 12, and 18 sec). Absolute error was the performance index. Half of the subjects were trained with acoustic stimuli and then tested in vision; the remainder were trained in vision and tested in audition. Similar negatively accelerated acquisition functions were noted for both modalities. Positive intermodal transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities, was obtained at all standard durations. The results were considered to provide support for the notion that a common mechanism underlies temporal discriminations in different sensory systems.

  15. V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometer for high-temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhen; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Gao, Rong

    2015-01-10

    Novel V-groove all-fiber core-cladding intermodal interferometers fabricated by CO2 laser irradiation on a standard single-mode fiber are described. The high-order cladding modes are excited due to the special V-groove structure. The interferometers are classified as Mach-Zehnder and Michelson type based on the way they are structured. Benefiting from the large difference of thermal coefficients of the core and high-order cladding modes, both types receive high temperature sensitivity by monitoring the wavelength shift of the interference spectrum, and their responses to temperature are similar. Compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is more compact and more flexible in application.

  16. A Probabilistic, Non-parametric Framework for Inter-modality Label Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    in a principled way in inter-modality scenarios remains an open problem. Here we propose a label fusion scheme that does not require voxel intensity consistency between the atlases and the target image to segment. The method is based on a generative model of image data in which each intensity in the atlases has...... an associated conditional distribution of corresponding intensities in the target. The segmentation is computed using variational expectation maximization (VEM) in a Bayesian framework. The method was evaluated with a dataset of eight proton density weighted brain MRI scans with nine labeled structures......Multi-atlas techniques are commonplace in medical image segmentation due to their high performance and ease of implementation. Locally weighting the contributions from the different atlases in the label fusion process can improve the quality of the segmentation. However, how to define these weights...

  17. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  18. Intermodal timing relations and audio-visual speech recognition by normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M; Summerfield, Q

    1985-02-01

    Audio-visual identification of sentences was measured as a function of audio delay in untrained observers with normal hearing; the soundtrack was replaced by rectangular pulses originally synchronized to the closing of the talker's vocal folds and then subjected to delay. When the soundtrack was delayed by 160 ms, identification scores were no better than when no acoustical information at all was provided. Delays of up to 80 ms had little effect on group-mean performance, but a separate analysis of a subgroup of better lipreaders showed a significant trend of reduced scores with increased delay in the range from 0-80 ms. A second experiment tested the interpretation that, although the main disruptive effect of the delay occurred on a syllabic time scale, better lipreaders might be attempting to use intermodal timing cues at a phonemic level. Normal-hearing observers determined whether a 120-Hz complex tone started before or after the opening of a pair of liplike Lissajou figures. Group-mean difference limens (70.7% correct DLs) were - 79 ms (sound leading) and + 138 ms (sound lagging), with no significant correlation between DLs and sentence lipreading scores. It was concluded that most observers, whether good lipreaders or not, possess insufficient sensitivity to intermodal timing cues in audio-visual speech for them to be used analogously to voice onset time in auditory speech perception. The results of both experiments imply that delays of up to about 40 ms introduced by signal-processing algorithms in aids to lipreading should not materially affect audio-visual speech understanding.

  19. Primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije / SWOT analysis of the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije. Kao rezultat analize predstavljeni su ciljevi daljeg usavršavanja integralnog transporta, kao i mogući problemi generisani strateškim upravljanjem. / This work presents the SWOT analysis application to the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia. The analysis resulted in defining goals for the future development of intermodal transportation, as well as possible problems generated by strategic management.

  20. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  1. Models of travel time and reliability for freight transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, M.N.; Roberts, P.O.

    1976-12-01

    The model produces a probability distribution of the trip time associated with the shipment of freight between a given origin and destination by a given mode and route. Using distributions of the type produced by the model, it is possible to determine two important measures of the quality of service offered by the carrier. These measures are the main travel time and the reliability of delivery. The reliability measure describes the spread of the travel-time distribution. The model described herein was developed originally as part of the railroad rationalization study conducted at MIT and sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration. This work built upon earlier research in railroad reliability models. Because of the predominantly rail background of this model, the initial discussion focuses on the problem of modeling rail-trip-time reliability. Then, it is shown that the model can also be used to study truck and barge operations.

  2. Visual discrimination of delayed self-generated movement reveals the temporal limit of proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Mark; O'Driscoll, Kelly; Moore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the intermodal integration of visual-proprioceptive feedback via a novel visual discrimination task of delayed self-generated movement. Participants performed a goal-oriented task in which visual feedback was available only via delayed videos displayed on two monitors-each with different delay durations. During task performance, delay duration was varied for one of the videos in the pair relative to a standard delay, which was held constant. Participants were required to identify and use the video with the lesser delay to perform the task. Visual discrimination of the lesser-delayed video was examined under four conditions in which the standard delay was increased for each condition. A temporal limit for proprioceptive-visual intermodal integration of 3-5s was revealed by subjects' inability to reliably discriminate video pairs.

  3. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight... assessment of applicants' knowledge of regulations and industry practices for persons seeking registration... interested parties concerning potential test topics, the relationship between the knowledge...

  4. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  5. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  6. URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORT POLICIES: JOINT ACCOUNTING OF NON-LINEAR ATTRIBUTE EFFECTS AND DISCRETE MIXTURE HETEROGENEITY

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio Gatta; Edoardo Marcucci

    2013-01-01

    This paper jointly investigates non-linear attribute effects and discrete mixture heterogeneity. The research context relates to urban freight transport policy evaluation. The paper adopts an agent-specific perspective. The often unforeseen and undesired results deriving from urban freight transport policy implementation have induced many researchers to call for an in-depth analysis of specific agents' preferences. However, the structural lack of appropriate data has hindered investigations a...

  7. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  8. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  9. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurab Bhowmick; Gunjan,

    2013-01-01

    EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds...

  10. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  11. Avoiding congestion in freight transport planning : a case study in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in transport intensity for passenger and freight traffic has been observed during the last decades and research confirms that this trend will continue in the years to come. Economic centres have turned into heavily congested areas. The freight transport sector incurs excessive waiting times on the road as well as at intermediate stops (e.g. sea terminals, loading or unloading points). This may cause economic losses and environmental damages. Waiting times may be avoided...

  12. Managing and organizational changes of intermodal network in transition regions: the case of South-East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan BEŠKOVNIK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents managing changes, challenges and possibilities of intermodal nodes and network in a still transitional region of South-East Europe in order to assure sustainable cargo mobility in this part of Europe. The main thesis that transport and logistics sector in Northern and Southern European regions are completely different, using different infrastructure and the degree of automation, and with completely different managing philosophies has been persecuted. Consequently a research of sixteen main port systems in the region has been performed. According to obtained analyses, national states and economies have strong impacts on the development of national infrastructure and managing it. In addition, traditional managing philosophies are still very important, where the state has the power to decide when and how organizational and structural changes will occur. The private capital did not enter the intermodal infrastructure significantly over the last twenty years of transition. This is reflected in scarce competition and slow development. Intermodal nodes must cooperate between each other and develop possible synergies because according to the results obtained almost 90% of all traffic going through ports in South-East Europe is for local economies. The concept of nodal distribution is not present; therefore, logistics optimization is possible and inevitable. For this reason a model of port classification has been worked-out, where all sixteen ports have been classified according to their actual position and regional role.

  13. Novel technique for measuring intermodal dispersion in optical fibers using the spectral interference in the Michelson interferometer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-07-01

    The spectral interference between two modes of an optical fiber, which shows up as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum at its output, cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the optical fiber when the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. We proposed a novel measuring technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and a two-mode optical fiber in which the intermodal interference can be restored, and consequently spectral interference fringes can be resolved, even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the optical path difference (OPD) in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. The feasibility of this technique has successfully been demonstrated in obtaining the wavelength dependence of the group OPD between two modes of the optical fiber. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the intermodal dispersion of the two-mode optical fiber has been obtained.

  14. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  15. Precise control of the optical microfiber tapering process based on monitoring of intermodal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xueliang; Song, Zhangqi; Wang, Jianfei; Meng, Zhou

    2014-12-10

    This paper describes the effective rectification of the estimated diameter of an optical microfiber (OM) during the tapering process. A high-coherence laser is used to monitor the OM-tapering process. The evolution of the intermodal interference between the fundamental mode and the coupled modes can be clearly observed. We analyze the point in time at which the excited mode vanishes and use that to justify the correlative diameter of the fabricated OM for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By comparing the measured cutoff time of the coupled LP(02) mode and the theoretically predicted value, we can judge whether the theoretical estimation of the OM diameter has been correctly obtained, and we can introduce a modification method with feedback by changing the initial parameters or the manufacturing conditions to ensure OM diameter accuracy. This identification and rectification method is helpful for precise fabrication of OMs with different waist lengths and waist diameters, and it can also be used to check the repeatability of OMs.

  16. Research on the optical fiber gas flowmeters based on intermodal interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hu, Hai-feng; Bi, Dan-juan; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a self-heating type optical fiber flowmeter with high sensitivity was proposed. The core-offset fiber structures were employed to couple a part of signal light into the fiber cladding layer, and the other part of light still propagated in the core layer. The intermodal interference between the two parts of light happened when the cladding modes were coupled back into core layer. Meanwhile, the high power laser was also introduced into fiber to heat the silver film coated on the surface of the cladding layer. When the cool gas flow passed, the temperature of the sensor probe decreased due to the heat transfer process. Because of the thermo-optic effect in the fiber, interference spectrum could be shifted when the temperature was changed. The experimental results showed the resolution of the proposed sensor was 2×10-2 m/s in the region of 0-8 m/s. The highest sensitivity could achieve 1537 pm/(m/s).

  17. Model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Vehicles, ul. Narbutta Warszawa (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    The paper presents a model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons with emphasis on its longitudinal and lateral characteristics, which influence the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The functioning of the suspension in the horizontal plane is realised by a number of technical (pivoted) pendulums composing linkages. The main feature of the joints of linkages is internal rolling/sliding in the presence of dry friction. The dissipation of energy by dry friction in the joints is the only source of damping, which influences the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. After detailed modelling of the technical pendulum, phenomenological models of the suspension are built, which reproduce the characteristics of the suspension using simple elements. A three-parameter model with one dry-friction slider and two linear springs reproduces the lateral characteristic of the suspension. A nine-parameter model with four dry-friction sliders and five springs reproduces the longitudinal characteristic. The models, using a method of non-smooth mechanics, may be directly implemented to vehicle/track dynamic simulations. (orig.)

  18. Volatility Spillovers in Capesize Forward Freight Agreement Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate spillovers in the Capesize forward freight agreements (FFAs markets before and after the global financial crisis. The paper chooses four Capesize voyage routes FFAs (C3, C4, C5, and C7, two time-charter routes FFAs (BCIT/C average, BPI T/C average, and spot rates as research subjects, covering the periods 3 January 2006 to 24 December 2015. This paper applies Volatility Spillover Multivariate Stochastic Volatility (VS-MSV model to analyze volatility spillover effects and estimates the parameters via software of Bayesian inference using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS, the deviance information criterion (DIC used for goodness-of-fit model. The results suggest that there are volatility spillover effects in certain Capesize FFAs routes, and the effects from spot rates to FFAs take place before crisis, yet they are bilateral after crisis. With the development of shipping markets, the correlations between FFAs and spot rate are enhanced, and it seems that the effects depend on market information and traders’ behavior. So practitioners could make decisions according to the spillovers.

  19. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetDünya üzerinde uluslararası ticaret her geçen gün gelişmektedir. Küresel pazarlardaki yoğun rekabet ortamında işletmeler kar marjlarını arttırmak için ticari bakış açılarında ve yöntemlerinde değişiklikler yapmaktadır. Toplam maliyetlerin düşürülmesi ve zaman faktörü açısından, günümüzde üreticiler tarafından lojistik hizmetlerin önemi daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda üreticilerin talepleri lojistik işletmelerinin operasyonlarına da etki etmektedir.Lojistik işletmelerinin müşterilerine rekabet avantajı oluşturacak bir taşıma fiyatı sunabilmesi için finansal durumlarını analiz etmeleri ve maliyetlerini kontrol altında tutmaları gerekmektedir. Taşıma maliyetlerinin düşürülmesi ile birlikte çevreye verilen zararın azaltılması için tüm taşıma türlerinin üstün yönlerinden yararlanarak birden fazla taşıma türünü bir araya getiren intermodal taşıma sistemi önem kazanmaktadır.Bu araştırma kapsamında öncelikle intermodal taşımacılıkla ilgili temel konular açıklanarak, taşıma türlerinin entegrasyonunda etkili olan etmeler ortaya konulmaktadır. Lojistik işletmelerinin maliyet yönetimi hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Intermodal taşımacılıkta taşıma maliyetlerinin analizine yönelik karayolu taşımacılığına alternatif olarak karayolu-denizyolu entegrasyonu üzerine güzergah maliyetlerinin karşılaştırılması açısından örnek bir uygulama yapılmaktadır.AbstractInternational trade globally develops day by day. In highly competitive global markets, companies make changes in their trading perspectives and methods in order to increase their profit margin. Currently, suppliers recognize the importance of logistics services better in terms of diminishing total costs and time factor. In this sense, demands of suppliers also influence operations of logistics companies.Logistics companies are supposed to analyze their financial

  20. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. PASS-THROUGH FREIGHT MODELING AT THE STATEWIDE AND METROPOLITAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine the volumes of freight (specifically trucks passing through a state or metropolitan area is difficult to determine/forecast because transportation professionals have no direct survey mechanism to collect this data. This paper documents various procedures developed to utilize the Freight Analysis Framework Version 2 Database to determine the number of trucks passing through the entire state and an urban area in Alabama. The procedures developed in this research focus on national level pass through data, trips from one state to another that pass through a state only because of that state’s location; pass through from a port of entry to the country where an urbanized area is located on a major corridor; and statewide level through trip data, trips from one part of a state to another that pass through an urbanized area because of its geographic location. The need for, and application of, the pass through freight forecasting is evident in the transportation planning models each metropolitan area and state are expected to develop and maintain for evaluating transportation projects. The ability to accurately forecast the pass through freight movements will benefit transportation planners by identifying freight volumes that must be accommodated by existing and proposed infrastructure, but for which the state or metropolitan area has no direct method to survey.

  2. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  3. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  4. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  5. Flexibility of Freight Transport Sectors : An Exploration of Carriers’ Responses to External Pressure on Prices and Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der; Kuipers, Bart

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how government policies in the field of transport may affect future freight rates, transit times, and delivery reliability. In particular, attention is paid to the ‘absorptive capacity’ of freight carriers, i.e. the extent to which they can reduce the effects of such polici

  6. THE EFFICIENCY FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE VARIABLE NATURE OF DEMANDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Smyrnova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  7. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers: Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more eff

  8. Improving urban freight transport sustainability by carriers - Best practices from The Netherlands and the EU project CityLog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carriers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport mor

  9. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  10. Synthetic Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Station Location and Wagon Flow Organization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization in railway transport are interconnected, and each of them is complicated in a large-scale rail network. In this paper, a two-stage method is proposed to optimize railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization together. The location model is present with the objective to minimize the operation cost and fixed construction cost. Then, the second model of wagon flow organization is proposed to decide the optimal train service between different freight center stations. The location of the stations is the output of the first model. A heuristic algorithm that combined tabu search (TS with adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA is proposed to solve those two models. The numerical results show the proposed solution method is effective.

  11. Application of an Intelligent Fuzzy Regression Algorithm in Road Freight Transportation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Najaf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Road freight transportation between provinces of a country has an important effect on the traffic flow of intercity transportation networks. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the road freight transportation for provinces of a country is so crucial to improve the rural traffic operation in a large scale management. Accordingly, the focused case study database in this research is the information related to Iran’s provinces in the year 2008. Correlation between road freight transportation with variables such as transport cost and distance, population, average household income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP of each province is calculated. Results clarify that the population is the most effective factor in the prediction of provinces’ transported freight. Linear Regression Model (LRM is calibrated based on the population variable, and afterwards Fuzzy Regression Algorithm (FRA is generated on the basis of the LRM. The proposed FRA is an intelligent modified algorithm with an accurate prediction and fitting ability. This methodology can be significantly useful in macro-level planning problems where decreasing prediction error values is one of the most important concerns for decision makers. In addition, Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN is developed to evaluate the prediction capability of the models and to be compared with FRA. According to the final results, the modified FRA estimates road freight transportation values more accurately than the BPNN and LRM. Finally, in order to predict the road freight transportation values, the reliability of the calibrated models is analyzed using the information of the year 2009. Results show higher reliability for the proposed modified FRA.

  12. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  13. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  14. Service network design for an intermodal container network with flexible due dates/times and the possibility of using subcontracted transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert); G. Lodewijks (Gabriel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAn intermodal container transportation network is being developed between Rotterdam and several inland terminals in North West Europe: the EUROPEAN GATEWAY SERVICES (EGS) network. This network is developed and operated by the seaports of EUROPE CONTAINER TERMINALS (ECT). To use this netw

  15. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  16. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Niels; Jansen, Jan; Pieters, Reinder; Weijers, Stef; Woodburn, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in Logisti

  17. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may...

  18. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... forwarders at municipalities served. 372.301 Section 372.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal... subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B at any municipality authorized to be served by such motor...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  20. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Bhowmick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds.In this study, the purpose of the carriage is to be self-propelled using highly efficient traction motors powering each carriage made of high strength Aluminum having individual and independent wheel set. Also, the wagon will harness the waste braking energy using regenerative braking technique to power the traction motors partially. This study addresses the problem of severe line congestion, unwanted holding of freight trains to make passageway for passenger trains, light weight wagons, harnessing the wastage braking energy which are generally removed as heat. Therefore, study of the methodologies suggested has to be done in order to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods both in terms of technology and financially. To achieve this detailed analysis is carried out to understand the modification of normal freight wagon to self-propelled EMU type wagon.

  1. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  2. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... to set a minimum $75,000 surety bond/ trust fund requirement for brokers of property and freight... necessary to carry out the transportation policy of 49 U.S.C. 13101 Is not needed to protect shippers from... provision of to the person, class, or transportation is necessary to carry out the transportation policy...

  3. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  4. Involving Freight Transport Actors in Production of Knowledge - Experience with Future Workshop Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2005-01-01

    the experience and knowledge of actors in the freight transport sector are included directly in a scientific process in order to develop future and strategic studies. Future research is often produced as desktop research and presented as the results of scientists’ forecasting and scenario building...

  5. Modelling of Freight Trains Classification Using Queueing System Subject to Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Dorda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model and a simulation model of the freight trains classification process. We model the process as a queueing system with a server which is represented by a hump at a marshalling yard. We distinguish two types of shunting over the hump; primary shunting represents the classification of inbound freight trains over the hump (it is the primary function of marshalling yards, and secondary shunting is, for example, represented by the classification of trains of wagons entering the yard via industrial sidings. Inbound freight trains are considered to be customers in the system, and all needs of secondary shunting are failures of the hump because performing secondary shunting occupies the hump, and therefore inbound freight trains cannot be sorted. All random variables of the model are considered to be exponentially distributed with the exception of customer service times which are Erlang distributed. The mathematical model was created using method of stages and can be solved numerically employing a suitable software tool. The simulation model was created using coloured Petri nets. Both models are tested in conditions of a marshalling yard.

  6. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  7. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  8. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  9. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  10. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  11. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  12. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  13. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  14. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  15. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  16. The Dynamics of a Railway Freight Wagon Wheelset with dry friction Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Asmund, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a simple model of a wheelset that supports one end of a railway freight wagon by springs with linear characteristics and dry friction dampers. The wagon runs on an ideal, straight and level track with constant speed. The lateral dynamics in dependence on the speed...

  17. RETRACK. Final report. REorganization of Transport networks by advanced RAil freight Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the RETRACK project (038552/ May 2007-August 2012) was to demonstrate that a fully privately owned and operated international “open” rail freight service was achievable using the freedoms endowed by the Railway Reform measures introduced by the EC. The project has successfully achie

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  19. What drives the high price of road freight transport in Central America ?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, the...

  20. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Huyen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  1. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Egba Ubogu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  2. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general average. 141.112 Section 141.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are... connected with the transportation of the goods. (3) General average. “General average” means the...

  3. MRI morphologic alterations after liver SBRT. Direct dose correlation with intermodal matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Jahnke, Anika; Jahnke, Lennart; Vogel, Lena; Simeonova-Chergou, Anna O.; Herskind, Carsten; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike; Budjan, Johannes [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    CT morphologic and histopathologic alterations have been reported after SBRT. We analyzed the correlation of MRI morphologic alterations with radiation doses to assess the potential for MRI-based dose-effect correlation in healthy liver tissue. MRI data of 24 patients with liver metastases 7±3 weeks after image-guided SBRT in deep-inspiration breath-hold were retrospectively analyzed. MRI images were intermodally matched to the planning CT and corresponding dose distribution. Absolute doses were converted to EQD{sub 2,α/β=x} with α/β values of 2, 3 for healthy liver tissue, 8 Gy for modelled predamaged liver tissue and 10 Gy for tumor tissue. A central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 48.2 ± 15.2 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 92.5 ± 27.7 Gy. Contrast-enhancement around the central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 46.9 ± 15.3 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 90.5 ± 28.3 Gy. Outside the high-dose volume, in the beam path, characteristic sharply defined, nonblurred MRI morphologic alterations were observed that corresponded with the following isodose lines: T1-intensity changes occurred at isodose lines of nominally 21.9 ± 6.7 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.5 ± 8.7 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.5 ± 7.6 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.2 ±6.3 Gy). T2-hyper/hypointensity was observed within isodose lines of nominally 22.4 ± 6.6 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.7 ± 8.1 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.7 ± 7 Gy; EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.5 ± 5.9 Gy). Using deformable matching, direct spatial/dosimetric correlation of SBRT-induced changes in liver tissue was possible. In the PTV high-dose region, a central nonenhancing area and peripheral contrast medium accumulation was observed. Beam path doses of 38-42 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2-3}) induce characteristic MRI morphologic alterations. (orig.) [German] CT-morphologische Veraenderungen nach SBRT sind beschrieben und korrelieren mit histopathologischen Veraenderungen. Ziel war es, MRT

  4. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ji Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI.

  5. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  6. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...

  7. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  8. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  9. Fuel conservation opportunities through changes in mode of freight transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.M.; Moon, A.E.

    1979-06-01

    The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. These industry personnel identified unreliable delivery times and equipment shortages as the key issues in their decision not to use the railroads. A range of actions that railroad management could take to improve transit time reliability is identified. Barriers to implementing changes include (in increasing order of difficulty) changes in operating practices, capital outlays, increased operating costs, and changes in work rules. Ranked by increased order of difficulty to implement actions to improve reliability are as follows: rationalize train schedules, yard crew assignments in terminal areas, system blocking plan, and configuration of complex terminal areas; schedule freight cars from door to door; and operate freight trains more frequently.

  10. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  11. A Review of some Critical Assumptions in the Relationship between Economic Activity and Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kveiborg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    A number of conversion factors are often needed when projecting freight transport growth, depending on the level of detail of the projection. Here we investigate conversion factors that convert production in fixed prices in different industries into production of different commodities and further...... year of data. Otherwise, value densities could be regarded as constant with our data. Finally, we find that using import or export data to impute value densities induces unacceptably large errors....

  12. Promoting Freight Carrier EDI Participation with the Defense Finance and Accounting Service - Indianapolis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and three Army regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing Activities (MIPAs) that...environment (now 49 mainframe computers at 22 different locations) into four regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing...15.4 5 0.1 Yes (LGAQ) Freightways Yellow Freight 676 14.1 0 0 Yes System G. I. Trucking 512 10.7 0 0 Yes Danzas - Northern 485 10.1 0 0 No Air Condor

  13. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  15. The rebound effect on road freight transport: Empirical evidence from Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Fernando J.F., E-mail: fjmatos@uac.p [University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Silva, Francisco J.F., E-mail: fsilva@uac.p [CEEAplA - University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Because a large proportion of total operating costs for transportation companies goes towards energy, a reduction in energy operating costs, brought about by an increase in fleet fuel efficiency, or an increase in operational efficiency, results in a change in the relative cost of road freight transportation. This fact could result in an increase in the demand for such services. If this is true, the result would be an increase in total fuel consumption. Consequently, that part of the energy savings obtained through the increased energy efficiency would be lost. The existence of a 'Rebound Effect' is especially important in the road freight transportation sector and is crucial for the definition of a national energy policy. In this study, data from the road freight transportation sector in Portugal for the years of 1987 through 2006 was analyzed. It was determined that an increase in energy efficiency did not cause a backfire, but did cause a total direct rebound effect of 24.1%. In addition, fleet operators were more inclined to adopt operational efficiencies than technological fuel efficiencies as a means of increasing the total operational efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate a direct rebound effect for road freight transportation in Portugal. {yields} The functional form chosen was a log-log model and the estimation method used was the two stage least squares model. {yields} Increasing energy efficiency by 1% results in a reduction of 0.759% in energy consumption (a direct rebound effect of about 24.1%). {yields} Estimates of reduced fuel consumption without considering the direct rebound effect may be overestimated by about 0.87 million liters of diesel per year for each percentage point increase in energy efficiency.

  16. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  17. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  18. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Nan; Meng Qingfeng; Zheng Bin [Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute, Xi' an Jiaotong University Xi' an, 710049 (China); Li Tong; Ma Qinghai, E-mail: heroyoyu.2009@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi' an Rail Bureau, Xi' an, 710054 (China)

    2011-07-19

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  19. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.

  20. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors and their i......Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors...... and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  1. The Impact of the Airline Freight Transportation on GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okşan Kibritçi Artar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of passenger and freight transportation has been increasing tremendously each day due to the globalization process. Therefore, the acceleration in the transportation demand has a natural impact on the distances that the freights have been carried through in overall. In this prospect, international logistics provides an economic utility from the sustainability viewpoint in the global competition arena. World-wide supply and distribution channels have become so sophisticated, resulting in having vitality in the field therefore boosting its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. High impact of liberalization in the air transportation markets has been affecting the market of Turkey as well as USA and EU. Moreover, it is one of the industries that have survived from the global financial crises which is also critical from the competition based strategies. In this study, the relation between the GDP and the air freight traffic of Turkey has been analyzed by using an econometric model. As a result, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between those parameters.

  2. Analytic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer $p$. If $p$ takes its maximum value then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise it is incomplete analytic material of rank $p$. For two-dimensional materials further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a $90^\\circ$ rotation applied to a divergence free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  3. DETERMINATION OF FRICTION PERFORMANCE INFLUENCE IN THE SYSTEM "BODY–BOGIE" ON THE FREIGHT CAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main requirements for the design of a new generation of cars, according to the Program of rolling stock renovation, are the requirements reducing the operating costs and increasing the cost-effectiveness of their use, taking into account the achievements of scientific and technical thought. Due to the urgency of this subject the paper is devoted to the study of the friction coefficient influence in the bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers»of freight cars on their main dynamic parameters – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, body acceleration, frame strength, derailment stability factor. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. Investigations have shown that the safety movement parameters are influenced by both the friction parameters in bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers» of freight cars in empty and loaded state with bogies TSNII-X3 (model 18-100. Effect have other components of freight car dynamics, namely: radii of curved track sections, height of outer rail, etc. Originality. The author investigated the friction influence on the car dynamic loading using new approaches to solving the problem of predicting the rolling stock dynamics. Prediction was carried out on the basis of significantly updated theoretical material that covers all history of the friction theory and includes the results of recent experimental studies because of the speed on the straights and curves of small-and medium-range sections of the road.Practical value. The obtained results have practical orientation. During the research and after modeling with the improved method of accounting of friction processes dependencies of main dynamic parameters of a four-freight gondola on the value of the friction coefficient in the "body

  4. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  5. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  6. A model for development of freight transport; En model for godstransportens udvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kveiborg, O. [National Environmental Res., Systems Analysis Dept. Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the results of a large project conducted in a corporation between Statistics Denmark and the Danish National Environmental Research Institute. The main objective of the project has been to analyse the possibilities of prescribing the development in the Danish freight transport in a more appropriate and precise way than it is done by existing models. A secondary objective of the project was to develop a model based on the findings of the analysis. The intention was to be able to describe all areas of freight transport. The analysis has proven it impossible to improve the existing calculations in some areas of transport. Hence, the project has been narrowed down to focus exclusively on road freight transport. The developed model distinguishes itself from existing models by a much higher level of detail in the calculations. This enables the model to describe the structural relations between transport and economic activity, which has previously been subsumed in the aggregate calculations of existing models. The work carried out in the process of developing a model for the freight transport has encountered many difficulties. The findings described in this report are merely one step towards a better understanding of the relation between economic development and transport. The descriptions on the following pages will describe some of the difficulties we have had in achieving an appropriate statistical description of the different linkages. Furthermore, the calculations carried out with the model point at other unsolved problems. There is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the developments in freight transport. In this respect, the very disaggregate calculations of the model can be seen as both an advantage and as a disadvantage because each extra calculation gives rise to further uncertainties in the overall result. Even though we have had great difficulties finding adequate descriptions of the development in the factors in the model

  7. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  8. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  9. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other.... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the GBL, Optional Forms 1103 or 1203, to...

  10. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  11. 美军铁路货车发展研究%On Development of US Army Railway Freights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世坚; 路慧湘; 张印

    2012-01-01

    US army plays importance on the development of railway transportation. According to the main type of railway freights ,the primary characteristics of freights development are analyzed from the 2 aspects of ownership quantity and composition. The management and operation of US army freights is also studied. Considering the military demand of common flatcar in materials and equipments transportation, the main measures adopted are analyzed.%美军重视发展铁路运输。根据美军铁路货车的主要车型,从保有量和构成方面,分析了美军货车发展的主要特点,研究了其管理运营方式。鉴于物资装备运输对通用平车的军事需求,分析了美军采取的主要措施。

  12. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  13. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping

    2011-12-01

    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  14. A Revolution in Freight Train Br aking Technology%货物列车制动技术的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno; Guillaumin; 陈旭华

    2001-01-01

    The main causes to the revo luti on in freight train braking technology,a s well as measures taken to reduce noise in freight train braking,are described. The future of application of the braking technology are prospected.%介绍了导致货物列车制动技术变革的主要原因以及对降低货物 列车制动噪声所采取的措施,并展望了制动技术的应用前景。

  15. Analytical Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  16. A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Alwyn J.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.

  17. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao

    2012-09-01

    Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.

  18. Real-time monitoring of brake shoe keys in freight cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZOU; Zhen-ying XU; Jin-yang LI; Fu-qiang ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring ensures the safety of freight railroad operations. With the development of machine vision technology, visual inspection has become a principal means of condition monitoring. The brake shoe key (BSK) is an important component in the brake system, and its absence will lead to serious accidents. This paper presents a novel method for automated visual inspection of the BSK condition in freight cars. BSK images are first acquired by hardware devices. The subsequent in-spection process is divided into three stages:first, the region-of-interest (ROI) is segmented from the source image by an im-proved spatial pyramid matching scheme based on multi-scale census transform (MSCT). To localize the BSK in the ROI, cen-sus transform (CT) on gradient images is developed in the second stage. Then gradient encoding histogram (GEH) features and linear support vector machines (SVMs) are used to generate a BSK localization classifier. In the last stage, a condition classifier is trained by SVM, but the features are extracted from gray images. Finally, the ROI, BSK localization, and condition classifiers are cascaded to realize a completely automated inspection system. Experimental results show that the system achieves a correct inspection rate of 99.2%and a speed of 5 frames/s, which represents a good real-time performance and high recognition accuracy.

  19. Formulation of Equations of Motion for a Simply Supported Bridge under a Moving Railway Freight Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy approach, the equations of motion in matrix form for the railway freight vehicle-bridge interaction system are derived, in which the dynamic contact forces between vehicle and bridge are considered as internal forces. The freight vehicle is modelled as a multi-rigid-body system, which comprises one car body, two bogie frames and four wheelsets. The bogie frame is linked with the car body through spring-dashpot suspension systems, and the bogie frame is rigidly linked with wheelsets. The bridge deck, together with railway track resting on bridge, is modelled as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam and its deflection is described by superimposing modes. The direct time integration method is applied to obtain the dynamic response of the vehicle-bridge interaction system at each time step. A computer program has been developed for analyzing this system. The correctness of the proposed procedure is confirmed by one numerical example. The effect of different beam mode numbers and various surface irregularities of beam on the dynamic responses of the vehicle-bridge interaction system are investigated.

  20. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  1. Inter-modality relationship constrained multi-modality multi-task feature selection for Alzheimer's Disease and mild cognitive impairment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Chen, Huafu; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of integrated information from multi-modalities could significantly improve diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, feature selection, which is one of the most important steps in classification, is typically performed separately for each modality, which ignores the potentially strong inter-modality relationship within each subject. Recent emergence of multi-task learning approach makes the joint feature selection from different modalities possible. However, joint feature selection may unfortunately overlook different yet complementary information conveyed by different modalities. We propose a novel multi-task feature selection method to preserve the complementary inter-modality information. Specifically, we treat feature selection from each modality as a separate task and further impose a constraint for preserving the inter-modality relationship, besides separately enforcing the sparseness of the selected features from each modality. After feature selection, a multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) is further used to integrate the selected features from each modality for classification. Our method is evaluated using the baseline PET and MRI images of subjects obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Our method achieves a good performance, with an accuracy of 94.37% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.9724 for AD identification, and also an accuracy of 78.80% and an AUC of 0.8284 for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) identification. Moreover, the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 67.83% and an AUC of 0.6957 for separating between MCI converters and MCI non-converters (to AD). These performances demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art classification methods.

  2. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  3. Game Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Game Analytics has gained a tremendous amount of attention in game development and game research in recent years. The widespread adoption of data-driven business intelligence practices at operational, tactical and strategic levels in the game industry, combined with the integration of quantitative...

  4. 78 FR 70396 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Renewal of Exemption for Con-Way Freight, TK...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Exemption for Con-Way Freight, TK Holdings, Inc., and Bendix AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety..., 2009, Con-way applied for an exemption from 49 CFR 393.60(e)(1) to allow it to install lane departure... and outside the driver's sight lines to the road and highway signs and signals. Con-way, Takata,...

  5. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North..., Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under...

  6. Towards zero emission urban logistics: Challenges and issues for implementation of electric freight vehicles in city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, H.; Nesterova, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Electric freight vehicles (EFVs) are one of the solutions to improve city logistics’ sustainability. EFVs, that are electric powered light and heavy vehicles with a number plate, have the potential to make zero emission city logistics possible within the urban area. However, although trials

  7. To the question of flowing processes interaction in the logistics of transport-freight complexes of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina SIZOVA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of identification of structure and parameters of material flow and associate with it documentary and informative flows are considered and the principles of their co-operation, representing a basis for optimization of process of material traffic in the logistic transport-freight complexes of enterprises, are exposed.

  8. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 95116, 95122, 95112, 95133 and 94533. \\1\\ According to petitioners, VTA purchased the line from UP in December 2002, with UP retaining an operating... freight operating easement on, and for VTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common...

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF THE DEFINITION OF EMPTY CARS STABILITY FROM SQUEEZING THEIR LONGITUDINAL FORCES IN THE FREIGHT TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite of the implementation various programs to improve the safety of train traffic problem of reducing gatherings rolling stock off the rails is still relevant. The study aims to clarify the existing method of determining the factor of stability from the tire longitudinal forces to ensure the sustainability of cars with increasing speeds of the rolling stock. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved track sections. Findings. Analysis of the results shows that, for all selected freight cars for the calculation, the value of the safety factor by squeezing is smaller than the formulas of Standards. Corrections made to the formula for determining the safety factor by squeezing longitudinal forces, would achieve: 1 a higher safety factor of lightweight cars, excluding them squeezing longitudinal forces in the entire range of speeds of freight trains; 2 to develop and implement measures to prevent squeezing of cars in the entire range of motion; 3 to determine the degree of stability of the empty car in the head, middle and tail laden trains; 4 to offer optimal scheme of mixed trains formation. Originality. The analysis of existing methods for determining stability coefficient cars in freight trains from squeezing their longitudinal forces is presented in studies. Proposals are developed for the refinement of the design phase, construction and operation. Practical value. This study clarifies the existing method of determining the safety factor of stability from the squeezing longitudinal forces, as well as the influence on the magnitude of the coefficient of speed of movement of the rolling stock. Developed proposals for the refinement of existing methods for determining stability coefficient of longitudinal forces squeezing cars in a train, can reduce the number of retirements cars derailed by taking into account in the

  10. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  11. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  12. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research.

  13. Cost Optimisation in Freight Distribution with Cross-Docking: N-Echelon Location Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influence the economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks and a unified notation for the N-echelon location routing problem. A literature review is also presented, in order to list the main problems and methods that can be helpful for scientists and transportation practitioners.

  14. The Influence of Freight Trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadala Hassan Alfadala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by countries who are moving continually towards economic development and stability, Kuwait has moved to establishing freight trains on the Air Cargo in Kuwait International Airport to meet the ever changing and increasing number of both passenger and cargoes going in and out of the country. As a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council or GCC it is clearly seen that as most of its member countries drive towards a collective effort to connect together by means of railroad networks, Kuwait’s effort to move transportation of cargoes to and from the Kuwait International Airport by linking with the GCC’s project to create railroad networks, the proposed ―Cargo City‖ becomes a major part of the realization of the development of the KIA which shall help with the aim to widen trade within and across GCC countries.

  15. Increasing the Efficiency of Railway Transport by Improvement of Suspension of Freight Wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Petrović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Railway transport has a very important role in economy of every country. The efficiency of railway transport depends both on the quality of transport organization and on the technical reliability of the railway rolling stock. During operation of the railway freight wagons in the last years, a large number of breaks of suspension system elements have been noticed. This feature is especially reported at four-axle double wagon for coal transport (designated Fbd and three-axle wagon for transport of cars (designated DDam. Frequent breaks of suspension system elements reduce the efficiency of transport and in some cases cause derailment of wagons and lead to large economic losses. In this paper, the causes of breakage of suspension on both wagons (Fbd and DDam have been analyzed, but also the possibilities of how to resolve these problems, i.e. how to reduce them to a minimum or avoid them completely.

  16. Air freight in the Stockholm region with focus on Eskilstuna Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell-Åke Allan Brorsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conditions for commencing air freight operations at the regional Eskilstuna Airport in Sweden, which require investments in airport infrastructure of at least SEK 140 –180 million. Design/ methodology: The qualitative data collection for the study was carried out through open-ended interviews with representatives of airport management, staff, representatives of residents, and actors and stakeholders in the field. In addition, much written material was collected from different authorities. Document analysis was used to systematically evaluate and review the collected documents. Content analysis was applied to organize collected data into categories. Based on the reports, decisions, environmental scanning and interviews, the data have been coded and categorized in tables via thematic analysis. Findings: The major findings of the study are that Eskilstuna Airport lacks cargo facilities and has limited apron space, and that there is strong competition from four other airports in the Stockholm region. The prospects for permanent air freight operations at Eskilstuna Airport are therefore not favourable in the current situation. However, if the development of Eskilstuna Logistics Park and the concept of inter modal highway-rail transportation are successful, they could serve as a major driving force for the development of air cargo. Furthermore, with sustainable development as a guiding principle, there is great potential to develop an airport with a high standard of environmental profile. Originality/ value: My findings are of great value to managers of airports and cargo airlines, as they highlight some of the competition aspects associated with engaging in air cargo at regional airports. The study fills a gap in existing research whose main focus is environmental issues concerning airports in general.

  17. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Harten, van A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly au

  18. On railway freight transportation regulations information construction%浅谈铁路货运规章信息化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2012-01-01

    铁路货运规章是铁路货物运输的基本"法",但现行的铁路规章数量众多、修改频繁、不便于现场使用。文章对目前铁路货运规章管理存在问题进行分析,提出采用信息化手段管理规章,并对货运规章管理系统建设提出建议。%Railway freight transportation regulations are railway freight transport basic "method",but the current railway rules and numerous,frequently modified,do not facilitate the field use.This paper discusses the present railway freight transportation rules and management problems for the analysis,the paper proposes the informationization means management rules and regulations to the freight transportation management system construction are proposed.

  19. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Hargrove, Stephanie [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  20. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  1. WHAT WAY DETERMINE THE CORRECT ALLOCATION AND LAYOUT FOR THE NEEDS OF PARKING FREIGHT DESIGN IN CONCRETE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of building a network parking strategies for freight transport may be considered two variants: a building (completing car parks on abandoned of border crossings, respectively building a whole new network of parks. Creating a network of parks for freight is in the interest of the Slovak Republic as well as the European Union. The subsequent optimization is dependent on the quality of road infrastructure and the traffic intensity in the monitored sections. It is therefore important selection of suitable candidates, administrators and their subsequent assessment of the appropriateness and services provided in selected locations. Identification of parking in the SR enables to choose the effective solution for intelligent networking and secure parking.

  2. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  3. An empirical analysis of freight rate and vessel price volatility transmission in global dry bulk shipping market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global dry bulk shipping market is an important element of global economy and trade. Since newbuilding and secondhand vessels are often traded as assets and the freight rate is the key determinant of vessel price, it is important for shipping market participants to understand the market dynamics and price transmission mechanism over time to make suitable strategic decisions. To address this issue, a multi-variate GARCH model was applied in this paper to explore the volatility spillover effects across the vessel markets (including newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets and freight market. Specifically, the BEKK parameterization of the multi-variate GARCH model (BEKK GARCH was proposed to capture the volatility transmission effect from the freight market, newbuilding and secondhand vessel markets in the global dry bulk shipping industry. Empirical results reveal that significant volatility transmission effects exist in each market sector, i.e. capesize, panamax, handymax and handysize. Besides, the market volatility transmission mechanism varies among different vessel types. Moreover, some bilateral effects are found in the dry bulk shipping market, showing that lagged variances could affect the current variance in a counterpart market, regardless of the volatility transmission. A simple ratio is proposed to guide investors optimizing their portfolio allocations. The findings in this paper could provide unique insights for investors to understand the market and hedge their portfolios well.

  4. Railway and road discrete choice model for foreign trade freight between Antioquia and the Port of Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Pineda-Jaramillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Colombian freight is transported on roads with barely acceptable conditions, and although there is a speculation about the need for a railway for freight transportation, there is not a study in Colombia showing the variables that influence the modal choice by the companies that generate freight transportation. This article presents the calculation of demand for a hypothetical railway through a discrete choice model. It begins with a qualitative research through focus group techniques to identify the variables that influence the choice of persons responsible for the transportation of large commercial companies in Antioquia (Colombia. The influential variables in the election were the cost and service frequency, and these variables were used to apply a Stated Preference (SP and Revealed Preference (RP survey, then to calibrate a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL, and to estimate the influence of each of them. We show that the probability of railway choice by the studied companies varies between 67% and 93%, depending on differences in these variables.

  5. Web Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Mužík, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou měření ukazatelů souvisejících s provozem webových stránek a aplikací a technologickými prostředky k tomu sloužícími ? Web Analytics (WA). Hlavním cílem práce je otestovat a porovnat vybrané zástupce těchto nástrojů a podrobit je srovnání podle objektivních kriterií, dále také kritické zhodnocení možností WA nástrojů obecně. V první části se práce zaměřuje na popis různých způsobů měření provozu na WWW a definuje související metriky. Poskytuje také přehled dostup...

  6. Current Trends and Problems of Development of the Arctic Marine Freight Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Selin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the trends and evaluates the prospects of functioning of the Northern Sea Route. It shows that after the change of its management model its freight traffic has dropped 4-fold, and in the Eastern sector (outside the Vilkitsky Strait – 40-fold. In the recent years there has been a certain revival of transportation, including transit, which reached its maximum of 1.27 million tons in 2012. However, over the next two years they declined again; the drop was particularly significant in 2014 and amounted to a total of 240 thousand tons. The main problem is that this rather complex system is influenced by many factors, often contradictory and poorly predictable. Thus, the growing need for energy resources determines the overall need for developing the Arctic shelf. However, the possibility of climate cooling and the deterioration of ice situation can influence the possibility of transporting these resources. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis followed by the “war of sanctions” will cause a significant decline, especially in the medium term, the attractiveness of the European oil and gas market, which will cause the shift of strategic interests of Russian companies to the Asia-Pacific region. This necessitates the modernization of the Arctic transport and logistics system and introduction of new technical solutions. For instance, even nuclearpowered icebreakers series LA-60Ya that are currently under construction will not be able to escort linear tankers and gas carriers with a deadweight of more than 100 thousand tons along the eastern sector of the Northern Sea Route. It is necessary to create more powerful vessels of the classical type or to design new models. All these driving forces and constraints are not always predictable within the framework of standard economic and statistical approaches. In this regard, the study reflected in the article used expert approaches along with the methods of factor and economic analysis. The

  7. PROBLEM OF THE DEFINITION THE «RELIABILITY» TERM. METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY THE RELIABILITY OF FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific paper is aimed at disclosing the existing problem of the «reliability» definition and provides a reasoned definition of the term. The study assumes the development of a complex that includes the methodology and appropriate terminology that will be true. Methodology. Currently there is reliability theory in the special case of the probabilistic and statistical theory, which is used to determine or predict the occurrence of object failures. Within the existing theories the term «reliability» is formulated, the parameters related to it are described. Findings. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of reliability and personal considerations of the authors, they formulated a definition of the term «reliability». The methodology and study of the object reliability on the example of a freight car was proposed. Originality. The authors proposed a new definition of the «reliability» term. Namely: reliability is an assessment of the ability of an object to maintain the original property within the established limits and temporary space, in the conditions of storage and transportation, as well as to perform the required functions in predetermined modes of operation with maintenance and repair facility. The reliability parameters include: reliability, durability, maintainability and safety that characterize the object. Also a methodology for developing and study the reliability of a freight car was developed, which comprises: 1 design, technological and operational reliability; 2 scientific experiment, including the modeling of the freight car in different conditions and operating modes; 3 the reliability theory is presented as combined or modified, covering the mathematical and physical foundations; 4 Bayesian statistics that describe the different states of a freight car with a breakdown of its basic components and with the appropriate probability for each component to describe the

  8. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  9. Improvement of Structure and Properties of Cast Ferrite-Pearlite Steels for Freight Railway Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rabinovich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As it i s known For increasing of propcnics (YTS 2 380 MPa of cast stcds i t is c f k ~ i v tco incrcasc conlcnt o f alhsti~uiionaal lloyingclcrncnts, (Si, Mn, Cr, Ni. 1 lowevcr it lcads to rising in pricc olstccl ton. lncrcasing of Si and Mn conrcnl only is limitcd hy decreasing o lductility and weld nhility. As a rule silicon contcnt at ~hcsca ccls is not highcr than 0.4-0.67'0 and Si:Mn ratio is not highcr khan 1:2. Nowfor grain rcfincmcnt ~wc sin oculation of stcct by nitrogcn and clcincnrs with high chcmical affinity to nltmgcn. Mostly vanadium i s usd.howcvcr niobium sornctime is uscd. Dissldvantagcs of this arc high cost of alloying clcmcnrs and low thcrrnodynamic stability OFvanadium and niobium nitridcs. Parlicles of V(C,N and Nh(C.N dissolvc during hcating fnr licnt trcatmcnt or during wclding. It [cads lodccrcasing of grain refinement elfcc!.Adaptat ion or this microalloying stratcgy Tor casts producing For rrcight mil way cars let cstirnatc possibility of application thcsc casts in ancw gcnerazion freight railway cars.

  10. Static and modal numerical analyses for the roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analyses by finite element method and experimental tests are used to determine static and dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles. Experimental measurements are very time consuming and expensive, so they cannot be used at all stages of design. Numerical simulations do not have the disadvantages of experimental methods, but it is necessary to verify them by experiments to obtain realistic results. Fullwidth/ full-length, half-width/full-length and half-width/half-length modeling approaches can be used to determine static and vibrational behaviours of railway vehicles depending or not on the symmetry of roof structure and applied load. Different static loading cases defined in standards such as EN 12663, UIC CODE OR 577 and ERRI B12/RP17 have to be considered in FE analyses. Evaluation of stress states, buckling and vibrational behaviours for a roof structure of a railway freight refrigerated car are presented. To highlight the vibrational behaviour of the structure normal mode (free vibration analyses are performed. As a result of the relevant simulations, structural characteristics and structural weaknesses of the design are determined.

  11. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  12. Research on Forecasting Model of Urban Road Freight%城市公路货运交通预测模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪智勇; 郗海洋

    2016-01-01

    城市货运交通预测一直为城市规划所忽视,成为综合规划的薄弱环节。与客运交通相比,货运交通的预测理论发展滞后,难以满足精细化的城市规划需求。文中首先概述了主要的货运交通预测方法,进而以基于货物的预测框架为基础对货运生成预测、货运分布预测、货运量与货运交通的转换以及货运交通分配预测进行了研究,提出了基于用地的货运生成预测方法、基于产业联系的货运分布重力模型和基于货运组织模式的货运量和货车交通的转换模型。最后,总结了货运分配模型和客运分配模型的主要区别。%The forecasting of urban freight traffic have been always neglected for urban planning,becoming the weak link. Compared to passenger transport,the predict theory of freight transport which is constructed on passenger four-phase approach is always lagging behind and lack of grasp of the differences between passenger and freight characteristics,making it difficult to meet the sophisticated needs of urban planning.This paper outlines the main freight traffic forecasting methods first.Then based on the framework of the cargo forecast this paper predicts freight generation forecast method based on land,forecast freight distribution based on industries relationship and conversion model of freight and truck traffic based on freight wagons organization mode. Finally,this paper summarizes the main differences between passenger and freight assignment model.

  13. 城际间快捷货物运输系统的探索%An Approach to Express Freight Transportation System in Intercity Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申月; 苏顺虎; 胡思继

    2001-01-01

    The article analizes the present railway freight transportation, and p oints out the main problems that have effected on the railway freight transpo rtation products. According to these problems, the author suggests that the organization way must be reformed, and that is to establish the express freight transportation syste m of economic center areas in China. By this, we could speed up the freight tran spo rtation, make the allotted time of freight arrival in knowing, enhance the compe tence of the railway in the market and thus bring the railway with economic resuits.%分析了我国铁路货物运输的现状,指出了影响铁路货物运输产品质量的主要因素并针对这些问题提出了在我国进行铁路货物运输组织方式的改革,建立城际间快捷货物运输体系的建议,切实提高货物送达速度,提高铁路货物运输的市场竞争力,为铁路带来经济效益.

  14. Study on Application of Revenue Management in Container Sea-rail Intermodal Transportation%收益管理在集装箱海铁联运中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迪; 杨华龙

    2012-01-01

    针对集装箱海铁联运存在的问题提出实施收益管理的必要性,结合集装箱海铁联运的特点分析应用收益管理的可行性,并在此基础上建立集装箱海铁联运收益管理系统的概念模型,对模型中的5个构成要素以及简化模型中的需求预测、箱位分配、动态定价3个核心内容进行了分析探讨,为收益管理在集装箱海铁联运中的实际运用提供框架指引.%In this paper, we proposed the necessity of revenue management in view of the problems in the container sea-rail intermodal transportation. Then we analyzed the feasibility of revenue management in connection with the characteristics of the container sea-rail intermodal transportation. On such basis we established the conceptual model of the revenue management system of the container sea-rail intermodal transportation and analyzed its five components and three core contents which were demand forecasting, cargo slot allocation and dynamic pricing.

  15. Potentials for Platooning in U.S. Highway Freight Transport: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Holden, Jacob; Lammert, Michael; Duran, Adam; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2017-03-15

    Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption - and related emissions - while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. A statistical analysis was performed based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning. In particular, our analysis focuses on estimating 'platoonable' mileage based on overall highway vehicle use and prolonged high-velocity traveling, establishing that about 65% of the total miles driven by combination trucks could be driven in platoon formation, leading to a 4% reduction in total truck fuel consumption. This technical potential for 'platoonable' miles in the U.S. provides an upper bound for scenario analysis considering fleet willingness to platoon as an estimate of overall benefits of early adoption of CAV technologies. A benefit analysis is proposed to assess the overall potential for energy savings and emissions mitigation by widespread implementation of highway platooning for trucks.

  16. Analysis of the incremental cost and trade-offs between energy efficiency and physical distribution effectiveness in intercity freight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.O.; Terziev, M.N.; Kneafsey, J.T.; Wilson, L.B.; Samuelson, R.D.; Chiang, Y.S.; Deephouse, C.V.

    1976-11-01

    This report describes a study of the effects of changes in national transportation policy on the traffic allocation and the energy consumption of various modes of intercity freight transportation. The study focuses on the linkages between freight transportation and industry structure. Starting from the viewpoint of the individual firm, the process of ordering and shipping supplies was analyzed in detail. Models were developed to predict the level of service associated with the transport alternatives available to a firm, and to predict the total logistics cost of each of these alternatives. These models make it possible to forecast the demand for various modal services at the disaggregate level. In order to predict total aggregate demand, a method was developed for sampling from the population of firms, and summing the demands. Using these models and methods, it is possible to make detailed forecasts of commodity flows under alternative policy options. The policy options selected for analysis include substantial rehabilitation of railroad yards and facilities, improving TOFC/COFC performance with shuttle trains, allowing unrestricted use of double trailers on the Interstate Highway System, increasing truck user charges, imposing waterway user charges, and an increase in fuel costs. The policies were investigated with a computerized model system which simulated freight flows between four pairs of major metropolitan area. Before the model could be applied, each policy had to be analyzed with regard to its effect on the key level of service determinants: waiting and travel time distributions, loss and damage, and tariff rates. The model system has been used to predict the impact of these level of service changes on the shipping patterns of a sample of individual firms. These results have been summed and expanded to produce aggregate forecasts of modal shares and energy consumption.

  17. The Design of Web-based Freight Management System%基于Web的货运管理系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑蓉; 王全

    2011-01-01

    针对货运管理中目前存在的实际问题,设计并实现了基于Web的货运管理系统,以提高货运管理的效率.文章介绍了基于Web的货运管理系统的设计过程,包括需求分析,系统功能模块设计等.%To the problem existing in freight management, Based-Web Freight Management System is designed and implemented to improve the management efficiency. The process of designing Based-Web Freight Management System is introduced in this paper, including requirement analysis, system design, functional modules etc.

  18. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  19. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  20. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.

  1. Galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester for wireless sensors to be installed on freight trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Gisella; Giappino, Stefano; Costa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Energy harvesting from galloping oscillations of a bluff body can be used to supply power to a wireless sensor. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use a galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester to supply power to a wireless sensors network installed on a freight train to measure the accelerations in correspondence of axle boxes. The monitoring system will be used to detect possible deteriorations of the running conditions that, in the worst cases, can lead to the vehicle derailment. Unlike other applications in this case the air speed relative to the body is due to the train motion and, for typical freight trains and standard running conditions, is equal to about 20 m/s. In the paper we discuss the design of the harvester on the basis of the constrains due to the application. Preliminary aerodynamic tests shows the limitation of the classical quasi-steady theory of galloping as a consequence of the interaction with the vortex shedding phenomenon.

  2. Trade-off between carbon dioxide emissions and logistics costs based on multiobjective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the freight transport costs and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in given intermodal and truckonly freight networks. When the trade-off, which is represented as the relationship, is changed, the freight mode share and route choice are also modified. To

  3. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  4. 蒙华铁路货车段修能力探讨%Discussion on Freight Train Maintenance Capacity in Depot for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆礼伦; 缪东

    2014-01-01

    阐述客货分线后铁路货运能力增强、货车保有量增长的特征,以及铁路货物高效率高质量的运输需求,必然会对货车段修能力提出新的要求。采用调研货车保有量、货车段修台位方法,结合货车保有量预测,分析全路及蒙西至华中煤运通道铁路(简称“蒙华铁路”)沿线区域内货车保有量增长与货车段修能力的矛盾,提出新建(或扩建)车辆段、加强检修工艺装备、优化组织管理、修程修制改革等货车段修能力增强措施,提出蒙华铁路货车车辆段(检修车间)设施布局方案,分析沿线区域货车段修能力增强措施。%This paper pointed out that after separated operation between railway passenger and freight transportations, the railway freight transportation capacity would be improved and the reserves of freight trains would be increased; and then the need of high efficiency and high quality of railway freight transportation would be bound to make demand on the freight train maintenance capacity in depot. In this paper, by means of investigation on the reserves of freight trains and depot repair bays, and in combination with the prediction on the reserves of freight trains, the conflicts between the freight train's growth and the freight train maintenance capacity in depot was analyzed for the whole railways and for the Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway which would be used for coal transportation. Furthermore, this paper proposed the measures to improve the freight train maintenance capacity in depot, such as building new ( or expanding ) freight train depots, enhancing repairing technical equipment, optimizing organization management, reforming repair schedule and repair regulations, and so on. Finally, this paper proposed a scheme of facility layout in the freight train depots ( or repairing workshops) for Western Inner Mongolia-to-Central China Railway, and analyzed the measures for improving the

  5. Testing of Composite Panels Used as Components of a Freight Wagon by Thermovision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper research methods for detection of laminate panels damage were presented. The most common damage is: matrix cracking laminate interlayer damage to joints, connecting cracks, delamination and fiber breakage. The tested laminates will be used as assemblies and sub-assemblies of freight wagon. Other methods of modeling of machines by means of transducers are shown in Płaczek (2012, 2015 and Białas (2010. As part of the project authors were collaborated with specialists from other research centers and scientific research (Bocian and Kulisiewicz, 2013. As a part of future work the places where we will be able to replace the standard materials by parts made of laminate will be shown. Layered composites despite many advantages have also disadvantages. From last mentioned it is a relatively low resistance to transverse impact. When the laminate is used as a decorative element, its small damage is not a problem. The problems start when the composite satisfies more responsible tasks such as: is a part of the technical means for example of a railway wagon. Aspect of continuous monitoring of the technical state of the laminate is very important. Current technology provides numerous opportunities for non-destructive methods of technical inspections. In this paper method for testing of large areas, completely non-contact, based on the methods of thermography, was presented. It consists heating by using the composite tubes and examining it through a thermal imaging camera. Length of heating, and consequently the temperature to which the laminate is heated mostly were chosen experimentally. During the measurements, the camera measures the intensity of radiation, not temperature. Received thermogram is not always a precise representation of the actual temperature, because the camera does not reach only the radiation from tested object, but also reaches the radiation coming from the environment and reflected objects etc. As part of the research

  6. 浅析铁路货运仓储的发展现状及趋势%The Development Status and Trend of Railway Freight Warehousing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华

    2014-01-01

    铁路货运是现代物流业的重要组成部分,而其中仓储的发展则是一个关键点。铁路货运仓储是铁路物流的“基石”,必须引起足够的关注与重视。我国铁路货运发展迅速,而仓储行业的诸多问题则制约了现代物流业的整体发展。文中以此为线索,论述了铁路货运仓储的发展现状、存在的问题,并展望了未来的发展趋势。%The railway freight is the important part of modern logistics industry,and the development of warehousing is one of the key points.Railway freight railway logistics warehousing is the “cornerstone”,must be paid adequate attention and emphasis.China railway freight transportation is developing rapidly,but many problems and warehousing industry is restricts the overall development of modern logistics industry.In this paper,taking this as the clue,discusses the development status of railway freight transportation,warehousing exist,and the prospect of development trend in the future.

  7. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...

  8. 铁路局货物运输需求大数据分析%Big data analysis of freight transportation demandad for railway ministration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国平

    2016-01-01

    以铁路货运电子商务系统数据为依据,运用大数据手段,对呼和浩特铁路局当前的货物运输需求情况做具体分析。以临河站为例,分析不同品类运量,制定针对性的营销策略,科学合理地安排营销计划,形成具有较强竞争力的货运营销机制,更好地为铁路货运营销服务。%Based on the data of railway freight transportation electronic commerce system, using big data means, this article analyzed the current demand of railway freight transportation for Hohhot Railway Administration, took Linhe Station as an example, analyzed the volume of different category, developed targeted marketing strategies, arranged scientiifc and reasonable marketing plan, formed a strong competitive freight marketing mechanism, served railway freight transportation marketing better.

  9. Industrial Upgrade and Development Feasibility Study of International Freight Forwarders%国际货运代理行业转型发展可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦雯; 倪志敏

    2015-01-01

    国际货运代理业是珠海对外贸易和港口发展不可或缺的重要环节。然而,最近几年全球经济逐渐疲软,人民币持续升值,企业经营成本不断增加,使得外贸出口锐减的影响以及企业自身发展历程中的特性的束缚,珠海国际货运企业尤其是中小民营货代企业生存状况堪忧。因此,国际货运代理企业必须准确把握市场方向,逐渐向综合型物流企业转型发展。%international freight forwarding industry is an important link for the foreign trade and port development in Zhuhai. However, in recent years, gradually weakening global economy, continued appreciation of RMB and increasing operation cost of enterprise result in the sharp drop in exports, as well as the constraint of the characteristics in the development process of enterprise. The survival of Zhuhai international freight enterprises, especially small and medium private freight forwarding business, is worrying. Therefore, the international freight forwarding companies must accurately grasp the market direction and gradually transform into integrated logistics enterprise.

  10. 论铁路货运向现代物流转变%Discussion on the Transformation from Railway Freight Transportation to the Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮

    2015-01-01

    In the background of the railway freight reform,along with the fast construction High-speed Rail in China, railway freight provides good opportunities for the development of modern logistics. The railway transportation takes a number of reform policies in order to increase market share,to meet the market demand. By using the SWOT method, this paper analyzes the development of modern logistics in railway freight of our country,points out its advantages,dis-advantages,opportunities and threats. The research also proposes railway freight transportation should exert their own advantages and optimizes freight organization,while it also ought to make full use of network resources,further strengthen the reform,optimize transport both ends of organization,perfect“door to door”logistics transportation or-ganization,actively expand value-added service for railway freight transportation,vigorously develop coordinated trans-port in order to provide a powerful guarantee for modern logistics development of railway freight.%随着我国高铁的快速建设,以及铁路货运机制的不断改革,铁路货运发展现代物流存在非常好的机遇。铁路运输为了提高市场份额,适应市场需求,应采取众多改革方针。通过运用SWOT方法,对我国铁路货运发展现代物流进行了分析,指出了其存在的优势、劣势、机遇与威胁,并提出铁路货运在发挥自身优势、优化货运组织的同时,要充分利用路网资源,进一步加强铁路货运改革,优化两端运输组织,完善“门到门”物流运输,积极拓展铁路货运增值业务,大力发展协同运输,为铁路货运发展现代物流提供有力保证。

  11. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Oksana O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr. One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine is absence of a developed network of transportation and logistic centres. The article offers to form a network of transportation and logistic centres in Ukraine as a way of intensification of development of mixed transportations of freight, since they facilitate co-ordination of use of various types of transport and support integrated management of material flows. Transportation and logistic centres should become a start-up complex, around which transportation and logistic clusters would be gradually formed. Transportation and logistic clusters is a new efficient form of network organisation and management of transportation and logistic services and they also ensure growth of efficiency of use of the regional transportation and logistic potential of Ukraine. The article shows prospective supporting transportation and logistic centres and centres of formation of transportation and logistic clusters in the territory of Ukraine. Formation of efficient transportation and logistic system of Ukraine on the basis of a network of transportation and logistic clusters would facilitate entering of Ukraine into the world transportation environment and would allow acceleration of introduction of efficient logistic schemes of freight delivery, in particular, mixed transportation of freight.

  12. 我国铁路重载货车转向架技术及发展%Technologies and Development of Railway Heavy Haul Freight Car Bogies in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文东; 李立东; 周国东; 徐世锋; 曹玉峰

    2012-01-01

    The key technologies in freight car bogies in our country are summarized. And on the basis of the technical development of freight cars in our country, the technical development target of freight car bogie with the new generation large axle load in our country is discussed.%总结了我国货车转向架的关键技术,并根据我国货车转向架的技术发展情况,论述了我国新一代大轴重货车转向架技术的发展目标.

  13. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  14. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  15. DYNAMICS OF FREIGHT CARS ON BOGIES MODEL 18-1711 WITH DIFFERENT WEDGE DE-SIGNS OF SPRING SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Mankevych

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of the study of dynamic parameters of a gondola car, model 12-1704-04 with axle load 23.5 ton in bogies, models 18-1750 and two gondola cars, model 12-1905 with axial load of 25 ton, one of which is equipped with bogies, model 18-1711 with friction wedges of spring suspension with spatial form with increased angle to the horizontal line of intersection of the contact surfaces between the wedge and bolster, the other gondola car, model 12-1905 is equipped with bogies of the same model on which the friction wedges fitted with a flat form of contact surface. It has an angle of inclination like a wedge of bogie, model 18-100. On the basis of the obtained results to draw conclusions about the feasibility of unification design bogie bolster, model 18-1711 with bogie, model 18-100 by contact surfaces with elements of spring suspension. Methodology. Research on dynamic performance of cars was performed during running dynamic tests of specimens of freight cars in experimental train consisting of two locomotives, a laboratory, and three gondola cars of the above mentioned models. Findings. Main results of dynamic studies are presented as graphs of indicators on the speed of the train and the experimental evidence that the freight gondola cars on bogies, model 18-1711 with flat-shaped wedges, in most cases are better than the others. Originality. Research results of cars on bogies, model 18-1711 were obtained. They let assess the dependence of the dynamic performance of the car from the design of the friction wedges of spring suspension. Practical value. Cast parts of bogie, model 18-1711 with 25 ton axle load can be used as a replacement of defective parts of bogie, model 18-100 and its analogs.

  16. 基于云计算的铁水联运信息平台架构方案研究%Study on Architecture of Information Platforms for Rail-water Inter-modal Transportation Based on Cloud Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韬; 黄强; 倪少权

    2014-01-01

    在铁水联运信息平台业务架构分析基础上,采用基于云架构理念,提出了部署在混合云上的铁水联运信息平台总体构架方案,设计了具有两个组成部分三层技术服务的纵向技术架构,以及以订单驱动为核心的统一管理业务流程架构,并探讨了基于云的铁水联运信息平台运营模式。%In this paper, on the basis of an analysis of the business architecture of the rail-water inter-modal transportation information platform and relying on the notion of cloud architecture, we proposed the general plan for the platform based on the hybrid cloud, designed the vertical technical structure composed of two parts and three layers as well as the unified management business process architecture centered on orders, and at the end, discussed the operational mode of the cloud-based rail-water inter-modal information platform.

  17. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  18. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  19. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  20. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, Hans; Harten, van, A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly automated, using AGVs (Automatic Guided Vehicles) for transport and automated loading and unloading equipment. It is unique in its scale, covering a 15-25 km tube system, and in its complexity, using...

  1. 提速对货车的影响分析及检修建议%Influence of Speed Boost of Railway on Freight Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦忠义

    2014-01-01

    阐述了提速对铁路货车的影响,并对其产生的原因进行了分析,最后提出了针对性的检修建议。%This paper introduces the influence of speed boost of railway on freight cars ,analyzes the reasons ,and puts forward some suggestion for inspection and repair .

  2. Design of Railway Freight Transport Security System Based on Internet of Things%铁路货运物联网安防系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of railway freight traffic accidents,internet of things technology is put forward on railway freight transport security,such as RFID,wireless sensor networks,Zigbee,ect.The integrative design of railway freight transportation security system includes RFID identity recognition system,infrared alarm and fire alarm system in train boxcar,important devices' maintenance management system,and so on.The whole system will provide practical application with some relative reference,such as preventing freight stolen and fire happening,monitoring maintenance and inventory management state of important devices,standardizing working habits of staff,and improving economic benefits of safety.%针对铁路货运事故特点,提出了将射频识别、无线传感器网络、Zigbee等物联网技术应用到铁路货运安防中,设计了包含RFID人员身份识别系统、车厢内红外入侵报警和火灾报警系统、机车重点设备检修管理系统等多个子系统的整体化铁路货运安防系统,在防止铁路货运物资被盗和火灾事故的发生,监控货运机车重点设备检修与库存管理状态,规范工作人员工作习惯,提高安全经济效益等方面提供了相应参考.

  3. Research on the Construction of Railway Freight Marketing System%铁路货运营销体系建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金英

    2013-01-01

    This articles is on the basis of the analysis of the necessity to strengthen rail freight marketing system , and discuss the basic framework and its main content to build rail freight marketing system and proposed measures to be taken in the current .Measures include the following:market-oriented , to practical change marketing con-cept;brand as the standard , and to build a competitive rail freight products;grid as the way , to achieve full cover-age of areas marketing;normalization as the goal , to create a rail freight marketing price advantage;network as the core, to raise the overall level of railway marketing services;career as the means, to vigorously improve marketing staff ability and quality .%在对加强铁路货运营销体系建设的必要性进行分析的基础上,研究和探讨了构建铁路企业货运营销体系的基本框架及主要内容,并提出了当前应当采取的对策建议,即:以市场化为导向,切实转变营销理念;以品牌化为标准,构筑有竞争力的铁路货运产品;以网格化为途径,实现营销区域全覆盖;以规范化为目标,营造铁路货运营销价格优势;以网络化为核心,全面提升铁路营销服务水平;以职业化为手段,大力提升营销人员能力与素质。

  4. Regression analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport; Regresjonsanalyse av klimagassutslipp fra godstransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    The following appendix is a presentation of the analytical work carried out by Klif in connection with the report 'Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces.' The analyzes are carried out with the intention to test and substantiate hypotheses about the various cause and effect relationships for emissions from the transport sector. To document this work Klif has prepared two reports describing the methodology and results of the work. These reports are not peer-reviewed research papers, but a documentation of Klif's internal analysis.(Author)

  5. Estimation Research on Freight Volume of New Inland Waterway%新建内河航道货运量预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 吴峰; 杨尊伟

    2016-01-01

    结合小清河复航工程实例,根据腹地经济发展、交通运输结构等特点,首先通过产销平衡法初步预测小清河货运量,再采用货源调查法进一步预测小清河分货种货运量,通过综合分析得到小清河水平年总货运量.采用这种定量计算与定性分析相结合的方法预测结果较为合理,成果对缺乏历史数据的新建内河航道货运量预测有一定的参考价值.%By analyzing the waterway re-navigation project of Xiaoqing River, the economy development and transportation system of the hinterland, the freight volume of Xiaoqing River is firstly estimated by using the coordination method of supply and marketing. Then the volume of each specified cargo is further estimated by using goods supply investigation. The mean annual freight volume of Xiaoqing River is finally obtained by comprehensive analysis. The combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation produces a reasonable estimated value. The research results serve as a certain reference for the estimation of freight volume of new inland waterways which lack historical data.

  6. 丹东国际货运企业物流模式的研究%Research on the Logistics Mode of Dandong International Freight Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑秀丹

    2014-01-01

    Dandong is located in the coastal areas of eastern Liaoning.Geographically speaking foreign economic and Liaoning plays an important force that can not be ignored,to make the Dandong international freight enterprise rapid development, should proceed from the logistics development mode.The use of field research method.Literature analysis and quantitative analysis method.Draw the advantages and disadvantages of each logistics development mode.Combined with the actual development of the enterprises of the Dandong International Freight.The logistics development model proposed for Dandong international freight enterprise Logistics Alliance mode.%丹东地处辽宁东部沿海,是辽宁海上对外交往的重要通道,加速丹东国际货运企业的快速发展,对辽宁对外经济的发展有着不可忽视的作用。运用实地调研法、文献分析法及定量分析法等方法,得出每种现有物流发展模式的优劣势,再结合丹东国际货运企业的发展实际,提出适合丹东国际货运企业的物流发展模式。

  7. 基于EGARCH模型的运费收益率波动风险%Freight rates volatility research based on EGARCH model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文明; 杨忠直

    2011-01-01

    对波罗的海干散货运价指数收益率序列建立EGARCH模型来考察"好消息"和"坏消息"对收益率波动的非对称性影响.结果发现,总样本区间,"好消息"更能增加收益率的波动.但分段建模结果显示:市场不景气时,"好消息"和"坏消息"对运费收益率市场波动的影响是对称的;市场景气时,"坏消息"较等量"好消息"产生更大波动.%This paper provided a EGARCH model to investigate the asymmetric impact of good news and bad news on freight rates volatility.Empirical results show that good news has greater impact on market of freight rates during the whole period.However,there is no leverage effect in bleak markets no matter which news is there.And bad news has greater impact on market of freight rates in boom markets.

  8. Analysis of TPL Development Opportunities of Railway Freight Yard in Guizhou%贵州铁路货场发展TPL的机会分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟

    2013-01-01

    Timing,reforming the current railway freight transportation in guizhou province,introduced a concept of third-party logistics(TPL)development of railway freight yard can help rail companies to build their core competitive power as soon as possible,according to the actual situation in guizhou province,this article has analyzed the Guizhou railway freight yard development of third-party logistics advantages according to the actual situation of Guizhou Province,summarized the current development opportunities of Guizhou railway logistics facing,combing the Guizhou railway logistics problems place,put forward the development of the third-party logistics.%当前贵州省铁路货运面临改革时机,引入第三方物流(TPL)概念发展铁路货场能够帮助铁路企业尽快构建自己核心竞争力,文中根据贵州省的实际情况分析了贵州铁路货场发展第三方物流的优势,总结了当前贵州铁路物流面临的发展机会,梳理了贵州铁路物流的问题所在,提出了发展第三方物流的可行性。

  9. Some Heterodox Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy has been the most influential philosophical movement in 20th century philosophy. It has surely contributed like no other movement to the elucidation and demarcation of philosophical problems. Nonetheless, the empiricist and sometimes even nominalist convictions of orthodox analytic philosophers have served them to inadequately render even philosophers they consider their own and to propound very questionable conceptions.

  10. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  11. Teaching the Analytical Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  12. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...

  13. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  14. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what I have words for.” - Ludwig Wittgenstein Defining Business Analytics The following are examples of...Michael Porter Figure 2: The analytic Process Step 2: Now that the problem statement has been defined, this needs to be reformulated into an

  15. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  16. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  17. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  18. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  19. Caracterização do mercado de fretes rodoviários para produtos agrícolas Characterization of the highway freight market for agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gimenes Soares

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de frete rodoviário no Brasil não sofre nenhum tipo de controle governamental, significando que os preços são formados a partir da negociação direta entre a oferta e a procura pelo serviço. Os transportadores não estão, necessariamente, atualizados sobre todas as variáveis de seu custo para estarem aptos a negociar com os demandantes. Tais demandantes, por outro lado, podem desempenhar maior poder de negociação para obter descontos no valor do frete. Tendo em vista o aprimoramento da qualidade das informações sobre fretes, tanto para ofertantes quanto demandantes pelo serviço de transporte, foi realizado levantamento de valores para produtos agrícolas selecionados, assim como identificadas as principais características do escoamento rodoviário de cargas agrícolas. Dessa forma, ficou evidenciada a diferenciação do valor do frete de acordo com o tipo de produto e verificou-se que a estrutura do mercado de frete para granéis sólidos (açúcar, milho, soja e farelo de soja é bastante distinta, mais pulverizada e talvez menos profissional que a estrutura observada para os granéis líquidos estudados (suco de laranja e óleo de soja.The Brazilian highway freight market is subject to no sort of government control, meaning that the prices are formed through free negotiation between supply and demand of the transport service. Carriers have to be updated on every variable incorporated in costs to be fit for negotiating with demanders. These demanders, except under certain very specific circumstances, have performed higher negotiation power and exerted quite strong pressure to obtain freight discounts. Taking into consideration the accomplishment of the quality of freight information, for both supply and demand sides of the transportation service, data for selected agricultural commodities were collected, as well as the identification of the main characteristics of the road haulage. The difference in the freight values

  20. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  1. Visual Analytics 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  2. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  3. Learning from experiences in sustainable transport practice: green freight europe and the implementation of a best cases database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kaledinova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many logistics service providers and shippers sustainable transport is still a relatively recent issue, even if almost every transportation company is engaged in sustainability. Each has had different experiences with making transportation more sustainable. By looking at the efforts and successes of others sharing these experiences could help shippers and logistics service providers to obtain new innovative ideas of how to become more sustainable. The certification organization Green Freight Europe (GFE wants to develop a database for these types of experiences in order to encourage its members to generate sustainable initiatives. Method: In support of this plan, we interviewed several logistics service providers and shippers and conducted a brief survey among GFE members. Results: Sustainability forms one of the goals for all interviewed companies mainly based on cost reduction but followed closely as a tool to attract new customers. At the moment, the information obtained to keep updated on sustainability comes mainly from truck producers and not from information from best cases from other logistics service providers. Conclusions: We have found that there is a willingness to submit best cases, but also a fear that the submitter will miss his competitive advantage by telling others about his innovations.

  4. 78 FR 46677 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection Request: Commercial Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... equipment providers (IEPs) engaging in interstate transportation. On April 11, 2013, FMCSA published a... passenger carrying commercial motor carriers + 9,000 hours for intermodal equipment providers (IEPs) = 655... vehicles and intermodal equipment by motor carriers, freight forwarders and IEPs engaging in...

  5. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  6. Metoda Analytic Network Process

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with Multi-Criteria Decision Making, in particular the Analytic Network Process method. The introductory part is dedicated to compile all the theory necessary to understand the method and utilized throughout the paper. The Analytic Hierarchy Process method is described and later generalized in the form of the ANP. Part of the paper is a description of available software products that are able to solve the ANP models. The main focus is on the application of the method, ...

  7. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  8. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  9. Competing on analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Nagin, Gleb

    2011-01-01

    Business analytics refers to the skills, technologies, applications and practisies for continuous iterative exploration and investigation of past business performance to gain insight and drive business planning. Business analytics focuses on developing new insights and understanding of business performance based on data and statistical methods. Business intelligence traditionally focuses on using a consistent set of metrics to both measure past performance and guide business planning, which i...

  10. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  11. Fields with Analytic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cluckers, Raf

    2009-01-01

    We present a unifying theory of fields with certain classes of analytic functions, called fields with analytic structure. Both real closed fields and Henselian valued fields are considered. For real closed fields with analytic structure, o-minimality is shown. For Henselian valued fields, both the model theory and the analytic theory are developed. We give a list of examples that comprises, to our knowledge, all principal, previously studied, analytic structures on Henselian valued fields, as well as new ones. The b-minimality is shown, as well as other properties useful for motivic integration on valued fields. The paper is reminiscent of [Denef, van den Dries, "p-adic and real subanalytic sets" Ann. of Math. (2) 128 (1988) 79--138], of [Cohen, Paul J. "Decision procedures for real and p-adic fields" Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 22 (1969) 131--151, and of [Fresnel, van der Put, "Rigid analytic geometry and its applications" Progress in Mathematics, 218 Birkhauser (2004)], and unifies work by van den Dries, Haskell...

  12. 我国集装箱铁水联运发展的影响因素分析%Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Rail-water Intermodal Container Transportation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇; 张哲辉

    2015-01-01

    针对目前我国集装箱铁水联运发展的现状和货源分布现状,从运输价格、基础设施、运输时效、铁路改革、环境影响、政策因素等方面分析了影响集装箱铁水联运发展的主要因素。%In this paper, in view of the current status of the rail-water intermodal container transportation practice in China and the distribution of the cargo sources, we analyzed the major factors influencing its development from the aspects of price, infrastructure, timeliness, railway reform, environmental impact and policy, etc.

  13. Analysis on the scheme of high definition monitoring system for railway freight train loading condition%铁路货车装载状态高清监控系统方案浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧

    2016-01-01

    Greater demands are being placed on raising the efficiency of freight transport and keeping safe freight transport by China Railway Corporation with the continuous deepening of the railway freight transportation system reform. Combined with the China Railway Corporation freight transport safety system requirements, this paper analyzes and discusses a way to imple-ment HD monitoring system for freight train loading condition, and describes the principle and key technology of the system.%随着铁路货运体制改革的不断深化,中国铁路总公司对提高货运效率、保障货运安全提出了更高的要求,文章结合铁路总公司货安系统相关文件要求,分析探讨了一种货车装载状态高清监控系统的实现方式,并对系统的原理和关键技术进行了说明。

  14. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  15. Doing social media analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Brooker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the few years since the advent of ‘Big Data’ research, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of ‘grand’ social science methodological concepts for new social media research (i.e. they focus on general issues such as sampling, data validity, ethics, etc.. By contrast, we advance an abductively oriented methodological suite designed to explore the construction of phenomena played out through social media. To do this, we use a software tool – Chorus – to illustrate a visual analytic approach to data. Informed by visual analytic principles, we posit a two-by-two methodological model of social media analytics, combining two data collection strategies with two analytic modes. We go on to demonstrate each of these four approaches ‘in action’, to help clarify how and why they might be used to address various research questions.

  16. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  17. Analytic QCD Binding Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the analytic forms of a recent non-perturbative, manifestly gauge- and Lorentz-invariant description (of the exchange of all possible virtual gluons between quarks ($Q$) and/or anti-quarks ($\\bar{Q}$) in a quenched, eikonal approximation) to extract analytic forms for the binding potentials generating a model $Q$-$\\bar{Q}$ "pion", and a model $QQQ$ "nucleon". Other, more complicated $Q$, $\\bar{Q}$ contributions to such color-singlet states may also be identified analytically. An elementary minimization technique, relevant to the ground states of such bound systems, is adopted to approximate the solutions to a more proper, but far more complicated Schroedinger/Dirac equation; the existence of possible contributions to the pion and nucleon masses due to spin, angular momentum, and "deformation" degrees of freedom is noted but not pursued. Neglecting electromagnetic and weak interactions, this analysis illustrates how the one new parameter making its appearance in this exact, realistic formali...

  18. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  19. Twisted analytic torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATHAI; Varghese

    2010-01-01

    We review the Reidemeister, Ray-Singer’s analytic torsion and the Cheeger-Mller theorem. We describe the analytic torsion of the de Rham complex twisted by a flux form introduced by the current authors and recall its properties. We define a new twisted analytic torsion for the complex of invariant differential forms on the total space of a principal circle bundle twisted by an invariant flux form. We show that when the dimension is even, such a torsion is invariant under certain deformation of the metric and the flux form. Under T-duality which exchanges the topology of the bundle and the flux form and the radius of the circular fiber with its inverse, the twisted torsion of invariant forms are inverse to each other for any dimension.

  20. Twisted Analytic Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, Varghese

    2009-01-01

    We review the Reidemeister and Ray-Singer's analytic torsions and the Cheeger-M"uller theorem. We describe the analytic torsion of the de Rham complex twisted by a flux form introduced by the current authors and recall its properties. We define a new twisted analytic torsion for the complex of invariant differential forms on the total space of a principal circle bundle twisted by an invariant flux form. We show that when the dimension is even, such a torsion is invariant under certain deformation of the metric and the flux form. Under T-duality which exchanges the topology of the bundle and the flux form and the radius of the circular fiber with its inverse, the twisted torsions are inverse to each other for any dimensions.

  1. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  2. 浅析铁路货物运输企业核心竞争力的提高%Study on Improving Core Competitivity of Railway Freight Shipping Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰秀文

    2012-01-01

    通过分析中国铁路货物运输企业发展的优势以及存在问题,从加强铁路区域性网络建设,加快铁路货运行业的商业化进程,扩大铁路货运的市场占有量,实现铁路装备现代化四个方面提出了提高铁路运输企业核心竞争力的对策建议.%In this paper, through analyzing the advantage and weakness of the railway freight shipping enterprises in China, we proposed the countermeasures to improve the core competitivity of the enterprises from the aspects of reinforcing regional railway network construction, speeding up commercialization process of the railway freight shipping industry, expanding the market share of railway freight and realizing railway equipment modernization.

  3. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  4. Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory was completed 15 years ago and has been used since as an analytical chemistry support lab for reactor, fuel development, and reprocessing programs. Additions have been made to the building on two occasions, and a third addition is planned for the future. Major maintenance items include replacement of ZnBr/sub 2/ windows, cleanup of lead glass windows, and servicing of the intercell conveyor. An upgrading program, now in progress, includes construction of new hot-cell instrumentation and the installation of new equipment such as an x-ray fluorescence analyzer and a spark source mass spectrometer.

  5. Analytic Hilbert modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaoman

    2003-01-01

    The seminal 1989 work of Douglas and Paulsen on the theory of analytic Hilbert modules precipitated a number of major research efforts. This in turn led to some intriguing and valuable results, particularly in the areas of operator theory and functional analysis. With the field now beginning to blossom, the time has come to collect those results under one cover. Written by two of the most active and often-cited researchers in the field, Analytic Hilbert Modules reports on the progress made by the authors and others, including the characteristic space theory, rigidity, the equivalence problem, the Arveson modules, extension theory, and reproducing Hilbert spaces on n-dimensional complex space.

  6. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  7. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  8. The contagion effect between freight derivatives and coal futures%运费衍生品与煤炭期货间的传染效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁雪飞; 丁一; 林国龙; 杨芊

    2016-01-01

    To study the contagion effect between freight derivatives market and commodity deriva-tives market, the paper selects the price sequence of C4,C7,4TC-C ship routes of forward freight a-greements (BFAs) and Richards bay coal futures (API4) before and after the economic crisis, and then makes regression analysis of 1 249 groups of data. On the basis of ADF/PP test and Granger causality analysis, the standardized residual is gotten by establishing univariate GARCH model;then DCC-GARCH model is established with standardized residuals to estimate the transmission coefficient between different markets. The results show that there exists certain risk contagion effect between the freight derivatives market and the related coal future market, which is usually one-way transmission from coal futures market to freight future markets, and the contagion effect significantly enhances during the crisis. These results are of great value to market participants in the international shipping and commodity markets, as it can be used to do more effective decisions.%为研究运费衍生品( FFA)与其相关的商品期货市场间的传染效应,选取经济危机前后海峡型船航线C4、C7、4TC-C的远期运费协议(BFAs)和理查兹湾离岸价煤炭期货(API4)的价格收益序列,对1249组数据进行回归处理,ADF/PP检验和Granger因果分析后,建立单变量GARCH模型求得标准化残差,利用标准化残差建立DCC-GARCH模型估计得到市场间的传染系数。结果表明:运费衍生品市场与其航线船型运载煤炭期货市场间存在一定的风险传染效应,多表现为商品期货对运费期货的单向传染,且传染效应在危机期间显著增强,为航运市场参与者提供了重要的决策信息。

  9. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2005-07-01

    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  10. 国际货运代理的责任和责任风险的防范探讨%The Study of International Freight Forwarders Liability and Responsibility of Risk Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红梅; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    随着世界经济一体化,国际多式联运业务的蓬勃兴起,为国际货运代理开拓业务、发挥所长、增长利润提供了机会。但是机遇与挑战并存,利润与风险同在,现在的货运代理人的工作内涵已经发生了显著变化,呈现出多元化和双重职能的特点,这使得货运代理的责任也在发生变化,经营过程中不可避免的遇到一系列竞争和风险。文中从国际货运代理的责任出发,联系我国货运代理企业的服务现状,对货运代理企业的责任风险防范做了简单的论述。%With the world economic integration, international multimodal transport business is surging forward, providing the opportunity to the international freight forwarder for developing business, playing strong points and increasing profits. But both opportunities and challenges coexist, profit and risk are side by side, now the job content of freight agents has changed markedly, and presented the characteristics of diversification and dual functions, which makes the responsibility of the freight forwarders change, and a series of competitions and risks are inevitably encountered in the process of management. This article embarks from the responsibilities of international freight forwarders, combines with the service status of freight forwarding enterprises in our country, and simply discusses the responsibility risk prevention of the freight forwarding enterprise.

  11. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors di

  12. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  13. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  15. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  16. Social Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  17. Development of Measuring and Allocating System for the Roller Bearing and Journal of the Freight Car%铁路货车滚动轴承、轴颈测量与选配系统的开发研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂青; 孙善庆; 姚忠贵

    2001-01-01

    Described are the structure and the function of hardware and software of the measuring and allocating system for roller bearing and journal of the freight car. This system is specially designed for the freight car repairing in deport, measuring the internal diameter of roller bearing and the external diameter of journal, and then, according to the suitable size of them, making allocation for assembling.%介绍了铁路货车段修专用的滚动轴承、轴颈测量与选配系统的软硬件结构与功能。

  18. On the influence of freight trains on humans: a laboratory investigation of the impact of nocturnal low frequency vibration and noise on sleep and heart rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing vibration amplitude. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The impacts of various amplitudes of horizontal vibrations on sleep disturbance and heart rate were investigated in a laboratory study. Cardiac accelerations were assessed using a combination of polysomnography and ECG recordings. Sleep was assessed subjectively using questionnaires. Twelve young, healthy subjects slept for six nights in the sleep laboratory, with one habituation night, one control night and four nights with a variation of vibration exposures whilst maintaining the same noise exposure. With increasing vibration amplitude, we found a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of heart rate as well as a reduction in sleep quality and increase in sleep disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that nocturnal vibration has a negative impact on sleep and that the impact increases with greater vibration amplitude. Sleep disturbance has short- and long-term health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to define levels that protect residents against sleep disruptive vibrations that may arise from night time railway freight traffic.

  19. 报关与国际货运专业综合实训室建设%Customs and International Freight Professional Training Room Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮宝娟

    2012-01-01

    Customs and intemational freight professionals require students to have a strong practical ability, in order to en- hance students practical skills in the professional career of the scene through the construction of the training room of the in- ternational logistics, customs clearance, freight forwarding, inspection of the three functions as a central themearrangement, so as to achieve the graduates to adapt to the training effect of the first line of the modern international logistics and interna- tional business services jobs work.%报关与国际货运专业要求学生有很强的实践操作能力,为了提升该专业学生的实际操作技能。通过建设国际物流综合实训室,以报关、货代、报检三大功能为基调进行职场化场景布置,从而达到学生毕业后能适应现代国际物流和国际商务服务第一线岗位工作的实训效果。

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  1. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena, E-mail: medg@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  2. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  3. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  4. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  5. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  6. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...... will be on the affinity methods utilized specifically for phosphoprotein and phosphopeptide enrichment prior to MS analysis, and on recent applications of these methods in cell biological applications....

  7. Encrypting Analytical Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhry, Benny; Tighzert, Walter; Kerschbaum. Florian

    2016-01-01

    The software-as-a-service (SaaS) market is growing very fast, but still many clients are concerned about the confidentiality of their data in the cloud. Motivated hackers or malicious insiders could try to steal the clients’ data. Encryption is a potential solution, but supporting the necessary functionality also in existing applications is difficult. In this paper, we examine encrypting analytical web applications that perform extensive number processing operations in the database. Existing ...

  8. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  9. Analytic Modeling of Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    point of view ; small changes in the balance of forces could lead to quick government demise. The other steady- state containment scenario involves...influenced by interests and utilities. 4.1 Carrots and Sticks An analytic model that captures the aforementioned utilitarian aspect is presented in... carrots ” x. A dynamic utility-based model is developed in [26] in which the state variables are the fractions of contrarians (supporters of the

  10. Dollarization: Analytical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Chang; Andres Velasco

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses major analytical aspects of dollarization and their practical implications. We develop a simple model to stress that dollarization implies the loss of independent monetary policy and of seigniorage, yet the significance of such losses can only be evaluated in conjunction with assumptions about the policymaking process. If the government is benevolent and has no credibility problems, dollarization causes a fall in welfare, which can be measured by the implied seigniorage l...

  11. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2014-01-01

    Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, senti...

  12. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  13. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  14. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  15. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OF MATRIX RICCATI EQUATIONS WITH ANALYTIC COEFFICIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth; Rodman, Leiba

    2010-01-01

    For matrix Riccati equations of platoon-type systems and of systems arising from PDEs, assuming the coefficients are analytic or rational functions in a suitable domain, analyticity of the stabilizing solution is proved under various hypotheses. General results on analytic behavior of stabilizing so

  16. THE LIFETIME EXTENSION OF CAR AXLES TYPES OF RU1 AND RUSH WHEELSET FREIGHT CARS, RESTORED BY THE METHOD OF PLASMA-ARC METALLIZATION OF THE NECK AND UNDER PARTS MANUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zelenin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The restoration method for the journals and wheel seats of the freight wagon wheelsets by means of plasma-arc metallization is presented and the results of the bench fatigue tests with the advisable operation life of the axles restored are given.

  17. Situation and Countermeasures of Wuhan Small Micro-freight Logistics Company Basic Operations%武汉市小微物流货运公司基本运营现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文杰

    2015-01-01

    文中是在对武汉市小微物流货运公司进行调研的基础上,客观分析了武汉市小微物流货运公司当前运行的基本情况,分析其发展存在的问题,结合小微物流货运公司的现状和未来发展趋势,以发展的视角对武汉市小微物流货运公司的整合提出建设性的建议。%This paper is based in Wuhan small and micro logistics and freight forwarding company research,objective analysis of the basic situation of Wuhan small micro-freight logistics company is currently running,analyze their problems in the development,combined with the small and micro logistics and freight forwarding company status and future development trends, the perspective of the development of small and micro Wuhan integrated freight logistics company to offer constructive suggestions.

  18. A freight train monitoring system based on chain wireless Mesh network%基于链状无线Mesh网络的货运列车监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马乐; 赵锐; 姚金飞; 刘言

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of railway freight transportation, this paper put forward the freight train monitoring system based on wireless Mesh network. Taking chain of dual-mode wireless Mesh network as the transmission network of monitoring information, a multimedia information collection node with the Raspberry Pi platform and intelligent monitoring software was designed. This system realized the centralized and intelligent monitoring of the freight in transportation by staff in the locomotive. Experiments show that the system can effectively improve the safety and reliability of railway freight transportation.%在分析铁路货物运输特点的基础上,提出了基于无线 Mesh 网络的货运列车状态监控系统。以双模链状无线 Mesh 网络作为监控信息传输的通信网络,研究设计了基于 Raspberry Pi 平台的多媒体信息采集节点和智能的监控软件,实现了运输人员在货运机车中对在运物资的集中式、智能化监控。实验表明,该系统能够有效提高铁路货物运输的安全性和可靠性。

  19. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  20. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  1. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  2. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  3. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-06-15

    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  4. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  5. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  6. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  7. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  8. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  9. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  10. Forecast Method of Road Freight Traffic Based on BP Neural Network%基于神经网络算法的公路货运量预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2014-01-01

    Shanxi Province was taken as an example for the road freight traffic forecasts by using gray correlation method. The predictors are GDP, the first industry, the secondary industry, industrial added value, per capita GDP ,total fixed asset investment and the total retail sales of social consumer goods. The prediction model of road freight traffic is established on base of BP neural network,and then verified with tests. The results show that road freight traffic can be predicted accurately by the model based on BP neural network,and the maximum error is less than 5 . 3%. It can improve the forecast ability of road freight traffic and provide a method for road freight traffic.%以陕西省为例,运用灰色关联分析法确定公路货运量的影响因素分别为地区生产总值、第一产业增加值、第二产业增加值、工业增加值、人均地区生产总值、全社会固定资产投资和社会消费品零售总额.将所确定的因素作为公路货运量的预测指标,建立基于BP神经网络的公路货运量预测模型,并对模型进行应用测试.结果表明:该模型具有较高的精度,最大误差为5.3%,可以提高公路货运量预测的准确度,为我国公路货运量的预测研究提供方法支撑.

  11. 甩挂运输是我国发展绿色货运的必然选择%Drop and Hoop Transport is China's Choice to Promote the Development of Green Freight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉泰; 贺亦军

    2012-01-01

    在交通运输业节能减排工作进一步开展和全社会倡导建设低碳交通、绿色货运的背景下,甩挂运输成了国内货运行业关注的焦点。阐述了甩挂运输和绿色货运的内涵,介绍了甩挂运输的发展现状.分析了甩挂运输作为发达国家广泛采用的一种先进的货运组织形式的环境效益和经济效益.最后得出结论:甩挂运输是我国发展绿色货运的必然选择。%With the further development of transportation energy conservation and emission reduction, and China's building of low-carbon traffic and green freight, drop and hoop transport has become the focus of attention of the domestic freight industry. This paper first expounds the connotations of drop and hoop transport, green freight, and then presents the cur- rent situation of the development of drop and hoop transport, analyses the environmental benefits and economic benefits of drop and hoop transport, which is an advanced freight organization form that the developed countries have widely used. Fi nally, a conclusion is drawn that drop and hoop transport is China's choice to promote the development of green freight.

  12. The analytic renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  13. The analytic renormalization group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k∈Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk=2πk/β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct “Analytic Renormalization Group” linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|<μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0, together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|≥μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  14. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    - and inter-organizational barriers to the establishment of a competitive and effective combined transport system with rail freight operators as the intermodal integrator. In this paper we describes the ideas and methodology behind the project, as well as some preliminary results.......Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), developed...... to fulfill the requirements of potential customers and in interaction with customers, shippers, rail and road freight operators, rail infrastructure owners and other actors in the intermodal freight system. Conversely, successive versions of the COTRAP will be used as an instrument to identify intra...

  15. Forecasting freight flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    . This article models long-term dynamic physical trade flows and estimates a dynamic panel data model for foreign trade for the EU15 and two countries from the EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 1967–2002. The analysis suggests that a dynamic three-way-effects gravity equation is the best-fitted econometric...... model. The analysis uses a structural relationship to explain the structure of the exchange of the goods—a relationship that can be used in the year of forecast. This article also provides a new methodology for converting monetary aggregates into quantity aggregates. The resulting commodity growth rates...

  16. 公路货运大型化及经济性分析%Large-scale Road Freight and Economic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉

    2016-01-01

    公路运输业是国民经济中的一个重要物质生产部门,它能把社会生产、分配、交换和消费的各个环节有机联系起来。随着我国经济快速发展成熟,对运输系统高效运转要求日益增长,这不仅意味着交易过程需要更快速完成,同时也需要降低运输成本。但是我国公路运输市场的特点是多、小、散、弱,运输成本高,运输效益低下,还带来了大量的污染物排放,并且很多运输公司需要经常通过超载来完成运输任务,埋下交通安全隐患的同时也加重了公路设施的损坏。因此发展公路货运大型化是解决上述问题的重要途径,本文主要对公路货运大型化及经济性做重点分析,以此为公路货运大型化发展提供依据。%The road transport industry is an important material production sector in the national economy, which link all aspects of social production, distribution, exchange and consumption organically. With the rapid economic development in China, there are increasing demand for efficient operation of the transportation system, which means not only the need for more rapid completion of the transaction process, but also the need to reduce transport costs. But the characteristics of China's road transport market is large in number, small in scale, scattered, weak, high transport costs, low efficiency of transport, and also brought a lot of pollutants, and many transportation companies often need to be done by overloaded transport tasks, thus planting transportation security risks and also increasing the damage to the road infrastructure. Therefore, the development of large-scale road freight is an important way to solve the problems above. The paper focuses on large-scale road freight and economic analysis, in order to provide a basis for the development of large-scale road freight.

  17. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  18. Enhancement pattern of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at contrast-enhanced US (CEUS), MDCT, and MRI: Intermodality agreement and comparison of diagnostic sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Alessandro, E-mail: furlana@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Marin, Daniele [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome-La Sapienza, Rome, 00161 (Italy); Cabassa, Paolo [Department of Radiology, Brescia University, Brescia (Italy); Taibbi, Adele [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90127 (Italy); Brunelli, Elena [Department of Radiology, Brescia University, Brescia (Italy); Agnello, Francesco; Lagalla, Roberto; Brancatelli, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90127 (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate agreement between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of typical and atypical enhancement patterns of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); and to compare diagnostic sensitivity of 2005 and 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009, we included cirrhotic patients with newly diagnosed 10–20 mm HCC imaged at two contrast-enhanced imaging techniques among CEUS, MDCT, and MRI. Dynamic studies were reviewed by two radiologists to assess enhancement pattern. Percentage of cases with concordant findings and Cohen coefficient (k) were calculated. McNemar's test was used to compare sensitivity between 2005 and 2010 AASLD guidelines. Results: There were 91 patients (69 M; 22 F; mean age, 68 years) with 96 HCCs, studied with a combination of CEUS and MDCT (n = 59), CEUS and MRI (n = 26), or MDCT and MRI (n = 11). Intermodality agreement for assessment of tumor enhancement pattern was 67% (k = 0.294, P = 0.001). Typical enhancement pattern was detected coincidentally at two imaging modalities in 50 (52%) HCCs. Sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC increased significantly using the 2010 AASLD (81/96 (84%) vs. 50/96 (52%), P < 0.001). Conclusions: Agreement between two imaging modalities for the detection of typical tumor enhancement pattern was reached in 52% of cases. The 2010 AASLD guidelines significantly increased the sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC.

  19. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  20. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  1. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  2. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse such huge data collections with clustersof thousands of inexpensive computers to discover patterns inthe data that have many applications. But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics.

  3. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  4. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  5. 铁路货运站应用信息系统信息孤岛分析%Analysis of Information Isolation of Railway Freight Station Application Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李雾若

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century is the era of rapid development of information technology, railway freight also keeps up with the pace of informatization construction, in order to improve the competitiveness throughout the market and the benefits of the rail freight companies, at the same time to reduce the costs of the work it takes. However, China’s rail freight information construction time is relatively late, during the development of China’s rail freight, forms a number of independent of each other, relatively closed information platforms and application information systems, so that generates the phenomenon of information isolation, information integration is imminent. Based on the information construction, information systems’ upgrading and integration theory, taking the rail freight operating process as a starting point, through analyzing the status quo and the problems found in informatization construction of a freight station, the experiences and lessons were summarized in information construction. We thought that the keys to solving these problems were: to upgrade and integrate the information systems.%21世纪是一个信息技术高速发展的时代,铁路货运也紧跟信息化建设的步伐,以提高在整个营销市场的竞争力和铁路货运企业的效益,同时降低各项工作花费的成本。然而,我国铁路货运开始进行信息化建设的时间比较晚,与此同时,我国铁路货运在发展的过程中,形成了一些相互独立、相对封闭的信息平台和应用信息系统,以至于出现了信息孤岛的现象,信息集成迫在眉睫。本文基于信息化建设、信息系统的升级与整合理论,以铁路货物运输作业流程为出发点,通过分析货运站的信息化建设现状及存在的问题,总结信息化建设的经验和教训,提出解决信息孤岛问题的关键:进行应用信息系统的升级与整合。

  6. Analytic definition of spin structure

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  7. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  8. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  9. Analytic Methods for Cosmological Likelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. N.; Kitching, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present general, analytic methods for Cosmological likelihood analysis and solve the "many-parameters" problem in Cosmology. Maxima are found by Newton's Method, while marginalization over nuisance parameters, and parameter errors and covariances are estimated by analytic marginalization of an arbitrary likelihood function with flat or Gaussian priors. We show that information about remaining parameters is preserved by marginalization. Marginalizing over all parameters, we find an analytic...

  10. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  11. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-02-24

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections.

  12. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  13. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  14. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  15. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  16. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  17. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  18. Analytic Geometry, A Tentative Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, G. Alfred; And Others

    This teacher's guide for a semester course in analytic geometry is based on the text "Analytic Geometry" by W. K. Morrill. Included is a daily schedule of suggested topics and homework assignments. Specific teaching hints are also given. The content of the course includes point and plane vectors, straight lines, point and space vectors, planes,…

  19. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  20. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  1. 20世纪80年代中期以来长三角地区货运量动态研究%STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FREIGHT VOLUME IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA SINCE THE MID-1980S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 曹有挥; 梁双波; 肖琛

    2011-01-01

    Taking 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta as the object of study,this paper analyzes the freight volume dynamics and influencing mechanism since the mid-1980s from the aspects of quantitative growth,evolution in spatial pattern,spatial competition and pattern change of container cargo flow.The results show that,both the freight volume,freight turnover and the transportation range in the Yangtze River Delta have increased by a large margin and the regional spatial structure of freight volume has a complicated change with the rapid economic growth during the past 20 years.The centralization pattern is obvious in these years,Shanghai,Nanjing,Hangzhou,Ningbo is prominent in freight volume,but the distribution of freight volume tend to equilibrium as a whole,meanwhile,the freight and production place appeared some isolated situation.The container cargo flow in the Yangtze River Delta is highly competitive.Shanghai initially established the position as the central hub port and Ningbo port has the obvious advantages of spatial agglomeration,but the general spatial agglomeration function of container port system is not prominent.The driving mechanism of freight dynamics is mainly influenced by economic globalization,global supply chain and manufacturing paradigm shift from the macroscopic level,while from the middle and microcosmic level,it was mainly affected by regional economic systems and integrated transport costs,regional segmentation and traffic management system,etc.%以长三角地区16市为研究对象,从数量增长、空间格局变动及集装箱运输的空间竞争与格局演变等方面对长三角地区20世纪80年代中期以来货运量动态变化及其影响机制进行了分析。结果表明:随着经济的快速增长,长三角地区货运量、货运周转量及平均运距均大幅增长,货运量地域空间结构变动复杂,总体上极化特征突出,在时间演化上趋于区域均衡化,但同时货运量与生产地出现了一定

  2. Analytic Approach to Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Magradze, B

    2000-01-01

    The two-loop invariant (running) coupling of QCD is written in terms of the Lambert W function. The analyticity structure of the coupling in the complex Q^2-plane is established. The corresponding analytic coupling is reconstructed via a dispersion relation. We also consider some other approximations to the QCD beta-function, when the corresponding couplings are solved in terms of the Lambert function. The Landau gauge gluon propagator has been considered in the renormalization group invariant analytic approach (IAA). It is shown that there is a nonperturbative ambiguity in determination of the anomalous dimension function of the gluon field. Several analytic solutions for the propagator at the one-loop order are constructed. Properties of the obtained analytical solutions are discussed.

  3. Design and development of Railway Freight Loading Reinforcement Information System%铁路货物装载加固信息系统的设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟桂丽

    2011-01-01

    铁路货物装载加固是影响铁路运输安全的重要因素,为了提高装载加固质量,保证货物运输安全,研究开发了铁路货物装载加固信息系统.谊系统解决了相关关键技术,能够方便快捷地进行货物装载加固方案的设计和优选,实现了规章查询、方案管理和方案自动生成等功能.系统的实际应用改变了传统的手工作业模式,有效地提高了货物装载加固质量和工作效率.%Railway freight loading reinforcement was an important element which influenced the safety of railway transportation. In order to enhance the qualification of loading reinforcement and guarantee the security of freight carriage, the Railway Freight Loading Reinforcement Information System was developed. Relevant key technologies were solved by the System, and the System enabled the design and selection of the freight loading reinforcement plan in a more convenient and efficient way. Meanwhile, the System also implemented the functions such as regulation research, scheme management and scheme auto-generation, etc. The implementation of this System changed the traditional manual operation pattern, therefore improved the qualification and productivity effectively.

  4. Multi-objective Optimization Model of Freight Trains' Dispatching and Scheduling Based on the Game Theory%基于博弈理论的货运列车编组调度多目标优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严明; 刘鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    Based on the nature and character of freight trains' dispatching and scheduling,this paper applies Game Theory to that complicated engineering field.The typical layout structure of marshaling station is described Abstractly in the article.On account of arrival,disassembling,marshaling and departure,which are the primary work flows for a marshaling station,this paper clarifies the work flows of freight trains' dispatching and scheduling.By using Modular Design Concept,analyzing and designing the flow programs of freight trains' arrival,disassembling,marshaling and departure and taking account of time and technology costs,properly setting the evaluation criterion,optimization and its limitation of dispatching and scheduling efficiency,this paper builds a freight trains' dispatching and scheduling multi-objective optimization model in view of Game Theory.%本文根据货运列车编组调度性质和特征,将博弈论思想应用于货运列车编组调度这一复杂工程领域。抽象描述了典型编组站的场区结构,根据编组站"到、解、编、发"四个基本作业过程,明确了货车编组调度的工作流程。按照模块化思想,分析、设计了货运列车进站、解编、发车博弈调度流程图。基于时间成本与技术成本考虑,合理设定了编组调度效率评价指标、优化目标及约束条件,建立了基于博弈理论的货运列车编组调度多目标优化模型。

  5. Analysis on Development Strategy for Rail Freight Service%以铁路为核心的货运服务供应链构建策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉敏

    2014-01-01

    文中进行了中国铁路货物运输的SWTO分析,基于供应链管理环境下的物流环境特征,以满足市场需求为导向,分析了以铁路为核心的货运服务供应链构建策略,提出铁路货运产品的层次划分、服务目标定位及目标实现途径与方案构想:业务流程重组与通道式管理,建立合作伙伴关系。%It analyses China rail freight service with SWTO .Based on the characteristics of the logistics enviroment within the supply chain enviroment ,oriented by the satisfaction of the market demand ,it analyses the strategy for the construction of the supply chain for the freight service centered on railway .Also it proposes the division of the rail freight product their targets .It proposes the path and scheme for the realization of the service targets :business process reengineeing and corridor management mode,set up the cooperative partnership .

  6. On Development of Small and Micro Companies of Logistics and Freight in Wuhan%武汉市小微物流货运公司发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文杰

    2015-01-01

    小微物流货运公司的经营业态以货代、省内专线零担运输或快递业务为主,占公路运输市场至少90%以上的份额,是一国和地区经济发展的最根本支撑。本文研究了国内学者关于小微物流公司的观点,客观分析了武汉市小微物流货运公司运行的现状,结合SWOT分析法分析了我市小微物流货运公司发展的环境对我市小微物流货运公司的发展提出了建设性建议。%Small and micro companies in Wuhan mainly operate such services as freight forwarding, special line retail solution to provincial freight and express delivery. They become the basic pillar of the regional economic devel-opment for their 90%of market share in highway transportation. After reviewing the study of small and micro compa-nies of logistics and freight, the paper analyzes the operating situation of these companies in Wuhan, and their devel-opment environment with SWOT method. At the end, it offers some recommendations for the development of these companies.

  7. Analysis on the International Freight Forwarder Logistics Industry in Suzhou Based on SWOT-PEST Matrix%基于SWOT-PEST矩阵的苏州国际货代物流业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董越

    2014-01-01

    苏州经济是典型的外向型经济模式,从2000之后,苏州的外贸依存度就超过了100%,GDP的发展很大程度上依赖于对外贸易的发展,因此,作为提供国际货物运输服务的国际货代物流业的发展状况也直接影响着苏州整体经济的发展状况。文章运用SWOT—PEST矩阵对苏州的国际货代物流业进行了分析,并提出了相应的发展策略。%Suzhou economy is a typical export-oriented economic model. Science 2000, the foreign trade dependence degree of Suzhou is over 100%, the development of GDP largely depends on the development of foreign trade. So, as the provider of international freight forwarder transportation services, the development situation of international freight forwarder logistics industry directly impacts the development of the whole economy in Suzhou. This paper analyzes the international freight forwarder logistics industry in Suzhou by using SWOT-PEST matrix and puts forward the related development strategy.

  8. Research on Current Market Status and Development Strategy of Railway Freight Transport%我国铁路货运市场现状及营销发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玲玲; 谷海; 张艺

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current market status of railway freight transport, and summarizes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the railway freight market by the method of SWOT. It finally makes some development strategies for the railway freight transport based on previous analysis, including developing direct transport of bulk commodities, strengthening information construction, developing modern logistics of railway transport, providing specialized services, training professional marketing staffs and optimizing the transport organization, and%分析了我国铁路货运市场现状,并运用SWOT分析法对我国铁路货运市场营销的优势和劣势、机会和威胁进行了分析,提出了重点发展大宗货物直达运输、加强信息化建设、发展铁路货运现代化物流、提供特色服务、人才培养、优化运输组织等发展战略。

  9. Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Halb, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Analytics is conceived as a subfield of learning analytics that focuses on the design, development, evaluation, and education of visual analytics methods and tools for teachers in primary, secondary, and tertiary educational settings. The Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics...... (IWTA) 2013 seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners in the fields of education, learning sciences, learning analytics, and visual analytics to investigate the design, development, use, evaluation, and impact of visual analytical methods and tools for teachers’ dynamic diagnostic decision...

  10. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration among Former Soviet States. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of crossborder freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  11. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration Among Former Soviet States. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of cross-border freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  12. 铁路集装箱运量中长期预测模型研究%Long-term Forecasting Model of Railway Container Freight Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫伟; 朱晓宁; 王力

    2013-01-01

    A railway container freight volume forecasting model is proposed in this paper based on econometric techniques,which can accommodate multi-influencing factors.Some influencing factors are.considered in this forecasting model,such as long-term trends of the national economy,industrial structure,layout of production,railway transport structure,level of the consumption,etc.All these factors are respectively set to be endogenous variable,exogenous variable or prior endogenous variables that based on characteristics of different factors.Then the equations formation of the forecasting model is present.In the last section,the paper estimates and testes (including global and final tests) the proposed model.Test results show the error rate of the model is small,and has high precision.Thus the model can be used for forecasting of railway container freight volume,and it also provides basic data for planning and development of railway container transportation.%通过考虑国民经济的长期趋势、产业结构、生产布局、运输结构、消费水平等影响铁路集装箱运量的不同因素,选用能够容纳多种影响因素的经济计量方法构建铁路集装箱运量中长期预测模型.根据不同影响因素的特点,将其分别设置为内生变量、外生变量和前期内生变量,形成集装箱运量预测的基本方程组结构.通过对模型的估计和检验(包含整理检验和最终检验)可知,所构建的模型体系误差率较小,具有较高的精度,可用于铁路集装箱运量的预测,为铁路集装箱运输发展规划提供基础数据依据.

  13. Highway Freight No-load and Its Countermeasure%公路货运空载问题的方法与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树青; 刘维

    2013-01-01

    Highway freight no-load has been high in our country, and there is a big gap between China and developed countries. Aiming at the problem, the article analyzes the causes by using the fishbone diagram analysis. And using the successful experience of developed countries for reference, it puts forward the systematic solutions from the government, enterprise and individual, such as the government should strengthen the overall layout optimization of road freight transport; Companies should introduce advanced information technology, and develop drop and pull transport; Individuals should actively understand the concept of modern logistics, the good faith management, standardized operation, and use a variety of methods to evade risk of transportation. The last part of the article gives a conclusion and the future prospects.%我国公路货运空载率一直居高不下,与国外发达国家相比存在很大差距。文章就空载问题产生的原因,利用鱼骨图方法进行分析,并借鉴了美国、德国、日本等发达国家的成功经验,从政府、企业、个体三个维度提出了公路货运空载问题的系统化解决对策。认为政府应加强对公路货运的整体布局优化;企业要引入先进的信息技术,大力发展甩挂运输;个体则要积极了解现代物流理念、诚信经营、规范运作、运用多种形式规避运输风险。文章的最后一部分,给出了文章的结论和未来展望。

  14. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  15. Banach spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A classic of pure mathematics, this advanced graduate-level text explores the intersection of functional analysis and analytic function theory. Close in spirit to abstract harmonic analysis, it is confined to Banach spaces of analytic functions in the unit disc.The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the f

  16. 营运货车道路运行油耗及碳排放因子研究%Research on Fuel Consumption & Carbon Emission Factor of Road Freight Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭美春; 李嘉如; 胡红斐

    2015-01-01

    针对营运货车实际道路运行油耗及碳排放因子进行了测算,以不同载质量的125辆营运货车为试验车辆,采用车载测试方法采集了连续6个月车辆运行油耗、里程等数据,运用数据甄别筛选、正态分布检验、均值求解、误差分析、质量控制分析等方法进行数据处理统计分析,测算出各类营运货车百公里油耗均值与偏差,并基于碳平衡方法计算出各类货车的碳排放因子均值。测算结果可用于对营运货车道路运行油耗和碳排放水平进行评价,及对碳排放总量进行估算。%Fuel consumption and carbon emission factor of road freight trucks are measured. A total of 125 road freight trucks of different payload mass are chosen for test. The study collects the vehicle operating data including fuel consumption, driving mileage and so on for 6 months continuously by test device on vehicle, and test data are processed for statistic analysis with the methods of data screening, normal distribution test, solution of mean value, error analysis, quality control methods, etc, through which the mean value and deviation of fuel consumption of different freight trucks and average carbon emission factor based on carbon neutral principle for 5 kinds of freight vehicle. The measurement results can be used in evaluation of the fuel consumption and carbon emission of freight trucks as well as estimation of total carbon emission.

  17. Analytic Methods in Investigative Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an alternative proof by analytic methods, which is more accessible than rigorous proof based on Euclid's Elements, in which students need only apply standard methods of trigonometry to the data without introducing new points or lines. (KHR)

  18. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  19. Remote Electro-Analytical Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnanjali Gandhi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote Laboratories are web based distance learning laboratories that have immense potential to disseminate technology in the area of practical science. These laboratories can be accessed through Internet. In the present paper, we will be discussing our experiences in setting up a remote analytical laboratory at our center. Further, we will discuss remote experiments in the area of electro-analytical chemistry & colorimetry and their role in strengthening the system of science education.

  20. Remote Electro-Analytical Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnanjali Gandhi; Rehan Mohd; Soami Satsangee

    2011-01-01

    Remote Laboratories are web based distance learning laboratories that have immense potential to disseminate technology in the area of practical science. These laboratories can be accessed through Internet. In the present paper, we will be discussing our experiences in setting up a remote analytical laboratory at our center. Further, we will discuss remote experiments in the area of electro-analytical chemistry & colorimetry and their role in strengthening the system of science educat...

  1. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  2. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  3. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  4. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Robert L.; Kevin P. Siegel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  5. 智能楼梯平地两用运货小车的设计%The Design of Dual Stair-flat Intelligent Freight Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯鹏; 石爱平; 刘进; 王钰恒

    2014-01-01

    本文设计了智能楼梯平地两用运货小车装置,以单片机为控制核心,利用角度传感器和速度传感器,采用行星轮系差动机构和摩擦棘轮结构,通过分析计算,对小车的机械结构和控制进行了设计。该小车可以自动上下楼,进行平地运动,具有防倒退和遥控功能,为货物在楼道内的运输带来了方便。%The Stair-flat amphibious intelligent freight car uses microcomputer as its control core . Using angle sensors and speed sensor , it adopted differential planetary gear train mechanism and friction ratchet wheel structure . After accurate analysis and calculation , we designed the mechanical structure and the control part of the car . The car could go downstairs and moving on land automatically, With the function of anti-backward and remote controlling , it's very convenient when transporting the goods in the passageway .

  6. 铁路快速货运对衡阳物流产业的影响%The Inlfuence of Railway Fast Freight Transport on Hengyang's Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琳玲

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of reform and opening up,China's railway industry development speed is relatively fast,rapid rail freight form as one of the important development has made considerable progress. This paper tries to analyze Hengyang local logistics industry development present situation to elaboratethe development of railway express the impact on the logistics industry,and tries to seek better ways to further improve the disadvantages of Hengyang logistics industry.%随着改革开放的深入推进,我国的铁路行业发展速度也较为迅速,铁路快速货运作为其中一个重要发展形式也有了长足的进步。文章试从分析衡阳本地物流产业的发展现状入手来阐述铁路快运的发展对物流产业的影响,并试图寻求更好的方法进一步改善衡阳物流产业的弊端。

  7. Climate Analytics as a Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  8. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    , forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...

  9. Analytical approximations for spiral waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löber, Jakob, E-mail: jakob@physik.tu-berlin.de; Engel, Harald [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, EW 7-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R{sub 0}. For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R{sub +}) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R{sub +} with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.

  10. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......, and present four key areas of spatial and spatio-temporal analytics: Spatial Outlier Detection, Spatial Clustering, Spatial Predictive Models, Spatial Pattern and Rule Mining. All key areas are well-established outside the context of games and hold the potential to reshape the research roadmap in game...

  11. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  12. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  13. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  14. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Belle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  15. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  16. Exact analytical solutions for ADAFs

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Asiyeh; Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    We obtain two-dimensional exact analytic solutions for the structure of the hot accretion flows without wind. We assume that the only non-zero component of the stress tensor is $T_{r\\varphi}$. Furthermore we assume that the value of viscosity coefficient $\\alpha$ varies with $\\theta$. We find radially self-similar solutions and compare them with the numerical and the analytical solutions already studied in the literature. The no-wind solution obtained in this paper may be applied to the nuclei of some cool-core clusters.

  17. Semi-analytical MBS Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Poulsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    interest rate model. However, if the pool size is specified in a way that makes the expectations solvable using transform methods, semi-analytic pricing formulas are achieved. The affine and quadratic pricing frameworks are combined to get flexible and sophisticated prepayment functions. We show...

  18. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  19. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der B.H.; Bergveld, P.; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in rapi

  20. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…