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Sample records for analysis comparing coplanar

  1. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; Schelfhout, J.; De Neve, W.

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  2. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse's GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam's Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac's isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder's comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed

  3. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  4. CONFORMAL MAPPING ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, B; Porkumaran, K.

    2012-01-01

    A conformal mapping analysis of various coplanar waveguide structures is presented on silicon substrate. The analysis is based on quasi-TEM analysis which is used in formulating the electrical parameters of a transmission line. Different coplanar structure configurations are investigated. Simulation results are presented for coplanar waveguides etched on the surface of a rectangular silicon substrate. Calculated electrical parameters like line capacitance, characteristic impedance, effective ...

  5. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  6. Analysis of Normal and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides in Radio Astronomy

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    Kim Ho Yeap

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In terahertz radio astronomy, superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have been commonly applied in Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs to measure the absorption of photon energy in the millimeter and submillimeter bands. Here, we present an analysis on the performance of superconducting niobium coplanar waveguides (CPWs. To compute the loss in a superconducting CPW, we have incorporated the complex conductivity developed by Matis and Bardeen based on the superconducting BCS theory, into the CPW loss equation. We have made a comparison between the loss in a CPW at room temperature with that below the critical temperature Tc of the superconductor. It can be observed that at frequencies below the gap frequency fg, the low in the superconducting CPW is significantly lower than that in a normal CPW. Above fg, however, the material loses its superconductivity and the loss in both temperatures becomes comparable. In our analysi, we have also shown that the loss decreases as the gap bewteen the strip and groundplane becomes wider. Hence, with careful design, the loss in a CPW can actuall y be minimized.

  7. CONFORMAL MAPPING ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nataraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A conformal mapping analysis of various coplanar waveguide structures is presented on silicon substrate. The analysis is based on quasi-TEM analysis which is used in formulating the electrical parameters of a transmission line. Different coplanar structure configurations are investigated. Simulation results are presented for coplanar waveguides etched on the surface of a rectangular silicon substrate. Calculated electrical parameters like line capacitance, characteristic impedance, effective dielectric constant and phase velocity and simulated results shows tapered waveguides are more suitable for tunable devices like MEMS phase shifters, varactor designs. The results shows return loss of conventional CPW designs varying from 32 dB at 1 GHz to a value of 52 dB at 40 GHz. The loss of Bow-tie and Bow-tie ground tapered configurations are above 29 dB at 1dB and above 39 dB at 32 GHz. The insertion loss obtained from simulation of the 3 coplanar waveguide designs is less than 1 dB upto 30GHz.

  8. Electro-optic coefficient mapping and the design, fabrication and analysis of coplanar waveguide resonators in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raghuram

    1997-12-01

    are compared with theory to describe the electro-magnetic behavior of the CPW resonator. A novel pseudo-TEM mode analysis has been adopted to determine the characteristics of the even mode of the coplanar waveguide.

  9. 晚期肺癌非共面和共面IMRT剂量学比较研究%Comparative study of coplanar and non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡睿; 吴锦昌; 周俊东; 沈丹青; 吴朝霞; 王石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the dosimetry and safety of the non-coplanar IMRT plan for advanced lung cancer.Methods The two groups IMRT plans were designed with coplanar (5,7F) and non-coplanar field (5,7F-n) for patients.To compare the dosimetry of two groups and perform 4 patients F7-n IMRT plan.Results With the increase of the fields in each group PTV's CI were improved (all P =0.000),especially the 7F-n plan PTV's Dmean,Dmax,V95% and HI also were improved (P=0.001,0.001,0.009,0.000) ; in the coplanar group each lung' s V5 increased (P =0.000,0.002,0.000) and whole lung's Dmean increased (P =0.000),but non-coplanar group whole lung's and contralateral lung's V5 reduce (P =0.001,0.005).Between the groups,7F-n plan PTV's indicators were all improved to compared with 5F plan (all P =0.000),and each lung's V20 reduced (all P =0.000),and whole lung's Dmean,V30,contralateral lung' s V5 reduced (P =0.000,0.001,0.000),and spinal cord' s Dmax also reduced (P =0.033),but ipsilateral lung's V5 and heart's Dmean increased (P =0.000,0.003);with compared to 7F plan,the 7F-n's ipsilateral lung's V5 and heart's Dmean also increased (P =0.000,0.048),but whole lung' s and contralateral lung's V5 decreased (all P =0.000).Four patients were performed successfully non-coplanar IMRT treatment,no collision occurred.Conclusions 7 fields non-coplanar IMRT plan not only improve the dose distribution of PTV,but also effectively control the volume of low dose lung increase,lung V20 and Dmean reduce too.Thus recommended to use this design in patients with advanced lung cancer for radiotherapy%目的 比较研究晚期肺癌非共面IMRT计划剂量学分布特点,并观察计划执行安全性.方法 对14例晚期肺癌患者优化设计共面和非共面5、7个野IMRT计划,对比共面、非共面各组内及组间计划优化结果.观察4例患者非共面7个野计划的执行过程.结果 随射野数目增加共面及非共面靶区CI均改善(P值均为0.000),

  10. Analysis of a Segmented Annular Coplanar Capacitive Tilt Sensor with Increased Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahao; Hu, Pengcheng; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of a segmented annular coplanar capacitor is presented. We focus on its theoretical model, and a mathematical expression of the capacitance value is derived by solving a Laplace equation with Hankel transform. The finite element method is employed to verify the analytical result. Different control parameters are discussed, and each contribution to the capacitance value of the capacitor is obtained. On this basis, we analyze and optimize the structure parameters of a segmented coplanar capacitive tilt sensor, and three models with different positions of the electrode gap are fabricated and tested. The experimental result shows that the model (whose electrode-gap position is 10 mm from the electrode center) realizes a high sensitivity: 0.129 pF/° with a non-linearity of <0.4% FS (full scale of ± 40°). This finding offers plenty of opportunities for various measurement requirements in addition to achieving an optimized structure in practical design. PMID:26805844

  11. An Efficient ICT Method for Analysis of Co-planar Dipole Antenna Arrays of Arbitrary Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Imoro, Adam Icarus; Aoki, Ippo; Inagaki, Naoki; Kikuma, Nobuyoshi; キクマ, ノブヨシ; 菊間, 信良

    1998-01-01

    A more judicious choice of trial functions to implement the Improved Circuit Theory (ICT) application to multi-element antennas is achieved. These new trial functions, based on Tai's modified variational implementation for single element antennas, leads to an ICT implementation applicable to much longer co-planar dipole arrays. The accuracy of the generalized impedance formulas is in good agreement with the method of moments. Moreover, all these generalized formulas including the radiation pa...

  12. Vision Servo Motion Control and Error Analysis of a Coplanar XXY Stage for Image Alignment Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.

  13. Fixed field intensity modulation to treat a dominant intra-prostatic lobe (DIL) to >90 gy compared to seven field 3-dimensional non-coplanar radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The specific goal of this study was to use three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to treat the entire prostate to a total dose of 73.8 Gy, while concurrently treating the dominant intra-prostatic lobe (DIL), defined by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to >90 Gy. Recent studies supported by pathological clinical correlation suggest that MRSI allows differentiation of normal and carcinomatous prostate based on the choline+creatine to citrate ratio (Kurhanewicz et al. Radiology 193:196, 1994). The purpose of this study was to assess the potential application of dose escalation by use of fixed beam intensity modulation, to determine a 'safe dose'. Materials and Methods: For this study the DIL was assumed to encompass the entire left lobe of the prostate. University of Michigan three dimensional treatment planning software was used to design a partially shielded 7 field conformal non-coplanar isodose distribution that would treat the prostate to 73.8 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day (80% isodose line), while concurrently treating the DIL to 2.25 Gy per day (100% isodose line) to >90 Gy. The isocenter was placed at the medial edge of the DIL. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were used to compare the rectal doses of these two techniques. The 'Critical Volume Tolerance' Method as proposed by Roach et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35:1019-1025, 1996) was used to estimate tolerance. Results: The DVH comparing the two techniques are shown below. This approach allowed a total dose of 90 Gy to be delivered to the DIL while the rectal dose was actually lower using the fixed beam intensity modulated approach than it was with the standard 7 field technique. For example, the dose to 30 cm3 of the rectum was 90 cGy vs. 70 cGy using the standard 7 fields vs. fixed beam intensity modulated technique, respectively. It should be noted that because of differences in the dose per fraction the biologic advantages are likely to be even greater. Conclusions

  14. Analysis of a flip-chip bonded tunable high-temperature superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator using the conformal mapping technique

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, M; Murakami, H; Tonouchi, M

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the tuning properties of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) half-wavelength coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator operating at 5 GHz. The tuning schemes are based on flip-chip bonding of an electrically tunable ferroelectric (FE) thin film and a mechanically movable low-loss single crystal on top of the resonator. Using the conformal mapping method, closed-form analytical expressions have been derived for a flip-chip bonded conductor-backed and top-shielded CPW transmission line. The obtained expressions are used to analyse the volume effect of the FE thin film and the gap between the flip-chip and the CPW resonator on the tuning properties of the device. It has been found that large frequency modulation of the resonator produces impedance mismatch, which can considerably enhance the insertion loss of high-performance HTS microwave devices. Analysis also suggests that, for electrically tunable devices, flip-chip bonded FE thin films on HTS CPW devices provide a relatively higher performance...

  15. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  16. Design and performance of a high-Tc superconductor coplanar waveguide filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Bajuk, Louis J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a coplanar waveguide low-pass filter made of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) on an LaAlO3 substrate is described. Measurements were incorporated into simple models for microwave CAD analysis to develop a final design. The patterned and packaged coplanar waveguide low-pass filter of YBCO, with dimensions suited for integrated circuits, exhibited measured insertion losses when cooled in liquid nitrogen superior to those of a similarly cooled thin-film copper filter throughout the 0 to 9.5 GHz passband. Coplanar waveguide models for use with thin-film normal metal (with thickness either greater or less than the skin depth) and YBCO are discussed and used to compare the losses of the measured YBCO and copper circuits.

  17. Dosimetric comparison between coplanar and non coplanar field radiotherapy for ethmoid sinus cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serre Antoine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare non coplanar field (NCF with coplanar field (CF -intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for ethmoid cancer. Methods Seven patients treated with NCF IMRT for ethmoid cancer were studied. A CF IMRT optimization was prepared with the same constraints as for the NCF treatment. The maximum point doses (D max obtained for the different optic pathway structures (OPS should differ no more than 3% from those achieved with the NCF IMRT plan. The distribution of the dose in the target volume and in the critical structures was compared between the two techniques, as well as the Conformity (CI and the Homogeneity Indexes (HI in the target volume. Results We noted no difference between the two techniques in the OPS for the D1, D2, and D5%, in the inner ear and controlateral lens for the average Dmax, in the temporo-mandibular joints for the average mean dose, in the cord and brainstem for the average D1%. The dose-volume histograms were slightly better with the NCF treatment plan for the planning target volume (PTV with a marginally better HI but no impact on CI. We found a great improvement in the PTV coverage with the CF treatment plan for two patients with T4 tumors. Conclusion IMRT is one of the treatment options for ethmoid cancer. The PTV coverage is optimal without compromising the protection of the OPS. The impact of non coplanar versus coplanar set up is very slight.

  18. Dosimetric comparison between coplanar and non coplanar field radiotherapy for ethmoid sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare non coplanar field (NCF) with coplanar field (CF) -intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for ethmoid cancer. Seven patients treated with NCF IMRT for ethmoid cancer were studied. A CF IMRT optimization was prepared with the same constraints as for the NCF treatment. The maximum point doses (D max) obtained for the different optic pathway structures (OPS) should differ no more than 3% from those achieved with the NCF IMRT plan. The distribution of the dose in the target volume and in the critical structures was compared between the two techniques, as well as the Conformity (CI) and the Homogeneity Indexes (HI) in the target volume. We noted no difference between the two techniques in the OPS for the D1, D2, and D5%, in the inner ear and controlateral lens for the average Dmax, in the temporo-mandibular joints for the average mean dose, in the cord and brainstem for the average D1%. The dose-volume histograms were slightly better with the NCF treatment plan for the planning target volume (PTV) with a marginally better HI but no impact on CI. We found a great improvement in the PTV coverage with the CF treatment plan for two patients with T4 tumors. IMRT is one of the treatment options for ethmoid cancer. The PTV coverage is optimal without compromising the protection of the OPS. The impact of non coplanar versus coplanar set up is very slight

  19. MHD analysis and heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal thin film flows in quasi-coplanar magnetic field for Tokamak liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical analysis of an open-channel liquid metal thin film with a quasi-coplanar strong applied magnetic field is carried out for a liquid metal divertor of tokamak device. The wall conductance ratio and the magnetic field inclinded angle appear to be the most important parameters to explain flow characteristics. As the flow rate increases, the velocity distribution with applied magnetic field is flat in the core region of flow and has jets at free surface of liquid metal film flow. In case of conductive walls, that effect is larger than insulated walls since open-channel, induced current circuits are constructed through walls, which causes a large magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) drag in that region. In case with inclined magnetic field, as the flow rate increases, the film height increases and the flow experiences three regimes whether wall is conductive ro not. Regime 1 is dominant by the viscous force, regime 2 by the film height direction component of magnetic field (y component), and regime 3 by the channel width direction component of magnetic field (z component). Characteristics and limits of each regime are examined. Using calculated velocity distributions, heat transfer at the free surface is examined. In case of ordinary hydrodynamic flow, the heat removal characteristic is superior to the MHD case

  20. Integral dose investigation of non-coplanar treatment beam geometries in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dan; Dong, Peng; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Automated planning and delivery of non-coplanar plans such as 4π radiotherapy involving a large number of fields have been developed to take advantage of the newly available automated couch and gantry on C-arm gantry linacs. However, there is an increasing concern regarding the potential changes in the integral dose that needs to be investigated. Methods: A digital torso phantom and 22 lung and liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients were included in the study. The digital phantom was constructed as a water equivalent elliptical cylinder with a major axis length of 35.4 cm and minor axis of 23.6 cm. A 4.5 cm diameter target was positioned at varying depths along the major axis. Integral doses from intensity modulated, non-coplanar beams forming a conical pattern were compared against the equally spaced coplanar beam plans. Integral dose dependence on the phantom geometry and the beam number was also quantified. For the patient plans, the non-coplanar and coplanar beams and fluences were optimized using a column generation and pricing approach and compared against clinical VMAT plans using two full (lung) or partial coplanar arcs (liver) entering at the side proximal to the tumor. Both the average dose to the normal tissue volume and the total volumes receiving greater than 2 Gy (V2) and 5 Gy (V5) were evaluated and compared. Results: The ratio of integral dose from the non-coplanar and coplanar plans depended on the tumor depth for the phantom; for tumors shallower than 10 cm, the non-coplanar integral doses were lower than coplanar integral doses for non-coplanar angles less than 60°. Similar patterns were observed in the patient plans. The smallest non-coplanar integral doses were observed for tumor 6–8 cm deep. For the phantom, the integral dose was independent of the number of beams, consistent with the liver SBRT patients but the lung SBRT patients showed slight increase in the integral dose when more beams were used. Larger

  1. Surface-to-surface transition via electromagnetic coupling of coplanar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert W.; Matolak, David W.

    1987-11-01

    A transition is investigated which couples coplanar waveguide on one substrate surface (a motherboard) to coplanar waveguide on another substrate surface (a semiconductor chip or subarray) placed above the first. No wire bonds are necessary. A full-wave analysis using coupled line theory is presented and verified experimentally. The use of this transition for coupling to millimeter-wave integrated circuits is discussed.

  2. Dynamics of a flexible tethered satellite system utilising various materials for coplanar and non-coplanar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Aaron Aw Teik; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system (TSS) in both planar and co-planar states. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers, each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre and serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. The three materials that are possible to be used for a space tether are tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond; it should be noted that the diamond used here is in a form of a nanotube thread. The tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorised option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), where the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A survival analysis was then performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamic performance envelope with respect to the tether's tension at different altitudes under the air-drag perturbation. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models were conducted and the difference in their performances was observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using tungsten shows a better dynamic performance than the other TSS options in a non-coplanar model.

  3. High-temperature superconducting coplanar waveguide microwave circuits and antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter compares the microwave characteristics such as skin depth and surface impedance of normal metal circuits with the penetration depth and surface impedance of high temperature superconducting circuits. In addition techniques to determine analytically and also to experimentally measure using a wafer probe the attenuation characteristics, such as the unloaded quality factor of superconducting unshielded coplanar waveguide, are presented. Further, computed propagation characteristic such as effective dielectric constant and characteristic impedance of unshielded coplanar waveguide on typical substrates used for superconducting circuits are also presented. Lastly, potential applications to microwave circuits and antennas are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Detecting multi-hit events in a CdZnTe coplanar grid detector using pulse shape analysis: A method for improving background rejection in the COBRA 0nubetabeta experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, J., E-mail: jnem500@npg.york.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Fulton, B.R.; Joshi, P.; Davies, P. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Muenstermann, D.; Schulz, O. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Str. 4, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Zuber, K. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Kern und Teilchenphysik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Freer, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-21

    A number of experiments are underway to search for a rare form of radioactivity, neutrinoless double beta decay, as a measurement of the half-life would enable the neutrino mass to be determined. The COBRA collaboration (Zuber, 2001; Dawson, 2009) employs CdZnTe detectors in such a search. This paper describes techniques using pulse shape analysis for identifying two-centre events in a coplanar grid CdZnTe detector. This enables Compton scatter events to be identified and so suppressing the background present within the COBRA detectors.

  5. Detecting multi-hit events in a CdZnTe coplanar grid detector using pulse shape analysis: A method for improving background rejection in the COBRA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments are underway to search for a rare form of radioactivity, neutrinoless double beta decay, as a measurement of the half-life would enable the neutrino mass to be determined. The COBRA collaboration (Zuber, 2001; Dawson, 2009) employs CdZnTe detectors in such a search. This paper describes techniques using pulse shape analysis for identifying two-centre events in a coplanar grid CdZnTe detector. This enables Compton scatter events to be identified and so suppressing the background present within the COBRA detectors.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of a Coplanar Airborne Separation Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Brantegem, K. C. R.; Van Paassen, M. M.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, an active conflict resolution task and a passive situation awareness assessment, were conducted that compared two versions of a constraint-based coplanar airborne separation assistance display. A baseline display showed a maneuver space based on 2-D projections of traffic and perfor

  7. Comportamiento de Laminaciones Coplanares y No Coplanares en Acero API5L X52 Simuladas mediante Elementos Finitos Behavior of Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Laminations in API5L X52 Steel Simulated by Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Servin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el comportamiento mecánico de laminaciones simples y escalonadas modeladas por elementos finitos en condiciones no lineales de esfuerzo-deformación, para comprender la secuencia de la interacción de los campos de esfuerzos en los extremos de la grietas. Se estableció una matriz de simulación variando la extensión circunferencial de las laminaciones, con espesor del tubo de 610mm de diámetro, con separación vertical y horizontal para el caso de laminaciones escalonadas. Se determino la función de distribución de esfuerzos en la región de las laminaciones en función de la presión en la grieta y en el tubo. Se estableció la presión que origina alcanzar la cedencia y resistencia ultima del material API5L X52, determinando que las laminaciones simples cuya extensión circunferencial va de 24 a 127 mm, soportan 50% más de presión de cedencia que las laminaciones escalonadas, y el 100% más de presión máxima permisible. Basados en la graficas presión versus radio de las laminaciones se concluye que las laminaciones no coplanares representan mayor riesgo de agrietamiento en una tubería.The mechanical behavior of the coplanar and non coplanar laminations by finite element using non lineal material conditions was determined, with the purpose of knowing the interaction sequence of the stress fields in the crack tips. The analysis includes a matrix simulation considering the circumferential length lamination, wall thickness of the pipe 610mm diameter, with vertical and horizontal distance for non coplanar laminations. The stress distribution in the laminations regions as a function of the internal pressures in the cracks and pipe were determined. The simulations done allowed defining the yield and the strength pressure that reach the mechanical properties of the API 5L X52. It was found that coplanar laminations with 24 at 127mm of circumferential length resist 50% more yield pressure than the non coplanar laminations and

  8. TLS-like temperature and power dependence for loss in superconducting coplanar resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Khalil, M.; Osborn, K.

    2013-03-01

    Loss in 2D superconducting coplanar resonators and qubits is often limited by two-level systems thought to be on the metal and substrate surfaces. While these TLSs are thought to be similar to those found in amorphous dielectrics, their nature is generally different. In most experiments, loss in coplanar resonators shows power and temperature dependence which disagrees with TLS theory. Here we will show new data from high-quality Al on sapphire coplanar resonators which is in qualitative agreement with TLS theory, and discuss the quantitative differences to TLS theory. The data on surface TLS behavior will be compared to resonator measurements of ALD-grown thin films.

  9. Surface-Wave Losses of Coplanar Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kasilingam, Dayalan P.; Rutledge, David B.

    1983-01-01

    Coplanar transmission lines lose energy to surface waves when the propagation constant of the surface-wave mode exceeds that of the transmission line. This happens when the substrate thickness is an appreciable fraction of a wavelength. The losses should become important in integrated circuits at near-millimeter wavelengths because it is hard to make the substrate thickness small compared to a wavelength. In this paper we have developed a theory based on reciprocity for predicting these losse...

  10. A coplanar wideband antenna based on metamaterial refractive surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Ridha; Labidi, Mondher; Choubani, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proceed by presenting a wideband coplanar antenna which can be used in various applications because of its performances such as broad band, small size and low-cost design. Then, we carried out many metamaterial refractive surface (MRS) simulations in order to optimize the antenna performances. Finally, a comparative study between different configurations of the proposed antenna integrated with MRS is presented. The proposed prototype covers the frequency band from 1.6 to 1.8 GHz.

  11. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  12. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  13. EEsoF MICAD and ACADEMY macro files for coplanar waveguide and finite ground plan coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of macro files is presented which when appended to either the EEsoF MICAD.ELE or EEsoF ACADEMY.ELE file permits the layout of coplanar waveguide and finite ground plane coplanar waveguide circuits.

  14. Measurement of mortar permittivity during setting using a coplanar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample. The measurements were compared with the impedance of a capacitor filled with the same material. The permittivity and insertion loss of the sensor showed valuable information about the setting process of a mortar slab during the first 28 days of the hardening process, and a good correlation between both measurements was obtained, so the proposed setup can be useful for structural surveillance and moisture detection in civil structures

  15. Comparative Analysis of Classifier Fusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zmyslony

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods of decision making by an ensemble of classifiers. The most popular are methods that have their origin in voting method, where the decision of the common classifier is a combination of individual classifiers’ outputs. This work presents comparative analysis of some classifier fusion methods based on weighted voting of classifiers’ responses and combination of classifiers’ discriminant functions. We discus different methods of producing combined classifiers based on weights. We show that it is notpossible to obtain classifier better than an abstract model of committee known as an Oracle if it is based only on weighted voting but models based on discriminant function or classifier using feature values and class numbers could outperform the Oracle as well. Delivered conclusions are confirmed by the results of computer experiments carried out on benchmark and computer generated data.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Classifier Fusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zmyslony

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods of decision making by an ensemble of classifiers. The most popular are methods that have their origin in voting method, where the decision of the common classifier is a combination of individual classifiers’ outputs. This work presents comparative analysis of some classifier fusion methods based on weighted voting of classifiers’ responses and combination of classifiers’ discriminant functions. We discus different methods of producing combined classifiers based on weights. We show that it is not possible to obtain classifier better than an abstract model of committee known as an Oracle if it is based only on weighted voting but models based on discriminant function or classifier using feature values and class numbers could outperform the Oracle as well. Delivered conclusions are confirmed by the results of computer experiments carried out on benchmark and computer generated data.

  17. Comparative analysis of collaboration networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov 'Master and Margarita', the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

  18. On non-coplanar Hohmann Transfer using angles as parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, Angel; Lacruz, Elvis; Abellan, Gabriel; Diaz, Sttiwuer

    2015-01-01

    We study a more complex case of Hohmann orbital transfer of a satellite by considering non-coplanar and elliptical orbits, instead of planar and circular orbits. We use as parameter the angle between the initial and transference planes that minimizes the energy, and therefore the fuel of a satellite, through the application of two non-tangential impulses for all possible cases. We found an analytical expression that minimizes the energy for each configuration. Some reasonable physical constraints are used: we apply impulses at perigee or apogee of the orbit, we consider the duration of the impulse to be short compared to the duration of the trip, we take the nodal line of three orbits to be coincident and the three semimajor axes to lie in the same plane. We study the only four possible cases but assuming non-coplanar elliptic orbits. In addition, we validate our method through a numerical solution obtained by using some of the actual orbital elements of Sputnik I and Vanguard I satellites. For these orbits, ...

  19. High precision measurement system based on coplanar XY-stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Miao, Jin-Wei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, You-Liang; Cheng, Fang

    2011-12-01

    A coplanar XY-stage, together with a high precise measurement system, is presented in this paper. The proposed coplanar XY-stage fully conforms to the Abbe principle. The symmetric structural design is considered to eliminate the structure deformation due to force and temperature changes. For consisting of a high precise measurement system, a linear diffraction grating interferometer(LDGI) is employed as the position feedback sensor with the resolution to 1 nm after the waveform interpolation, an ultrasonic motor HR4 is used to generate both the long stroke motion and the nano positioning on the same stage. Three modes of HR4 are used for positioning control: the AC mode in continuous motion control for the long stroke; the gate mode to drive the motor in low velocity for the short stroke; and the DC mode in which the motor works as a piezo actuator, enabling accurate positioning of a few nanometers. The stage calibration is carried out by comparing the readings of LDGI with a Renishaw laser interferometer and repeated 5 times. Experimental results show the XY-stage has achieved positioning accuracy in less than 20nm after the compensation of systematic errors, and standard deviation is within 20 nm for travels up to 20 mm.

  20. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  1. High-Tc superconductor coplanar waveguide filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Bajuk, Louis J.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Foote, Marc C.; Hunt, Brian D.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Riley, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide (CPW) low-pass filters made of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) on LaAlO3 substrates, with dimensions suited for integrated circuits, were fabricated and packaged. A complete filter gives a true idea of the advantages and difficulties in replacing thin-film metal with a high-temperature superconductor in a practical circuit. Measured insertion losses in liquid nitrogen were superior to the loss of a similar thin-film copper filter throughout the 0- to 9.5-GHz passband. These results demonstrate the performance of fully patterned YBCO in a practical CPW structure after sealing in a hermetic package.

  2. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  3. Target splitting non-coplanar RapidArc radiation therapy for a diffuse sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp: a novel delivery technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare conventional lateral photon-electron, fixed-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), coplanar and non-coplanar RapidArc for the treatment of a diffuse sebaceous gland carcinoma of the scalp. Comprehensive dosimetry comparisons were performed among 3D-CRT, IMRT and various RapidArc plans. Target coverage, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and doses to organs at risk (OAR) were calculated. Monitor unites (MUs) and delivery time of each treatment were also recorded to evaluate the execution efficiency. The influence of target splitting technique and non-coplanar planning on plan quality was discussed. IMRT was superior to 3D-CRT concerning targets’ coverage at the sacrifice of larger irradiated brain volumes to low doses. CIs and HIs were better in coplanar RapidArc and non-coplanar RapidArc plans than 3D-CRT and IMRT. Best dose coverage and sparing of OARs were achieved in non-coplanar plans using target splitting technique. Treatment delivery time was longest in the IMRT plan and shortest in the coplanar RapidArc plan without target splitting. The 3%/3 mm gamma test pass rates were above 95% for all the plans. Target splitting technique and non-coplanar arcs are recommended for total scalp irradiation

  4. Study on non-coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy in esophageal carcinoma implanted with permanent cardiac pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to evaluate the physical dose distributions in esophageal carcinoma implanted with permanent cardiac pacemaker treated with non-coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy (no-co-IMRT). Eight patients with esophageal carcinoma implanted cardiac pacemaker proven by histology were treated by IMRT. For each patient, we designed two IMRT plans by Eclipse IMRT inverse plan system: non-coplanar IMRT plan (3 coplanar fields and 2 non-coplanar fields) and coplanar IMRT plan (5 coplanar fields). The same physical parameter was applied to the same patient in both plans. Plans were evaluated in terms of dose-volume histogram, conformity index, homogeneity index monitor unit and control points. The results showed that no-co-IMRT plan could significantly reduce the max dose of implantable cardiac pacemaker and the wires (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found between no-co-IMRT plan and co-IMRT plan in target volume and other normal tissues Compared with co-IMRT plan, the monitor unit (MU) and control points of no-co-IMRT plan were not increased significantly (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the technique of no-co-IMRT can obtain the fewer max dose of implantable cardiac pacemaker and the wires during intensity modulated radiation therapy of esophageal carcinoma. (authors)

  5. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  6. The coplanar electron tube. Memorandum file report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, M.H.

    1976-12-01

    Coplanar electron tubes consisting of emitting, controlling and collecting electrodes on a single heated plane have been proposed as a method of achieving high temperature and high radiation resistant devices. In order to design these devices, the scaling laws must be obtained. Using computer techniques it was determined that while the plate current of a device still followed a general three-halves power curve, the effect of electrode areas and electrode spacing are far less pronounced then in multiplanar tubes. A number of auxiliary problems were studied and data was obtained indicating that both alumina and beryllia would be suitable substrates for these devices. Single crystal alumina (sapphire) was found to be satisfactory, but polycrystalline alumina was not, indicating some reaction with active material from the cathode. Polycrystalline beryllia, on the other hand, was satisfactory. A trough strip line was developed for use in a distributed amplifier, power coplanar tetrode, but time did not permit, nor did results warrant, the construction of such a device.

  7. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge in Nitrogen: Microdischarges Statistical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied statistical behavior of microdischarges of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD operated in nitrogen atmosphere at two input voltage regimes. We measured spectrally unresolved discharge patterns together with discharge electrical parameters using highspeed iCCD camera and digital storage oscilloscope. External synchronization enabled us to measure the discharge pattern during positive and/or negative half-period of input high voltage in the single-shotmode of operation. The comparison of microdischarges behavior during positive, negative and both half periods of input high voltage was performed for two levels of input voltage, i.e. voltage slightly above ignition voltage and high above ignition voltage (“overvoltage”. The number of microchannels crossing discharge gap was counted and compared with number of microdischarge current peaks observed during corresponding half-period of input high voltage. The relations of those incidences was shown and discussed.

  8. Superconducting Coplanar Switch and Phase Shifter for CMB Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Belier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Gadot, F.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zanonni, M.

    2016-08-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterization of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimize systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. A new generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting microbridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the injected current compared to the critical current. If the current injected inside the bridge is lower than the critical current, the phase of the signal passing through the bridge is tunable. A first prototype of this component working as a switch and as a phase shifter at 10 GHz has been made. The principle, the setup, and the first measurements made at 4 K will be shown.

  9. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold

  10. Electrode design for coplanar-grid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coplanar-grid charge sensing technique provides a method for improving the spectral response of gamma-ray detectors based on compound semiconductors, which typically have poor charge transport properties. The technique functions by effectively modifying the charge induction characteristics of the detector such that the dependence of detector signal on the depth of radiation interaction is minimized. The effectiveness of this technique however can be compromised by non-uniform charge induction characteristics across the detector. This paper examines such non-uniformity due to fringe effects near the detector edges. Alternate electrode configurations are studied that provide effective compensation for such effects. Results from experimental measurements and computer simulations are presented

  11. Coplanar, Microstrips and Coupled Microstrip Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bent Poul

    1995-01-01

    In the accessible literature is applied simplified calculation methods for coupled microstrips, as give a fair decision of the characteristic impedances within 10-20% accuracy. In this report it is succeeded to appear calculation methods that give the desired exactly calculations of differential...... mode impedance (identical to 2x odd mode impedance) and commom mode impedance (identical to 1/2x even mode impedance). The conformal mapping with Schwarz-Christoffel formula give no possibility for the inverse functions for a synthesis optimization. For that reason there is calculated figures, who can...... be used for stipulation of strip dimensions within 4% precision, referred to produced coupled microstrips and measured impedances. The report is initiated with exactly calculation of impedances for coplanar strips and microstrips, because these calculations apply to the calculations of coupled...

  12. Surveying colloid sedimentation by coplanar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duţu, C A; Vlad, A; Roda-Neve, C; Avram, I; Sandu, G; Raskin, J-P; Melinte, S

    2016-06-01

    By using coplanar waveguides, direct access to the dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of polystyrene beads with different diameters from 330 nm to 10 μm is provided. The relative variation of the transmission parameter with respect to water is monitored, ranging from [Formula: see text] obtained for a 9.5% solution with 330 nm diameter beads to ∼22% for 10 μm diameter particles at the same concentration. To highlight its applicability in biosensing, the technique was further employed to survey the clustering between biotin and streptavidin-coated beads. The transmission parameter displays a ∼50% increase for mixtures containing nine volumes of biotin and one volume of streptavidin-modified beads (4.5 ng μl(-1) of streptavidin) and reaches ∼400% higher values when equal volumes of biotin and streptavidin-coated beads (22.5 ng μl(-1) of streptavidin) were mixed. PMID:27114467

  13. Surveying colloid sedimentation by coplanar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duţu, C. A.; Vlad, A.; Roda-Neve, C.; Avram, I.; Sandu, G.; Raskin, J.-P.; Melinte, S.

    2016-06-01

    By using coplanar waveguides, direct access to the dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of polystyrene beads with different diameters from 330 nm to 10 μm is provided. The relative variation of the transmission parameter with respect to water is monitored, ranging from ∼ {3}% obtained for a 9.5% solution with 330 nm diameter beads to ∼22% for 10 μm diameter particles at the same concentration. To highlight its applicability in biosensing, the technique was further employed to survey the clustering between biotin and streptavidin-coated beads. The transmission parameter displays a ∼50% increase for mixtures containing nine volumes of biotin and one volume of streptavidin-modified beads (4.5 ng μl–1 of streptavidin) and reaches ∼400% higher values when equal volumes of biotin and streptavidin-coated beads (22.5 ng μl–1 of streptavidin) were mixed.

  14. Optimal impulsive ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The problem of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity was investigated in this paper.With reference frame established in the centroid of the target spacecraft,the process of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous was described by the relative equations based on cy-lindrical reference frame,and then the solutions and distributions of optimal rendezvous models of a kind of close ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous were provided.The simulation results showed that the guidance law based on the optimal rendezvous model in this research has good performance,and that the distributions of optimal rendezvous models of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with the chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity are similar,albeit with slight difference,to those of rendezvous between close circular orbits.The work in this paper is a useful extension to Prussing’s optimal ren-dezvous theory between close circular orbits.

  15. Optimization of coplanar high rate supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leimeng; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Kang; Zou, Jianping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we describe two efficient methods to enhance the electrochemical performance of high-rate coplanar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs). Through introducing MnO2 nanosheets on vertical-aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array, the areal capacitance and volumetric energy density exhibit tremendous improvements which have been increased from 0.011 mF cm-2 to 0.017 mWh cm-3 to 0.479 mF cm-2 and 0.426 mWh cm-3 respectively at an ultrahigh scan rate of 50000 mV s-1. Subsequently, by fabricating an asymmetric MSC, the energy density could be increased to 0.167 mWh cm-3 as well. Moreover, as a result of applying MnO2/VACNT as the positive electrode and VACNT as the negative electrode, the cell operating voltage in aqueous electrolyte could be increased to as high as 2.0 V. Our advanced planar MSCs could operate well at different high scan rates and offer a promising integration potential with other in-plane devices on the same substrate.

  16. SPACEBORNE SAR IMAGERY STEREO POSITIONING BASED ON RANGE-COPLANARITY EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Q. Cheng; Zhang, J. X.; Huang, G M; Luo, C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereo positioning is a important content for Spaceborne SAR imagery mapping, which is still lack of investigation depend on exterior orientation elements. In this paper, we firstly introduced the Range-Coplanarity (R-Cp) geometric imaging equation and its character for radar imagery, compared the difference and relationship between R-Cp and R-D model, and build stereo positioning rigorous model for spaceborne SAR imagery based on the R-Cp equation, satellite orbit, and pose refinement model....

  17. A dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare dosimetric parameters of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with regard to the coverage of planning target volume (PTV) and the sparing of organs at risk (OAR). Ten patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer were re-planned by VMAT (two-arc) plan and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans. Planning objectives were to deliver 60 Gy in 30 fractions to 95% of PTV, with maximum doses (Dmax) of <50 Gy to the optic nerves, optic chiasm, and brainstem, <40 Gy to the eyes and <10 Gy to the lenses. The target mean dose (Dmean) to the parotid glands was <25 Gy, and no constraints were applied to the lacrimal glands. Planning was optimized to minimized doses to OAR without compromising coverage of the PTV. VMAT and three non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans were compared using the heterogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) of the PTV, Dmax and Dmean of the OAR, treatment delivery time, and monitor units (MUs). The HI and CI of VMAT plan were superior to those of the 7-, 11-, and 15-beam non-coplanar IMRT. VMAT and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) showed equivalent sparing effects for the optic nerves, optic chiasm, brainstem, and parotid glands. For the eyes and lenses, VMAT achieved equivalent or better sparing effects when compared with the non-coplanar IMRT plans. VMAT showed lower MUs and reduced treatment delivery time when compared with non-coplanar IMRT. In 10 patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer, a VMAT plan provided better homogeneity and conformity for PTV than non-coplanar IMRT plans, with a shorter treatment delivery time, while achieving equal or better OAR-sparing effects and using fewer MUs

  18. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of benign skull-base tumors: a dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with Rapidarc® versus non-coplanar dynamic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Fanny; Magnier, Florian; Berger, Lucie; Miroir, Jessica; Chautard, Emmanuel; Verrelle, Pierre; Lapeyre, Michel; Biau, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign tumors of the skull base are a challenge when delivering radiotherapy. An appropriate choice of radiation technique may significantly improve the patient’s outcomes. Our study aimed to compare the dosimetric results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between non-coplanar dynamic arcs and coplanar volumetric modulated arctherapy (Rapidarc®). Methods Thirteen patients treated with Novalis TX® were analysed: six vestibular schwannomas, four pituitary adenomas and three m...

  19. ERP Software Evaluation and Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpic, Damir; Fertalj, Kresimir

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation performed in 2001 under the title Comparative Analysis of Information Systems Software in Croatia. The focus was set on the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software, which is present in Croatia. The investigation was performed from the standpoint of ERP applicability, regardless of the development methods and information technology. In other words, the evaluation was performed primarily from th...

  20. FISCAL DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE EU: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN CELEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the convergence indicators relative to fiscal area in the EU; subsequent to a description of the main peculiarities of the convergence criteria, the reseach develops a critical analysis on a comparative perspective of the actual values of fiscal convergence indicators registered in EU countries compared with the reference values of the indicators, with emphasis on the differences between emerging and developed countries.

  1. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  2. Image Reconstruction in Radio Astronomy with Non-Coplanar Synthesis Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, L.

    2015-03-01

    Traditional radio astronomy imaging techniques assume that the interferometric array is coplanar, with a small field of view, and that the two-dimensional Fourier relationship between brightness and visibility remains valid, allowing the Fast Fourier Transform to be used. In practice, to acquire more accurate data, the non-coplanar baseline effects need to be incorporated, as small height variations in the array plane introduces the w spatial frequency component. This component adds an additional phase shift to the incoming signals. There are two approaches to account for the non-coplanar baseline effects: either the full three-dimensional brightness and visibility model can be used to reconstruct an image, or the non-coplanar effects can be removed, reducing the three dimensional relationship to that of the two-dimensional one. This thesis describes and implements the w-projection and w-stacking algorithms. The aim of these algorithms is to account for the phase error introduced by non-coplanar synthesis arrays configurations, making the recovered visibilities more true to the actual brightness distribution model. This is done by reducing the 3D visibilities to a 2D visibility model. The algorithms also have the added benefit of wide-field imaging, although w-stacking supports a wider field of view at the cost of more FFT bin support. For w-projection, the w-term is accounted for in the visibility domain by convolving it out of the problem with a convolution kernel, allowing the use of the two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. Similarly, the w-Stacking algorithm applies a phase correction in the image domain to image layers to produce an intensity model that accounts for the non-coplanar baseline effects. This project considers the KAT7 array for simulation and analysis of the limitations and advantages of both the algorithms. Additionally, a variant of the Högbom CLEAN algorithm was used which employs contour trimming for extended source emission flagging. The

  3. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova E.V.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ecological indicators designed and specified for Moldova and similar indicators of the countries of CIS is made in the work. Some general items of information about power systems of the countries of CIS (the established capacities, manufacture of the electric power are given, the analysis of dynamics of emissions GHG- СО2, NOx, SO2 in Moldova and comparison with the emissions level in other countries of CIS is made.

  4. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael W I; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M; Gelinas, Yves; Thomas A.J. Kuhlbusch

    2001-01-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or...

  5. Josephson effect in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Superconducting proximity effect induced in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices. • Comparative study of Al/Bi2Se3 interfaces with various buffer layers. • Towards a Josephson super-current through the edge states of topological insulators. - Abstract: The edge states of Topological Insulators (TI) are protected against backscattering, thanks to the topological properties arising from their band structure. Coupling a TI to a superconductor (S) can induce unconventional effects, including the creation of Majorana bound states (MBS). The fabrication of coplanar hybrid devices is a fundamental step to pave the way to the understanding of proximity effects in topologically non-trivial systems, and to a large variety of experiments aimed at the possible detection of MBS. We discuss the feasibility and some relevant properties of Al–Bi2Se3–Al coplanar proximity devices. Special attention is devoted to the design of the junction, aimed at enhancing the coupling between the electrodes and the TI

  6. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  7. Concentric Coplanar Capacitive Sensor System with Quantitative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Nicola (Inventor); Chen, Tianming (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A concentric coplanar capacitive sensor includes a charged central disc forming a first electrode, an outer annular ring coplanar with and outer to the charged central disc, the outer annular ring forming a second electrode, and a gap between the charged central disc and the outer annular ring. The first electrode and the second electrode may be attached to an insulative film. A method provides for determining transcapacitance between the first electrode and the second electrode and using the transcapacitance in a model that accounts for a dielectric test piece to determine inversely the properties of the dielectric test piece.

  8. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  9. Comparative Analysis of Terrorists’ Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Alexandrovich Zhuravliev

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide-spread approach in a research literature to regard terrorism as a communicative process. From this point of view, the author offers a comparative analysis of the three most common communication strategies of terrorist groups, including transforming the role of the mass media, the Internet and a combined approach. The author also argues that a particular communication strategy determines a structure of a terrorist organization.

  10. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs) are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the...

  11. ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvraj Singh Chandrawat*

    2015-01-01

    We live in the age of technolgy and it is quiet obvious that it is increasing day-by-day endlessly. In this technical era researchers are focusing on the development of the existing technologies. Software engineering is the dominant branch of Computer Science that deals with the development and analysis of the software. The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the existing searching algorithms (linear search and binary search). In this paper, we will discuss both thes...

  12. Comparative analysis of enterprise architecture frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Oblak, Danica

    2012-01-01

    Today's enterprises are facing a competitive power in the dynamically changing business environment. With increasing complexity of enterprise, enterprise architecture have become an important field. Creating an enterprise architecture can be complex task, so enterprise architecture framework were created to simplify the process and guide an architect through all areas of architecture development. This study concentrates on the comparative analysis of enterprise architecture frameworks. T...

  13. Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DeHoog, Edward; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-01-01

    Retinal photography requires the use of a complex optical system, called a fundus camera, capable of illuminating and imaging the retina simultaneously. The patent literature shows two design forms but does not provide the specifics necessary for a thorough analysis of the designs to be performed. We have constructed our own designs based on the patent literature in optical design software and compared them for illumination efficiency, image quality, ability to accommodate for patient refract...

  14. Coplanar VMAT vs. noncoplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies showed that noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (NC-IMRT) for sinonasal cancer is superior to coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a newly introduced treatment modality, and the performance of noncoplanar VMAT for sinonasal cancer has not been well described to date. To compare the dosimetry difference of noncoplanar VMAT (NC-VMAT), coplanar VMAT (co-VMAT), and NC-IMRT for sinonasal cancer. Ten postoperative patients with sinonasal cancer were randomly selected for planning with NC-VMAT, co-VMAT, and NC-IMRT. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured representing high-risk and low-risk regions set to receive a median absorbed dose (D50%) of 68 Gy and 59 Gy, respectively. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and delivery efficiency were all evaluated. Both NC-VMAT and co-VMAT showed superior dose homogeneity and conformity in PTVs compared with NC-IMRT. There was no significant difference between NC-VMAT and co-VMAT in PTV coverage. Both VMAT plans provided a better protection for organs at risk (OARs) than NC-IMRT plans, and NC-VMAT showed a small improvement over co-VMAT in sparing of OARs. For peripheral doses, the doses to breast, thyroid, and larynx in the NC-IMRT plans were significantly higher than those in both VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT significantly reduced peripheral doses. NC-VMAT and co-VMAT reduced the average delivery time by 63.2 and 64.2 %, respectively, in comparison with NC-IMRT. No differences in delivery efficiency were observed between the two VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and comparable OAR sparing but significantly reduced peripheral doses and positioning uncertainty. We propose to give priority to coplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer. (orig.)

  15. Coplanar-grid detector with single-electrode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, M.; Luke, P.N.

    1997-04-01

    The coplanar-grid technique provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional detector designs and electronics when applied to gamma-ray detectors based on compound semiconductors. The technique realizes this improvement by measuring the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar-grid electrodes. By adjusting the relative gain between the two grid signals prior to subtraction, the difference signal can be made less sensitive to the poor carrier transport properties of the detector material and thus improve the spectral response of the detector. In this paper, the authors discuss a variation of the coplanar-grid method in which the signal from only one grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. In this scheme, only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar-grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used. Experimental results using CdZnTe detectors are presented.

  16. Accommodation of couch constraints for coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Three treatment couches, henceforth referred to as the standard, the variable standard and the C-arm couch, each based on a different supporting frame system, were investigated for their suitability for the delivery of a high number of coplanar beams (≥5) as may be required for intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments. Materials and methods: A number of equispaced beam arrangements (five to nine) were examined in combination with two circular target sizes (diameter 6 and 10 cm) at different locations within an elliptical body on the investigated couches, resulting in 70 different plans per couch. A rule based advisory system determined possible intersections of the beam paths with the supporting frames of the respective treatment couch and suggested a suitable constellation for the supporting frames. In cases of intersection, a beam-couch collision was eliminated by minimal rotation of the beams from the initial equispaced beam arrangement. To investigate the effect of a rotation of the posterior-oblique beams for five, seven and nine initially equispaced beams by an angle of 10 deg., a prostate plan was generated and compared with equispaced beam arrangement. Results: Initial beam paths intersected with the standard couch in 63% of the plans, necessitating a rotation of one or two beams. It was necessary to modify the beam angles in 34% of the cases on the variable standard couch to avoid an intersection of the beams with the couch. All the plans would have been delivered satisfactorily on the C-arm couch without a rotation of beams. Simulation studies showed that the dose distribution for a prostate treatment could be affected significantly, but not detrimentally, by the rotation of the two posterior-oblique beam orientations by an angle of 10 deg

  17. Radiotherapy for unresectable sinonasal cancers: Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiation therapy with coplanar and non-coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for treatment of unresectable paranasal sinuses cancers (PNSCs) with different clinical presentations. Material and methods: Four patients treated for primary target volume only (group 1), four requiring elective nodal irradiation (group 2) and four with positive nodes in macroscopic disease (group 3) were selected. For each patient were generated 7 fields IMRT, coplanar VMAT (c-VMAT) and non-coplanar VMAT (nc-VMAT) treatment plans. Total doses were 70 Gy and 54 Gy to high dose planning target volume (HD-PTV) and low-dose-PTV, respectively. Dose–volume histogram, conformity and homogeneity index (CI and HI), and monitor units (MUs) per Gy were evaluated. Results: VMAT provided significantly better target coverage, in terms of V100% (Volume encompassed by the isodose 100%), than IMRT, in particular when nc-VMAT was used. In general, organ at risk sparing is similar with the three approaches, although nc-VMAT can allow a statistically significant reduction of dose to contralateral parotid gland and cochlea for all three groups. Conclusions: VMAT can offer significant improvement of treatment for all unresectable PNSCs over existing IMRT techniques. In particular, nc-VMAT may be a further advantage for those patients with sinonasal cancers and involvement of the nodes in whom large volumes and complex/irregular shape have to be irradiated, even if clinical benefits should be established in the future

  18. Inpatient care in Kazakhstan: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur B Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reforms in inpatient care are critical for the enhancement of the efficiency of health systems. It still remains the main costly sector of the health system, accounting for more than 60% of all expenditures. Inappropriate and ineffective use of the hospital infrastructure is also a big issue. We aimed to analyze statistical data on health indices and dynamics of the hospital stock in Kazakhstan in comparison with those of developed countries. Materials and Methods: Study design is comparative quantitative analysis of inpatient care indicators. We used information and analytical methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, and comparative analysis of statistical data on health system and dynamics of hospital stock in Kazakhstan and some other countries of the world [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, and Korea] over the period 2001-2011. Results : Despite substantial and continuous reductions over the past 10 years, hospitalization rates in Kazakhstan still remain high compared to some developed countries, including those of the OECD. In fact, the hospital stay length for all patients in Kazakhstan in 2011 is around 9.9 days, hospitalization ratio per 100 people is 16.3, and hospital beds capacity is 100 per 10,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: The decreased level of beds may adversely affect both medical organization and health system operations. Alternatives to the existing inpatient care are now being explored. The introduction of the unified national healthcare system allows shifting the primary focus on primary care organizations, which can decrease the demand on inpatient care as a result of improving the health status of people at the primary care level.

  19. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M.; Gelinas, Yves; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or a combination of both. The remaining carbon, operationally defined as BC, was quantified via mass balance, elemental composition or by exploiting benzenecarboxylic acids as molecular markers or applying 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. BC concentrations measured for individual samples vary over 2 orders of magnitude (up to a factor of 571). One possible explanation for this wide range of results is that the individual BC methods rely on operational definitions with clear-cut but different boundaries and developed for specific scientific questions, whereas BC represents a continuum of materials with widely contrasting physicochemical properties. Thus the methods are inherently designed to analytically determine different parts of the continuum, and it is crucial to know how measurements made by different techniques relate to each other. It is clear from this preliminary comparative analysis that a collection of BC reference materials should be established as soon as possible 1 ) to ensure long-term intralaboratory and interlaboratory data quality and 2) to facilitate comparative analyses between different analytical techniques and scientific approaches

  20. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate the...... occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed ...

  2. 4π Non-Coplanar Liver SBRT: A Novel Delivery Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the quality of liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments, a novel 4π framework was developed with accompanying algorithms to optimize non-coplanar beam orientations and fluences. The dose optimization is performed on a patient-specific deliverable beam geometry solution space, parameterized with patient and linear accelerator gantry orientations. Methods and Materials: Beams causing collision between the gantry and the couch or patient were eliminated by simulating all beam orientations using a precise computer assisted design model of the linear accelerator and a human subject. Integrated beam orientation and fluence map optimizations were performed on remaining beams using a greedy column generation method. Testing of the new method was performed on 10 liver SBRT cases previously treated with 50 to 60 Gy in 5 fractions using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). For each patient, both 14 and 22 non-coplanar fields were selected and optimized to meet the objective of ≥95% of the planning target volume (PTV) covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk, normal liver volumes receiving <15 Gy, integral dose, and 50% dose spillage volumes were compared against the delivered clinical VMAT plans. Results: Compared with the VMAT plans, the 4π plans yielded reduced 50% dose spillage volume and integral dose by 22% (range 10%-40%) and 19% (range 13%-26%), respectively. The mean normal liver volume receiving <15 Gy was increased by 51 cc (range 21-107 cc) with a 31% reduction of the mean normal liver dose. Mean doses to the left kidney and right kidney and maximum doses to the stomach and spinal cord were on average reduced by 70%, 51%, 67%, and 64% (P≤.05). Conclusions: This novel 4π non-coplanar radiation delivery technique significantly improved dose gradient, reduced high dose spillage, and improved organ at risk sparing compared with state of the art VMAT plans

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  4. Comparison of coplanar and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the differences in dose-volume data among coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), noncoplanar IMRT, and helical tomotherapy (HT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Nine patients with unresectable HCC and PVT underwent step and shoot coplanar IMRT with intent to deliver 46 - 54 Gy to the tumor and portal vein. The volume of liver received 30Gy was set to keep less than 30% of whole normal liver (V30 < 30%). The mean dose to at least one side of kidney was kept below 23 Gy, and 50 Gy as for stomach. The maximum dose was kept below 47 Gy for spinal cord. Several parameters including mean hepatic dose, percent volume of normal liver with radiation dose at X Gy (Vx), uniformity index, conformal index, and doses to organs at risk were evaluated from the dose-volume histogram. HT provided better uniformity for the planning-target volume dose coverage than both IMRT techniques. The noncoplanar IMRT technique reduces the V10 to normal liver with a statistically significant level as compared to HT. The constraints for the liver in the V30 for coplanar IMRT vs. noncoplanar IMRT vs. HT could be reconsidered as 21% vs. 17% vs. 17%, respectively. When delivering 50 Gy and 60-66 Gy to the tumor bed, the constraints of mean dose to the normal liver could be less than 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. Noncoplanar IMRT and HT are potential techniques of radiation therapy for HCC patients with PVT. Constraints for the liver in IMRT and HT could be stricter than for 3DCRT

  5. Nigerian Power Sector: Comparative Analysis of Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuamadi ObiomaChidiebere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, power instability in the Nigerian Power Sector despite several mitigative measures by the government has created some chocks in the national socio-economic wheel of development. Unfortunately, the conceptual objective of the power reforms to remedy inadequate power generation capacity, inefficient usage of capacity, ineffective regulation and high technical losses is tardily being achieved. This research comparatively analyzed the rate of productivity change in Nigeria’s power sector from 2005 – 2013. The analysis reveals that privatization improved the productivity index by 89%. It is expected that this work may assist the power policy makers and regulators to come up with abetter framework for the full realization of the noble goals envisaged in this reform act.

  6. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  8. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: Characteristics and Advantages Evaluated for Radiofrequency and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers in NASA Lewis Research Center s Electron Device Technology Branch are developing transmission lines for radiofrequency and wireless circuits that are more efficient, smaller, and make lower cost circuits possible. Traditionally, radiofrequency and wireless circuits have employed a microstrip or coplanar waveguide to interconnect the various electrical elements that comprise a circuit. Although a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is widely viewed as better than a microstrip for most applications, it too has problems. To solve these problems, NASA Lewis and the University of Michigan developed a new version of a coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes. Through extensive numerical modeling and experimental measurements, we have characterized the propagation constant of the FGC waveguide, the lumped and distributed circuit elements integrated in the FGC waveguide, and the coupling between parallel transmission lines. Although the attenuation per unit length is higher for the FGC waveguide because of higher conductor loss, the attenuation is comparable when the ground plane width is twice the center conductor width as shown in the following graph. An upper limit to the line width is derived from observations that when the total line width is greater than ld/2, spurious resonances due to the parallel plate waveguide mode are established. Thus, the ground plane width must be less than ld/4 where ld is the wavelength in the dielectric. Since the center conductor width S is typically less than l/10 to maintain good transverse electromagnetic mode characteristics, it follows that a ground plane width of B = 2S would also be electrically narrow. Thus, we can now treat the ground strips of the FGC waveguide the same way that the center conductor is treated.

  9. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  10. Resonance modes in coplanar lines with integrated Josephson circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, A. V.; Satanin, A. M.; Mironov, V. A.; Il'ichev, E.

    2013-11-01

    The propagation of microwave radiation in co-planar superconducting lines with Josephson circuits (microresonators) of various configurations is investigated. It is shown that dips in the frequency dependence of the transmission power of the waveguide line modes are associated with local modes of the circuit. The dependencies of shape and position of the dips on an external magnetic field and applied power are found. The calculation results can be used for developing modern cryoelectronic microwave superconducting devices.

  11. Experimental demonstrations of high-Q superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haijie; Wang, Yiwen; Wei, Lianfu; Zhou, Pinjia; Wei, Qiang (Ethan); Cao, Chunhai; Fang, Yurong; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng

    2013-01-01

    We designed and successfully fabricated an absorption-type of superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators. The resonators are made from a Niobium film (about 160 nm thick) on a high-resistance Si substrate, and each resonator is fabricated as a meandered quarter-wavelength transmission line (one end shorts to the ground and another end is capacitively coupled to a through feedline). With a vector network analyzer we measured the transmissions of the applied microwave through the reson...

  12. A novel coplanar slot antenna structure for wireless applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dakir, Rachid; Zbitou, Jamal; Mouhsen, Ahmed; Tribak, Abdelwahed; Mediavilla Sánchez, Ángel; Latrach, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new compact broadband coplanar slot antenna for multiple wireless communication applications which include WIMAX, RFID, WLAN and ISM bands. The antenna structure is based on the CPW-fed combined with a slot technique and a modified geometry antenna in order to enlarge the bandwidth. The antenna parameters have been investigated and optimized by using Momentum software integrated into ADS” Advanced Design System” from Agilent Technologies with a comparison of the results ...

  13. A compact wideband monopole antenna fed by coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guoping; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhou, Jiang; Su, Yan; Li, Qifu

    2016-02-01

    A compact wideband printed antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is presented in this paper. The wideband characteristic is achieved by coupling three monopole resonant modes of the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is built and simulated to verify the design strategy. A wide impedance bandwidth of 100.5% (1.7866-5.3953 GHz) with S11antenna has stable performance, including bi-directional radiation pattern and gain. It also shows the merits of low cost and simple structure.

  14. An Ultrawideband Monopole Fractal Antenna with Coplanar Waveguide Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naeem Iqbal; Hamood-Ur-Rahman; Syeda Fizzah Jilani

    2014-01-01

    A novel ultrawideband fractal antenna in monopole configuration is proposed. Wideband behavior and miniaturization is achieved using concentric heptagonal array structure. Coplanar waveguide is used to feed fractal antenna. Base shape for fractal antenna is heptagonal geometry. Final fractal shape is achieved by performing four base shape iterations. FR4 substrate is used for antenna fabrication. Simulated and measured results comparison shows a bandwidth of 7 GHz with 9 GHz center frequency....

  15. A dosimetric comparison of non-coplanar IMRT versus Helical Tomotherapy for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purposes: To determine if there are clinically significant differences between the dosimetry of sinus tumors delivered by non-coplanar LINAC-based IMRT techniques and Helical Tomotherapy (HT). HT is capable of delivering highly conformal and uniform target dosimetry. However, HT lacks non-coplanar capability, which is commonly used for linear accelerator-based IMRT for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors. Methods and materials: We selected 10 patients with representative early and advanced nasal cavity and paranasal sinus malignancies treated with a preoperative dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions without coverage of the cervical lymphatics for dosimetric comparison. Each plan was independently optimized using either Corvus inverse treatment planning system, commissioned for a Varian 2300 CD linear accelerator with 1 cm multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, or the HT inverse treatment planning system. A non-coplanar seven field technique was used in all Corvus plans with five mid-sagittal fields and two anterior oblique fields as described by Claus et al. [F. Claus, W. De Gersem, C. De Wagter, et al., An implementation strategy for IMRT of ethmoid sinus cancer and bilateral sparing of the optic pathways, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (2001) 318-331], whereas only coplanar beamlets were used in HT planning. Dose plans were compared using DVHs, the minimum PTV dose to 1 cm3 of the PTV, a uniformity index of planned treatment volume (PTV), and a comprehensive quality index (CQI) based on the maximum dose to optical structures, parotids and the brainstem which were deemed as the most critical adjacent structures. Results: Both planning systems showed comparable PTV dose coverage, but HT had significantly higher uniformity (p < 0.01) inside the PTV. The CQI for all organs at risk were equivalent except ipsilateral lenses and eyes, which received statistically lower dose from HT plans (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Overall HT provided equivalent or slightly better normal structure

  16. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  17. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  18. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  19. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  1. Theoretical calculation of the triple differential cross sections of the 2p orbital of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛自明; 周雅君; 吕志伟; 王治文

    2002-01-01

    The triple differential cross sections of the 2p electron of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry have beencalculated with the modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the target Hartree-Fock approximationmethods. The damping polarization of the semi-classical short-range potentials and the Mee factor are included in thedistorting potentials of the modified DWBA. Theoretical results are compared with a recent experiment. The dynamicmechanism of inner shell ionization in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry (e, 2e) reaction are also discussed.

  2. AUDITOR ROTATION - A CRITICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocanu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts out from the challenge regarding auditor tenure launched in 2010 by the Green Paper of the European Commission Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis. According to this document, the European Commission speaks both in favor of the mandatory rotation of the audit firm, and in favor of the mandatory rotation of audit partners. Rotation is considered a solution to mitigate threats to independence generated by familiarity, intimidation and self-interest in the context of a long-term audit-client relationship. At international level, there are several studies on auditor rotation, both empirical (e.g. Lu and Sivaramakrishnan, 2009, Li, 2010, Kaplan and Mauldin, 2008, Jackson et al., 2008 and normative in nature (e.g. Marten et al., 2007, Muller, 2006 and Gelter, 2004. The objective of the present paper is to perform a critical and comparative analysis of the regulations on internal and external rotation in force at international level, in the European Union and in the United States of America. Moreover, arguments both in favor and against mandatory rotation are brought into discussion. With regard to the research design, the paper has a normative approach. The main findings are first of all that by comparison, all regulatory authorities require internal rotation at least in the case of public interest entities, while the external rotation is not in the focus of the regulators. In general, the most strict and detailed requirements are those issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission from the United States of America. Second of all, in favor of mandatory rotation speaks the fact that the auditor becomes less resilient in case of divergence of opinions between him and company management, less stimulated to follow his own interest, and more scrupulous in conducting the audit. However, mandatory rotation may also have negative consequences, thus the debate on the opportunity of this regulatory measure remains open-ended.

  3. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  4. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  5. Modeling, fabrication and demonstration of an electrostatic actuator with a coplanar pre-charged electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the modeling, fabrication and measurement results of a novel electrostatic actuator with a coplanar pre-charged electrode. Different from the conventional electrostatic actuator, the pull-in voltage of the proposed actuator can be freely controlled even after fabrication by inducing charges prior to use in the auxiliary electrode right next to the actuation electrode. To investigate the static and dynamic characteristics of the proposed actuator, analytical models were first developed on the basis of a parallel-plate capacitor model. We then successfully designed, fabricated, and evaluated a micro-switch with a fixed–fixed beam and a coplanar pre-charged electrode. By properly introducing a dimple structure, the pull-in voltage of the fabricated micro-switch was reduced from 71.2 V to 6.8 V when pre-charged by 58.8 V. The resonant frequency of the fabricated micro-switch was 84.8% of the initial resonant frequency when the reduced pull-in voltage of the device was half of the original pull-in voltage. These measurement results were compared with those from the analytical models and FEM simulation, showing deviations of less than 12%. This work can favorably be adapted and used in designing an electrostatic micro-switch since the proposed switch can remarkably reduce the pull-in voltage as desired without notable performance degradation

  6. Control of polymer-packing orientation in thin films through synthetic tailoring of backbone coplanarity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-10-22

    Controlling solid-state order of π-conjugated polymers through macromolecular design is essential for achieving high electronic device performance; yet, it remains a challenge, especially with respect to polymer-packing orientation. Our work investigates the influence of backbone coplanarity on a polymer\\'s preference to pack face-on or edge-on relative to the substrate. Isoindigo-based polymers were synthesized with increasing planarity by systematically substituting thiophenes for phenyl rings in the acceptor comonomer. This increasing backbone coplanarity, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of representative trimers, leads to the narrowing of polymer band gaps as characterized by ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Among the polymers studied, regiosymmetric II and TII polymers exhibited the highest hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), while in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), TBII polymers that display intermediate levels of planarity provided the highest power conversion efficiencies. Upon thin-film analysis by atomic force microscropy (AFM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), we discovered that polymer-packing orientation could be controlled by tuning polymer planarity and solubility. Highly soluble, planar polymers favor face-on orientation in thin films while the less soluble, nonplanar polymers favor an edge-on orientation. This study advances our fundamental understanding of how polymer structure influences nanostructural order and reveals a new synthetic strategy for the design of semiconducting materials with rationally engineered solid-state properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Chilton, Caroline Hazel

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in availability of next generation sequencing methodologies has led to extensive analysis of the genome of Clostridium difficile. In contrast, protein expression analysis, crucial to the elucidation of mechanisms of disease, has severely lagged behind. In this study, in-depth proteomic analysis of three strains of varying virulence, demonstrated previously in an animal model, has been undertaken against a background of the sequenced genomes. Strain B-1 is ...

  8. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  9. Characterization of a Coplanar Waveguide Open Stub-Based Discontinuity for MMICs and Filter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and design of an open stub-based two-port discontinuity in a coplanar waveguide. The discontinuity has a good bandpass response and the required design characteristics were achieved by using the method of moments (MOM and the finite integration technique (FIT. The analysis is found to be computationally efficient which makes the discontinuity suitable for use in complex structure applications. The analysis of the discontinuity is also formulated using the quasi-static finite-difference technique. The proposed discontinuity structure finds applications in RFICs and MMICs. Finally, the application of the discontinuity is supported by the simulated design of a broadband bandpass filter on an MMIC with a relative bandwidth of 96%. The filter is found to have a miniature size and a fairly good stop band rejection.

  10. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage.  The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved.   Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 compan...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maina A. S. Waweru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage. The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved. Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies...

  13. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along rvec B. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization

  14. Design and study of a coplanar grid array CdZnTe detector for improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplanar grid (CPG) CdZnTe detectors have been used as gamma-ray spectrometers for years. Comparing with pixelated CdZnTe detectors, CPG CdZnTe detectors have either no or poor spatial resolution, which directly limits its use in imaging applications. To address the issue, a 2×2 CPG array CdZnTe detector with dimensions of 7×7×5 mm3 was fabricated. Each of the CPG pairs in the detector was moderately shrunk in size and precisely designed to improve the spatial resolution while maintaining good energy resolution, considering the charge loss at the surface between the strips of each CPG pairs. Preliminary measurements were demonstrated at an energy resolution of 2.7–3.9% for the four CPG pairs using 662 keV gamma rays and with a spatial resolution of 3.3 mm, which is the best spatial resolution ever achieved for CPG CdZnTe detectors. The results reveal that the CPG CdZnTe detector can also be applied to imaging applications at a substantially higher spatial resolution. - Highlights: • A novel structure of coplanar grid CdZnTe detector was designed to evaluate the possibility of applying the detector to gamma-ray imaging applications. • The best spatial resolution of coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors ever reported has been achieved, along with good spectroscopic performance. • Depth correction of the energy spectra using a new algorithm is presented

  15. Losses in coplanar waveguide resonators at millikelvin temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Macha P.; Van Der Ploeg S.H.W.; Oelsner G.; Il'Ichev E.; Meyer H.-G.; Wunsch S.; Siegel M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the loss rate for a set of lambda/2 coplanar waveguide resonators at millikelvin temperatures (20 mK - 900mK) and different applied powers (3E-19 W - 1E-12 W). The loss rate becomes power independent below a critical power. For a fixed power, the loss rate increases significantly with decreasing temperature. We show that this behavior can be caused by two-level systems in the surrounding dielectric materials. Interestingly, the influence of the two-level systems is of the same order ...

  16. Unipolar charge sensing with coplanar electrodes -- Application to semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method to perform preferential sensing of single-polarity charge carriers in ionization detectors is presented. It achieves the same function as Frisch grids commonly employed in gas ion chambers but uses a coplanar electrode configuration that allows it to be applied to semiconductor detectors. Through the use of this method, good energy resolution can be obtained from room-temperature compound semiconductor detectors despite their poor hole-collection characteristics. Experiment using a CdZnTe detector demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique. Schemes to correct for electron trapping and to obtain position information are also described

  17. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.  

  18. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  19. Comparative analysis of Orem's and King's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanucharurnkul, S

    1989-05-01

    Dorothea Orem and Imogene King are two nursing theorists who are contributing significantly to the development of nursing knowledge. This paper compares the similarities and differences in their strategies for theory development, their views of nursing metaparadigm concepts, and their theories of nursing system and goal attainment in terms of scope, usefulness, and their unique contribution to nursing science. PMID:2738232

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Global Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalsen, Maiken Foss

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is development of corporate social responsibility in a global context, and examines and compares the practice of CSR in different countries around the world. Furthermore, the question of whether or not CSR should be regulated by law is discussed.

  1. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  2. General Education Requirements: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Darrell B.; Koeppel, Katie

    2009-01-01

    While "general education" is a phrase heavily used in higher education, Leskes and Wright note that it has multiple meanings: it can refer to those courses that a college or university requires all of its students must pass as a condition for graduation, a common curriculum, a distribution requirement, or even core texts. This analysis of general…

  3. Industrialization Lessons from BRICS: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim A.; Szirmai, Adam; Lavopa, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    To date there has been few systematic and comparative empirical analyses of the nature of economic development in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). We contribute to addressing this gap by exploring the patterns of structural change between 1980 and 2010, focusing on the manufacturing sector. We show that three of the BRICS are experiencing de-industrialization (Brazil, Russia and South Africa). China is the only country where an expanding manufacturing sector accounts for...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Prerana Nampalli; Prakarsh Sangave

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2), (G+4), (G+6) storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cas...

  5. Loss Given Default Modelling: Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated several most popular Loss Given Default (LGD) models (LSM, Tobit, Three-Tiered Tobit, Beta Regression, Inflated Beta Regression, Censored Gamma Regression) in order to compare their performance. We show that for a given input data set, the quality of the model calibration depends mainly on the proper choice (and availability) of explanatory variables (model factors), but not on the fitting model. Model factors were chosen based on the amplitude of their correlati...

  6. Measuring Sustainability of Nations: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Altili; Pietro Zoppoli

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are widely used tools to measure the sustainability of a nation. The definition of a concept conditions strictly its measurement. Therefore, the definition of sustainable development will determine the appropriateness of the variables selected for its measurement. The first part of this paper explores why it is impossible, at the present time, to have a univocal definition and measurement of sustainable development. The second part is devoted to the analysis of a set of synthetic i...

  7. Analysis and comparation of animation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Joštová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the analysis and comparison of animation techniques. In the theoretical part of the thesis I define key terms, the historical development and the basic principles of animation techniques. In the practical part I describe the comparison between classic and digital types of animation. Based on this research I chose the most suitable animations that are further used to verify my hypothesis. The provided hypothesis is the order of based on how demanding it is in terms of...

  8. Dynamical history of coplanar two-satellite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the possible early states of the Earth-Moon system was a system of several large satellites around the Earth. The dynamical evolution of coplanar three-body systems is studied; a planet (Earth) and two massive satellites (proto-moons) with geocentric orbits of slightly different radii. Such configurations may arise in multiple satellite systems receding from a planet due to tidal friction. The numerical integration of the equations of motion shows that initially circular Keplerian orbits are soon transformed into disturbed elliptic orbits which are intersecting. The life-time of such a coplanar system between two probable physical collisions of satellites is roughly from one day to one year for satellite systems with radii less than 20 R(Earth), and may reach 100 yr for three-dimensional systems. This time-scale is short in comparison with the duration of the removal of satellites due to tides raised on the planet, which is estimated as 106-108 yr for the same orbital dimensions. Therefore, the life-time of a system of several proto-moons is mainly determined by their tidal interactions with the Earth. For conditions which we have considered, the most probable result of the evolution was coalescence of satellites as the consequence of the collisions. (Auth.)

  9. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients. PMID:25059059

  10. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan; Joseph Edosomwan

    2010-01-01

    We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN) in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. T...

  11. Comparative analysis of life insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive analysis of statistic insight into development of the world and regional life insurance markets on the basis of macroeconomic indicators. The author located domestic life insurance market on the global scale, analyzed its development and suggested the methods to calculate the marketing life insurance index. There was also approbated the mentioned methods on database of 77 countries all over the world. The author also defined the national rating on the basis of marketing life insurance index.

  12. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  13. Comparing structural decomposition analysis and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze and understand historical changes in economic, environmental, employment or other socio-economic indicators, it is useful to assess the driving forces or determinants that underlie these changes. Two techniques for decomposing indicator changes at the sector level are structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and index decomposition analysis (IDA). For example, SDA and IDA have been used to analyze changes in indicators such as energy use, CO2-emissions, labor demand and value added. The changes in these variables are decomposed into determinants such as technological, demand, and structural effects. SDA uses information from input-output tables while IDA uses aggregate data at the sector-level. The two methods have developed quite independently, which has resulted in each method being characterized by specific, unique techniques and approaches. This paper has three aims. First, the similarities and differences between the two approaches are summarized. Second, the possibility of transferring specific techniques and indices is explored. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate differences between the two approaches

  14. Resilience and electricity systems: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity systems have generally evolved based on the natural resources available locally. Few metrics exist to compare the security of electricity supply of different countries despite the increasing likelihood of potential shocks to the power system like energy price increases and carbon price regulation. This paper seeks to calculate a robust measure of national power system resilience by analysing each step in the process of transformation from raw energy to consumed electricity. Countries with sizeable deposits of mineral resources are used for comparison because of the need for electricity-intensive metals processing. We find that shifts in electricity-intensive industry can be predicted based on countries' power system resilience. - Highlights: ► We establish a resilience index measure for major electricity systems. ► We examine a range of OECD and developing nations electricity systems and their ability to cope with shocks. ► Robustness measures are established to show resilience of electricity systems.

  15. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  16. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  17. Comparative Marketing: An Interdisciplinary Framework for Institutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalkrishnan R Iyer

    1997-01-01

    Institutional analysis is proposed as an alternative theoretical methodology for the study of comparative marketing systems. This paper argues that institutional analysis offers considerable potential for understanding dynamics marketing systems and for the explicit study of change. Disciplinary insights of institutional analysis are reviewed and the richness of the conceptual apparatus of comparative institutional analysis, as applied to the study of comparative marketing systems, is explica...

  18. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  19. Laser Vision Measurement System and Assessment Method for SMIC Lead Coplanarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Changku; QIU Yu; XUE Xiaojie; YE Shenghua

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a successful application of line-structured laser sensor, involved in SMIC chip lead coplanarity measurement, is presented. With the experimental measurement system and its corresponding mathematics model, a contact-datum-plane assessment of SMIC chip lead coplanarity is developed to provide method for on-line measurement.

  20. Calculation of S11 Parameter of Coplanar Strip and Influence of Technology Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Braun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a calculation of the S11 parameter of the coplanar strips. The primary parameterscalculations of the coplanar strips are described in the first part. The scattering parameters are defined. The calculation of the S11 parameter and the comparison with the measured values are showed in the last part of the work.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana Nampalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2, (G+4, (G+6 storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cases are selected i.e. frames with prismatic members and frames with non-prismatic members. The structural response of various members when geometry changes physically, as in case of linear and parabolic haunches provided beyond the face of columns at beam column joints or step variations as in case of stepped haunches was also studied. Frames have been analyzed statically as well as dynamically using ETABS-9.7.4 software referring IS: 456-2000, IS: 1893 (Part-12002 and the results so obtained are grouped into various categories

  2. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  3. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Alpatov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  4. Comparative analysis of enterprise risk management models

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev Igor V.

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis and the comparison of modern enterprise risk management models used in domestic and world practice. Some thesis to build such a model are proposed.Статья посвящена анализу и сравнению современных моделей управления рисками предприятий, которые используются в отечественной и зарубежной практике. Предложены некоторые положения, на которых должны базироваться такие модели....

  5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  6. Aeroassisted transfer between coplanar elliptical orbits during near constant altitude coasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratuta, Aba; Mishne, David; Gur, Ilana

    An aeroassisted transfer between coplanar elliptical orbits is presented. The maneuver consists of three thrust impulses and a coast flight in the atmosphere. Several control strategies for the atmospheric coast are analyzed: constant altitude coast, constant velocity glide, constant heating rate coast. For each control strategy, the optimal altitude is chosen. The criterion for the maneuver efficiency was the amount of fuel consumption for a given rotation angle, subject to a heating rate limit. The results are compared with aeroassisted multipass maneuver and aeroassisted drag-only maneuver. It was shown that the coast maneuver extends the region in which the lift-controlled aeroassisted maneuver is superior to other maneuvers. Numerical examples are presented.

  7. Inductances and attenuation constant for a thin-film superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, John R.

    2013-01-04

    The geometric, kinetic, and total inductances and the attenuation constant are theoretically analyzed for a thin-film superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator consisting of a current-carrying central conductor, adjacent slots, and ground planes that return the current. The analysis focuses on films of thickness d obeying d<2λ (λ is the London penetration depth), for which the material properties are characterized by the two-dimensional screening length Λ = 2λ2/d. Introducing a cut-off procedure that guarantees that the magnitudes of the currents in the central conductor and the ground planes are equal, new and simpler results are obtained for the kinetic inductance and the attenuation constant for small Λ. Exact results for arbitrary Λ are presented for the geometric, kinetic, and total inductances in the limit of tiny slot widths, and approximate results are presented for arbitrary slot widths.

  8. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  9. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-07-01

    to 9.3 versus 6.2 in Group1. ULAR required consumables costing an average of 45 000 rubles more than did ISR. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures are comparable in the duration of a surgical intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss, and the quality of TME. ULAR with a reservoir is functionally more preferential.  

  10. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  11. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance and...

  12. Dynamics of dielectric barrier discharges in coplanar arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a discharge channel in coplanar dielectric barrier arrangements is investigated numerically. Its behaviour in oxygen, like the spatial and temporal distributions of the field strength, charged and neutral particles and energy density, is described in detail. It is found that the streamer development is mainly determined by photoemission. A cathode layer appears near the position where the cathode directed streamer touches the dielectric surface. Secondary electron emission by ion collisions becomes significant and the parameters of the cathode layer are near those of a normal glow discharge. The charge transfer and energy release happen in the conductive channel of the discharge, which appears on the dielectric surface as a result of the cathode streamer development. The field strength in the conductive channel is nearly constant and about 70-100 Td in oxygen and air

  13. Optimized Coplanar Waveguide Resonators for a Superconductor-Atom Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M A; Booth, D; Pritchard, J D; Saffman, M; McDermott, R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above $10^4$ can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 $\\mu$m above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  14. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  15. An Ultrawideband Monopole Fractal Antenna with Coplanar Waveguide Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrawideband fractal antenna in monopole configuration is proposed. Wideband behavior and miniaturization is achieved using concentric heptagonal array structure. Coplanar waveguide is used to feed fractal antenna. Base shape for fractal antenna is heptagonal geometry. Final fractal shape is achieved by performing four base shape iterations. FR4 substrate is used for antenna fabrication. Simulated and measured results comparison shows a bandwidth of 7 GHz with 9 GHz center frequency. Radiation pattern of monopole fractal antenna is omni directional. Fundamental purpose of designing and fabricating UWB fractal antenna is its application in body area networks for remote patient health monitoring. Its application also includes C and X band frequencies.

  16. Comparative analysis from hydroelectric generation versus natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to present a comparative analysis between hydroelectric generation and natural gas based on integrated resource planning and sustainable development. The introduced comparative analysis considers the financial aspects; the appropriated technology; and the social, environmental and political factors. The hydroelectric option it showed more advantageous than the thermoelectric. This result was independent of the enterprise scale

  17. A novel technique for post-mastectomy breast irradiation utilising non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Koshy, M; Zhang, B; S Naqvi; B. Liu; Mohiuddin, M M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the post-mastectomy setting can reduce the dose to normal structures and improve target coverage. We compared this IMRT technique with a standard partial wide tangential (PWT) plan and a five-field (5F) photon-electron plan. 10 patients who underwent left-sided mastectomy were planned to 50.4 Gy using either (1) PWT to cover the internal mammary (IM) nodes and supraclavicular fields, (2) 5...

  18. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  19. Characterisation and optimisation of a coplanar waveguide fed logarithmic spiral antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A cavity backed coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS)-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna, which covers a 9 to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun is used to accomplish the transition from the unbalanced CPW transmiss......A cavity backed coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS)-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna, which covers a 9 to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun is used to accomplish the transition from the unbalanced CPW...

  20. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  1. Comparative analysis of myocardial revascularization methods for ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkeev M.S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is devoted to the comparative analysis of clinical researches of efficiency and frequency of complications after application of surgical and medicamentous methods of treatment of coronary heart disease.

  2. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Co-planar Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of co-planar interferometers. The platform of a co-planar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline, and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (A...

  3. Coplanar anode implementation in compressed xenon ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Scott Douglas

    This dissertation examines the problem of microphonic degradation of high-pressure xenon ionization chambers' energy spectra. A detector design that utilizes coplanar anodes is proposed to mitigate this problem, and an optimization study finds the best geometry given some constraints on the system. A radial position-sensing method is developed from theory and implemented in experiments, demonstrating usefulness in the areas of hardware diagnostics and energy spectrum enhancement. Detailed simulations quantify the effects of various physical processes on the measured energy spectrum; the processes that degrade the photopeak most severely also show promise for improvement via design and operational changes. Simulations show multiple-site events are undesirable due to resolution degradation. A hydrogen cooling admixture is implemented to improve energy resolution after detailed simulations predict advantageous performance changes. The detector linearity is shown to be quite good over the range tested, 80-1330 keV. The best measured energy resolution is 4.2% FWHM at 662 keV, which is near the range that would be considered competitive with the less-rugged detectors employing Frisch grids.

  4. Coplanar (, 3) differential cross-section of He atom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Choubisa; A S Bhullar; K K Sud

    2003-06-01

    We present in this paper the results of our calculation of five-fold differential cross-section (FDCS) for (, 3) process on He atom in low momentum transfer and high electron impact energy in shake-off mechanism. The formalism has been developed in Born approximation using plane waves, Byron and Joachain as well as Le Sech and correlated BBK-type wave functions respectively for incident and scattered, bound and ejected electrons. The angular distribution of FDCS of our calculation is presented in various modes of coplanar geometry and comparison is made with the available experimental data. We observe that the present calculation is able to reproduce the trend of the experimental data. However, it differs in magnitude from the experiment. The present theory does not predict four-peak structure in summed mutual angle mode for lower excess ejected electron energies. We also discuss the importance of momentum transfer, post-collision interaction (PCI) and ion participation in the (, 3) process in constant 12 mode.

  5. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission new techniques have to be developed. One approach for carbon capture utilization (CCU) is the conversion of CO2 to more valuable chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) by means of non-thermal plasma generated at ambient conditions and supplied by excess energy from renewable sources. This paper reports about the effect of the admixture of inert gases, namely nitrogen or argon to CO2 in a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied voltage, frequency, flowrate and CO2 concentration in the influent. The composition of products, energy efficiency and yield were determined. Within the investigated parameter ranges, the maximum conversion of CO2 to CO efficiency of 1% was achieved when the specific input energy was 190 J L-1, whereas the maximum CO yield of 0.7% was achieved when the specific input energy was 210 J L-1. In conclusion, the energy efficiency can be significantly increased by operating the plasma in a diluted CO2 gas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative maintenance costs in determining an equipment standard and e...

  7. Customer service on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlík, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to compare the quality of customer service between the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. The mystery shopping method is used as the source of data for the comparative analysis.

  8. GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nix David A; Eisen Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Several problems exist with current methods used to align DNA sequences for comparative sequence analysis. Most dynamic programming algorithms assume that conserved sequence elements are collinear. This assumption appears valid when comparing orthologous protein coding sequences. Functional constraints on proteins provide strong selective pressure against sequence inversions, and minimize sequence duplications and feature shuffling. For non-coding sequences this collineari...

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Asad; Muhammad Naseem Hayat; Shafaqat Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret th...

  10. Cross-validation of two commercial methods for volumetric high-resolution dose reconstruction on a phantom for non-coplanar VMAT beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Delta4 (ScandiDos AB, Uppsala, Sweden) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL, USA) are commercial quasi-three-dimensional diode dosimetry arrays capable of volumetric measurement-guided dose reconstruction. A method to reconstruct dose for non-coplanar VMAT beams with 3DVH is described. The Delta4 3D dose reconstruction on its own phantom for VMAT delivery has not been thoroughly evaluated previously, and we do so by comparison with 3DVH. Materials and methods: Reconstructed volumetric doses for VMAT plans delivered with different table angles were compared between the Delta4 and 3DVH using gamma analysis. Results: The average γ (2% local dose-error normalization/2mm) passing rate comparing the directly measured Delta4 diode dose with 3DVH was 98.2 ± 1.6% (1SD). The average passing rate for the full volumetric comparison of the reconstructed doses on a homogeneous cylindrical phantom was 95.6 ± 1.5%. No dependence on the table angle was observed. Conclusions: Modified 3DVH algorithm is capable of 3D VMAT dose reconstruction on an arbitrary volume for the full range of table angles. Our comparison results between different dosimeters make a compelling case for the use of electronic arrays with high-resolution 3D dose reconstruction as primary means of evaluating spatial dose distributions during IMRT/VMAT verification

  11. Non-coplanar beam intensity modulation allows large dose escalation in stage III lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in stage III non-small cell lung cancer, we compared standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar beam arrangements, without (3D) and with beam intensity modulation (3D-BIM). Materials and methods: This study was a planning effort performed on a non-selected group of 10 patients. Starting from a serial CT scan, treatment planning was performed using Sherouse's GRATISTM 3D planning system. Two target volumes were defined; gross tumor volume (GTV) defined a high-dose target volume that had to receive a dose of at least 80 Gy and GTV plus the lymph node regions with >10% probability of invasion defined an intermediate-dose target volume (GTV+N). It was our intention to irradiate GTV+N up to 56 Gy or more. If the prescribed doses on GTV and GTV+N could not be reached with either the 2D or 3D technique, a 3D-BIM plan was performed. The 3D-BIM plan was a class solution involving identical gantry angles, segment arrangements and relative segment weights for all patients. Dose volume histograms for GTV, GTV+N, lung and spinal cord were calculated. Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20 Gy. Under these constraints, maximal achievable doses to GTV and GTV+N were calculated. Results: In all 2D plans, spinal cord was the limiting factor and the prescribed doses for GTV and GTV+N could not be reached in any patient. The non-coplanar 3D plan resulted in a satisfying solution in 4 out of 10 patients under the same constraints. In comparison with 2D, the minimum dose in GTV+N was increased. Six patients had to be planned with the 3D-BIM technique. The theoretical minimum dose to GTV+N ranged between 56 and 98 Gy. The delivery of 80 Gy or more to GTV was possible in all patients. For a minimal dose of 80 Gy to GTV, the maximal dose to any point of the spinal cord varied between 27 and 46 Gy. The lung volume receiving more than

  12. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  13. Formation of striations in large-gap coplanar dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striations in a large-gap coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been investigated by experiment and numerical simulation. The discharge current was measured and the images of infra-red (IR) radiation striation were obtained by an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera with nanosecond exposure time. The discharge processes are simulated by particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) code. The calculated current and the distribution of Xe⁎ during a single pulse were compared with the experiment. The results show that there are two series of striations corresponding to two stages of discharge. The striations of the second stage are generated as the potential changed remarkably, while the distribution of surface charge almost keeps unchanged. The electric field induced by the space charges plays a key role in the formation of the striations. The stratified wall charge is only a consequence of the stratified spatial field and the striations. -- Highlights: ► IR radiation images of striations were compared with PIC/MCC simulation results. ► Space charge plays a key role in striation formation. ► Stratified wall charge is considered as a consequence of the striations.

  14. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

  15. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al2O3 under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al2O3. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al2O3, a methyl group (CH3)-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an Ion/Ioff ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at VD = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm2/V·s, respectively

  16. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-03-01

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al2O3 under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al2O3. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al2O3, a methyl group (CH3)-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an Ion/Ioff ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at VD = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm2/V.s, respectively.

  17. Informatics in Education and Koli Calling: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The journal Informatics in Education and the conference Koli Calling are compared, starting with Simon's system for the classification of computing education papers and going on to conduct a brief bibliometric analysis of the authors of papers in both publications, including their repeat rates and the countries from which they come. The analysis finds that despite their different natures, the Lithuanian journal and the Finnish conference are highly comparable in many respects. The broad conclusion is that the two publications work well together - but it would be good to see some Lithuanian authors contributing papers to Koli Calling.

  18. Evaluating experimental bias and completeness in comparative phosphoproteomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Boekhorst

    Full Text Available Unraveling the functional dynamics of phosphorylation networks is a crucial step in understanding the way in which biological networks form a living cell. Recently there has been an enormous increase in the number of measured phosphorylation events. Nevertheless, comparative and integrative analysis of phosphoproteomes is confounded by incomplete coverage and biases introduced by different experimental workflows. As a result, we cannot differentiate whether phosphosites indentified in only one or two samples are the result of condition or species specific phosphorylation, or reflect missing data. Here, we evaluate the impact of incomplete phosphoproteomics datasets on comparative analysis, and we present bioinformatics strategies to quantify the impact of different experimental workflows on measured phosphoproteomes. We show that plotting the saturation in observed phosphosites in replicates provides a reproducible picture of the extent of a particular phosphoproteome. Still, we are still far away from a complete picture of the total human phosphoproteome. The impact of different experimental techniques on the similarity between phosphoproteomes can be estimated by comparing datasets from different experimental pipelines to a common reference. Our results show that comparative analysis is most powerful when datasets have been generated using the same experimental workflow. We show this experimentally by measuring the tyrosine phosphoproteome from Caenorhabditis elegans and comparing it to the tyrosine phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, resulting in an overlap of about 4%. This overlap between very different organisms represents a three-fold increase when compared to dataset of older studies, wherein different workflows were used. The strategies we suggest enable an estimation of the impact of differences in experimental workflows on the overlap between datasets. This will allow us to perform comparative analyses not only on datasets specifically

  19. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangbum Lee; Sumin Oh; Keunsoo Kang; Kyudong Han

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program ca...

  20. Sequence and comparative analysis of Leuconostoc dairy bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Neve, Horst;

    2014-01-01

    mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains. The phages have dsDNA genomes with sizes ranging from 25.7 to 28.4kb. Comparative genomics analysis helped classify the 9 phages into two classes, which correlates with the host species. High percentage of similarity within the classes on both nucleotide...... modification, respectively. No lysogeny modules were detected. To our knowledge this report provides the first comparative genomic work done on Leuconostoc dairy phages....

  1. Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, T B

    2004-08-09

    A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

  2. Project risk simulation methods – a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Constanța-Nicoleta BODEA; Augustin PURNUȘ

    2012-01-01

    Effective risk management provides a solid basis for decisionmaking in projects, bringing important benefits. While the financial and economical crisis is present at the global level and the competition in the market is more and more aggressive, the interest in project risk management increases. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of two quantitative risk analysis methods, Monte Carlo simulation and the Three Scenario approach. Two experiments are designed based on ...

  3. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development.

  4. Secular models and Kozai resonance for planets in coorbital non-coplanar motion

    CERN Document Server

    Giuppone, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we construct and test an analytical and a semianalytical secular models for two planets locked in a coorbital non-coplanar motion, comparing some results with the case of restricted three body problem. The analytical average model replicates the numerical N-body integrations, even for moderate eccentricities ($\\lesssim$ 0.3) and inclinations ($\\lesssim10^\\circ$), except for the regions corresponding to quasi-satellite and Lidov-Kozai configurations. Furthermore, this model is also useful in the restricted three body problem, assuming very low mass ratio between the planets. We also describe a four-degree-of-freedom semianalytical model valid for any type of coorbital configuration in a wide range of eccentricities and inclinations. {Using a N-body integrator, we have found that the phase space of the General Three Body Problem is different to the restricted case for inclined systems, and establish the location of the Lidov-Kozai equilibrium configurations depending on mass ratio. We study the st...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  6. Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Existing Risk Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article lies on the specific features of the existing software packages for risk management differentiating three categories. Representative for these categories we consider the Crystal Ball, Haufe Risikomanager and MIS - Risk Management solutions, outlining the strenghts and weaknesses in a comparative analysis.

  7. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IPIDACRIN AND PIRIDOXIN INFLUENCE ON THE

    OpenAIRE

    Sharova E.V; Zaitsev O.S; Cheliapina M.V; Korotaeva M.V; Lifshits M.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of neuromedin and piridoksin psichophysiological effects attwo examinees – volunteers is lead. Neuromedin (unlike nonspecific influencepiridoksin) causes: A) similar influence in both supervision on cortical-subcortical brainstructures and B) individual changes (cortical lateralization), dependent on an initialcondition of the cortex.

  8. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IPIDACRIN AND PIRIDOXIN INFLUENCE ON THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharova E.V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of neuromedin and piridoksin psichophysiological effects attwo examinees – volunteers is lead. Neuromedin (unlike nonspecific influencepiridoksin causes: A similar influence in both supervision on cortical-subcortical brainstructures and B individual changes (cortical lateralization, dependent on an initialcondition of the cortex.

  9. QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOOSPHERE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Yermolenko V. V.; Lanskaya D. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article, based on the total problems of formation and development of the knowledge economy, we highlighted the environmental aspect and the comparative analysis of the fundamental ideas of the knowledge economy and the noosphere concept development in terms of their complementarity

  10. Development Of The Computer Code For Comparative Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an importance utilization of a nuclear research reactor, and this should be accelerated and promoted in application and its development to raise the utilization of the reactor. The application of Comparative NAA technique in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS) needs special (not commercially available yet) soft wares for analyzing the spectrum of multiple elements in the analysis at once. The application carried out using a single spectrum software analyzer, and comparing each result manually. This method really degrades the quality of the analysis significantly. To solve the problem, a computer code was designed and developed for comparative NAA. Spectrum analysis in the code is carried out using a non-linear fitting method. Before the spectrum analyzed, it was passed to the numerical filter which improves the signal to noise ratio to do the deconvolution operation. The software was developed using the G language and named as PASAN-K The testing result of the developed software was benchmark with the IAEA spectrum and well operated with less than 10 % deviation

  11. Comparative Analysis of Cryptography Library in IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uday; Borgohain, Tuhin; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-05-01

    The paper aims to do a survey along with a comparative analysis of the various cryptography libraries that are applicable in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The first half of the paper briefly introduces the various cryptography libraries available in the field of cryptography along with a list of all the algorithms contained within the libraries. The second half of the paper deals with cryptography libraries specifically aimed for application in the field of Internet of Things. The various libraries and their performance analysis listed down in this paper are consolidated from various sources with the aim of providing a single comprehensive repository for reference to the various cryptography libraries and the comparative analysis of their features in IoT.

  12. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbum Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  13. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes. PMID:24959585

  14. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  15. Analysis and characterizations of planar transmission structures and components for superconducting and monolithic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    The research effort was continued to design and characterize superconducting transmission line structures. The research during this period was concentrated on the implementation of a superconductor into coplanar waveguide structures. First, the superconducting coplanar waveguide was examined, and compared with a superconducting microstrip line in terms of loss characteristics and their design aspects. Then, the research was carried on the design and characterization of the coplanar waveguide family in the packaging environment. The transition between the coaxial line to the conductor backed coplanar waveguide was also designed for the measurement of the superconducting conductor backed coplanar waveguide.

  16. Single polarity charge sensing in high pressure xenon using a coplanar anode configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair Julia

    A new design of a high pressure xenon ionization chamber has been fabricated in an attempt to eliminate the problems associated with acoustical vibrations of the Frisch grid. The function of the traditional Frisch grid has been accomplished by employing a coplanar anode system capable of single polarity charge sensing by means of the Shockley-Ramo theorem. Two different detectors have been built in order to determine if the operation of a high pressure xenon detector in coplanar anode mode is possible. The first is the helical detector comprised of two anode wires wound about a central ceramic core. Through calculation, it is shown that for a cathode bias of -5 kV a potential of 363 V is necessary to collect all of the electrons on the collecting anode, however this is contradicted by the observed pulse waveforms. The results of several experiments are presented that demonstrate the helical detector should work, however in the interest in determining if a coplanar high pressure xenon detector is viable, emphasis was placed on the second detector design. The second design is a parallel plate detector, more analogous to the coplanar semiconductor devices. This detector has demonstrated that it is possible to operate a high pressure xenon detector in coplanar anode mode. However, it is shown that the performance of this detector is limited by high surface leakage current and detector capacitance. Additionally, since the leakage current increases with potential between the two anodes, it is not possible to obtain very high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy since the required potential between the two anodes for coplanar operation is so high that the detector is already dominated by surface leakage current as this value.

  17. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.; Ussery, David; Akrim, M.; Benjouad, A.; El Aouad, R.; Ennaji, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str...... genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been...

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT POLICY MODELS: RUSSIAN AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Khrabrov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative analysis of existing theoretical models for regulation of employment identified as a result of studying the experience of public administration of the EU countries, USA and Japan. In particular, paper shows that the international experience of employment includes various models that define the existing relationship in the labour market. The result is a substantial analysis of the models indicates the features of interdependence applied policy regulating the employment of the state of the institutional environment of the national economy.

  19. EFL textbooks for young learners: a comparative analysis of vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative analysis of two English teaching course book series which are widely used in school years 4–6 in Sweden: Good Stuffand New Champion. The analysis comprises comparisons of the vocabulary component in the teaching materials and examines the extent to which words – adjectives, nouns and verbs – recur in the books, whether there is a common core of words in the two series and, finally, whether vocabulary in the two teaching materials corresponds ...

  20. Comparative analysis of special preparedness young water-slalom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Okun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators is specially trained water-slalom aged 10–12 years. Material & Methods: methods of theoretical analysis, synthesis and synthesis of information, pedagogical control tests (tests, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: presented materials research performance technical readiness of 60 young water-slalom groups of initial training. A comparative analysis of the results and regulatory requirements, the proposed curriculum for youth sports schools. Conclusions: the results of the study suggest lagging performance testing young athletes behind the standards of the program requirements, indicating insufficient specially trained water-slaloms.

  1. High Temperature Characteristics of Coplanar Waveguide on R-Plane Sapphire and Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of coplanar waveguide transmission lines on R-plane sapphire and alumina over the temperature range of 25 to 400 C and the frequency range of 45 MHz to 50 GHz. A Thru-Reflect-Line calibration technique and open circuited terminated stubs are used to extract the attenuation and effective permittivity. It is shown that the effective permittivity of the transmission lines and, therefore, the relative dielectric constant of the two substrates increase linearly with temperature. The attenuation of the coplanar waveguide varies linearly with temperature through 200 C, and increases at a greater rate above 200 C.

  2. Coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector with three-dimensional position sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Luke, P N; Lee Jae Sik; Yaver, H

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional position-sensitive coplanar-grid detector design for use with compound semiconductors is described. This detector design maintains the advantage of a coplanar-grid detector in which good energy resolution can be obtained from materials with poor charge transport. Position readout in two dimensions is accomplished using proximity-sensing electrodes adjacent to the electron-collecting grid electrode of the detector. Additionally, depth information is obtained by taking the ratio of the amplitudes of the collecting grid signal and the cathode signal. Experimental results from a prototype CdZnTe detector are presented.

  3. Experimental Verification of Left-Handed Metamaterials Composed of Coplanar Electric and Magnetic Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We verified experimentally left-handed metamaterials (LHM) composed of coplanar electric and magnetic resonators. A typical LHM sample composed of coplanar resonator unit cells was fabricated, investigated and tested. The experimental results show that the tested sample has a left-handed band of width 1.4 GHz in the X band. The experimental results agree quite well with the simulation ones. Moreover, both the simulation and experimental results show that the LHM under study can automatically achieve good impedance-matching in the left-handed band. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector with three-dimensional position sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-dimensional position-sensitive coplanar-grid detector design for use with compound semiconductors is described. This detector design maintains the advantage of a coplanar-grid detector in which good energy resolution can be obtained from materials with poor charge transport. Position readout in two dimensions is accomplished using proximity-sensing electrodes adjacent to the electron-collecting grid electrode of the detector. Additionally, depth information is obtained by taking the ratio of the amplitudes of the collecting grid signal and the cathode signal. Experimental results from a prototype CdZnTe detector are presented

  5. Mammalian comparative sequence analysis of the Agrp locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Kaelin

    Full Text Available Agouti-related protein encodes a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is elevated by states of negative energy balance. The molecular mechanisms underlying Agrp regulation, however, remain poorly defined. Using a combination of transgenic and comparative sequence analysis, we have previously identified a 760 bp conserved region upstream of Agrp which contains STAT binding elements that participate in Agrp transcriptional regulation. In this study, we attempt to improve the specificity for detecting conserved elements in this region by comparing genomic sequences from 10 mammalian species. Our analysis reveals a symmetrical organization of conserved sequences upstream of Agrp, which cluster into two inverted repeat elements. Conserved sequences within these elements suggest a role for homeodomain proteins in the regulation of Agrp and provide additional targets for functional evaluation.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Packet Scheduling Schemes for HSDPA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    T. Janevski; K. Jakimoski

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present comparison analysis for packet scheduling algorithms for HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Networks). In particular, we analyze the round robin, max C/I and FCDS packet scheduling algorithms in HSDPA by comparing the average throughput, delay and fairness of the users, changing the number of the users in pedestrian and vehicular environment. The results have showed that the number of the users in a given coverage area is very important when choosing which packet sched...

  7. Comparative analysis of fungal protein kinases and associated domains

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund Yael; Kosti Idit; Horwitz Benjamin A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is responsible for a large portion of the regulatory functions of eukaryotic cells. Although the list of sequenced genomes of filamentous fungi has grown rapidly, the kinomes of recently sequenced species have not yet been studied in detail. The objective of this study is to apply a comparative analysis of the kinase distribution in different fungal phyla, and to explore its relevance to understanding the evolution of fungi and their taxonomic class...

  8. Comparative analysis of fungal protein kinases and associated domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Idit; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Glaser, Fabian; Horwitz, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein phosphorylation is responsible for a large portion of the regulatory functions of eukaryotic cells. Although the list of sequenced genomes of filamentous fungi has grown rapidly, the kinomes of recently sequenced species have not yet been studied in detail. The objective of this study is to apply a comparative analysis of the kinase distribution in different fungal phyla, and to explore its relevance to understanding the evolution of fungi and their taxonomic classification...

  9. The regulation of television sports broadcasting: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P.; Evens, T.; Iosifidis, P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on seven different sports broadcasting markets (Australia, Brazil, Italy, India, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States), this article provides a comparative analysis of the regulation of television sports broadcasting. The article examines how contrasting perspectives on television and sport – economic and sociocultural – have been reflected in two main approaches to the regulation of sports broadcasting, namely competition law and major events legislation. The results of t...

  10. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  11. Overview and comparative analysis of digital airborne photogrammetric surveying systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tamše, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    In the thesis, three the most important digital airborne photogrammetric systems are described, as well as their comparative analysis and the application of this technology in Slovenia are presented. Digital technology is being constantly developed and use of aerial images is being increased. Traditionally, aerial images were mostly used for digital topographic mapping, nowadays their use is focused on producing digital orthophoto, which is being used in different areas. First, main character...

  12. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Kalapish; Dimitar Sotirov; Dimitrina Koeva

    2005-01-01

    Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors) have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  13. Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke

    2016-04-01

    Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2015-01-01

    The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, w...

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR COMPARED ANALYSIS AT ROMANIAN SMEs LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mihaela POPESCU; Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2013-01-01

    Finding new solutions that point out existing human potential in SMEs is an important element in reviving the national economy. Featured by diminished personnel, high flexibility and the possibility of a fast answer to external factors development, SMEs are based on human agent and on informal relations between organization’s members, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) being an important competitive advantage. Our study is a compared analysis of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior ...

  16. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Public Management in Romania and EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the essential co-ordonates of public management with the view of realization of comparative analysis of manner of carrying on of activities in the field of public management in E.U. countries and in our country. Also the main changes are presented which have marked this field of science and practice at world-wide level and the manner how these changes have conducted to effectiveness of public services of administrative system of our country.

  18. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  19. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  20. Massive comparative genomic analysis reveals convergent evolution of specialized bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult Didier; Pontarotti Pierre; Royer-Carenzi Manuela; Merhej Vicky

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome size and gene content in bacteria are associated with their lifestyles. Obligate intracellular bacteria (i.e., mutualists and parasites) have small genomes that derived from larger free-living bacterial ancestors; however, the different steps of bacterial specialization from free-living to intracellular lifestyle have not been studied comprehensively. The growing number of available sequenced genomes makes it possible to perform a statistical comparative analysis of...

  1. Comparative performance analysis of nonorthogonal joint diagonalization algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Mesloub; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many non orthogonal joint diagonalization (NOJD) algorithms have been developed and applied in several applications including blind source separation (BSS) problems. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of major complex NOJD (CNOJD) algorithm and to study and compare their performance analysis reveals many interesting features that help the non expert user to select the CNOJD method depending on the application conditions.

  2. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yu-ling

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations, the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives( Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance . The comparison point out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different and analyzes the differences and similarities of the five accounting elements including ...

  3. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF) in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL) in conventio...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Cryptography Library in IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Uday; Borgohain, Tuhin; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to do a survey along with a comparative analysis of the various cryptography libraries that are applicable in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The first half of the paper briefly introduces the various cryptography libraries available in the field of cryptography along with a list of all the algorithms contained within the libraries. The second half of the paper deals with cryptography libraries specifically aimed for application in the field of Internet of Things. The va...

  5. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Asad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret the results. Our findings show that there is no significant difference between celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchasing intentions, and advertising attributes. The limitations and recommendations of this research are also given.

  7. Global structures in a composite system of two scale-free discs with a coplanar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Y Q; Lou, Yu-Qing; Bai, Xue-Ning

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a theoretical MHD disc problem involving a composite disc system of gravitationally coupled stellar and gaseous discs with a coplanar magnetic field in the presence of an axisymmetric dark matter halo. The two discs are expediently approximated as razor-thin, a ring-like magnetic field, and a power-law rotation curve in radius . By imposing the scale-free condition, we construct analytically stationary global MHD perturbation configurations for both aligned and logarithmic spiral patterns. MHD perturbation configurations in a composite system of partial discs in the presence of an axisymmetric dark matter halo are also considered. We derive analytically the stationary MHD dispersion relations for both aligned and unaligned perturbation structures and analyze the corresponding phase relationships between surface mass densities and the magnetic field. Compared with earlier results, we obtain three solution branches corresponding to super fast MHD density waves, fast MHD density waves and slow MHD...

  8. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

  9. [Comparative analysis of total cell protein electrophoregram of pathogenic Burkholderia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budchenko, A A; Iliukhin, V I; Viktorov, D V

    2005-01-01

    Whole-cell proteins of 22 strain of Burkhoderia pseudomallei, including 13 B. mallei, 5 B. cepacia strains and 14 strains of opportunistically pathogenic Pseudomonas defined by 1D SDC-PAAG electrophoresis. Electrophoregrams contained 35 to 45 protein fractions sized 19 to 130 kDa, which were highly reproductive. On the basis of computer-aided comparative analysis of protein patterns the interspecies and intraspecies grouping of studied microorganisms was made. The cluster analysis of the similarity matrix of protein spectra made it possible to allocate two groups of strains at the level of similarity of 78%. Group I was formed by Burkholderia species that previously belonged to the II RNA-DNA homology group of Pseudomonas: B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. cepacia. All Pseudomonas species were added to the 2nd Group: P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, P. testosterone, P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. mendocina. Four phenons were isolated among the strains of B. pseudomallei and 2 phenons--among the strains of B. mallei at the threshold similarity level (89%). The authors conclude that the comparative analysis of electrophoregrams of whole-cell proteins can be useful in the identification and typing of pathogenic Burkholderia. PMID:15954473

  10. Coplanar VMAT vs. noncoplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Zhong-Hua; Mu, Jin-Ming; Mo, Jun-Chong; Gao, Ming; Li, Qi-Lin; Gu, Wen-Dong; Pei, Hong-Lei [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Changzhou (China); Jiang, Jing-Ting; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Lu-Jun [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, Changzhou (China); Jin, Jian-Xue [Elekta China Co. Ltd, Department of Radiation Physics, Beijing, Chaoyang District (China)

    2014-10-08

    Previous studies showed that noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (NC-IMRT) for sinonasal cancer is superior to coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a newly introduced treatment modality, and the performance of noncoplanar VMAT for sinonasal cancer has not been well described to date. To compare the dosimetry difference of noncoplanar VMAT (NC-VMAT), coplanar VMAT (co-VMAT), and NC-IMRT for sinonasal cancer. Ten postoperative patients with sinonasal cancer were randomly selected for planning with NC-VMAT, co-VMAT, and NC-IMRT. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured representing high-risk and low-risk regions set to receive a median absorbed dose (D{sub 50} {sub %}) of 68 Gy and 59 Gy, respectively. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and delivery efficiency were all evaluated. Both NC-VMAT and co-VMAT showed superior dose homogeneity and conformity in PTVs compared with NC-IMRT. There was no significant difference between NC-VMAT and co-VMAT in PTV coverage. Both VMAT plans provided a better protection for organs at risk (OARs) than NC-IMRT plans, and NC-VMAT showed a small improvement over co-VMAT in sparing of OARs. For peripheral doses, the doses to breast, thyroid, and larynx in the NC-IMRT plans were significantly higher than those in both VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT significantly reduced peripheral doses. NC-VMAT and co-VMAT reduced the average delivery time by 63.2 and 64.2 %, respectively, in comparison with NC-IMRT. No differences in delivery efficiency were observed between the two VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and comparable OAR sparing but significantly reduced peripheral doses and positioning uncertainty. We propose to give priority to coplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer. (orig.) [German] Fruehere Studien zeigten, dass die nichtkoplanare intensive modulierte

  11. Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptic Coplanar Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilvaFernandes, Sandro; dasChagasCarvalho, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a complete first order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through Hamilton-Jacobi theory and a perturbation method based on Lie series.

  12. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; HABIBULLA KHAN; SARAT K. KOTAMRAJU

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR

  13. Efficiency of ozone production by dielectric coplanar surface barrier discharge in synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Homola, T.

    Prague, 2007 - (Schmidt, J.; Šimek, M.; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, V.). s. 112 ISBN 978-80-87026-00-7. [International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases/28./. 15.07.2007-20.07.2007, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ozone * Dielectric * Coplanar * Surface * Barrier * Discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  15. Algebraically special coplanar shear-free perfect fluids in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate all algebraically special, not conformally flat, shear-free, isentropic (p(w), w + p ≠ 0), perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's field equations. We show, using the GHP formalism, that if the repeated principle null direction of the Weyl tensor is coplanar with the fluid's 4-velocity and vorticity vector (assumed nonzero), then the fluid's expansion must vanish

  16. Low-temperature hydrogenation of diamond nanoparticles using diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Čech, J.; Kozak, Halyna; Artemenko, Anna; Ižák, Tibor; Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2602-2607. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * diamond nanoparticles * diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge * FTIR * XPS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  17. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested an...

  18. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  19. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  20. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen;

    2015-01-01

    this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating......Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence...... proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is...

  1. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  2. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  3. The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloukas, P; Earthrowl, M E; Grafham, D V; Rubenfield, M; French, L; Steward, C A; Sims, S K; Jones, M C; Searle, S; Scott, C; Howe, K; Hunt, S E; Andrews, T D; Gilbert, J G R; Swarbreck, D; Ashurst, J L; Taylor, A; Battles, J; Bird, C P; Ainscough, R; Almeida, J P; Ashwell, R I S; Ambrose, K D; Babbage, A K; Bagguley, C L; Bailey, J; Banerjee, R; Bates, K; Beasley, H; Bray-Allen, S; Brown, A J; Brown, J Y; Burford, D C; Burrill, W; Burton, J; Cahill, P; Camire, D; Carter, N P; Chapman, J C; Clark, S Y; Clarke, G; Clee, C M; Clegg, S; Corby, N; Coulson, A; Dhami, P; Dutta, I; Dunn, M; Faulkner, L; Frankish, A; Frankland, J A; Garner, P; Garnett, J; Gribble, S; Griffiths, C; Grocock, R; Gustafson, E; Hammond, S; Harley, J L; Hart, E; Heath, P D; Ho, T P; Hopkins, B; Horne, J; Howden, P J; Huckle, E; Hynds, C; Johnson, C; Johnson, D; Kana, A; Kay, M; Kimberley, A M; Kershaw, J K; Kokkinaki, M; Laird, G K; Lawlor, S; Lee, H M; Leongamornlert, D A; Laird, G; Lloyd, C; Lloyd, D M; Loveland, J; Lovell, J; McLaren, S; McLay, K E; McMurray, A; Mashreghi-Mohammadi, M; Matthews, L; Milne, S; Nickerson, T; Nguyen, M; Overton-Larty, E; Palmer, S A; Pearce, A V; Peck, A I; Pelan, S; Phillimore, B; Porter, K; Rice, C M; Rogosin, A; Ross, M T; Sarafidou, T; Sehra, H K; Shownkeen, R; Skuce, C D; Smith, M; Standring, L; Sycamore, N; Tester, J; Thorpe, A; Torcasso, W; Tracey, A; Tromans, A; Tsolas, J; Wall, M; Walsh, J; Wang, H; Weinstock, K; West, A P; Willey, D L; Whitehead, S L; Wilming, L; Wray, P W; Young, L; Chen, Y; Lovering, R C; Moschonas, N K; Siebert, R; Fechtel, K; Bentley, D; Durbin, R; Hubbard, T; Doucette-Stamm, L; Beck, S; Smith, D R; Rogers, J

    2004-05-27

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence. PMID:15164054

  4. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  5. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  6. A comparative analysis of Media Lengua and Quichua vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of F1 and F2 vowel frequencies from Pijal Media Lengua (PML) and Imbabura Quichua. Mixed-effects models are used to test Spanish-derived high and low vowels against their Quichua-derived counterparts for statistical significance. Spanish-derived and Quichua-derived high vowels are also tested against Spanish-derived mid vowels. This analysis suggests that PML may be manipulating as many as eight vowels where Spanishderived high and low vowels coexist as near-mergers with their Quichua-derived counterparts, while high and mid vowels coexist with partial overlap. Quichua, traditionally viewed as a three-vowel system, shows similar results and may be manipulating as many as six vowels. PMID:25721292

  7. Comparative analysis of model assessment in community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian cluster inference with a flexible generative model allows us to detect various types of structures. However, it has problems stemming from computational complexity and difficulties in model assessment. We consider the stochastic block model with restricted hyperparameter space, which is known to correspond to modularity maximization. We show that it not only reduces computational complexity, but is also beneficial for model assessment. Using various criteria, we conduct a comparative analysis of the model assessments, and analyze whether each criterion tends to overfit or underfit. We also show that the learning of hyperparameters leads to qualitative differences in Bethe free energy and cross-validation errors.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Two Trigeneration Systems for a Rezidential Building

    OpenAIRE

    Tofan, Bogdan-Andrei; Şerbănoiu, Ion; Hoblea, Alin-Enver

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is a global resource that is still being used in traditional ways almost all around the globe, resulting in a waste of its great potential in the production of energy. Romania is a part of those countries that aren’t improving the way some natural resources are used and this was one of the reasons for conducting the study. The study is proposing a comparative analysis of two trigeneration systems, one using biomass and internal combustion engine, and another system that uses micro-tur...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Transport Terminologyusage on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he paper deals with the comparative analysis of the usage of transport terminology on the Internet using the popular search engine www.google.lt. It analyses the frequency of correct and incorrect usage of lexis, word-building and pronominal forms. The charts show what mistakes are mostly made and that they are mainly term building mistakes. The usage of new loanwords can be justified because most of them are not considered as serious language mistakes. Although, mistakes of another kind can only be explained as the negligence of the authors of the Internet text.

  10. A Comparative Analysis on US Financial Stress Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Nimantha Manamperi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis on different fi nancial stress indexes (FSIs) available for the United States. The main objective of these stress indexes is to provide detailed insights about the fi nancial conditions in the U.S. economy. In general, all stress indexes indicated a very high fi nancial risk during the 2008 fi nancial crisis. Among all the Federal Reserve Bank FSIs, the Kansas city fed FSI and the St. Louis fed FSI show considerable similarities during 2008 fi nancia...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Measured and Predicted Shrinkage Strain in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossakowski P. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to concrete shrinkage. The basic information on the phenomenon is presented as well as the factors that determine the contraction are pointed out and the stages of the process are described. The guidance for estimating the shrinkage strain is given according to Eurocode standard PN-EN 1992-1-1:2008. The results of studies of the samples shrinkage strain of concrete C25/30 are presented with a comparative analysis of the results estimated by the guidelines of the standard according to PN-EN 1992-1- 1:2008

  12. ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE MARKETING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    FUCIU Mircea; Hortensia GORSKI

    2012-01-01

    We are in an age of continuous change. The development of the Internet and of the information and communication technologies have led to important shifts in the way companies do business. This paper aims to present the concept and the evolution of a new internet-based instrument: the online social network (OSN). We underline the impact of these new changes on the marketing concept, and the importance of OSN for a company`s future development. We are presenting a comparative analysis, from the...

  13. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Value Added Tax Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Anca Postole

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of indirect taxes is analysed in the study of evolution, especially the VAT for the economic activity of the company studied. During the reporting period, namely January 2009 – December 2011 the supporting documents were checked which records on VAT deductible and collected were based on, in compliance with legal norms and principles of financial accounting. Also the data processed were the basis for an analysis to compare the evolution of VAT. VAT shall be paid for the entire activity of the company.

  15. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ......What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Measured and Predicted Shrinkage Strain in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kossakowski P. G.; Raczkiewicz W.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the issues related to concrete shrinkage. The basic information on the phenomenon is presented as well as the factors that determine the contraction are pointed out and the stages of the process are described. The guidance for estimating the shrinkage strain is given according to Eurocode standard PN-EN 1992-1-1:2008. The results of studies of the samples shrinkage strain of concrete C25/30 are presented with a comparative analysis of the results estimated by the guideli...

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of floral color variegation in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Zhihong

    2015-09-01

    Variegation in flower is a special trait in ornamental peach (Prunus persica L.). To investigate the mechanism of color variegation, we used a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to explore the proteomic profiles between variegated flower (VF) and red flower (RF) buds of the peach cultivar 'Sahong Tao'. More than 500 highly reproducible protein spots (P peach flowers. Our study is the first comparative proteomic analysis of floral variegation and will contribute to further investigations into the molecular mechanism of flower petal coloration in ornamental peach. PMID:26192118

  18. Comparation studies of uranium analysis method using spectrophotometer and voltammeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparation studies of uranium analysis method by spectrophotometer and voltammeter had been done. The objective of experiment is to examine the reliability of analysis method and instrument performance by evaluate parameters; linearity, accuracy, precision and detection limit. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is used as standard, and the sample is solvent mixture of tributyl phosphate and kerosene containing uranium (from phosphoric acid purification unit Petrokimia Gresik). Uranium (U) stripping in the sample use HN03 0,5 N and then was analyzed by using of both instrument. Analysis of standard show that both methods give a good linearity by correlation coefficient > 0,999. Spectrophotometry give accuration 99,34 - 101,05 % with ratio standard deviation (RSD) 1,03 %; detection limit (DL) 0,05 ppm. Voltammetry give accuration 95,63 -101,49 % with RSD 3,91 %; detection limit (DL) 0,509 ppm. On the analysis of sludge samples were given the significantly different in result; spectrophotometry give U concentration 4,445 ppm by RSD 6,74 % and voltammetry give U concentration 7,693 by RSD 19,53%. (author)

  19. Comparative study of analysis methods in biospeckle phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    In this work we present a review of main statistical properties of speckle patterns and accomplish a comparative study of the more used methods for analysis and extraction of information from optical grainy. The first and second order space-time statistics are dicussed in an overview perspective. The biospeckle phenomenon has detailed attention, specially in its application on monitoring of activity in tissues. The main techniques used to obtain information from speckle patterns are presented, with special prominence to autocorrelation function, co-occurrence matrices, Fujii's method, Briers' contrast and spatial and temporal contrast analisys (LASCA and LASTCA). An incipient method for analysis, based on the study of sucessive correlations contrast, is introduced. Numerical simulations, using diferent probability density functions for velocities of scatterers, were made with two objectives: to test the analysis methods and to give subsidies for interpretation of in vivo results. Vegetable and animal tissues are investigated, achieving the monitoring of senescence process and vascularization maps on leaves, the accompaniment of fungi contamined fruits, the mapping of activity in flowers and the analisys of healing in rats subjected to abdominal surgery. Experiments using the biospeckle phenomenon in microscopy are carried out. At last, it is evaluated the potentiality of biospeckle as diagnosis tool in chronic vein ulcer cared with low intensity laser therapy and the better analysis methods for each kind of tissue are pointed.

  20. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  1. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  2. 2004/2008 labour market information comparative analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Comparative analysis among sampling methods of underground water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the underground water quality assumes importance because of the increasing use of it for the different purposes of the contemporaneous society. Different methods for sampling and monitoring of underground water can take to very distinct results. In this way, the present work has as objective to carry out comparative studies among three methods of sampling of underground waters. Bailer, Electric pump of high flowing and pump of low flowing. Quantitative and qualitative sampling techniques of water quality were opted through monitoring wells. The research involved the identification and analysis of the differences in the results obtained by the methods of sampling of underground waters; the geologic and hydrologic description of the monitoring well, on which the sampling was taken from; and the comparative analysis among the three methods of sampling, determining which ones present the best efficiency. There were made mensurations at the site, collection of samples and interpretation of the chemical analyses. At the end of the works, with the integration of the geologic and hydrologic data and analytic results was possible to indicate that the most precise method of sampling of underground water is the low flowing one.

  4. Comparative Numerical Analysis Of Advertising Board Tower Using Adina And Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the subject of comparative stress and displacement analysis for different computer aided design program environments is discussed. For the purposes of analysis ADINA and Autodesk ROBOT program were used. In both programs an advertising board tower was modeled. Static analysis was adopted for the computations. Obtained results allowed showing small differences and limitations between those two environments.

  5. Correlations of emission concentrations among PCDDs/PCDFs, co-planar PCBs and HCB from major thermal stationary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.C.; Choe, S.H.; Na, J.G.; Hwang, S.R.; Lee, Z.H.; Chang, J.Y.; Cho, H.J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Inchon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are known as unintentionally produced chemicals (UPCs) from a variety of manufacturing and thermal processes. The UPCs are contained in products as impurities or byproducts in the manufacturing processes of chlorinated pesticides and solvents, and in the bleaching process of pulp. In particular, thermal processes such as incinerator and melting or smelting furnaces produce theses chemicals as products of incomplete combustion (PICs), which are resulted from the insufficient 3Ts for complete combustion: temperature, time, and turbulence. These characteristics of UPCs, therefore, lead to difficulty not only in estimating the formation and emission concentrations but also in applying removal technologies for these chemicals. In addition, PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs have many congeners of 210 and 209 types, respectively, and are emitted into the atmosphere at trace levels. Thus, the analysis of the emission concentration of UPCs requires a precise sampling and analytical procedure, which is time-consuming and high cost-consumable work. Some articles6,7, which discussed municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, have proposed the prediction of the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs with simply measured indicators, such as operating parameters or other low-molecular-weight chemicals in flue gas. In the present study, major stationary emission sources of UPCs, such as MSW incinerators, sintering furnaces, and smelting furnaces in the ferrous and nonferrous metal industry were selected for an investigation of the emission levels of UPCs. HCB, which has single congener and can be more simply measured by gaschromatographic separation than PCDDs/PCDFs or co-planar PCBs, was used as an indicator to evaluate the correlation of emission concentrations among UPCs and to predict the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs and co-planar PCBs.

  6. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Results Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the β2, γ1, γ3, ε, θ and π subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the α1, β2, γ2 and α6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs. Conclusion The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the α6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.

  7. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species. PMID:21396338

  8. Comparative analysis of EPA cost-benefit methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L.; Gillette, J.; Veil, J.

    1998-05-01

    In recent years, reforming the regulatory process has received much attention from diverse groups such as environmentalists, the government, and industry. A cost-benefit analysis can be a useful way to organize and compare the favorable and unfavorable impacts a proposed action night have on society. Since 1981, two Executive Orders have required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies to perform cost-benefit analyses in support of regulatory decision making. At the EPA, a cost-benefit analysis is published as a document called a regulatory impact analysis (RIA). This report reviews cost-benefit methodologies used by three EPA program offices: Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Solid Waste, and Office of Water. These offices were chosen because they promulgate regulations that affect the policies of this study`s sponsor (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy) and the technologies it uses. The study was conducted by reviewing 11 RIAs recently published by the three offices and by interviewing staff members in the offices. To draw conclusions about the EPA cost-benefit methodologies, their components were compared with those of a standard methodology (i.e., those that should be included in a comprehensive cost-benefit methodology). This study focused on the consistency of the approaches as well as their strengths and weaknesses, since differences in the cost-benefit methodologies themselves or in their application can cause confusion and preclude consistent comparison of regulations both within and among program offices.

  9. Rice fortification: a comparative analysis in mandated settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Carmen; Milani, Peiman; Schondebare, Jill A; Matthias, Dipika; Guyondet, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Legal mandates can play an important role in the success of rice fortification programs that involve the private sector. However, merely enacting mandatory legislation does not guarantee success; it requires a coordinated, multidimensional cross-sector effort that addresses stewardship, develops an appropriate rice fortification technology, enables sustainable production and distribution channels through a range of private-sector players, ensures quality, generates consumer demand, and monitors progress. Furthermore, economic sustainability must be built into the supply chain and distribution network to enable the program to outlast government administrations and/or time-limited funding. Hence, mandates can serve as valuable long-term enablers of cross-sector mobilization and collaboration and as catalysts of civil society engagement in and ownership of fortification programs. This paper compares the rice fortification experiences of Costa Rica and the Philippines--two countries with mandates, yet distinctly different industry landscapes. Costa Rica has achieved national success through strong government stewardship and active market development--key elements of success regardless of industry structure. With a comparatively more diffuse rice industry structure, the Philippines has also had success in limited geographies where key stakeholders have played an active role in market development. A comparative analysis provides lessons that may be relevant to other rice fortification programs. PMID:24913356

  10. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  11. White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  13. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mycobacterium Kansasii

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahid, Yara

    2014-04-01

    The group of Mycobacteria is one of the most intensively studied bacterial taxa, as they cause the two historical and worldwide known diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Mycobacteria not identified as tuberculosis or leprosy complex, have been referred to by ‘environmental mycobacteria’ or ‘Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is one of the most frequent NTM pathogens, as it causes pulmonary disease in immuno-competent patients and pulmonary, and disseminated disease in patients with various immuno-deficiencies. There have been five documented subtypes of this bacterium, by different molecular typing methods, showing that type I causes tuberculosis-like disease in healthy individuals, and type II in immune-compromised individuals. The remaining types are said to be environmental, thereby, not causing any diseases. The aim of this project was to conduct a comparative genomic study of M. kansasii types I-V and investigating the gene expression level of those types. From various comparative genomics analysis, provided genomics evidence on why M. kansasii type I is considered pathogenic, by focusing on three key elements that are involved in virulence of Mycobacteria: ESX secretion system, Phospholipase c (plcb) and Mammalian cell entry (Mce) operons. The results showed the lack of the espA operon in types II-V, which renders the ESX- 1 operon dysfunctional, as espA is one of the key factors that control this secretion system. However, gene expression analysis showed this operon to be deleted in types II, III and IV. Furthermore, plcB was found to be truncated in types III and IV. Analysis of Mce operons (1-4) show that mce-1 operon is duplicated, mce-2 is absent and mce-3 and mce-4 is present in one copy in M. kansasii types I-V. Gene expression profiles of type I-IV, showed that the secreted proteins of ESX-1 were slightly upregulated in types II-IV when compared to type I and the secreted forms of ESX-5 were highly down

  14. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Packet Scheduling Schemes for HSDPA Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janevski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present comparison analysis for packet scheduling algorithms for HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Networks. In particular, we analyze the round robin, max C/I and FCDS packet scheduling algorithms in HSDPA by comparing the average throughput, delay and fairness of the users, changing the number of the users in pedestrian and vehicular environment. The results have showed that the number of the users in a given coverage area is very important when choosing which packet scheduling algorithm for HSDPA networks. These results will be very useful for choosing the adequate scheduling algorithm in HSDPA network with aim to satisfy the desired quality of service for the mobile users.

  16. COMPUTER SIMULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARES ARENA® AND PROMODEL®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Enéias Zanetti Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The computer simulation is not exclusive areas of Logistics and Production, implementation takes place within the limits of technical expertise of professionals. Although not widespread at present, there is a rise of projection in use, as the numerous application possibilities, if properly modeled in reality presented face. This article proposes to present comparative and qualitative analysis of two computer simulation software, version Arena® 14,000 Student and ProModel® RunTimeSilve version - Demo, according to the following criteria: desktop, access to commands, ease in developing the software model and accessories, and can be seen the main features of each simulation software, as well as the differences between their interfaces, however, both were confirmed as great tools to support management processes.

  17. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Hvam, Michael L; Primdahl-Bengtson, Bjarke;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete...... ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. METHODS: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder...... of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration...

  18. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  19. Urban street networks: a comparative analysis of ten European cities

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Cardillo, Alessio; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    We compare the structural properties of the street networks of ten different European cities using their primal representation. We investigate the properties of the geometry of the networks and a set of centrality measures highlighting differences and similarities among cases. In particular, we found that cities share structural similarities due to their quasi planarity but that there are also several distinctive geometrical proprieties. A Principal Component Analysis is also performed on the distributions of centralities and their respective moments, which is used to find distinctive characteristics by which we can classify cities into families. We believe that, beyond the improvement of the empirical knowledge on streets network proprieties, our findings can open new perspectives in the scientific relation between city planning and complex networks, stimulating the debate on the effectiveness of the set of knowledge that statistical physics can contribute for city planning and urban morphology studies.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)

  1. Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of IAX and RSW

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhar, Manjur S; Abouabdalla, Omar; Wan, Tat Chee; Manasrah, Ahmad M

    2010-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is a technology to transport media over IP networks such as the Internet. VoIP has the capability of connecting people over packet switched networks instead of traditional circuit switched networks. Recently, the InterAsterisk Exchange Protocol (IAX) has emerged as a new VoIP which is gaining popularity among VoIP products. IAX is known for its simplicity, NAT friendliness, efficiency, and robustness. More recently, the Real time Switching (RSW) control criterion has emerged as a multimedia conferencing protocol. In this paper, we made a comparative evaluation and analysis of IAX and RSW using Mean Opinion Score rating (MOS) and found that they both perform well under different network packet delays in ms.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Privacy Impact Assessment in Six Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wright

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available he European Commission is revising the EU’s data protection framework. One of the changes concerns privacy impact assessment (PIA. This paper argues that the European Commission and the EU Member States should draw on the experience of other countries that have adopted PIA policies and methodologies to construct its own framework. There are similarities and differences in the approaches of Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the UK and US, the countries with the most experience in PIA. Each has its strong points, but also shortcomings. Audits have identified some of the latter in the instance of Canada. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the six countries to identify some of the best elements that could be used to improve Article 33 in European Commission’s proposed Data Protection Regulation.

  3. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION DYNAMICS IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Voronin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise to prominence in the international community following the end of the Cold War, the growth in economic power and population numbers project that China will become the leading world power within several decades, regardless of the course its government takes. The article aimes to contribute to answering the question whether this rise will be peaceful through a comparative analysis of resolved and unresolved territorial disputes between China and groups of neighbouring states between 1986 and 2013. While previous studies have focused rather exclusively on Chinese behaviour, this text will examine both sides of the dispute and the behavior of the parties in light of regional dynamics. 

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  7. Comparative analysis of cytogenetic manifestations of human genome instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative analysis of cytogenetic manifestations of human genome instability was carried out. The studied parameters are the micronuclei rate (MNR), the level of single and double chromosome fragment and the level of premature chromatid division (PCD). PCD and chromosome fragments were chosen as anomalies that possibly result in MN formation. We analysed the MNR in buccal epithelium (BE) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), the level of single and double chromosome fragment as well as level PCD - in PBL only. Average MNR in BE was higher than in PBL. The studied parameters are independent ones and have to be considered altogether for more comprehensive evaluation of the level and peculiarities of manifestation of human genome instability

  8. Comparative Analysis of Partial Occlusion Using Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Nallammal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of partial occlusion using face recognition techniques that gives in which technique produce better result for total success rate. The partial occlusion of face recognition is especially useful for people where part of their face is scarred and defect thus need to be covered. Hence, either top part/eye region or bottom part of face will be recognized respectively. The partial face information are tested with Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, Local NMF (LNMF and Spatially Confined NMF (SFNMF. The comparative results show that the recognition rate of 95.17% with r = 80 by using SFNMF for bottom face region. On the other hand, eye region achieves 95.12% with r = 10 by using LNMF.

  9. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks -- a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. U...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Visco-elastic Models with Variable Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Nastac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical comparative study for computational behaviour analysis of vibration isolation elements based on viscous and elastic models with variable parameters. The changing of elastic and viscous parameters can be produced by natural timed evolution demo-tion or by heating developed into the elements during their working cycle. It was supposed both linear and non-linear numerical viscous and elastic models, and their combinations. The results show the impor-tance of numerical model tuning with the real behaviour, as such the characteristics linearity, and the essential parameters for damping and rigidity. Multiple comparisons between linear and non-linear simulation cases dignify the basis of numerical model optimization regarding mathematical complexity vs. results reliability.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

  12. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Shweta Srivastava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The single source shortest path problem is one of the most studied problem in algorithmic graph theory. Single Source Shortest Path is the problem in which we have to find shortest paths from a source vertex v to all other vertices in the graph. A number of algorithms have been proposed for this problem. Most of the algorithms for this problem have evolved around the Dijkstra’s algorithm. In this paper, we are going to do comparative analysis of some of the algorithms to solve this problem. The algorithms discussed in this paper are- Thorup’s algorithm, augmented shortest path, adjacent node algorithm, a heuristic genetic algorithm, an improved faster version of the Dijkstra’s algorithm and a graph partitioning based algorithm.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Splice Site Regions by Information Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Shashi Rekha; Chanchal K. Mitra

    2006-01-01

    We have applied concepts from information theory for a comparative analysis of donor (gt) and acceptor (ag) splice site regions in the genes of five different organisms by calculating their mutual information content (relative entropy) over a selected block of nucleotides. A similar pattern that the information content decreases as the block size increases was observed for both regions in all the organisms studied. This result suggests that the information required for splicing might be contained in the consensus of ~6-8 nt at both regions. We assume from our study that even though the nucleotides are showing some degrees of conservation in the flanking regions of the splice sites, certain level of variability is still tolerated,which leads the splicing process to occur normally even if the extent of base pairing is not fully satisfied. We also suggest that this variability can be compensated by recognizing different splice sites with different spliceosomal factors.

  15. Comparative analysis of heat transfer correlations for forced convection boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical survey was conducted of the most relevant correlations of boiling heat transfer in forced convection flow. Most of the investigations carried out on partial nucleate boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling have led to the formulation of correlations that are not able to cover a wide range of operating conditions, due to the empirical approach of the problem. A comparative analysis is therefore required in order to delineate the relative accuracy of the proposed correlations, on the basis of the experimental data presently available. The survey performed allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the different calculating procedure; the results obtained, moreover, indicate the most reliable heat transfer correlations for the different operating conditions investigated. This survey was developed for five pressure range (up to 180bar) and for both saturation and subcooled boiling condition

  16. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  17. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  18. Comparative analysis of the biochemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Granjeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil during the recent decades has contributed to the installation of several new undergraduate and graduate study programs, as is the case of the undergraduate biochemistry programs at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The new biochemical professionals are being prepared to work mainly in Industries, research Institutes, government agencies and Universities in all fields that involve Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the courses in Biochemistry in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative analysis of the course units of the UFV, UFSJ and UEM programs, centered on the curricula contents and organization and on the profiles of the students in terms of parameters such as the number of admissions and the graduation completion rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The UFV and UEM programs present a very similar distribution of workload over the biological, exact sciences, humanities, biochemical specialties and technological applications. The UFSJ program presents higher workloads in the areas of biological sciences and technological applications. No significant differences in the distribution of the workloads of mandatory and optional disciplines, complementary activities and supervised activities were detected. Over the past five years there was a decrease in the number of students that abandoned the programs, despite the increased retention time in the three courses. Most graduated students at both UFV and UFSJ continue their academic career toward the Master or Doctor degrees. CONCLUSION: Little difference between the study programs analyzed. This is somewhat surprising if one considers the fact that individual conception of each program was based on different local conditions and needs, which indeed justify small differences. The similarity of the programs, on the other hand, reflects the universality of the biochemical sciences and their broad

  19. N-terminal protein processing: A comparative proteogenomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonissone, Stefano; Gupta, Nitin; Romine, Margaret F.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Terminal Methionine Excision (NME) is a universally conserved mechanism with the same specificity across all life forms that removes the first Methionine in proteins when the second residue is Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr, Pro, or Val. In spite of its necessity for proper cell functioning, the functional role of NME remains unclear. In 1988, Arfin and Bradshaw connected NME with the N-end protein degradation rule and postulated that the role of NME is to expose the stabilizing residues with the goal to resist protein degradation. While this explanation (that treats 7 stabilizing residues in the same manner) has become the de facto dogma of NME, comparative proteogenomics analysis of NME tells a different story. We suggest that the primary role of NME is to expose only two (rather than seven) amino acids Ala and Ser for post-translational modifications (e.g., acetylation) rather than to regulate protein degradation. We argue that, contrary to the existing view, NME is not crucially important for proteins with 5 other stabilizing residue at the 2nd positions that are merely bystanders (their function is not affected by NME) that become exposed to NME because their sizes are comparable or smaller than the size of Ala and Ser.

  20. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  1. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

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    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  2. Comparative Analysis of Different LIDAR System Calibration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    With light detection and ranging (LiDAR) now being a crucial tool for engineering products and on the fly spatial analysis, it is necessary for the user community to have standardized calibration methods. The three methods in this study were developed and proven by the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG) for airborne LiDAR systems and are as follows; Simplified, Quasi-Rigorous, and Rigorous. In lieu of using expensive control surfaces for calibration, these methods compare overlapping LiDAR strips to estimate the systematic errors. These systematic errors are quantified by these methods and include the lever arm biases, boresight biases, range bias and scan angle scale bias. These three methods comprehensively represent all of the possible flight configurations and data availability and this paper will test the limits of the method with the most assumptions, the simplified calibration, by using data that violates the assumptions it's math model is based on and compares the results to the quasi-rigorous and rigorous techniques. The overarching goal is to provide a LiDAR system calibration that does not require raw measurements which can be carried out with minimal control and flight lines to reduce costs. This testing is unique because the terrain used for calibration does not contain gable roofs, all other LiDAR system calibration testing and development has been done with terrain containing features with high geometric integrity such as gable roofs.

  3. Molecular organization in liquid crystals: A comparative computational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative computational analysis of molecular organization in four-nematogenic acids (nOCAC) having two, four, six, and eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain is carried out with respect to translatory and orientational motions. The evaluation of the atomic charge and dipole moment at each atomic center is performed through the complete neglect differential overlap (CNDO/2) method. The Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, along with the multicentered-multipole expansion method, is employed to evaluate the long-range interactions, while the '6-exp' potential function is assumed for short-range interactions. The total interaction-energy values obtained through these computations are used to calculate the probability of each configuration at the phase transition temperature via the Maxwell-Boltzmann formula. Further, the flexibility of various configurations is studied in terms of variation of probability due to small departures from the most probable configuration. A comparative picture of molecular parameters, such as the total energy, binding energy, and total dipole moment, is given. An attempt is made to explain the nematogenic behavior of these liquid crystals in terms of their relative order and, thereby, to develop a molecular model for the liquid crystallinity.

  4. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

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    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  5. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

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    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  6. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  7. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  8. Comparative Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Phenotype Stratified Prostate Cells.

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    Tanya C Burch

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most prevalent cancer amongst men and the second most common cause of cancer related-deaths in the USA. Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease ranging from indolent asymptomatic cases to very aggressive life threatening forms. The goal of this study was to identify differentially expressed metabolites and lipids in prostate cells with different tumorigenic phenotypes. We have used mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, lipidomic profiling, bioinformatic and statistical methods to identify, quantify and characterize differentially regulated molecules in five prostate derived cell lines. We have identified potentially interesting species of different lipid subclasses including phosphatidylcholines (PCs, phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs, glycerophosphoinositols (PIs and other metabolites that are significantly upregulated in prostate cancer cells derived from distant metastatic sites. Transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of key enzymes that are involved in lipid metabolism demonstrate the significant upregulation of choline kinase alpha in the metastatic cells compared to the non-malignant and non-metastatic cells. This suggests that different de novo lipogenesis and other specific signal transduction pathways are activated in aggressive metastatic cells as compared to normal and non-metastatic cells.

  9. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, expression profiling was performed. Results Assemblies were generated from ∼85 million and ∼77 million high-quality reads from CP and CS cultivars, respectively. A total of 35,527 and 27,716 transcripts were obtained from the CP and CS assemblies, respectively. Annotation of the transcriptomes showed that approximately 90% of the transcripts had significant matches in public databases. We identified several candidate genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis. In addition, a large number of transcripts (17%) with different gene ontology designations were uniquely detected in adventitious roots compared to normal ginseng roots. Conclusion This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php) for public use. PMID:25379008

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  11. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. PMID:25296770

  12. Comparative analysis reveals the underlying mechanism of vertebrate seasonal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Animals utilize photoperiodic changes as a calendar to regulate seasonal reproduction. Birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and functional genomics analysis in quail uncovered the signal transduction pathway regulating avian seasonal reproduction. Birds detect light with deep brain photoreceptors. Long day (LD) stimulus induces secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone (TH) in the hypothalamus, which induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence gonadotropin secretion. However, during winter, low temperatures increase serum TH for adaptive thermogenesis, which accelerates germ cell apoptosis by activating the genes involved in metamorphosis. Therefore, TH has a dual role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Studies using TSH receptor knockout mice confirmed the involvement of PT-derived TSH in mammalian seasonal reproduction. In addition, studies in mice revealed that the tissue-specific glycosylation of TSH diversifies its function in the circulation to avoid crosstalk. In contrast to birds and mammals, one of the molecular machineries necessary for the seasonal reproduction of fish are localized in the saccus vasculosus from the photoreceptor to the neuroendocrine output. Thus, comparative analysis is a powerful tool to uncover the universality and diversity of fundamental properties in various organisms. PMID:26050562

  13. Sequence and comparative genomic analysis of actin-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Oma, Yukako; Vallar, Laurent; Friederich, Evelyne; Poch, Olivier; Winsor, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    Actin-related proteins (ARPs) are key players in cytoskeleton activities and nuclear functions. Two complexes, ARP2/3 and ARP1/11, also known as dynactin, are implicated in actin dynamics and in microtubule-based trafficking, respectively. ARP4 to ARP9 are components of many chromatin-modulating complexes. Conventional actins and ARPs codefine a large family of homologous proteins, the actin superfamily, with a tertiary structure known as the actin fold. Because ARPs and actin share high sequence conservation, clear family definition requires distinct features to easily and systematically identify each subfamily. In this study we performed an in depth sequence and comparative genomic analysis of ARP subfamilies. A high-quality multiple alignment of approximately 700 complete protein sequences homologous to actin, including 148 ARP sequences, allowed us to extend the ARP classification to new organisms. Sequence alignments revealed conserved residues, motifs, and inserted sequence signatures to define each ARP subfamily. These discriminative characteristics allowed us to develop ARPAnno (http://bips.u-strasbg.fr/ARPAnno), a new web server dedicated to the annotation of ARP sequences. Analyses of sequence conservation among actins and ARPs highlight part of the actin fold and suggest interactions between ARPs and actin-binding proteins. Finally, analysis of ARP distribution across eukaryotic phyla emphasizes the central importance of nuclear ARPs, particularly the multifunctional ARP4. PMID:16195354

  14. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical cryogenic transfer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryogenic systems and their applications, primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities in terms of layout to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections like tee sections, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraint conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum etc. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using CAESAR II software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. Inclusion of these components provides additional flexibility to the transfer line system and makes it safe. The optimization was performed by selection of the appropriate flexible components to meet the design requirements as per ASME B31.3/EN 13480 codes. This paper describes the results obtained from the analytical calculations, which are compared and validated with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. (author)

  15. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

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    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  16. Comparative analysis of face recognition techniques with illumination variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illumination variation is one of the major challenges in the face recognition. To deal with this problem, this paper presents comparative analysis of three different techniques. First, the DCT is employed to compensate for illumination variations in the logarithm domain. Since illumination variation lies mainly in the low frequency band, an appropriate number of DCT coefficients are truncated to reduce the variations under different lighting conditions. The nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance is employed for classification. Second, the performance of PCA is checked on normalized image. PCA is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to a lower dimension for analysis. Third, LDA based methods gives a satisfactory result under controlled lighting condition. But its performance under large illumination variation is not satisfactory. So, the performance of LDA is checked on normalized image. Experimental results on the Yale B and ORL database show that the proposed approach of application of PCA and LDA on normalized dataset improves the performance significantly for the face images with large illumination variations.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Public-Key Encryption Schemes

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    Falaki, S. O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of public-key cryptography by Diffie and Hellman in 1976 was an important watershed in the history of cryptography. The work sparked off interest in the cryptographic research community and soon several public-key schemes were proposed and implemented. The Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (RSA, being the first realisation of this abstract model, is the most widely used public-key scheme today. However, increased processing power and availability of cheaper processing technology occasioned by the exponential growth in digital technology has generated some security concerns, necessitating the review of security parameters for enhanced security. Enhanced processing power requirement does not favour the present class of ubiquitous mobile devices that are characterised by low power consumption, limited memory and bandwidth as they may not be able to run this cryptographic algorithm due to computational burden associated with long key lengths. And since future increase in key lengths looks likely given the current technological developments, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC has been proposed as an alternative cryptosystem because it satisfies both security requirements and efficiency with shorter key lengths. This research work focuses on the comparative analysis of RSA Encryption algorithm, ElGamal Elliptic Curve Encryption algorithm and Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Encryption algorithm. These elliptic curve analogues of ElGamal Encryption scheme were implemented in Java, using classes from the Flexiprovider library of ECC. The RSA algorithm used in the comparison is the Flexiprovider implementation. Performance evaluation on the three algorithms based on the time lapse for their Key generation, encryption and decryption algorithms, and encrypted data size was carried out and compared. The results show that our elliptic curve-based implementations are more superior to the RSA algorithm on all comparative parameters.

  18. Comparative study of models for pipe-whip analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the response of high energy lines after the occurence of pipe rupture has received considerable attention in recent past, with an array of different modelling techniques proposed and available in the literature. Information on relative merits of such methods is scarce and the present study provides tentative guidelines to the designer confronted with the selection of an appropriate model for a given system. The criteria of evaluation are, implicitly, the time required for analysis and the computer cost involved and, explicitly, the degree of accuracy of the solutions. The models compared are grouped into four classes: (i) one-degree-of-freedom-systems that introduce a stationary plastic hinge and require simple hand calculations, (ii) kinematic models incorporating the concept of a travelling hinge, easily analysed by means of inexpensive computer programs, (iii) engineering beam models considering elasto-plastic pipe behavior and (iv) two dimensional finite element systems based on plane stress theory. The kinematic model, proposed earlier by the authors, is used to conduct a qualitative analysis of the response as a function of the magnitude of external force, gap size and rigidity of the restraint. The engineering beam model gives results that practically coincide with those generated by the plane stress approach, although consistently a little higher than the latter. The methods were applied to typical configurations with bilinear restraints and the results obtained prove that the single-degree-of-freedom model may lead to non conservative solutions whereas the straight application of the kinematic model would always underestimate the maximum deformation of the restraint. (orig.)

  19. COMPETITIVENESS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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    Jelena Mićić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness or market competition is the basic regulatory mechanism of the market. Today, some economic theorists propose that the competitiveness actually measures the wealth of a society in another way, so it is very important that it contributes to innovation, improvement of the business and overall economic growth. Bosnia and Herzegovina is located close to the very bottom of the European countries according to the competitiveness of its economy. Occasionally it is possible to notice positive changes, but unfortunately they were not strong enough or continuous for achieving economic development or improving living standard. Benchmark analysis of competitiveness deepened the view of the overall movement of the BiH competitiveness and its key factors, as well as the comparison with the selected reference countries. So, the competitiveness of our economy in the period 2007-2015 is the main topic of this paper, with the basic hypothesis that BiH has a positive trend in competitiveness relative to comparable countries in the reporting period. The aim of the research is to determine the conditions, trends and underlying determinants of competitiveness of Bosnia and Herzegovina and state of our competitiveness in relation to comparative economies. Through application of standard scientific methodology, particularly methods of statistical analysis, we came to results that show that BiH economy had significant growth of competitiveness in most observed indicators, with minor variations in the period 2007-2014, while the level of variability in 2015 was so huge that we have been excluded from the Global Competitiveness Report for 2014-2015 year of the World Economic Forum. Although our country generally exhibits the lower performance than the comparative countries it is possible to perceive areas where we have strengths and potentials. The fact that the World Economic Forum, for the first time, has omitted Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Global

  20. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kramer, Christian; Vulpetti, Anna; Gedeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable. PMID:23613770

  1. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable.

  2. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Human Lung Squamous Carcinoma Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui; TANG Can'e; DUAN Chaojun; YI Hong; XIAO Zhiqiang; CHEN Zhuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles with high resolution and reproducibility from human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue, and to identify differential expression tumor-associated proteins by using proteome analysis. Methods: Comparative proteome analysis with 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and the paired normal bronchial epithelial tissues adjacent to tumors was carried out. The total proteins of human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue were separated by means of immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining. The differential expression proteins were analyzed and then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results: (1) Well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE patterns of human lung squamous carcinoma and adjacent normal bronchial epithelial tissues were obtained. For tumor tissue, average spots of 3 gels were 1567±46, and 1436±54 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.6%. For control, average spots of 3 gels were 1349±58, and 1228±35 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.03%. The average position deviation of matched spots was 0.924±0.128 mm in IEF direction, and 1.022±0.205 mm in SDS-PAGE direction; (2)A total of 1178±56 spots were matched between the electrophoretic maps of 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissues. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were screened; (3) Sixty-eight differential proteins were identified by PMF, some proteins were the products of oncogenes, and others involved in the regulation of cell cycle and signal transduction;(4) In order to validate the reliability of the identified results, the expression of 3 proteins mdm2, c-jun and EGFR, which was correlated with lung

  3. Comparative kinetic analysis of two fungal β-glucosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanave Dominique

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is still considered as one of the main limiting steps of the biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a complex multistep process, and various kinetic models have been proposed. The cellulase enzymatic cocktail secreted by Trichoderma reesei has been intensively investigated. β-glucosidases are one of a number of cellulolytic enzymes, and catalyze the last step releasing glucose from the inhibitory cellobiose. β-glucosidase (BGL1 is very poorly secreted by Trichoderma reesei strains, and complete hydrolysis of cellulose often requires supplementation with a commercial β-glucosidase preparation such as that from Aspergillus niger (Novozymes SP188. Surprisingly, kinetic modeling of β-glucosidases lacks reliable data, and the possible differences between native T. reesei and supplemented β-glucosidases are not taken into consideration, possibly because of the difficulty of purifying BGL1. Results A comparative kinetic analysis of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger and BGL1 from Trichoderma reesei, purified using a new and efficient fast protein liquid chromatography protocol, was performed. This purification is characterized by two major steps, including the adsorption of the major cellulases onto crystalline cellulose, and a final purification factor of 53. Quantitative analysis of the resulting β-glucosidase fraction from T. reesei showed it to be 95% pure. Kinetic parameters were determined using cellobiose and a chromogenic artificial substrate. A new method allowing easy and rapid determination of the kinetic parameters was also developed. β-Glucosidase SP188 (Km = 0.57 mM; Kp = 2.70 mM has a lower specific activity than BGL1 (Km = 0.38 mM; Kp = 3.25 mM and is also more sensitive to glucose inhibition. A Michaelis-Menten model integrating competitive inhibition by the product (glucose has been validated and is able to predict the

  4. A comparative reliability analysis of free-piston Stirling machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-02-01

    A free-piston Stirling power convertor is being developed for use in an advanced radioisotope power system to provide electric power for NASA deep space missions. These missions are typically long lived, lasting for up to 14 years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for providing the radioisotope power system for the NASA missions, and has managed the development of the free-piston power convertor for this application. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years and is currently providing support to DOE. Due to the nature of the potential missions, long life and high reliability are important features for the power system. Substantial resources have been spent on the development of long life Stirling cryocoolers for space applications. As a very general statement, free-piston Stirling power convertors have many features in common with free-piston Stirling cryocoolers, however there are also significant differences. For example, designs exist for both power convertors and cryocoolers that use the flexure bearing support system to provide noncontacting operation of the close-clearance moving parts. This technology and the operating experience derived from one application may be readily applied to the other application. This similarity does not pertain in the case of outgassing and contamination. In the cryocooler, the contaminants normally condense in the critical heat exchangers and foul the performance. In the Stirling power convertor just the opposite is true as contaminants condense on non-critical surfaces. A methodology was recently published that provides a relative comparison of reliability, and is applicable to systems. The methodology has been applied to compare the reliability of a Stirling cryocooler relative to that of a free-piston Stirling power convertor. The reliability analysis indicates that the power convertor should be able to have superior reliability

  5. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-05-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters. PMID:22772837

  6. Comparing Sustainable Forest Management Certifications Standards: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelyn Sarrah. Kozar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems caused by conventional forest management, forest certification has emerged as a driver of sustainable forest management. Several sustainable forest management certification systems exist, including the Forest Stewardship Council and those endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, such as the Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management Standard CAN/CSA - Z809 and Sustainable Forestry Initiative. For consumers to use certified products to meet their own sustainability goals, they must have an understanding of the effectiveness of different certification systems. To understand the relative performance of three systems, we determined: (1 the criteria used to compare the Forest Stewardship Council, Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management, and Sustainable Forestry Initiative, (2 if consensus exists regarding their ability to achieve sustainability goals, and (3 what research gaps must be filled to improve our understanding of how forest certification systems affect sustainable forest management. We conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of 26 grey literature references (books, industry and nongovernmental organization publications and 9 primary literature references (articles in peer-reviewed academic journals that compared at least two of the aforementioned certification systems. The Forest Stewardship Council was the highest performer for ecological health and social sustainable forest management criteria. The Canadian Standards Association - Sustainable Forestry Management and Sustainable Forestry Initiative performed best under sustainable forest management criteria of forest productivity and economic longevity of a firm. Sixty-two percent of analyses were comparisons of the wording of certification system principles or criteria; 34% were surveys of foresters or consumers. An important caveat to these results is that only one comparison was based on

  7. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Jeppesen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. Methods: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder carcinoma FL3 cells. The fractions were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, total protein quantification and immunoblotting for CD81, TSG101, syntenin, VDAC1 and calreticulin. Results: NTA revealed the lowest background particle count in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media devoid of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration and composition of the obtained fractions. In addition, HEK293 and FL3 vesicles displayed marked differences in sedimentation characteristics. Exosomes were pelleted already at 33,000×g, a g-force which also removed most contaminating microsomes. Optimal vesicle-to-protein yield was obtained at 67,000×g for HEK293 cells but 100,000×g for FL3 cells. Relative expression of exosomal markers (TSG101, CD81, syntenin suggested presence of exosome subpopulations with variable sedimentation characteristics. Conclusions: Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. The vesicle sedimentation profile differed between the 2 cell lines.

  8. Comparative analysis of polygalacturonase in the fruit of strawberry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Li, G; Zhao, X; Li, L J

    2015-01-01

    The role of polygalacturonase (PG) in the development, ripening, and softening of fruit from two strawberry cultivars with different flesh firmness and softening characteristics was compared. Changes in PG activity and gene expression during development, ripening and softening were measured. The PG genes from each cultivar were cloned and analyzed, and were classified with other PG genes using phylogenetic analysis. In Toyonoka fruit, PG activity increased gradually, reaching a peak during the pink stage, and remained at this level during post-harvest softening. Changes in PG gene expression were consistent with PG activity in these softer fruits. In the firmer Sweet Charlie fruits, PG activity was detected during the initial development stage, reaching a peak at the white stage, thereafter decreasing gradually with ripening and remaining at this lower level throughout softening. Changes in PG gene expression and PG activity were not consistent in these fruit. For both Toyonoka and Sweet Charlie PG genes (FaTPG and FaSCPG, respectively), the open reading frame was 1218 bp, encoding 405 amino acids. Five different nucleotide sites were observed between the two sequences, leading to two amino acid sequence mutations. FaTPG, FaSCPG, and PG genes from the Fragaria vesca genome were classified into three clades using phylogenetic analysis. The clade containing PG genes involved in fruit softening had functional similarity but there were no functional differences between FaTPG and FaSCPG. Differences in PG activity, gene sequence, and gene expression may have led to different roles of PG during ripening and softening in strawberries with different textures. PMID:26505428

  9. Arms control verification costs: the need for a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War era has presented practitioners and analysts of international non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) the opportunity to focus more intently on the range and scope of NACD treaties and their verification. Aside from obvious favorable and well-publicized developments in the field of nuclear non-proliferation, progress also has been made in a wide variety of arenas, ranging from chemical and biological weapons, fissile material, conventional forces, ballistic missiles, to anti-personnel landmines. Indeed, breaking from the constraints imposed by the Cold War United States-Soviet adversarial zero-sum relationship that impeded the progress of arms control, particularly on a multilateral level, the post Cold War period has witnessed significant developments in NACD commitments, initiatives, and implementation. The goals of this project - in its final iteration - will be fourfold. First, it will lead to the creation of a costing analysis model adjustable for uses in several current and future arms control verification tasks. Second, the project will identify data accumulated in the cost categories outlined in Table 1 in each of the five cases. By comparing costs to overall effectiveness, the application of the model will demonstrate desirability in each of the cases (see Chart 1). Third, the project will identify and scrutinize 'political costs' as well as real expenditures and investment in the verification regimes (see Chart 2). And, finally, the project will offer some analysis on the relationship between national and multilateral forms of arms control verification, as well as the applicability of multilateralism as an effective tool in the verification of international non-proliferation, arms control, and disarmament agreements. (author)

  10. Comparative analysis of different methods for graphene nanoribbon synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are thin strips of graphene that have captured the interest of scientists due to their unique structure and promising applications in electronics. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of morphological properties of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by different methods. Various methods have been reported for graphene nanoribons synthesis. Lithography methods usually include electron-beam (e-beam lithography, atomic force microscopy (AFM lithography, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM lithography. Sonochemical and chemical methods exist as well, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD and anisotropic etching. Graphene nanoribbons can also be fabricated from unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs. We propose a new highly efficient method for graphene nanoribbons production by gamma irradiation of graphene dispersed in cyclopentanone (CPO. Surface morphology of graphene nanoribbons was visualized with atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that dimensions of graphene nanoribbons are inversely proportional to applied gamma irradiation dose. It was established that the narrowest nanoribbons were 10-20 nm wide and 1 nm high with regular and smooth edges. In comparison to other synthesis methods, dimensions of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by gamma irradiation are slightly larger, but the yield of nanoribbons is much higher. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for structural analysis of graphene nanoribbons. Results of photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed for the first time that synthesized nanoribbons showed photoluminescence in the blue region of visible light in contrast to graphene nanoribbons synthesized by other methods. Based on disclosed facts, we believe that our synthesis method has good prospects for potential future mass production of graphene nanoribbons with uniform size, as well as for future investigations of carbon nanomaterials for

  11. Counter-orbiting Planets Were Flipped Over by a Coplanar Outer Object

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gongjie; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Some massive exoplanets with close-in orbits, so-called hot Jupiters, are observed to orbit in exactly the opposite direction to the spin of their host star. True (not projected) ~180 degree misalignment cannot be well explained with previously proposed physical processes. Here we present a mechanism that can naturally lead to these counter-orbiting systems. The gravitational influence of an outer eccentric object in a coplanar orbit increases the initial eccentricity of the planet to high values. The planet's orbit then suddenly flips by ~180 degree, rolling over its major axis. The ~180 degree flip criterion and timescale are given by simple analytic expressions that depend on the initial orbital parameters. With tidal dissipation, this mechanism naturally leads to the observed counter-orbiting systems. This mechanism also enhances the tidal disruption/collision rates in coplanar eccentric triple systems.

  12. Coplanar waveguide microwave filter of YBa2Cu3O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Bajuk, Louis J.

    1991-01-01

    Thin film low-pass microwave filters have been made with laser-ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) deposited on LaAlO3 substrates, using a coplanar waveguide structure. The coplanar waveguide sections had dimensions suited for integrated circuits. Measured losses in liquid nitrogen were superior to the loss in a similar thin-film copper filter throughout the 0 to 9.5 GHz pass-band. A simple transmission-line model is adequate for filter design using YBCO films with repeatable characteristics. The measured filters demonstrate the performance of fully patterned YBCO after sealing in space-qualifiable hermetic packages. Five packaged filters of this design were delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory as candidates for space flight in the High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment.

  13. Application of pulse-shape discrimination to coplanar CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Sellin, P. J.

    2013-11-01

    A digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithm for the identification of multi-site γ-ray interactions in coplanar CdZnTe detectors has been developed. The algorithm is used to suppress the Compton continuum in γ-ray spectroscopy measurements by rejecting the single-site events. The results of our study with a 15×15×7.5 mm3 detector demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for revealing low intensity γ-ray peaks in the examined energy range (511-1274 keV), which is of importance for environmental and security applications. The method is also very useful for background reduction in the neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments for which coplanar CdZnTe detectors are of interest.

  14. Comparative analysis of graphite oxidation behaviour based on microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two unidentified powdered graphite samples, from a natural and a synthetic origin respectively, were examined. These materials are intended for use in nuclear applications, but have an unknown treatment history since they are considered proprietary. In order to establish a baseline for comparison, the samples were compared to two commercial flake natural graphite samples with varying impurity levels. The samples were characterized by conventional techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicated that all four samples were very similar, with low impurity levels and good crystallinity, yet they exhibit remarkably different oxidation behaviours. The oxidized microstructures of the materials were examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy at low acceleration voltages. The relative influence of each factor affecting the oxidation was established, enabling a structured comparison of the different oxidative behaviours. Based on this analysis, it was possible to account for the measured differences in oxidative reactivity. The material with the lowest reactivity was a flake natural graphite which was characterized as having highly visible crystalline perfection, large particles with a high aspect ratio and no traces of catalytic activity. The second sample, which had an identical inherent microstructure, was found to have an increased reactivity due to the presence of small catalytic impurities. This material also exhibited a more gradual reduction in the oxidation rate at higher conversion, caused by the accumulation of particles which impede the oxidation. The sample with the highest reactivity was found to be a milled, natural graphite material, despite its evident crystallinity. The increased reactivity was attributable to a smaller particle size, the presence of catalytic impurities and extensive damage to the particle structure caused by jet milling. Despite displaying the lowest levels of

  15. Milk transfer and neonatal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective accumulation of 3,3'4,3'-tetrachlorobiphenyl metabolites in late gestational foetal blood and soft tissues in mice as a result of administration of different coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, is reported elsewhere. The situation in the nursing neonate after maternal exposure to the same congeners is now studied: The 14C-labelled congeners 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-126), 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-169) (all three non-ortho congeners) and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-105) (mono-ortho congener) were injected intravenously in lactating mice at day 11 post partum. One day and four days later, milk and neonatal/maternal tissues and plasma radioactivity was monitored by liquid scintillation counting (dose: 2.0 μmol (20-50 μCi)/kg body weight). In milk, CB-126, -169 and -105 showed higher levels (1450-2520 pmol/ml; one day after administration) than did CB-77 (580 pmol/ml), and in neonates, the relative whole-body levels of radioactivity (CB-169 and -105 highest) were related to the levels seen in milk (probably the consequences of their metabolic persistence). The comparably high 14C-concentration found in neonatal liver (about 15,000 pmol/kg) after CB-126 administration and in plasma (880 pmol/ml) after CB-77 administration could be explained by binding to specific proteins. In general, neonatal mice had two to seven times higher plasma levels than those of their mothers. These results indicate that CB-126, -169 and -105 are transferred via milk to neonates in considerable quantity and are deposited mainly in neonatal liver, whereas CB-77 is transferred in a comparably lower amount and accumulated in neonatal plasma. The lower 14C-levels in the NMRI mothers and offspring (about half of C57BL values in maternal and neonatal plasma), could possibly be explained by a differentiated metabolism of CB-77 in these two strains. (au

  16. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  17. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  18. Uniplanar Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Gao; Shouzheng Zhu; Qiuyan Yin; Yong Cheng; Guohua Zhai

    2013-01-01

    A uniplanar millimeter-wave broadband printed log-periodic dipole array (PLPDA) antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced. This proposed structure consists of several active dipole elements, feeding lines, parallel coupled line, and the CPW, which are etched on a single metallic layer of the substrate. The parallel coupled line can be optimized to act as a transformer between the CPW and the PLPDA antenna. Meanwhile, this transform performs the task of a balun to achieve a wideban...

  19. Thermal design of power GaN FETs in microstrip and coplanar MMICs

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, A.; Furno, M.; Cappelluti, F.; Bonani, F.; Pirola, M.; Ghione, G

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a discussion on the thermal design of integrated power GaN devices. After a short out line of some critical thermal modelling issues, design guidelines are proposed on the basis of thermal simulations; the results presented suggest that for room temperature applications SiC substrate thinning (thus implying a microstrip process)is not mandatory from a thermal standpoint. This would open the possibility for coplanar GaN MMICs, already exploited for low-noise amplifiers, also...

  20. High-Performance Coplanar Waveguide to Empty Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line Transition

    OpenAIRE

    BELENGUER MARTÍNEZ, ÁNGEL; Borja, A.L.; Esteban González, Héctor; Boria Esbert, Vicente Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new empty coaxial structure, entirely built with printed circuit boards, has been proposed. The resulting coaxial line has low radiation, low losses, high-quality factor, and is nondispersive. Up to now, this coaxial line has not been completely integrated in a planar substrate, since a working transition to a traditional planar line has not been defined yet. Therefore, in this paper, a high-quality transition from coplanar waveguide to this new empty coaxial line is proposed....

  1. High-performance Coplanar Waveguide to Empty Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Belenguer, Angel; Alejandro L. Borja; Esteban, Héctor; Boria, Vicente E.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new empty coaxial structure, entirely built with printed circuit boards, has been proposed. The resulting coaxial line has low radiation, low losses, high quality factor, and is non-dispersive. Up to now, this coaxial line has not been completely integrated in a planar substrate, since a working transition to a traditional planar line has not been defined yet. Therefore, in this paper, a high-quality transition from coplanar waveguide to this new empty coaxial line is proposed. Wi...

  2. Efficiency of ozone production by dielectric coplanar surface barrier discharge in synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Homola, T.

    Praha : Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR,v.v..i, 2007 - (Schmidt, J.; Šimek, M.; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, V.), s. 934-938 - (ICPIG). [International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases/28./. Prague (CZ), 15.07.2007-20.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ozone * Dielectric * Coplanar * Surface * Barrier * Discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Continuation from a flat to a round Earth model in the coplanar orbit transfer problem

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Max; Haberkorn, Thomas; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we focus on the problem of minimization of the consumption for the coplanar orbit transfer problem. This problem is usually solved numerically by a shooting method, based on the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, however the shooting method is known to be hard to initialize and the convergence is difficult to obtain due to discontinuities of the optimal control. Several tricks are known in order to overcome that problem, however in this article we introduce ...

  4. A thickness-shear MEMS resonator employing electromechanical transduction through a coplanar waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, W. L.; Wallis, T.M.; Kabos, P.; Rocas Cantenys, Eduard; Collado Gómez, Juan Carlos; Liew, L.A.; Ha, J.Y.; Davydov, A. V.; Plankis, A.; Heyliger, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a vibrationally trapped thickness-shear MEMS resonator is presented. This device is intended to avoid various limitations of flexural MEMS resonators, including nonlinearity, clamping losses, thermoelastic damping, and high damping in liquid. It includes a silicon bridge and a reference line on an SOI wafer, a coupled Au/Cr coplanar waveguide, Lorentz-force coupling, variations in waveguide thickness for vibration...

  5. A comparative analysis of network robustness against different link attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Boping; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Mingxing; Ma, Liangliang

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the study of optimizing network robustness has attracted increasing attentions, and the constraint that every node's degree cannot be changed is considered. Although this constraint maintains the node degree distribution consistently in order to reserve the structure of networks, it makes the network structure be lack of flexibility since many network structure always transform in the modern society. Given this consideration, in this paper, we analyze the robustness of networks through setting a new constraint; that is, only the number of edges should be unchanged. Then, we use the link-robustness index (Rl) as the measure of the network robustness against either random failures or intentional attacks, and make a comparative analysis of network robustness against different types of link attacks. Moreover, we use four types of networks as initial networks, namely scale-free networks, random networks, regular networks, and small-world networks. The experimental results show that the values of robustness measures for the optimized networks starting from different initial networks are similar under different link attacks, but the network topologies may be different. That is to say, networks with different topologies may have similar robustness in terms of the robustness measures. We also find that the optimized networks obtained by one link attack may not robust against other link attacks, sometimes, even weaker than the original networks. Therefore, before building networks, it is better to study which type of link attacks may happen.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  7. Comparative Analysis of German and Anglo-Saxon Business Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two premises built the starting point for following study: that cultural background, cultural conditioning have a considerable influence upon business area at one hand and at the other hand that nations having common origins are likely to present similar cultural conditioning. The first hypothesis found proving in the works of theoreticians and practitioners like E.T. Hall, Geert Hofstede, Richard Gesteland and others dealing with the problem of people’s “mental programming” called culture and with cultural differences around the world. For the second premise we wanted to analyze three cultures having common Germanic roots namely the German, British (focusing on the English component of it and American cultures through the prism of their concept of time, relation to business, working and communicational style, structure of management, attitude towards hierarchy and interpersonal distance including physical contact. As the results of our comparative analysis showed above mentioned business cultures had very much in common regarding attitude to time, business and interpersonal distance but in the other segments they presented considerable differences as well. Taking all aspects into consideration the similarities deriving from their common Germanic origin offer the three cultures in question some advantages in business relations but the essential differences they present should be minded, too to avoid failure in deal making.

  8. An Optimization Framework for Comparative Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With a myriad of alternative vehicle powertrain architectures emerging in the industry, such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, it is beneficial that the most appropriate system is chosen for the desired vehicle class and duty cycle, and to minimize a given cost function. This paper investigates this issue, by proposing a novel framework that evaluates different types of powertrain architectures under a unified modular powertrain structure. This framework provides a systematic and objective approach to comparing different types of powertrain architectures simultaneously, and will highlight the benefits that can be achieved from each architecture, thus making it possible to develop the reasoning for manufacturers to implement such systems, and potentially accelerate customer take-up of alternative powertrain technology. The results from this investigation have indicated that such analysis is indeed possible, by way of identifying the “cross-over point” between powertrain architectures, where one powertrain architecture transitions into a different architecture with increments in the required travel range.

  9. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrivens James H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93 of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.

  10. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  11. Load-application devices: a comparative strain gauge analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; de Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-01-01

    In view of the low loading values commonly employed in dentistry, a load-application device (LAD) was developed as option to the universal testing machine (UTM), using strain gauge analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a load-application device (LAD) and compare the LAD with the UTM apparatus under axial and non-axial loads. An external hexagonal implant was inserted into a polyurethane block and one EsthetiCone abutment was connected to the implant. A plastic prosthetic cylinder was screwed onto the abutment and a conical pattern crown was fabricated using acrylic resin. An impression was made and ten identical standard acrylic resin patterns were obtained from the crown impression, which were cast in nickel-chromium alloy (n=10). Four strain gauges were bonded diametrically around the implant. The specimens were subjected to central (C) and lateral (L) axial loads of 30 kgf, on both devices: G1: LAD/C; G2: LAD/L; G3: UTM/C; G4: UTM/L. The data (με) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the UTM and LAD devices, regardless of the type of load. It was concluded that the LAD is a reliable alternative, which induces microstrains to implants similar to those obtained with the UTM. PMID:26200149

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis on radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discover radioresistance-associated proteins by performing comparative proteomic analysis on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Methods: The total proteins were extracted from radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and its parental cell line CNE-2, respectively. These proteins were separated by high quality two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and then the 2-DE profiles were screened for differentially expressed protein spots by the Image Master 5.0 software. Those spots were identified by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Results: 32 significantly differentially expressed protein spots were screened in two different radiosensitivity cell lines and 11 proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry, among which 3 proteins were up-regulated in radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and the other 8 proteins were down-regulated. Conclusions: The differentially expressed proteins of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells with different radiosensitivity were mainly involved in apoptosis regulation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle regulation, RNA transcription, cell signaling, cytoskeleton formation and radiation stress responses. (authors)

  13. Engine System Loads Analysis Compared to Hot-Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Jennings, John M.; Mims, Katherine; Brunty, Joseph; Christensen, Eric R.; McConnaughey, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Early implementation of structural dynamics finite element analyses for calculation of design loads is considered common design practice for high volume manufacturing industries such as automotive and aeronautical industries. However with the rarity of rocket engine development programs starts, these tools are relatively new to the design of rocket engines. In the NASA MC-1 engine program, the focus was to reduce the cost-to-weight ratio. The techniques for structural dynamics analysis practices, were tailored in this program to meet both production and structural design goals. Perturbation of rocket engine design parameters resulted in a number of MC-1 load cycles necessary to characterize the impact due to mass and stiffness changes. Evolution of loads and load extraction methodologies, parametric considerations and a discussion of load path sensitivities are important during the design and integration of a new engine system. During the final stages of development, it is important to verify the results of an engine system model to determine the validity of the results. During the final stages of the MC-1 program, hot-fire test results were obtained and compared to the structural design loads calculated by the engine system model. These comparisons are presented in this paper.

  14. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  15. Comparative analysis of solution methods of the punctual kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following one written it presents a comparative analysis among different analytical solutions for the punctual kinetics equation, which present two variables of interest: a) the temporary behavior of the neutronic population, and b) The temporary behavior of the different groups of precursors of delayed neutrons. The first solution is based on a method that solves the transfer function of the differential equation for the neutronic population, in which intends to obtain the different poles that give the stability of this transfer function. In this section it is demonstrated that the temporary variation of the reactivity of the system can be managed as it is required, since the integration time for this method doesn't affect the result. However, the second solution is based on an iterative method like that of Runge-Kutta or the Euler method where the algorithm was only used to solve first order differential equations giving this way solution to each differential equation that conforms the equations of punctual kinetics. In this section it is demonstrated that only it can obtain a correct temporary behavior of the neutronic population when it is integrated on an interval of very short time, forcing to the temporary variation of the reactivity to change very quick way without one has some control about the time. In both methods the same change is used so much in the reactivity of the system like in the integration times, giving validity to the results graph the one the temporary behavior of the neutronic population vs. time. (Author)

  16. Comparative Analysis of Serial Decision Tree Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nwokejizie Anyanwu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification of data objects based on a predefined knowledge of the objects is a data mining and knowledge management technique used in grouping similar data objects together. It can be defined as supervised learning algorithms as it assigns class labels to data objects based on the relationship between the data items with a pre-defined class label. Classification algorithms have a wide range of applications like churn prediction, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, and credit card rating etc. Also there are many classification algorithms available in literature but decision trees is the most commonly used because of its ease of implementation and easier to understand compared to other classification algorithms. Decision Tree classification algorithm can be implemented in a serial or parallel fashion based on the volume of data, memory space available on the computer resource and scalability of the algorithm. In this paper we will review the serial implementations of the decision tree algorithms, identify those that are commonly used. We will also use experimental analysis based on sample data records (Statlog data sets to evaluate the performance of the commonly used serial decision tree algorithms

  17. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  19. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Coplanar Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  20. PLATFORM DEFORMATION PHASE CORRECTION FOR THE AMiBA-13 COPLANAR INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics, and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Guo-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, 251-37 Tamsui, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Molnar, Sandor M. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yen, E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: jhpw@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  1. Coplanarity inspection of BGA solder balls based on laser interference structure light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhe; Xiao, Zexin; Zhang, Xuefei; Zhou, Haiying

    2011-11-01

    Using laser interference structure light for profilometry is a rapid, non-contact, full-field profile and high accuracy measuring method.And it has been a promising technique in complicated geometrical shape measurement. In this paper, a fast and cost-effective measurement method of coplanarity inspection of ball grid array (BGA) solder balls is proposed. Laser interference structure light can be obtained by using the principle of shearing interferometry. The collimated and beam expanded laser produced interference fringe by the high reflection rate optical flat. After laser interference fringe project on the surface of object and the structured light would modulated. The light signal pass through the image optical grabber and captured by the CCD image sensor. The height of each point on object can be demodulated by the imaging processing software.This method to construct the measurement appliance for coplanarity inspection of ball grid array (BGA) chip solder ball. Experiments have shown that the coplanarity measurement of BGA solder balls is very efficient and effective with the measurement. The measurement accuracy achieve micrometer level. The processing time of the measurement accuracy is less than 3s on a personal computer. This measurement appliance could completely meet the demand of measure.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Mugemangango Cyprien; Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing t...

  3. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of benign skull-base tumors: a dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with Rapidarc® versus non-coplanar dynamic arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign tumors of the skull base are a challenge when delivering radiotherapy. An appropriate choice of radiation technique may significantly improve the patient’s outcomes. Our study aimed to compare the dosimetric results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between non-coplanar dynamic arcs and coplanar volumetric modulated arctherapy (Rapidarc®). Thirteen patients treated with Novalis TX® were analysed: six vestibular schwannomas, four pituitary adenomas and three meningioma. Two treatment plans were created for each case: dynamic arcs (4–5 non coplanar arcs) and Rapidarc® (2 coplanar arcs). All tumors were >3 cm and accessible to both techniques. Patients had a stereotactic facemask (Brainlab) and were daily repositioned by Exactrac®. GTV and CTV were contoured according to tumor type. A 1-mm margin was added to the CTV to obtain PTV. Radiation doses were 52.2–54 Gy, using 1.8 Gy per fraction. Treatment time was faster with Rapidarc®. The mean PTV V95 % was 98.8 for Rapidarc® and 95.9 % for DA (p = 0.09). Homogeneity index was better with Rapidarc®: 0.06 vs. 0.09 (p = 0.01). Higher conformity index values were obtained with Rapidarc®: 75.2 vs. 67.9 % (p = 0.04). The volume of healthy brain that received a high dose (V90 %) was 0.7 % using Rapidarc® vs. 1.4 % with dynamic arcs (p = 0.05). Rapidarc® and dynamic arcs gave, respectively, a mean D40 % of 10.5 vs. 18.1 Gy (p = 0.005) for the hippocampus and a Dmean of 25.4 vs. 35.3 Gy (p = 0.008) for the ipsilateral cochlea. Low-dose delivery with Rapidarc® and dynamic arcs were, respectively, 184 vs. 166 cm3 for V20 Gy (p = 0.14) and 1265 vs. 1056 cm3 for V5 Gy (p = 0.67). Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy using Rapidarc® for large benign tumors of the skull base provided target volume coverage that was at least equal to that of dynamics arcs, with better conformity and homogeneity and faster treatment time. Rapidarc® also offered better sparing of the ipsilateral cochlea and hippocampus

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  5. Characterization of a multimode coplanar waveguide parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterize a Josephson parametric amplifier based on a flux-tunable quarter-wavelength resonator. The fundamental resonance frequency is ∼1 GHz, but we use higher modes of the resonator for our measurements. An on-chip tuning line allows for magnetic flux pumping of the amplifier. We investigate and compare degenerate parametric amplification, involving a single mode, and nondegenerate parametric amplification, using a pair of modes. We show that we reach quantum-limited noise performance in both cases

  6. Multisite surface electromyography and complementary healing intervention: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D P; Cram, J R

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis was conducted on a series of three experimental studies that examined the effect of various local and nonlocal (distant) complementary healing methods on multisite surface electromyographic (sEMG) and autonomic measures. The series concentrated sEMG electrode placement on specific neuromuscular paraspinal centers (cervical [C4], thoracic [T6], and lumbar [L3]), along with the frontalis region, due to the fact that these sites corresponded to the location of individual chakra centers as delineated in ancient Eastern medical and philosophical texts. It was hypothesized that the sEMG assessment procedure had the potential to provide objective, quantifiable correlates for complementary healing treatment effects, as well as assess the energy flow through the chakras during a healing treatment. The studies were the first of their kind to incorporate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols in order to evaluate correlative neuromuscular multisite sEMG paraspinal measures with different complementary healing treatment interventions. Although the measurement protocols were similar between experiments, the results, demonstrated by the individual studies, varied. Whereas the overall findings of the series are encouraging because they indicate a potential objective scientific correlate to complementary healing treatment intervention, the results are considered preliminary in nature and appear to be linked to either the meditational experience of the subjects or dependent on the particular healer(s) used. Additional research is needed in order to establish the multisite sEMG assessment procedure as a reliable correlative measure for complementary healing treatment effects and to determine whether a consistent replicative treatment effect can be demonstrated independent of the specific subject population or practitioner(s) used. PMID:9449057

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L Klima

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1 and 6 (S6 isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2 found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica from Bovine Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Cassidy L; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Vick P; Xu, Yong; Rasmussen, Jay; Potter, Andrew; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is a common health problem in beef production. The primary bacterial agent involved, Mannheimia haemolytica, is a target for antimicrobial therapy and at risk for associated antimicrobial resistance development. The role of M. haemolytica in pathogenesis is linked to serotype with serotypes 1 (S1) and 6 (S6) isolated from pneumonic lesions and serotype 2 (S2) found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 11 strains of M. haemolytica, representing all three serotypes and performed comparative genomics analysis to identify genetic features that may contribute to pathogenesis. Possible virulence associated genes were identified within 14 distinct prophage, including a periplasmic chaperone, a lipoprotein, peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase and a stress response protein. Prophage content ranged from 2-8 per genome, but was higher in S1 and S6 strains. A type I-C CRISPR-Cas system was identified in each strain with spacer diversity and organization conserved among serotypes. The majority of spacers occur in S1 and S6 strains and originate from phage suggesting that serotypes 1 and 6 may be more resistant to phage predation. However, two spacers complementary to the host chromosome targeting a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase and a glycosyl transferases group 1 gene are present in S1 and S6 strains only indicating these serotypes may employ CRISPR-Cas to regulate gene expression to avoid host immune responses or enhance adhesion during infection. Integrative conjugative elements are present in nine of the eleven genomes. Three of these harbor extensive multi-drug resistance cassettes encoding resistance against the majority of drugs used to combat infection in beef cattle, including macrolides and tetracyclines used in human medicine. The findings here identify key features that are likely contributing to serotype related pathogenesis and specific targets for vaccine design intended to reduce the

  9. Design and performance evaluation of a coplanar multimodality scanner for rodent imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, E; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Tapias, G; Abella, M; Rodriguez-Ruano, A; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, J E [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza (Spain); Udias, A [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada (Spain)], E-mail: elage@mce.hggm.es

    2009-09-21

    This work reports on the development and performance evaluation of the VrPET/CT, a new multimodality scanner with coplanar geometry for in vivo rodent imaging. The scanner design is based on a partial-ring PET system and a small-animal CT assembled on a rotatory gantry without axial displacement between the geometric centers of both fields of view (FOV). We report on the PET system performance based on the NEMA NU-4 protocol; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment and the imaging capability of the whole system are also evaluated on phantom and animal studies. Tangential spatial resolution of PET images ranged between 1.56 mm at the center of the FOV and 2.46 at a radial offset of 3.5 cm. The radial resolution varies from 1.48 mm to 1.88 mm, and the axial resolution from 2.34 mm to 3.38 mm for the same positions. The energy resolution was 16.5% on average for the entire system. The absolute coincidence sensitivity is 2.2% for a 100-700 keV energy window with a 3.8 ns coincident window. The scatter fraction values for the same settings were 11.45% for a mouse-sized phantom and 23.26% for a rat-sized phantom. The peak noise equivalent count rates were also evaluated for those phantoms obtaining 70.8 kcps at 0.66 MBq/cc and 31.5 kcps at 0.11 MBq/cc, respectively. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment is below half the PET resolution, and the image quality of biological specimens agrees with measured performance parameters. The assessment presented in this study shows that the VrPET/CT system is a good performance small-animal imager, while the cost derived from a partial ring detection system is substantially reduced as compared with a full-ring PET tomograph.

  10. Comparative analysis of 60Co intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Lynch, Bart; Men, Chunhua; Aleman, Dionne M.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we perform a scientific comparative analysis of using 60Co beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In particular, we evaluate the treatment plan quality obtained with (i) 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co IMRT; (ii) different numbers of static multileaf collimator (MLC) delivered 60Co beams and (iii) a helical tomotherapy 60Co beam geometry. We employ a convex fluence map optimization (FMO) model, which allows for the comparison of plan quality between different beam energies and configurations for a given case. A total of 25 clinical patient cases that each contain volumetric CT studies, primary and secondary delineated targets, and contoured structures were studied: 5 head-and-neck (H&N), 5 prostate, 5 central nervous system (CNS), 5 breast and 5 lung cases. The DICOM plan data were anonymized and exported to the University of Florida optimized radiation therapy (UFORT) treatment planning system. The FMO problem was solved for each case for 5-71 equidistant beams as well as a helical geometry for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung cases, and for 3-7 equidistant beams in the upper hemisphere for breast cases, all with 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co dose models. In all cases, 95% of the target volumes received at least the prescribed dose with clinical sparing criteria for critical organs being met for all structures that were not wholly or partially contained within the target volume. Improvements in critical organ sparing were found with an increasing number of equidistant 60Co beams, yet were marginal above 9 beams for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung. Breast cases produced similar plans for 3-7 beams. A helical 60Co beam geometry achieved similar plan quality as static plans with 11 equidistant 60Co beams. Furthermore, 18 MV plans were initially found not to provide the same target coverage as 6 MV and 60Co plans; however, adjusting the trade-offs in the optimization model allowed equivalent target coverage for 18 MV. For plans with comparable target coverage

  11. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugemangango Cyprien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing the given data.

  12. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  13. Assessment of dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology: principal component analysis compared with confirmatory factor analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Monier, Florent; Le Moual, Nicole; de Batlle, Jordi; Miranda, Gemma; Pison, Christophe,; Romieu, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Maccario, Jean

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the field of nutritional epidemiology, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to derive patterns, but the robustness of interpretation might be an issue when the sample size is small. The authors proposed the alternative use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to define such patterns. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare dietary patterns derived through PCA and CFA used as equivalent approaches in terms of stability and relevance. DESIGN: PCA and CFA were performed in ...

  14. ROLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN IN SME COMPARE WITH DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Shaikh

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of western women in Small and Medium enterprises business compare with Pakistani women. The western women are playing a very important role in economic development through SMEs in comparison with the South Asia and specially in Pakistan where women is not free to develop their own business but only few visible cases has been studies and it was observed that despite of many obstacles our women is playing a vital role in developing countries in SME and...

  15. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Blande, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Tuomainen, M.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In

  17. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a methyl group (CH{sub 3})-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at V{sub D} = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm{sup 2}/V·s, respectively.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KEY GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Krylov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses current transformations in the system of global economic governance. State-led, mixed and private models of global economic governance are examined in the comparative perspective.

  19. Institutional Conditions For Stakeholder CSR - A Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Backhaus, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes a comparative investigation of national institutional patterns underlying environmental CSR, employee CSR, investor CSR, and social CSR. For this purpose, I draw on different case studies and comparative analyses to indicate the occurrence of the types of stakeholder CSR in the 21 considered countries. Amable's (2003) varieties of capitalism approach is used to classify the prevalence of five institutional characteristics for the countries of the sample. By means ...

  20. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  1. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  2. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2013-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  3. The Comparative Analysis of Urban Employment Indexes in Iran Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zangiabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionThe role of employment in the vitality of modern urban societies’ life is not a mystery to anyone. Unemployment and the ensuing issues constitute the most complicated of current urban planning issues which give birth to a plethora of deleterious social, cultural, security and even environmental complexities as well as to some certain economic consequences which directly or indirectly influence all aspects of urban planning in a sense that one could say many of the problems and issues of urban societies result from ill employment structures. Since employment and inequality are two interrelated and interdependent issues, unequal employment opportunities in different areas paves the way for inequality in other domains of development and results in developmental inequality among different areas, an inequity in creating employment opportunities, thus making some areas more developed than others which in long run leads to a lack of equilibrium in urban system of the country. Therefore, comparing and analyzing urban employment indices of different areas of the country and categorizing them in terms of urban employment development and providing a logical prioritization can prepare the ground for a well-informed intervention in urban employment planning of the country along with maintaining the community system equilibrium and establishing stable urban development. 2- MethodologyIn this study, Iranian cities are examined and compared in terms of urban employment indices using Maurice model and TOPSIS algorithm and arranged in the order of their urban development level and categorized, and the results were displayed in GIS environment on the map using ArcMap software. SPSS was employed to analyze and the data and test the hypotheses. The data used in indexing were the results of the public census of 1385 (2006 retrieved from the portal of the national statistical center of Iran.3- DiscussionThe cities were divided into 4

  4. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. PMID:26948618

  5. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  6. CIS Countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia: Comparative Analysis of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleshchuk Irina Ivanovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the logistics services market of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia on the basis of the LPI for 2011 and the LPI for 2013. The countries under analysis were divided into 3 groups depending on the logistics services market development. Due to the experts’ survey the strengths and weaknesses of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia logistics systems were revealed, the influence of the external environment factors was analyzed, as a result the matrix of the transport-logistics sphere condition of the countries under analysis was built. The authors analyzed the groups of the countries depending on the logistics sphere development.

  7. Comparation analysis of selected world universities web pages

    OpenAIRE

    Balcar, Filip

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of actual situation in the field of world universities web pages. The first part represents the methodology, made by author, which is used for classification for web pages of universities. It also explains the process of using it in use. In the second part there are four world universities analysed. Considering the number of points, which each of the universities get in the analysis, there is the best university web page presented as the winner of the test. The...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Logan, J.; Bird, L.; Short, W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  9. Environment Reporters and U.S. Journalists: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsman, David B.; Simon, James; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    2008-01-01

    This study provides baseline data regarding environment reporters in the twenty-first century, and then compares this baseline information about a specialized journalism beat to existing studies of U.S. journalists in general. This comparison between 652 environmental journalists working at daily newspapers and television stations and more than…

  10. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  11. Comparative analysis of Asian citrus psyllid and Potato psyllid antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in two psyllid species, Diaphorina citri (the Asian citrus psyllid), and Bacterocera cockerelli (the potato/tomato psyllid) (both species Hemiptera:Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidat...

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  13. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  14. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  15. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of the Tribolium immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has contributed a wealth of knowledge on insect development but limited information about innate immunity. With its complete nucleotide sequence determined, we have taken the opportunity to annotate immunity-related genes and compare them with homologous mole...

  17. Online Genome Analysis Resources for Educators, a Comparative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2012-01-01

    A comparative review of several companies that offer similar kits or services that allow students to isolate DNA (human and others), amplify it by PCR, and in some cases sequence the resulting sample.  The companies include:  Carolina® Biological Supply Company, Bio-Rad®, Edvotek® Inc., Hiram Genomics Store, and 23andMe.

  18. Investigation of the coplanar barrier discharge in synthetic air at atmospheric pressure by cross-correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barrier discharge in the coplanar arrangement operating in a single-filament mode was studied spectroscopically. The evolution of the discharge luminosity was measured by the technique of cross-correlation spectroscopy. The 1D-spatially and temporally resolved luminosities of the first negative (at 391.5 nm) and the second positive (at 337.1 nm) system of molecular nitrogen were recorded using the above-mentioned technique. A cathode-directed ionizing wave (IW) was clearly seen on the plot for radiation intensity at 337.1 nm. In addition to this, also observed was a wave of the enhanced electric field propagating over the anode. In this paper, the propagation of these waves is described and their velocities are determined. The discharge evolution is divided into three phases-the Townsend phase, the phase of the IWs propagation and the extinction phase. Since the above-mentioned luminosity distributions could be interpreted approximately as the electric field (for 391.5 nm) and the electron density (for 337.1 nm) distribution, the qualitative description of the discharge is made accordingly. All these parameters are compared with similar measurements of the volume discharge. Apart from this, an attempt to determine the reduced electric field is made according to the kinetic model

  19. Modeling and parameter extraction of CMOS on-chip coplanar waveguides up to 67 GHz for mm-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplanar waveguides (CPW) are widely used in mm-wave circuits designs for their good performance. A novel unified model of various on chip CPWs for mm-wave application, together with corresponding direct parameter extraction methodologies, are proposed and investigated, where standard CPW, grounded CPW (GCPW) and CPW with slotted shield (SCPW) are included. Several kinds of influences of different structures are analyzed and considered into the model to explain the frequency-dependent per-unit-length L, C, R, and G parameters, among which the electromagnetic coupling for CPWs with large lower ground or shield is described by a new C–L–R series path in the parallel branch. The direct extraction procedures are established, which can ensure both accuracy and simplicity compared with other reported methods. Different CPWs are fabricated and measured on 90-nm CMOS processes with Short-Open-Load-Through (SOLT) de-embedding techniques. Excellent agreement between the model and the measured data for different CPWs is achieved up to 67 GHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Numerical Simulations of Backward-to-Forward Leaky-Wave Antenna with Composite Right/Left-Handed Coplanar Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A composite right / left-handed (CRLH) coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure and its leaky-wave antenna (LWA) with continuous backward-to-forward scanning applications are proposed. The structure of the CRLH transmission line (TL) is composed of split-ring resonators (SRRs) for left-handed (LH) series capacitance and short-circuited stubs connected between the CPW central signal line and the ground for LH shunt inductance, while the unavoidable right-handed (RH) parasitic effects series inductance and shunt capacitance are generated by wave propagation through the host transmission line. The dispersion relations are calculated and compared with the equivalent circuit model method and 3D full-wave simulations, which can be used to determine the physical dimensions of the CRLH-CPW, such as in the balanced CRLH-TL case. As a main example, a CRLH-CPW-LWA operating from 1.67 GHz to 1.80 GHz with the dispersion characteristics of the balanced CRLH-TL case shows continuous leakage frequency band (fast wave region) from LH (phase constant β 0, 1.74 0). (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. Two-level optimization approach for Mars orbital long-duration, large non-coplanar rendezvous phasing maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Zhang, Jin

    2013-09-01

    A relative dynamics equation-set based on orbital element differences with J2 effects is derived, based on which a two-level approach is proposed to optimize the Mars orbital rendezvous phasing with a large difference in the initial ascending node. The up-level problem uses the revolution deviation between the target spacecraft and the chaser as the design variable, and employs a linear search to find the optimum. The low-level problem uses the maneuver revolutions, locations, and impulses as the design variables, and is solved using a hybrid genetic algorithm combined with sequential quadratic programming. To improve the solution accuracy, an iteration method is developed to satisfy the terminal constraints of the absolute numerical integration trajectory. Test cases involving Mars sample return missions with large initial node differences are presented, which show that the relative dynamics, two-level optimization model, and hybrid optimization algorithm are efficient and robust. Compared with previously published results, the total velocity increment has been further reduced by utilizing this proposed approach. It is found that a five-impulse plan requires the least quantity of propellant, and a propellant-optimal minimum rendezvous duration exists for this long-duration, large non-coplanar rendezvous problem.

  2. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  3. Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    In the present paper a comparison between three different surface runoff models, in the numerical urban drainage tool MOUSE, is conducted. Analysing parameter uncertainty, it is shown that the models are very sensitive with regards to the choice of hydrological parameters, when combined overflow...... analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed....

  4. Comparative kinetic analysis of raw and cleaned coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbas, K.E.; Kok, M.V.; Hicyilmaz, C.

    2002-07-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) was used to determine the kinetic analysis of different coals and effect of cleaning process on kinetic parameters of raw and cleaned coal samples from Soma, Tuncbilek and Afsin Elbistan regions. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using Arrhenius and Coats and Redfern kinetic models and the results are discussed.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  7. A high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer using a coplanar anode configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C. J.; He, Z.; Knoll, G. F.; Tepper, G.; Wehe, D. K.

    2003-06-01

    A new design of a high pressure xenon ionization chamber has been fabricated in an attempt to eliminate the problems associated with acoustical vibrations of the Frisch grid. The function of the traditional Frisch grid has been accomplished by employing a coplanar anode system capable of single polarity charge sensing. Two different detector designs have been fabricated using both cylindrical and parallel plate geometries. Each is filled with highly purified xenon gas at a pressure of approximately 57 atm. The designs of these new spectrometers and their measured characteristics will be presented.

  8. Phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right/left-handed metamaterials based on coplanar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purely phase-constant-nonreciprocal composite right-left handed metamaterial structure is proposed based on coplanar waveguides loaded with a ferrite layer. The structure exhibits considerably large nonreciprocity in phase constant which depends on the effective magnetization and whose magnitude can remain in leaky wave region of wavenumbers or can overcome a boundary to slow wave region. The nonreciprocity in amplitude of transmission coefficients, on the other hand, is effectively reduced by using a cavity-backed design to prevent undesired nonreciprocal radiation loss

  9. Size reduction and harmonic supression in coplanar rat-race coupler using defected ground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Avanish; Sharma, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed, verified and studied defected ground structures (DGS) in coplanar rat-race coupler to reduce its size and harmonic suppression in transmission characteristics. The dumbbell geometry has been chosen as a DGS unit-cell in a systematic manner in the proposed structure. The EM simulation results from IE3D tool presented with experimental validation to study the transmission behavior of proposed structures. The operation frequency has been reduced from 5.4 GHz down to 4.4 GHz after introduction of defected ground structures along the suppression of higher order harmonics.

  10. A compact coplanar MMIC Mixer For 2.4 GHz transponder systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tempel, R.; Lütke, W.; Wolff, I.

    1998-01-01

    A compact coplanar passive MMIC mixer has been developed, realized and tested successfully as a cost effective part of an I/Q demodulator module for applications in 2.4 GHz transponder systems. Although there are no external elements required, the cold-FET mixer's size is only 1 mm2 including bias and active matching networks. Operating with 6V/15mA DC bias, required by the active matching FETs, the mixer has a maximum conversion gain of -2 dB at 9.5 dBm LO power and 100 MHz IF frequency. Int...

  11. A high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer using a coplanar anode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design of a high pressure xenon ionization chamber has been fabricated in an attempt to eliminate the problems associated with acoustical vibrations of the Frisch grid. The function of the traditional Frisch grid has been accomplished by employing a coplanar anode system capable of single polarity charge sensing. Two different detector designs have been fabricated using both cylindrical and parallel plate geometries. Each is filled with highly purified xenon gas at a pressure of approximately 57 atm. The designs of these new spectrometers and their measured characteristics will be presented

  12. Comparative Analysis of Dayside Reconnection Models in Global Magnetosphere Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Komar, C M; Cassak, P A

    2015-01-01

    We test and compare a number of existing models predicting the location of magnetic reconnection at Earth's dayside magnetopause for various solar wind conditions. We employ robust image processing techniques to determine the locations where each model predicts reconnection to occur. The predictions are then compared to the magnetic separators, the magnetic field lines separating different magnetic topologies. The predictions are tested in distinct high-resolution simulations with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angles ranging from 30 to 165 degrees in global magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the three-dimensional Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code with a uniform resistivity, although the described techniques can be generally applied to any self-consistent magnetosphere code. Additional simulations are carried out to test location model dependence on IMF strength and dipole tilt. We find that most of the models match large portions of the magnetic separators wh...

  13. Comparative analysis of team work in kindergartens and schools

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelajac, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The thesis work I determined and compared the team work in kindergarten and school. I was interested in cooperation between a preschool teacher and an assistant preschool teacher and a primary school teacher and a preschool teacher at school. The participants and members of the team directly share roles and they are equivalent to each other. However, it is necessary to emphasize their difference in knowledge, skills and abilities. They do not have the same level of competence, motivation and ...

  14. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias Patterns in Microsporidian Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Heng; Zhang, Ruizhi; Butler, Robert R.; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Li; Pombert, Jean-François; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different evolutionary forces are applied on the group as a whole. In this study, we have compared the codon usage bias (CUB) between eight taxonomica...

  15. Compare Analysis between Chinese and Indonesian Phonetics and teaching suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Anggreani

    2014-01-01

    With further development of friendly relations between China and Indonesia, coupled with a growing number of Indonesian Chinese, learning Chinese language is getting more important. Article compared Chinese and Indonesian voice and showed the voice of the Chinese language. Moreover, article provided ideas for Chinese phonetics teaching and for Indonesian students in learning Chinese pronunciation. In addition, article puts forward suggestions in order to improve foreign language teaching.

  16. A comparative analysis of solutions regarding the current global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    DORNEAN Adina; ISAN Vasile

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze comparatively and critically the solutions adopted on international level by the European Union and also by different countries. In the first part, the paper aims at emphasizing the causes of the global economic and financial crisis and its features, including the contagion effect which manifested. In the second part, we consider the main implications of the global financial turmoil in order to emphasize the serious effects of the crisis. Finally, we analyz...

  17. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  18. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.

    2012-01-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algori...

  19. A Comparative Analysis Between a Preacher's Practice and Homiletic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Castillow, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research compared the practice of an expert preacher to core concepts in homiletic theory (the art and craft of preaching), searching for discrepancies between what theory suggested and what the preacher practiced. It also sought to validate that the preacher practiced what homiletic theorists prescribed and to inform homiletic theory by describing strategies he employed unlike those espoused in homiletic theory. To discover whether the participant's practice was congruent...

  20. Comparative analysis of summary scoring systems in measuring fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Moo-Kyung; Jung, Sung-Il; Kim, Tae-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose For measuring symptoms of fecal incontinence, summary scoring systems are widely used, but rigorous psychometric validation or assessment of such systems in terms of patients' subjective perception has rarely been done to date. This study was designed to assess the correlation between each severity measure and patients' subjective perception or clinicians' clinical assessment. We attempted to compare summary scoring systems of severity measures and searched for which of them showed hi...

  1. A comparative collision-based analysis of human gait

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, David V.; Comanescu, Tudor N.; Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares human walking and running, and places them within the context of other mammalian gaits. We use a collision-based approach to analyse the fundamental dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) according to three angles derived from the instantaneous force and velocity vectors. These dimensionless angles permit comparisons across gait, species and size. The collision angle Φ, which is equivalent to the dimensionless mechanical cost of transport CoTmech, is found to be three times ...

  2. Last Planner and Critical Chain in Construction Management: Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Lauri; Stratton, Roy; Koskenvesa, Anssi

    2010-01-01

    This paper endeavours to compare the Last Planner System of production control and the Critical Chain production management method. This comparison is carried out in the context of construction management. The original prescription and the evolution of the practice are examined regarding both approaches, and the similarities and differences are noted. Based on these considerations, gaps in the two approaches are identified and the potential of a synthesis of them is explored.

  3. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    OpenAIRE

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and rice to understand the mechanisms controlling drought resistance. Genetic mapping in a rice population revealed that around 30% of variation for grain yield under drought was controlled by a locus close to the dwarfing gene responsible for t...

  4. New World and Mediterranean wine tourism: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Charters, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper providing a comparative overview of wine tourism in the New World and Europe – particularly the Mediterranean region. The review is timely because while there has been substantial wine tourism research in Anglophone countries, less has occurred in Europe, despite the fact that it has such a long history of wine production. The paper suggests a series of differences between the two areas based on both structural factors affecting the context in which wine is produce...

  5. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed excreting system. Aim: To compare the result and advantages of both endonasal endoscopic and external DCR regarding the patency rate, patient compliance and complications. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted for 16 months duration in a teaching hospital with 50 cases of endoscopic and 30 cases of external DCR with a follow-up of minimum 6 months. Data regarding surgical outcome and complications were analysed and compared using χ2 test. Results: Total 72 patients were included in the study with six having bilateral involvement, out of which 20 were male and 52 were female. The mean age for endoscopic and external DCR was 33.6 years and 46.0 years, respectively. Right eye (63.8% was involved more commonly than left eye (36.2%. Epiphora was the commonest presenting symptom (63.7%. Mean duration of surgery was much lengthier in external (mean 119.6 minutes than endoscopic (mean 49.0 minutes DCR. Bleeding was the most common immediate postoperative complication seen in 33.3% and 10.0% of external and endoscopic DCR cases, respectively. Primary surgical success rate was 90% and 96.7% for endoscopic and external DCR, respectively ( P = 0.046. Among the endoscopic DCR group, four patients underwent revision surgery giving a total successful surgical outcome of 98% at third month of follow-up. However, at 6 month of follow-up, success rate was 92% for endoscopic DCR and 93.3% for external DCR. The difference was not statistically significant ( P = 0.609. Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR.

  6. Academic freedom in Europe: a preliminary comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karran, Terence

    2007-01-01

    Using comparative data from 23 states within the European Union, this paper is a preliminary assessment of the protection for, and (by extension) the health of, academic freedom in the universities of the nations of the European Union. The paper examines constitutional and legislative protection for academic freedom, along with legal regulations concerning institutional governance, the appointment of the Rector and the existence of academic tenure, in order to create a composite picture of th...

  7. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Ron; SMITH, ANDREW M.; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platfor...

  8. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Andrew M; Ammar Ron; Heisler Lawrence E; Giaever Guri; Nislow Corey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarra...

  9. Comparative analysis of policies to deal with wildfire risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, AJD; Valente, S.; Fleskens, L.; Gonzales-Pelayo, O; Rubio, JL; Stoof, CR; Coelho, COA; Ferreira, CSS; Ritsema, CJ

    2014-01-01

    Fires are the main driver of land degradation in forest areas in Mediterranean sub-humid regions, and are likely to increase as a result of climate and other global changes. To prevent deleterious processes induced by fire, several policies and strategies have been implemented at national and regional scales. We perform a comparative study of policies and strategies of Portuguese and Spanish (Comunitat Valenciana) cases in order to assess the differences between them, and identify their roles...

  10. Poverty Consequences of Globalisation in OIC Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Majeed

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of globalisation on cross-country poverty using a new comparable panel data set for developing countries over a long period 1970-2008. The main findings of the study are: First, openness to trade exerts adverse effects on poverty in all sample developing countries while FDI helps in reducing poverty only in OIC countries. Second, growth elasticity of poverty is negative and significant in all countries; however, the growth elasticity of poverty is high in the ca...

  11. BUDAPEST, BRATISLAVA AND VIENNA CONFERENCE FACILITIES, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Endre György Bártfai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of conference facilities in three capital cities in the Central European area, along the Danube, analyse and compare their possibilities and venues. The utilized data within the study was collected from different sources, like websites of the Hungarian, Slovakian and Austrian Convention Bureaus, books dealing with convention and event management and statistics, ICCA publications. Budapest is highly ranked between cities transacting conferences for ...

  12. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  13. Online Genome Analysis Resources for Educators, a Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative review of several companies that offer similar kits or services that allow students to isolate DNA (human and others, amplify it by PCR, and in some cases sequence the resulting sample.  The companies include:  Carolina® Biological Supply Company, Bio-Rad®, Edvotek® Inc., Hiram Genomics Store, and 23andMe.

  14. Comparative analysis of organizational behaviours in CFR and Deutsche Bahn

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Cătălina IOSIF; Simona VASILACHE

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the organizational behaviour in CFR and Deutsche Bahn, from the point of view of employees, as well as managers, outlining possible similarities and best practices which can be, potentially, transferred. The main issues in focus regard what are the elements which contribute to the organizational behaviour of each company, a complex and controversial concept, and how national culture influences organizational culture, in an attempt to standardize what seems to be ineffable i...

  15. Linux, OpenBSD, and Talisker : a comparative complexity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Security engineering requires a combination of features and assurance to provide confidence that security policy is correctly enforced. Rigorous engineering principles are applicable across a broad range of systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare three operating systems, including two general-purpose operating systems (Linux and OpenBSD) and a commercially available, embedded operating system (Talisker). The basis...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Parametric Engine Model and Engine Map Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan Ali Memon; Sadiq Ali Shah; Muhammas Saleh Jumani

    2015-01-01

    Two different engine models, parametric engine model and engine map model are employed to analyze the dynamics of an engine during the gear shifting. The models are analyzed under critical transitional manoeuvres to investigate their appropriateness for vehicle longitudinal dynamics. The simulation results for both models have been compared. The results show the engine map model matches well with the parametric model and can be used for the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. The proposed ap...

  17. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov S.V.; Neretin Е.У.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatos...

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS LEVEL OF DOCTORS AND ACADEMICIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Asha; Tarvinder Jeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a silent killer and a major root cause beneath the onset of other lifestyle diseases like Diabetes, Heart diseases, Obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Cancer etc. The present study was carried out to compare the level of occupational stress between doctors and academicians. Sixty four subjects aged 30-60 yrs. were selected by purposive random sampling technique from Rohtak area of Haryana, India. A self-designed questionnaire was formulated to elicit information rega...

  19. Contingency contracting within the Department of Defense: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McMillon, Chester L.

    2000-01-01

    Contingencies such as regional conflicts, humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, or international or domestic disaster relief missions dictate the immediate deployment of military forces. This rapid deployment of Service members and other military assets requires concurrent deployment of supporting assets such as Contingency Contracting Officers (CCOs). The purpose of this research was to detail and compare the contingency contracting establishments of the Air Force, Army, Navy/Marine Corps,...

  20. Study and Comparative Analysis of Different Hash Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuvanshi, Kamlesh kumar; Khurana, Purnima; Bindal, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    In todays world, security is the main issue during transmission or stored the data. Integrity is one of the main parameter to ensure the security over data. There are many hash algorithms proposed to ensure the integrity but almost all the algorithms have proven breakable or less secure. In this paper authors have review all such algorithms. Authors have implemented these algorithms and compare them on the basis of time, avalanche effect and space.

  1. Child maintenance and child poverty: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakovirta, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...

  2. Comparative analysis among sampling methods of underground water

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis; Roberto Soriano Junior

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of the underground water quality assumes importance because of the increasing use of it for the different purposes of the contemporaneous society. Different methods for sampling and monitoring of underground water can take to very distinct results. In this way, the present work has as objective to carry out comparative studies among three methods of sampling of underground waters. Bailer, Electric pump of high flowing and pump of low flowing. Quantitative and qualitative sampli...

  3. Comparative analysis on the adoption of innovation in furniture companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Hermes Petter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors categorical adoption of innovation in three main groups: in products, processes and administrative procedures in a group of micro and small enterprises in the furniture sector, located in the middle western state of Santa Catarina. In particular, the study sought to compare the data of a survey conducted by SEBRAE (2009 observed the same factors present innovation in micro and small businesses scattered throughout the Brazilian territory, in order to compare the national stage for the adoption of innovation in relation the scenario presented by the companies studied in this research. Data collection took place by means of a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice closed questions related to the three aforementioned groups of innovation, which was answered by managers of the constituent companies of the group studied. As a result of this research, it was found that the adoption of innovation in product development is the most important aspect in the surveyed companies. It was also found that they seek to adopt the innovation with the objective of entering new markets. However, the main difficulty in adopting innovation were identified lack of skilled labor, shortage and / or lack of access to technology and financial difficulties. Compared to general adoption of innovation by micro and small enterprises studied by SEBRAE (2009, the studied firms have a tendency to develop in the same direction.

  4. Measuring service quality and a comparative analysis in airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of services in airline industry plays an important role in market penetration and customer retention. In this paper, we present a factor analysis to find important factors in Iranian Airline industry. The study designs a questionnaire consist of 35 questions and distribute it among 200 customers who regularly use services from 16 different airlines and they are investigated based on the implementation of factor analysis. The results of our survey determines seven important factors including physical features of the environment, Kettering, Pre-flight passenger services, Ability to respond, Reliability, Passenger service flight and Virtual Passenger Services. The paper discusses that improving these seven factors can significantly improve service quality in this sector.

  5. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  6. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Zia, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes, which have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here, we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we ide...

  7. Alternative Approaches for Rating INDCs: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davide, Marinella; Vesco, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The “Intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) communicated by both developing and developed countries represent a crucial element of the Paris agreement. This paper aims at analysing the INDCs submitted by Parties, through the different tools and approaches proposed by the research community. In particular, our analysis looks at the different ways to assess the effectiveness of the proposed emission reduction pledges, both in terms of aggregate and national efforts. However, we a...

  8. Conflicts and Peace Dividends in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hippolyte Fofack

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa's dismal development outcomes-growth collapse and declining real income-are often used to highlight its sharp development contrast with other regions of the developing world. Drawing on a large cross-section analysis, this paper shows that Africa’s underlying dismal growth performance can be largely accounted for by high political risk and uncertainty which undermined investments and growth prospects in the region over most of the post-independence era. This hypothesis is f...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Pattern Recognition Methods: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    M.Subba Rao; Dr. B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The identification or interpretation of the pattern in an image can be described effectively with the help of Pattern Recognition (PR). It aims to extract information about the image to classify its contents. Inputs are in the form of digitized binary valued 2D images or textures containing the pattern to be classified. The analysis and recognition of the patterns such as images and textures are becoming more and more complex and multiform. This is because in general the patterns to be analyz...

  10. Comparative analysis of credit risk models for loan portfolios.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, C

    2014-01-01

    This study is distinct from previous studies in its inclusion of new models, consideration of sector correlation and performance of comprehensive sensitivity analysis. CreditRisk++, CreditMetrics, the Basel II internal-ratings-based method and the Mercer Oliver Wyman model are considered. Risk factor distribution and the relationship between risk components and risk factors are the key distinguishing characteristics of each model. CreditRisk++, due to its extra degree of freedom, has the high...

  11. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Rodrigues, PMM

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnightstays in each region. Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggest...

  12. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnight stays in each region.Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany,the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggests that,...

  13. Comparative statistics for DNA and protein sequences: multiple sequence analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, S.; Ghandour, G

    1985-01-01

    Concepts and methods [Karlin, S. & Ghandour, G. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 5800-5804] for the analysis of patterns and relationships are extended to multiple DNA and protein sequences. Functionals include multiple sequence common word occurrence distributions, characterizations of high frequency shared words, and ascertainment of long block identities. Various comparisons of sequences using natural alphabets obtained from grouping nucleotides or amino acids by their chemical and fu...

  14. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, e...

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Computer Literacy Education for Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Richard C.; Skiba, Diane J.

    1982-01-01

    Despite recent advances by nursing in the computer field computer literacy is a rarity among nursing professionals. Our analysis of existing educational models in nursing (baccalaureate, staff development, continuing education, and vendor) shows that no single educational strategy is likely to be effective in achieving computer literacy for all nurses. A refinement of the computer literacy concept is proposed which divides the educational needs of nurses into specific objectives based on desi...

  16. Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis of a Zygopteran Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Shanku, Alexander G; McPeek, Mark A.; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the damselfly (Enallagma hageni) through the use of 454 pyrosequencing. E. hageni is a member of the suborder Zygoptera, in the order Odonata, and Odonata organisms form the basal lineage of the winged insects (Pterygota). To date, sequence data used in phylogenetic analysis of Enallagma species have been derived from either mitochondrial DNA or ribosomal nuclear DNA. This Enallagma transcriptome contained 31,661 contigs that...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Genome Diversity in Bullmastiff Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Sally-Anne; Khatkar, Mehar S; Williamson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Management and preservation of genomic diversity in dog breeds is a major objective for maintaining health. The present study was undertaken to characterise genomic diversity in Bullmastiff dogs using both genealogical and molecular analysis. Genealogical analysis of diversity was conducted using a database consisting of 16,378 Bullmastiff pedigrees from year 1980 to 2013. Additionally, a total of 188 Bullmastiff dogs were genotyped using the 170,000 SNP Illumina CanineHD Beadchip. Genealogical parameters revealed a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.047; 142 total founders (f); an effective number of founders (fe) of 79; an effective number of ancestors (fa) of 62; and an effective population size of the reference population of 41. Genetic diversity and the degree of genome-wide homogeneity within the breed were also investigated using molecular data. Multiple-locus heterozygosity (MLH) was equal to 0.206; runs of homozygosity (ROH) as proportion of the genome, averaged 16.44%; effective population size was 29.1, with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.035, all estimated using SNP Data. Fine-scale population structure was analysed using NETVIEW, a population analysis pipeline. Visualisation of the high definition network captured relationships among individuals within and between subpopulations. Effects of unequal founder use, and ancestral inbreeding and selection, were evident. While current levels of Bullmastiff heterozygosity, inbreeding and homozygosity are not unusual, a relatively small effective population size indicates that a breeding strategy to reduce the inbreeding rate may be beneficial. PMID:26824579

  18. Use of short roll C-arm computed tomography and fully automated 3D analysis tools to guide transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michael S; Bracken, John; Eshuis, Peter; Chen, S Y James; Fullerton, David; Cleveland, Joseph; Messenger, John C; Carroll, John D

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the coplanar view is a critical component of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The safety and accuracy of a novel reduced angular range C-arm computed tomography (CACT) approach coupled with a fully automated 3D analysis tool package to predict the coplanar view in TAVR was evaluated. Fifty-seven patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis deemed prohibitive-risk for surgery and who underwent TAVR were enrolled. Patients were randomized 2:1 to CACT vs. angiography (control) in estimating the coplanar view. These approaches to determine the coplanar view were compared quantitatively. Radiation doses needed to determine the coplanar view were recorded for both the CACT and control patients. Use of CACT offered good agreement with the actual angiographic view utilized during TAVR in 34 out of 41 cases in which a CACT scan was performed (83 %). For these 34 cases, the mean angular magnitude difference, taking into account both oblique and cranial/caudal angulation, was 1.3° ± 0.4°, while the maximum difference was 7.3°. There were no significant differences in the mean total radiation dose delivered to patients between the CACT and control groups as measured by either dose area product (207.8 ± 15.2 Gy cm(2) vs. 186.1 ± 25.3 Gy cm(2), P = 0.47) or air kerma (1287.6 ± 117.7 mGy vs. 1098.9 ± 143.8 mGy, P = 0.32). Use of reduced-angular range CACT coupled with fully automated 3D analysis tools is a safe, practical, and feasible method by which to determine the optimal angiographic deployment view for guiding TAVR procedures. PMID:27091735

  19. Comparative analysis of thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the relative performances of three different thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems, e.g. a silica-gel-water adsorption system, a LiBr-H2O absorption system and a desiccant air system. The adsorption and absorption systems in the current study employ water as the refrigerant, while the desiccant system cools atmospheric air directly. Each of these systems can be utilized at relatively low heat source temperatures such as achieved by flat plate solar collectors, but it is unclear which of these systems is best suited to what range of heat source temperature. Our study explores answers to this question by generating quantitative results comparing their relative thermal performance, i.e. COP and refrigeration capacity, and a qualitative comparison based on the size, maturity of technology, safe operation etc. In order to provide a fair comparison between the fundamentally different systems, a UA (overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat transfer area) value of 1.0 kW deg. C-1 is considered for the heat exchanger that transfers heat from the supplied hot water. Furthermore, to compare systems of similar size, the mass of silica-gel in the adsorption and desiccant systems and the mass of LiBr-H2O solution in the absorption system were specified such that each system provides the same amount of refrigeration (8.0 kW) at a source temperature of 90 deg. C. It is found that the absorption and adsorption cooling systems have a higher refrigeration capacity at heat source temperatures below 90 deg. C, while the desiccant air system outperforms the others at temperatures above 90 deg. C

  20. Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Haney, Maria; Jantzen, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

  1. Comparative Power Analysis of Precomputation Based Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we discus about Signature Detection Technique (SDT used in Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS. Design of SDT using Content Addressable Memory (CAM is discussed. Approach: Two novel architectures, XOR and ones count based Pre computation CAM architectures are proposed and implemented in third party back end tool with 0.18 mm technology, power consumptions are compared. Results: Proposed architecture consumes 90% less power added with 5.2% increment in speed. Conclusion: Power reduction was achieved by reducing the number of bit comparisons of pre computation technique.

  2. Comparative analysis of parametric engine model and engine map model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different engine models, parametric engine model and engine map model are employed to analyze the dynamics of an engine during the gear shifting. The models are analyzed under critical transitional manoeuvres to investigate their appropriateness for vehicle longitudinal dynamics. The simulation results for both models have been compared. The results show the engine map model matches well with the parametric model and can be used for the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. The proposed approach can be useful for the selection of the appropriate vehicle for the given application. (author)

  3. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-free expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsough, Emily M; Shah, Pankti; Larsen, Andrew C; Chaput, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) allows researchers to rapidly generate functional proteins independent of cell culture. Although advances in eukaryotic lysates have increased the amount of protein that can be produced, the nuances of different translation systems lead to variability in protein production. To help overcome this problem, we have compared the relative yield and template requirements for three commonly used commercial cell-free translation systems: wheat germ extract (WGE), rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), and HeLa cell lysate (HCL). Our results provide a general guide for researchers interested in using cell-free translation to generate recombinant protein for biomedical applications. PMID:26345507

  4. Comparative Analysis on Pesticide Management System between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunzheng; ZHANG; Yong; GONG; Weili; SHAN; Xianjin; LIU

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage amount of pesticides in US rank the leading position in the world. On the basis of protecting the environment and human health, US government has enacted a series of laws and regulations to normalize and manage the production and use of pesticides so as to ensure the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, US pesticide management system is briefly reviewed and compared with the pesticide management system of China, which may provide good reference for china in establishing its own management system and make steps towards the international standard.

  5. APPLE & GOOGLE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MARKETING APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley Wouters

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing strategies of Google and Apple. By comparing literature on both Apple’s and Google’s marketing approaches and strategies, we try to discover what makes these companies different from each other and/or what makes them alike. Besides a great focus on their customers when developing their products, both their key value is product leadership. The paper looks at their most important product/service introductions. For Apple this is the introduction of iPod an...

  6. Information management in NACD regimes: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While all non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) regimes must address the issue of information management, this area has remained an under-explored part of the arms control field. This paper compares information management processes across a variety of NACD regimes for the purpose of identifying potential synergies between regimes and suggesting means by which to strengthen future arms control verification efforts. The paper explores the information management systems of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Special Commission in Iraq (UNSCOM), the Conventional Forces in Europe Agreement (CFE), and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). (author)

  7. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  8. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  9. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  10. A comparative collision-based analysis of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David V; Comanescu, Tudor N; Butcher, Michael T; Bertram, John E A

    2013-11-22

    This study compares human walking and running, and places them within the context of other mammalian gaits. We use a collision-based approach to analyse the fundamental dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) according to three angles derived from the instantaneous force and velocity vectors. These dimensionless angles permit comparisons across gait, species and size. The collision angle Φ, which is equivalent to the dimensionless mechanical cost of transport CoTmech, is found to be three times greater during running than walking of humans. This threefold difference is consistent with previous studies of walking versus trotting of quadrupeds, albeit tends to be greater in the gaits of humans and hopping bipeds than in quadrupeds. Plotting the collision angle Φ together with the angles of the CoM force vector Θ and velocity vector Λ results in the functional grouping of bipedal and quadrupedal gaits according to their CoM dynamics-walking, galloping and ambling are distinguished as separate gaits that employ collision reduction, whereas trotting, running and hopping employ little collision reduction and represent more of a continuum that is influenced by dimensionless speed. Comparable with quadrupedal mammals, collision fraction (the ratio of actual to potential collision) is 0.51 during walking and 0.89 during running, indicating substantial collision reduction during walking, but not running, of humans. PMID:24089334

  11. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  12. Comparative analysis of different methods for image enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笑峰; 胡仕刚; 赵瑾; 李志明; 李劲; 唐志军; 席在芳

    2014-01-01

    Image enhancement technology plays a very important role to improve image quality in image processing. By enhancing some information and restraining other information selectively, it can improve image visual effect. The objective of this work is to implement the image enhancement to gray scale images using different techniques. After the fundamental methods of image enhancement processing are demonstrated, image enhancement algorithms based on space and frequency domains are systematically investigated and compared. The advantage and defect of the above-mentioned algorithms are analyzed. The algorithms of wavelet based image enhancement are also deduced and generalized. Wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) is a method for detecting the fractal dimension of a signal, it is well used for image enhancement. The image techniques are compared by using the mean (μ), standard deviation (s), mean square error (MSE) and PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). A group of experimental results demonstrate that the image enhancement algorithm based on wavelet transform is effective for image de-noising and enhancement. Wavelet transform modulus maxima method is one of the best methods for image enhancement.

  13. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density, but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 μm features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 μm feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 μm size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density.

  14. Comparative analysis of two emerging rice seed bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fory, P A; Triplett, L; Ballen, C; Abello, J F; Duitama, J; Aricapa, M G; Prado, G A; Correa, F; Hamilton, J; Leach, J E; Tohme, J; Mosquera, G M

    2014-05-01

    Seed sterility and grain discoloration limit rice production in Colombia and several Central American countries. In samples of discolored rice seed grown in Colombian fields, the species Burkholderia glumae and B. gladioli were isolated, and field isolates were compared phenotypically. An artificial inoculation assay was used to determine that, although both bacterial species cause symptoms on rice grains, B. glumae is a more aggressive pathogen, causing yield reduction and higher levels of grain sterility. To identify putative virulence genes differing between B. glumae and B. gladioli, four previously sequenced genomes of Asian and U.S. strains of the two pathogens were compared with each other and with two draft genomes of Colombian B. glumae and B. gladioli isolates generated for this study. Whereas previously characterized Burkholderia virulence factors are highly conserved between the two species, B. glumae and B. gladioli strains are predicted to encode distinct groups of genes encoding type VI secretion systems, transcriptional regulators, and membrane-sensing proteins. This study shows that both B. glumae and B. gladioli can threaten grain quality, although only one species affects yield. Furthermore, genotypic differences between the two strains are identified that could contribute to disease phenotypic differences. PMID:24261408

  15. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  16. Comparative analysis of redirection methods for asteroid resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth analysis and systematic comparison of asteroid redirection methods are performed within a resource exploitation framework using different assessment mechanisms. Through this framework, mission objectives and constraints are specified for the redirection of an asteroid from a near-Earth orbit to a stable orbit in the Earth-Moon system. The paper provides a detailed investigation of five redirection methods, i.e., ion beam, tugboat, gravity tractor, laser sublimation, and mass ejector, with respect to their capabilities for a redirection mission. A set of mission level criteria are utilized to assess the performance of each redirection method, and the means of assigning attributes to each criterion is discussed in detail. In addition, the uncertainty in physical characteristics of the asteroid population is quantified through the use of Monte Carlo analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation provides insight into the performance robustness of the redirection methods with respect to the targeted asteroid range. Lastly, the attributes for each redirection method are aggregated using three different multicriteria assessment approaches, i.e., the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a utility-based approach, and a fuzzy aggregation mechanism. The results of each assessment approach as well as recommendations for further studies are discussed in detail.

  17. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: It's Characteristics and Advantages for Use in RF and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.

    1998-01-01

    To solve many of the problems encountered when using conventional coplanar waveguide (CPW) with its semi-infinite ground planes, a new version of coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes has been developed. This new transmission line which we call Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide has several advantages which make it a better transmission line for RF and wireless circuits. Since the ground planes are electrically narrow, spurious resonances created by the CPW ground planes and the metal carrier or package base are eliminated. In addition, lumped and distributed circuit elements may now be integrated into the ground strips in the same way as they traditionally have been integrated into the center conductor to realize novel circuit layouts that are smaller and have less parasitic reactance. Lastly, FGC is shown to have lower coupling between adjacent transmission lines than conventional CPW.

  18. The effect of electrode tilt angle on the characteristics of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges with Xe-Ne mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung Bo; Song, In Cheol; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2011-07-01

    The results of a two-dimensional fluid simulation of a plasma display panel (PDP) cell show that the discharge characteristics of a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge can be controlled by the electrode tilt angle rather than by the gas mixture ratio or gap distance. The change in the tilt angle results in a significant change in the wall charge distribution and the discharge duration for each pulse. Therefore, the breakdown voltage, plasma density, light brightness, and luminous efficacy can be controlled by the tilt angle. A concave electrode structure allows large wall charge accumulation near the outer edge of two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a long-duration discharge, high luminance, and high luminous efficacy. On the other hand, a convex electrode structure allows high wall charge accumulation near the gap between two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a short-duration discharge with a decreased breakdown voltage.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT BETWEEN ROMANIA AND MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the social security literature noted a major change towards the legal aspects in this field, lowering the importance of the expense and tax issues pursued by economists in their activities. Without minimizing the consistent and continuous importance of the legal foundations of the social security policy implementation, it is necessary that not only the media and the governmental authority websites to disclose information in the social insurance field, but the role of specialists, researchers and academics in finance, tax and even accounting have the role to interpret and give relevant solutions to these issues. Therefore, in this paper, we present in detail the comparative aspects of how the social security segment is organized, mainly the unemployment insurance in both Romania and Moldova by highlighting the financial differences and similarities of these systems.

  20. Federated queries for comparative effectiveness research: performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ronald C; Huth, Derick; Smith, Jody; Harper, Steve; Pace, Wilson; Pulver, Gerald; Kahn, Michael G; Schilling, Lisa M; Facelli, Julio C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the performance of federated queries implemented in a system that simulates the architecture proposed for the Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet). Performance tests were conducted using both physical hardware and virtual machines within the test laboratory of the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah. Tests were performed on SAFTINet networks ranging from 4 to 32 nodes with databases containing synthetic data for several million patients. The results show that the caGrid FQE (Federated Query Engine) is capable and suitable for comparative effectiveness research (CER) federated queries given its nearly linear scalability as partner nodes increase in number. The results presented here are also important for the specification of the hardware required to run a CER grid. PMID:22941983

  1. Comparative transient analysis of metal and oxide fueled LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronics and thermodynamics of an LMFBR primary system have been simulated using the DSNP simulation language. A detailed fuel pin and its subchannel model were developed and included in the DSNP library. This permits the reactor core to be simulated with any number of pins having any number of radial and axial nodes. The metal fueled core transients were compared to transients of an oxide fueled core, the conclusion being that for the same perturbations the temperature transients are faster in the metal core. A comparison between pool-type and loop-type reactors was also performed, leading to a conclusion that the transients in the upper plenum temperatures are much slower in the pool-type reactor than in the loop-type reactor

  2. Comparative cost analysis of wind and photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation from wind power and solar radiation is at present - and this can be described as generally accepted consent of energy economy - considered as the electricity generation option which is characterized by the lowest environmental loads. Greatest disadvantage of energy generation by using these renewable energy sources are - compared to conventional power generation options - the still to high production costs for electric power. Therefore government promotional programs have been initiated (e.g. 250 MW wind program and 1000-roof program) in order to attain cost reductions and thus to make a broader use of these energy sources possible. Against this background this study aims at presenting and discussing the production costs of power generation from wind power and solar radiation with and without government promotion under the meteorological conditions in the FRG. (orig.)

  3. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  4. An Algorithm for LOD by Merging Near Coplanar Faces Based on Gauss Sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weiqun; BAO Hujun; PENG Qunsheng

    2001-01-01

    LOD (Level of Detail) models are widely used recently to accelerate the rendering of 3D scenes. An algorithm that creates multiple levels of detail for 3D scene by merging near-coplanar faces is presented in this paper. First a Gauss sphere is defined for the model of scene and it is divided into meshes near-uniformly. Then, the faces of objects are attached to the respective spherical meshes according to their normal direction. If faces attached to the same mesh are connected with each other, they are merged to form a near coplanar patch (Superface). Isolated vertices inside the patch are removed and the patch is retriangulated.To further improve the simplification, vicinity vertices on the boundary of the surface patch are merged. In the algorithm, a planar separate rule planar-enneatree is adopted to set up a hierarchical structure of the Gauss sphere, which is used to support the hierarchical model of the scene (LOD). The experimental result shows that the algorithm can achieve desired simplification effects.

  5. Ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial Fe nanodots grown on MgO measured using coplanar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, M; Takanashi, K, E-mail: mizuguchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-02-16

    Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of Fe nanodots epitaxially grown on a MgO layer were carried out using a coplanar waveguide to investigate the dynamic behaviours of spins in a magnetic dot assembly. The resonant peaks of Fe nanodots with an average diameter of 10 nm were successfully observed, and a strong magnetic anisotropy was found in the peak frequency shift depending on the magnetic field applied in the film plane. A difference was clearly seen in the peak shift behaviour between Fe nanodots and continuous Fe thin films. The Gilbert damping parameter of the Fe nanodots (nominal thickness: 3 nm) was estimated to be 0.008 12 from the width of the resonant peaks, substantially larger than that of a continuous Fe thin film with a thickness of 8 nm. This difference in damping is attributed to the distribution of the effective field in each nanodot due to size dispersion. Ferromagnetic resonance studies using coplanar waveguides thus enable clarification of the spin dynamics of magnetic dot arrays and the fundamental spin dynamics of a single nanodot.

  6. Development of a micro-CMM with scanning touch probe and high-precision coplanar platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Lu, Chin-Tu; Chen, Hung-Chi; Ke, Jhih-Sian; Chang, Chao-Ming

    2013-10-01

    This study develops a micro-CMM incorporating a scanning touch probe and a high-precision coplanar platform. The measurement performance of the proposed system was enhanced through the use of a rigid aluminum double-arch-bridge structure to support the scanning touch probe. For the working stage, a linear motor was used for long-stroke positioning and a piezoelectric actuator was then employed to fine-tune the positioning so as to achieve a requirement of highprecision. The platform has two characteristics: (i) the driving and measuring axes are designed along the same line so that Abbe error of the stage can be eliminated; (ii) the coplanar design makes the X and Y axes reach a goal of two-axis concurrent. The aforementioned two designs can reduce the error of the platform so that the micro-CMM reaches a positioning accuracy of ±0.1μm for a working volume of 80×80×40 mm3. Furthermore, the reliability of the probe mechanism of three degrees of freedom was analyzed and validated. The sensor coordinates a laser diode with Position Sensor Detectors (PSD) working with an optical path to measure placement of Z-axis and angle placement of XY-axis. By validation through an experiment, the three dimensional scanning touch probe developed by this study has a measuring range of ±1mm × ±1mm × 1mm with a unidirectional repeatability of 0.6μm.

  7. Performance of CdZnTe coplanar-grid gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdZnTe crystals grown using the high-pressure Bridgman method exhibit many properties that are desirable for radiation detector fabrication, such as high resistivity, stable operation, relative ease of processing, and the availability of large volume crystals. However, as is common with other compound semi-conductor materials, currently available CdZnTe crystals have poor charge transport characteristics. This seriously the spectral performance of detectors, especially in gamma-ray detection. The coplanar-grid detection technique was recently developed to address such charge collection problems. This technique was first demonstrated using a 5 mm cube CdZnTe detector, and a dramatic improvement in spectral response has been achieved. These early results verified the effectiveness of this technique and suggested that large-volume gamma-ray detectors with high energy resolution can be realized. To further the development of such detectors, it is important to understand the various factors that affect detector performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of material properties on the spectral performance of CdZnTe coplanar-grid detectors. Theoretical spectral response is to show the level of performance that can be achieved given the typical carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) properties of present-day materials. Nonuniformity in the charge transport properties of the material, which could limit the energy resolution of the detectors, has been studied experimentally and some of the results are presented here

  8. Direct Force Control of a Rudder with the Action of a Coplanar Waveguide Product Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-Kai; ZHOU Ben-Mou; LIU Hui-Xing; LIU Zhi-Gang; JI Yan-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of electromagnetic body force in a fluid boundary layer produced by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and focus on the fluid dynamic control effects of a rudder. The electromagnetic body force along the CPW direction can be created by the mutual coupling of landscape orientated electric and magnetic fields. With CPWs arranged on the rudder's surface, a direct-force-control rudder can be realized by adjusting the microwave sources. It is also found that a streamwise microwave electromagnetic body force can markedly enhance lift force and suppress rudder vibration, thus improving response time lag significantly. Furthermore, navigation stall caused by a large angle of attack can be avoided.%@@ We investigate the distribution of electromagnetic body force in a fluid boundary layer produced by a coplanar waveguide(CPW)and focus on the fluid dynamic control effects of a rudder.The electromagnetic body force along the CPW direction can be created by the mutual coupling of landscape orientated electric and magnetic fields.With CPWs arranged on the rudder's surface,a direct-force-control rudder can be realized by adjusting the microwave sources.It is also found that a streamwise microwave electromagnetic body force can markedly enhance lift force and suppress rudder vibration,thus improving response time lag significantly.Fhrthermore,navigation stall caused by a large angle of attack can be avoided.

  9. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Co-planar Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T P; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; 10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/71

    2013-01-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of co-planar interferometers. The platform of a co-planar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline, and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modelled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we reco...

  10. 55 CANCRI: A COPLANAR PLANETARY SYSTEM THAT IS LIKELY MISALIGNED WITH ITS STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the 55 Cnc system contains multiple, closely packed planets that are presumably in a coplanar configuration, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that they are likely to be highly inclined to their parent star's spin axis. Due to perturbations from its distant binary companion, this planetary system precesses like a rigid body about its parent star. Consequently, the parent star's spin axis and the planetary orbit normal likely diverged long ago. Because only the projected separation of the binary is known, we study this effect statistically, assuming an isotropic distribution for wide binary orbits. We find that the most likely projected spin-orbit angle is ∼50°, with a ∼30% chance of a retrograde configuration. Transit observations of the innermost planet—55 Cnc e—may be used to verify these findings via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. 55 Cancri may thus represent a new class of planetary systems with well-ordered, coplanar orbits that are inclined with respect to the stellar equator.

  11. Comparative analysis of student self-reflections on course projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Cortés Barreto, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the skills, experiences, and values identified in project self-reflections of 161 undergraduate engineering students. Self-reflections from two different engineering design courses, which provide experiences in project-based learning (PBL), are analysed through the content analysis methodology. Results show that 'application', 'true life', 'satisfaction', and 'communication' are the common keywords shared in the reflections. Multiple hypothesis tests to identify differences between courses, project types, years, and gender suggest that there are no significant differences between experiences, skills, and values self-reported by students who completed either a case study or an industry project. Based on research findings, recommendations will be provided to enhance the engineering curriculum based on PBL experiences to support the development of relevant professional skills and experiences.

  12. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. PMID:24382658

  13. Apples, oranges, and angles: Comparative kinematic analysis of disparate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, Stephen M; Pollard, Nancy S

    2011-08-01

    Tetrapod limbs exhibit diverse postures and movements during terrestrial locomotion. As with morphological traits, the history of kinematic evolution should be accessible to reconstruction through analysis of limb motion patterns in a phylogenetic framework. However, the angular data comprising most kinematic descriptions appear to suffer from limitations that preclude meaningful comparison among disparate species. Using simple planar models, we discuss how geometric constraints render joint and elevation angles independent of neither morphology, degree of crouch, nor one another during the stance phase of locomotion. The implicit null hypothesis of potential similarity is invalidated because angular data are not viably transferable among limbs of dissimilar proportion and/or degree of crouch. Overlooking or dismissing the effect of constraints on angular parameterization hampers efforts to quantitatively elucidate the evolution of locomotion. We advocate a search for alternative methods of measuring limb movement that can decouple intersegmental coordination from morphology and posture. PMID:21600220

  14. Comparative Analysis of Eubacterial DNA Polymerase Ⅲ Alpha Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qian Zhao; Jian-Fei Hu; Jun Yu

    2006-01-01

    DNA polymerase Ⅲ is one of the five eubacterial DNA polymerases that is responsible for the replication of DNA duplex. Among the ten subunits of the DNA polymerase Ⅲ core enzyme, the alpha subunit catalyzes the reaction for polymerizing both DNA strands. In this study, we extracted genomic sequences of the alpha subunit from 159 sequenced eubacterial genomes, and carried out sequencebased phylogenetic and structural analyses. We found that all eubacterial genomes have one or more alpha subunits, which form either homodimers or heterodimers.Phylogenetic and domain structural analyses as well as copy number variations of the alpha subunit in each bacterium indicate the classification of alpha subunit into four basic groups: polC, dnaE1, dnaE2, and dnaE3. This classification is of essence in genome composition analysis. We also consolidated the naming convention to avoid further confusion in gene annotations.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Pattern Recognition Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Subba Rao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification or interpretation of the pattern in an image can be described effectively with the help of Pattern Recognition (PR. It aims to extract information about the image to classify its contents. Inputs are in the form of digitized binary valued 2D images or textures containing the pattern to be classified. The analysis and recognition of the patterns such as images and textures are becoming more and more complex and multiform. This is because in general the patterns to be analyzed are shifting from simple to complex, and because the patterns of heavy variations and with heavy noise have to be treated. Therefore it is proposed to develop sophisticated strategies of pattern analysis to cope with these difficulties. Pattern recognition is the research area that studies the operation and design of systems that recognize patterns in data.In this work three basic approaches of pattern recognition are analyzed: statistical pattern recognition, structural pattern recognition and neural pattern recognition. In the statistical approach the recognition is based on the decision boundaries that are established in the feature space by statistical distribution of the patterns. In the structural (syntactic approach each pattern class is defined by a structural description or representation. The recognition is performed according to the similarity of structures. This is based on the fact that the significant information is not only the features but also the relationships consisting among the features.In the neural network based approach the artificial neural networks are able to form complex decision regions for pattern recognition. The present work involves in the study of Pattern recognition methods on Texture Classifications.

  16. Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareborg Niclas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at http://www.phylofoot.org/. Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting.

  17. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  18. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Cracking Behavior of Brittle Sandstone Containing Two Non-coplanar Fissures Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ranjith, P. G.; Ju, Yang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the fracture mechanism in all kinds of rock engineering, it is important to investigate the fracture evolution behavior of pre-fissured rock. In this research, we conducted uniaxial compression experiments to evaluate the influence of ligament angle on the strength, deformability, and fracture coalescence behavior of rectangular prismatic specimens (80 × 160 × 30 mm) of brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures. The experimental results show that the peak strength of sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures depends on the ligament angle, but the elastic modulus is not closely related to the ligament angle. With the increase of ligament angle, the peak strength decreased at a ligament angle of 60°, before increasing up to our maximum ligament angle of 120°. Crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence were all observed and characterized from the inner and outer tips of pre-existing non-coplanar fissures using photographic monitoring. Based on the results, the sequence of crack evolution in sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures was analyzed in detail. In order to fully understand the crack evolution mechanism of brittle sandstone, numerical simulations using PFC2D were performed for specimens containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results. By analyzing the stress field, the crack evolution mechanism in brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression is revealed. These experimental and numerical results are expected to improve the understanding of the unstable fracture mechanism of fissured rock engineering structures.

  19. Os odontoideum in identical twins: Comparative gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Straus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Os odontoideum is a well identified anomaly of the craniovertebral junction. Since its initial description, there has been a continuous debate regarding the nature of its etiology: Whether congenital or traumatic. We sought to compare the gene expression profiles in patients with congenital os odontoideum, those with traumatic os odontoideum and controls. Methods: We have evaluated a pair of identical twins both with os odontoideum. We identified two additional patients with and four subjects without os odontoideum. We analyzed the gene expression profiles in these patients using a custom TaqMan microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The relative gene expression profiles in the two identical twins, the two nontwin patients with os odontoideum and the controls were assessed. Results: A total of 213 genes with significantly different expression between the twin os odontoideum patients and the subjects without os odontoideum were detected. CACNG6, PHEX, CACNAD3, IL2, FAS, TUFT1, KIT, TGFBR2, and IGF2 were expressed at levels greater than 100-fold more in the twins. There were six genes with significantly different expression profiles in the twins as compared with the nontwin os odontoideum patients: CMK4, ATF1, PLCG1, TAB1, E2F3, and ATF4. There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression in the four patients with os odontoideum and the subjects without. Trends, however, were noted in MMP8, KIT, HIF1A, CREB3, PWHAZ, TGFBR1, NFKB2, FGFR1, IPO8, STAT1, COL1A1, and BMP3. Conclusions: Os odontoideum has multiple etiologies, both traumatic and congenital and perhaps some represent a combination of the two. This work has identified a number of genes that show increased expression in a pair of twins with congenital os odontoideum and also demonstrates trends in gene expression profiles between a larger group of os odontoideum patients and non-os patients. A number of these

  20. Hospital profitability and capital structure: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvona, J; Sloan, F A

    1988-08-01

    This article compares the financial performance of hospitals by ownership type and of five publicly traded hospital companies with other industries, using such indicators as profit margins, return on equity (ROE) and total capitalization, and debt-to-equity ratios. We also examine stock returns to investors for the five hospital companies versus other industries, as well as the relative roles of debt and equity in new financing. Investor-owned hospitals had substantially greater margins and ROE than did other hospital types. In 1982, investor-owned chain hospitals had a ROE of 26 percent, 18 points above the average for all hospitals. Stock returns on the five selected hospital companies were more than twice as large as returns on other industries between 1972 and 1983. However, after 1983, returns for these companies fell dramatically in absolute terms and relative to other industries. We also found investor-owned hospitals to be much more highly levered than their government and voluntary counterparts, and more highly levered than other industries as well. PMID:3403274