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Sample records for analysis comparing coplanar

  1. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; Schelfhout, J.; De Neve, W.

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  2. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  3. CONFORMAL MAPPING ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, B; Porkumaran, K.

    2012-01-01

    A conformal mapping analysis of various coplanar waveguide structures is presented on silicon substrate. The analysis is based on quasi-TEM analysis which is used in formulating the electrical parameters of a transmission line. Different coplanar structure configurations are investigated. Simulation results are presented for coplanar waveguides etched on the surface of a rectangular silicon substrate. Calculated electrical parameters like line capacitance, characteristic impedance, effective ...

  4. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

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    Park Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  5. CONFORMAL MAPPING ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nataraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A conformal mapping analysis of various coplanar waveguide structures is presented on silicon substrate. The analysis is based on quasi-TEM analysis which is used in formulating the electrical parameters of a transmission line. Different coplanar structure configurations are investigated. Simulation results are presented for coplanar waveguides etched on the surface of a rectangular silicon substrate. Calculated electrical parameters like line capacitance, characteristic impedance, effective dielectric constant and phase velocity and simulated results shows tapered waveguides are more suitable for tunable devices like MEMS phase shifters, varactor designs. The results shows return loss of conventional CPW designs varying from 32 dB at 1 GHz to a value of 52 dB at 40 GHz. The loss of Bow-tie and Bow-tie ground tapered configurations are above 29 dB at 1dB and above 39 dB at 32 GHz. The insertion loss obtained from simulation of the 3 coplanar waveguide designs is less than 1 dB upto 30GHz.

  6. Electro-optic coefficient mapping and the design, fabrication and analysis of coplanar waveguide resonators in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raghuram

    1997-12-01

    are compared with theory to describe the electro-magnetic behavior of the CPW resonator. A novel pseudo-TEM mode analysis has been adopted to determine the characteristics of the even mode of the coplanar waveguide.

  7. 晚期肺癌非共面和共面IMRT剂量学比较研究%Comparative study of coplanar and non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡睿; 吴锦昌; 周俊东; 沈丹青; 吴朝霞; 王石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the dosimetry and safety of the non-coplanar IMRT plan for advanced lung cancer.Methods The two groups IMRT plans were designed with coplanar (5,7F) and non-coplanar field (5,7F-n) for patients.To compare the dosimetry of two groups and perform 4 patients F7-n IMRT plan.Results With the increase of the fields in each group PTV's CI were improved (all P =0.000),especially the 7F-n plan PTV's Dmean,Dmax,V95% and HI also were improved (P=0.001,0.001,0.009,0.000) ; in the coplanar group each lung' s V5 increased (P =0.000,0.002,0.000) and whole lung's Dmean increased (P =0.000),but non-coplanar group whole lung's and contralateral lung's V5 reduce (P =0.001,0.005).Between the groups,7F-n plan PTV's indicators were all improved to compared with 5F plan (all P =0.000),and each lung's V20 reduced (all P =0.000),and whole lung's Dmean,V30,contralateral lung' s V5 reduced (P =0.000,0.001,0.000),and spinal cord' s Dmax also reduced (P =0.033),but ipsilateral lung's V5 and heart's Dmean increased (P =0.000,0.003);with compared to 7F plan,the 7F-n's ipsilateral lung's V5 and heart's Dmean also increased (P =0.000,0.048),but whole lung' s and contralateral lung's V5 decreased (all P =0.000).Four patients were performed successfully non-coplanar IMRT treatment,no collision occurred.Conclusions 7 fields non-coplanar IMRT plan not only improve the dose distribution of PTV,but also effectively control the volume of low dose lung increase,lung V20 and Dmean reduce too.Thus recommended to use this design in patients with advanced lung cancer for radiotherapy%目的 比较研究晚期肺癌非共面IMRT计划剂量学分布特点,并观察计划执行安全性.方法 对14例晚期肺癌患者优化设计共面和非共面5、7个野IMRT计划,对比共面、非共面各组内及组间计划优化结果.观察4例患者非共面7个野计划的执行过程.结果 随射野数目增加共面及非共面靶区CI均改善(P值均为0.000),

  8. Analysis of a Segmented Annular Coplanar Capacitive Tilt Sensor with Increased Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahao; Hu, Pengcheng; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of a segmented annular coplanar capacitor is presented. We focus on its theoretical model, and a mathematical expression of the capacitance value is derived by solving a Laplace equation with Hankel transform. The finite element method is employed to verify the analytical result. Different control parameters are discussed, and each contribution to the capacitance value of the capacitor is obtained. On this basis, we analyze and optimize the structure parameters of a segmented coplanar capacitive tilt sensor, and three models with different positions of the electrode gap are fabricated and tested. The experimental result shows that the model (whose electrode-gap position is 10 mm from the electrode center) realizes a high sensitivity: 0.129 pF/° with a non-linearity of <0.4% FS (full scale of ± 40°). This finding offers plenty of opportunities for various measurement requirements in addition to achieving an optimized structure in practical design. PMID:26805844

  9. An Efficient ICT Method for Analysis of Co-planar Dipole Antenna Arrays of Arbitrary Lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Imoro, Adam Icarus; Aoki, Ippo; Inagaki, Naoki; Kikuma, Nobuyoshi; キクマ, ノブヨシ; 菊間, 信良

    1998-01-01

    A more judicious choice of trial functions to implement the Improved Circuit Theory (ICT) application to multi-element antennas is achieved. These new trial functions, based on Tai's modified variational implementation for single element antennas, leads to an ICT implementation applicable to much longer co-planar dipole arrays. The accuracy of the generalized impedance formulas is in good agreement with the method of moments. Moreover, all these generalized formulas including the radiation pa...

  10. Vision Servo Motion Control and Error Analysis of a Coplanar XXY Stage for Image Alignment Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.

  11. Conformal Wavelet Finite-difference Time-domain Algorithm for Analysis of Milimeter Wave Attenuation on Coplanar Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-quan; CHEN Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Addressed is the calculation of millimeter wave attenuation on coplanar waveguide(CPW). A novel conformal wavelet finite-difference time-domain(CWFDTD) algorithm is proposed with emphasis on its application in calculation of millimeter wave attenuation on CPW, which is the combination of conformal algorithm dealing with the deformed cell with Wavelet-FDTD using multi-resolution analysis(MRA). Derived is the difference formulation for multi-resolution time domain(MRTD) based on Daubechies wavelets, and also given is the stability conditions for wavelet-FDTD algorithm. To validate its accuracy and efficiency, this novel method is applied to calculate the millimeter wave attenuation on lithium niobate CPW. Numerical results demonstrate that this new CWFDTD algorithm has the same accuracy with the conformal finite-difference time-domain(CFDTD) and conformal finite-difference time-domain based on alternating-direction implicit method(ADI-CFDTD), but saves computational time and computer memory.

  12. The Application of the FDTD Method to Millimeter-Wave Filter Circuits Including the Design and Analysis of a Compact Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J. E.; Siegel, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to the analysis of microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave filter circuits. In each case, the validity of this method is confirmed by comparison with measured data. In addition, the FDTD calculations are used to design a new ultra-thin coplanar-strip filter for feeding a THz planar-antenna mixer.

  13. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  14. Design and analysis of an electronically steerable microstrip patch and a novel Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) fed slot antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Hamad

    Conformal Phased Array Antennas (CPAAs) are very attractive for their high gain, low profile, and beam scanning ability while being conformal to their mounting surface. Among them are microstrip patch phased arrays and wideband slot phased arrays which are of particular significance. In this work, first the study, design, and implementation of a conformal microstrip patch phased array is presented which consists of a high gain beam scanning array implemented using microstrip delay lines controlled using GaAs SPDT switches. Then the study and design of a wideband Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)-fed slot phased array antenna is presented. In both cases the array beam scanning properties are elucidated by incorporating the measured delay line scattering parameters inside Ansys Designer simulation models and then computing and presenting their full-wave radiation characteristics.

  15. Dosimetric comparison between coplanar and non coplanar field radiotherapy for ethmoid sinus cancer

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    Serre Antoine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare non coplanar field (NCF with coplanar field (CF -intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for ethmoid cancer. Methods Seven patients treated with NCF IMRT for ethmoid cancer were studied. A CF IMRT optimization was prepared with the same constraints as for the NCF treatment. The maximum point doses (D max obtained for the different optic pathway structures (OPS should differ no more than 3% from those achieved with the NCF IMRT plan. The distribution of the dose in the target volume and in the critical structures was compared between the two techniques, as well as the Conformity (CI and the Homogeneity Indexes (HI in the target volume. Results We noted no difference between the two techniques in the OPS for the D1, D2, and D5%, in the inner ear and controlateral lens for the average Dmax, in the temporo-mandibular joints for the average mean dose, in the cord and brainstem for the average D1%. The dose-volume histograms were slightly better with the NCF treatment plan for the planning target volume (PTV with a marginally better HI but no impact on CI. We found a great improvement in the PTV coverage with the CF treatment plan for two patients with T4 tumors. Conclusion IMRT is one of the treatment options for ethmoid cancer. The PTV coverage is optimal without compromising the protection of the OPS. The impact of non coplanar versus coplanar set up is very slight.

  16. Dosimetric comparison between coplanar and non coplanar field radiotherapy for ethmoid sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare non coplanar field (NCF) with coplanar field (CF) -intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for ethmoid cancer. Seven patients treated with NCF IMRT for ethmoid cancer were studied. A CF IMRT optimization was prepared with the same constraints as for the NCF treatment. The maximum point doses (D max) obtained for the different optic pathway structures (OPS) should differ no more than 3% from those achieved with the NCF IMRT plan. The distribution of the dose in the target volume and in the critical structures was compared between the two techniques, as well as the Conformity (CI) and the Homogeneity Indexes (HI) in the target volume. We noted no difference between the two techniques in the OPS for the D1, D2, and D5%, in the inner ear and controlateral lens for the average Dmax, in the temporo-mandibular joints for the average mean dose, in the cord and brainstem for the average D1%. The dose-volume histograms were slightly better with the NCF treatment plan for the planning target volume (PTV) with a marginally better HI but no impact on CI. We found a great improvement in the PTV coverage with the CF treatment plan for two patients with T4 tumors. IMRT is one of the treatment options for ethmoid cancer. The PTV coverage is optimal without compromising the protection of the OPS. The impact of non coplanar versus coplanar set up is very slight

  17. MHD analysis and heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal thin film flows in quasi-coplanar magnetic field for Tokamak liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical analysis of an open-channel liquid metal thin film with a quasi-coplanar strong applied magnetic field is carried out for a liquid metal divertor of tokamak device. The wall conductance ratio and the magnetic field inclinded angle appear to be the most important parameters to explain flow characteristics. As the flow rate increases, the velocity distribution with applied magnetic field is flat in the core region of flow and has jets at free surface of liquid metal film flow. In case of conductive walls, that effect is larger than insulated walls since open-channel, induced current circuits are constructed through walls, which causes a large magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) drag in that region. In case with inclined magnetic field, as the flow rate increases, the film height increases and the flow experiences three regimes whether wall is conductive ro not. Regime 1 is dominant by the viscous force, regime 2 by the film height direction component of magnetic field (y component), and regime 3 by the channel width direction component of magnetic field (z component). Characteristics and limits of each regime are examined. Using calculated velocity distributions, heat transfer at the free surface is examined. In case of ordinary hydrodynamic flow, the heat removal characteristic is superior to the MHD case

  18. Integral dose investigation of non-coplanar treatment beam geometries in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dan; Dong, Peng; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Automated planning and delivery of non-coplanar plans such as 4π radiotherapy involving a large number of fields have been developed to take advantage of the newly available automated couch and gantry on C-arm gantry linacs. However, there is an increasing concern regarding the potential changes in the integral dose that needs to be investigated. Methods: A digital torso phantom and 22 lung and liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients were included in the study. The digital phantom was constructed as a water equivalent elliptical cylinder with a major axis length of 35.4 cm and minor axis of 23.6 cm. A 4.5 cm diameter target was positioned at varying depths along the major axis. Integral doses from intensity modulated, non-coplanar beams forming a conical pattern were compared against the equally spaced coplanar beam plans. Integral dose dependence on the phantom geometry and the beam number was also quantified. For the patient plans, the non-coplanar and coplanar beams and fluences were optimized using a column generation and pricing approach and compared against clinical VMAT plans using two full (lung) or partial coplanar arcs (liver) entering at the side proximal to the tumor. Both the average dose to the normal tissue volume and the total volumes receiving greater than 2 Gy (V2) and 5 Gy (V5) were evaluated and compared. Results: The ratio of integral dose from the non-coplanar and coplanar plans depended on the tumor depth for the phantom; for tumors shallower than 10 cm, the non-coplanar integral doses were lower than coplanar integral doses for non-coplanar angles less than 60°. Similar patterns were observed in the patient plans. The smallest non-coplanar integral doses were observed for tumor 6–8 cm deep. For the phantom, the integral dose was independent of the number of beams, consistent with the liver SBRT patients but the lung SBRT patients showed slight increase in the integral dose when more beams were used. Larger

  19. Surface-to-surface transition via electromagnetic coupling of coplanar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert W.; Matolak, David W.

    1987-11-01

    A transition is investigated which couples coplanar waveguide on one substrate surface (a motherboard) to coplanar waveguide on another substrate surface (a semiconductor chip or subarray) placed above the first. No wire bonds are necessary. A full-wave analysis using coupled line theory is presented and verified experimentally. The use of this transition for coupling to millimeter-wave integrated circuits is discussed.

  20. Dynamics of a flexible tethered satellite system utilising various materials for coplanar and non-coplanar models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Aaron Aw Teik; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of mathematical models for a flexible tethered satellite system (TSS) in both planar and co-planar states. The flexible tethered satellite system consists of three rigid bodies with two flexible tethers, each connecting two rigid bodies with one located in the centre and serving as the mothership. The TSS motion includes tether deformations, rotational dynamics, and orbital mechanics. The three materials that are possible to be used for a space tether are tungsten wire, Spectra-2000, and diamond; it should be noted that the diamond used here is in a form of a nanotube thread. The tether will undergo a spinning motion as well in the motorised option. In addition, the air drag perturbation is also considered since the entire TSS is flown around the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), where the air-drag perturbation is dominant. A survival analysis was then performed for planar and non-coplanar models in order to establish a dynamic performance envelope with respect to the tether's tension at different altitudes under the air-drag perturbation. The proposed models were treated numerically and analysed accordingly. Then a comparison study between the coplanar and non-coplanar models were conducted and the difference in their performances was observed and discussed. Although all materials have their own safe operation boundaries, the flexible TSS using tungsten shows a better dynamic performance than the other TSS options in a non-coplanar model.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of a Coplanar Airborne Separation Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Brantegem, K. C. R.; Van Paassen, M. M.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, an active conflict resolution task and a passive situation awareness assessment, were conducted that compared two versions of a constraint-based coplanar airborne separation assistance display. A baseline display showed a maneuver space based on 2-D projections of traffic and perfor

  2. Optimized basis functions for slot antennas excited by coplanar waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Maagt, P.de; Maci, S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analysis of slot antennas excited by coplanar waveguides. First, a standard integral equation for the continuity of the magnetic field is formulated. Then the appropriate equivalent magnetic currents of the method of moments are represented in terms of entire-domain basi

  3. Comportamiento de Laminaciones Coplanares y No Coplanares en Acero API5L X52 Simuladas mediante Elementos Finitos Behavior of Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Laminations in API5L X52 Steel Simulated by Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Servin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el comportamiento mecánico de laminaciones simples y escalonadas modeladas por elementos finitos en condiciones no lineales de esfuerzo-deformación, para comprender la secuencia de la interacción de los campos de esfuerzos en los extremos de la grietas. Se estableció una matriz de simulación variando la extensión circunferencial de las laminaciones, con espesor del tubo de 610mm de diámetro, con separación vertical y horizontal para el caso de laminaciones escalonadas. Se determino la función de distribución de esfuerzos en la región de las laminaciones en función de la presión en la grieta y en el tubo. Se estableció la presión que origina alcanzar la cedencia y resistencia ultima del material API5L X52, determinando que las laminaciones simples cuya extensión circunferencial va de 24 a 127 mm, soportan 50% más de presión de cedencia que las laminaciones escalonadas, y el 100% más de presión máxima permisible. Basados en la graficas presión versus radio de las laminaciones se concluye que las laminaciones no coplanares representan mayor riesgo de agrietamiento en una tubería.The mechanical behavior of the coplanar and non coplanar laminations by finite element using non lineal material conditions was determined, with the purpose of knowing the interaction sequence of the stress fields in the crack tips. The analysis includes a matrix simulation considering the circumferential length lamination, wall thickness of the pipe 610mm diameter, with vertical and horizontal distance for non coplanar laminations. The stress distribution in the laminations regions as a function of the internal pressures in the cracks and pipe were determined. The simulations done allowed defining the yield and the strength pressure that reach the mechanical properties of the API 5L X52. It was found that coplanar laminations with 24 at 127mm of circumferential length resist 50% more yield pressure than the non coplanar laminations and

  4. Analysis of Schottky Contact Formation in Coplanar Au/ZnO/Al Nanogap Radio Frequency Diodes Processed from Solution at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Rossbauer, Stephan; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Much work has been carried out in recent years in fabricating and studying the Schottky contact formed between various metals and the n-type wide bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO). In spite of significant progress, reliable formation of such technologically interesting contacts remains a challenge. Here, we report on solution-processed ZnO Schottky diodes based on a coplanar Al/ZnO/Au nanogap architecture and study the nature of the rectifying contact formed at the ZnO/Au interface. Resultant diodes exhibit excellent operating characteristics, including low-operating voltages (±2.5 V) and exceptionally high current rectification ratios of >10(6) that can be independently tuned via scaling of the nanogap's width. The barrier height for electron injection responsible for the rectifying behavior is studied using current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements (C-V) yielding values in the range of 0.54-0.89 eV. C-V measurements also show that electron traps present at the Au/ZnO interface appear to become less significant at higher frequencies, hence making the diodes particularly attractive for high-frequency applications. Finally, an alternative method for calculating the Richardson constant is presented yielding a value of 38.9 A cm(-2) K(-2), which is close to the theoretically predicted value of 32 A cm(-2) K(-2). The implications of the obtained results for the use of these coplanar Schottky diodes in radio frequency applications is discussed.

  5. Electrode Design of Cylindrical Coplanar-grid CdZnTe Detector by Finite Element Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei; SANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Qi; MIN Jia-Hua; SHEN Yan

    2004-01-01

    Cylindrical coplanar- grid configurations, which offer a lot of advantages over established designs,can effectively overcome the problem of poor hole collection. Finite element analysis is utilized for simulating the potential distribution of the cylindrical coplanar-grid detector under different models by varying the widths of grid and pitch of electrodes. In addition, a modified grid pattern has been discussed to improve the weighting potential match between two grids. In this way, the geometry of electrodes for cylindrical coplanar- grid detectors is optimized.

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of the HexaPOD evo RT system using non-coplanar beams in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Se Wuk; Cho, Kang Chul; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Kim, Joo Ho; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study, evaluate the accuracy of HeaxPOD evo RT system using the non-coplanar beam. 13 treatment plans are used which applied non-coplanar beams and 10 treatment plans which coplanar beams are used. the correction value what adjust to 6D couch is determined by each patient's setup errors only rotation direction. The study executed followings. first, Applying the correction value, measure the point dose and calculate the γ -index(γ=3% / 3 mm , γ =2%/ 2 mm). second, acquire data as previous methods without correction by HexaPOD. For comparing the two results, we find out the more precise applying HexaPOD by point dose 0.2% in coplanar and non-coplanar. in the case of γ-index<1(γ=3% / 3 mm), more precise 2.2% in coplanar and 7% in Non-coplanar. Particularly, γ - index<1(2% / 2 mm) show the difference 9.2% in coplanar and 15.1% non-coplanar between apply HexaPOD and dose not apply HexaPOD. Using the HexaPOD is more precise than without HexaPOD. It suggests that HexaPOD evo RT system is very useful for precise and high dose delivery.

  7. Measurement of mortar permittivity during setting using a coplanar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor based on a coplanar waveguide structure was designed to perform non-destructive tests for material characterization in which the measurement can be done only on one side of the sample. The measurements were compared with the impedance of a capacitor filled with the same material. The permittivity and insertion loss of the sensor showed valuable information about the setting process of a mortar slab during the first 28 days of the hardening process, and a good correlation between both measurements was obtained, so the proposed setup can be useful for structural surveillance and moisture detection in civil structures

  8. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  9. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with non-coplanar and initially circular orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in coplanar hierarchical triple systems on initially circular orbits, with comparable masses and with well separated components, based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Now, the same technique is extended to non-coplanar orbits. However, it can only be applied to systems with ${I_{0}140.77^{\\circ}}$, where ${I}$ is the inclination of the two orbits, because of complications arisin...

  10. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with non-coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in coplanar hierarchical triple systems on initially circular orbits, with comparable masses and with well separated components, based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Now, the same technique is extended to non-coplanar orbits. However, it can only be applied to systems with ${I_{0}140.77^{\\circ}}$, where ${I}$ is the inclination of the two orbits, because of complications arising from the so-called 'Kozai effect'. The theoretical model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion.

  11. Design and Measurement of Self-Matched, Dual-Frequency Coplanar-Waveguide-Fed Slot Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Amjad A.; Scardelletti, Maxmilian C.; Hejazi, Zuhair M.; Dib, Nihad

    2007-01-01

    This report presents two new designs of dual-frequency, coplanar-waveguide-fed, double-folded slot antennas. An important advantage of these antennas is that, because they are self-matched to the feeding coplanar waveguide, they do not need an external matching circuit. This reduces the antenna size and simplifies its design. To verify the designs, the authors measured and compared the return loss and radiation patterns with those obtained using available commercial software with good agreement. Dual-frequency slot antennas;

  12. On non-coplanar Hohmann Transfer using angles as parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, Angel; Lacruz, Elvis; Abellan, Gabriel; Diaz, Sttiwuer

    2015-01-01

    We study a more complex case of Hohmann orbital transfer of a satellite by considering non-coplanar and elliptical orbits, instead of planar and circular orbits. We use as parameter the angle between the initial and transference planes that minimizes the energy, and therefore the fuel of a satellite, through the application of two non-tangential impulses for all possible cases. We found an analytical expression that minimizes the energy for each configuration. Some reasonable physical constraints are used: we apply impulses at perigee or apogee of the orbit, we consider the duration of the impulse to be short compared to the duration of the trip, we take the nodal line of three orbits to be coincident and the three semimajor axes to lie in the same plane. We study the only four possible cases but assuming non-coplanar elliptic orbits. In addition, we validate our method through a numerical solution obtained by using some of the actual orbital elements of Sputnik I and Vanguard I satellites. For these orbits, ...

  13. 共面波导型行波电光调制器的设计和数值分析%DESIGN AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE TYPE TRAVELLING-WAVE ELECTRO-OPTIC MODULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晹; 杨森祖

    2000-01-01

    提出一种新颖的、速度匹配的共面波导型电光调制器设计。采用窄地电极、加盖屏蔽层的设计获得了较好效果。针对复杂边界形状和多层介质交界面,在计算设计参数时作了改进,如引入张量计算,使用吸收边界条件(ABC),采用动态场域分割及带状矩阵存储等,显著提高了有限元方法(FEM)解准静电磁场问题的计算效率和精度。并对前人的设计进行了计算,结果与之相近,表明数值计算的合理性。利用此计算方法,对1.55μm的波长和LiNbO衬底进行了参数优化,实现了光波与微波传播速度的匹配,同时给出关于有效折射率和特征阻抗的详细图示。%Optical fiber communication has become one of the most important means of telecommumication in the modem society. More and more backbone optical fiber networks have come into use. In the future, it will be beyond doubt that main information systems are based on full-optic communication. So more attention is paid to high-speed electro-optic modulators because of its great significance in optic fiber communication. In this paper a novel coplanar waveguide type travelling-wave electro-optic modulator is devised. Narrow ground electrode and shieldplane help it to obtain good performance. Electro-optic modulators' complex boundary shape and multilayer dielectric lead us to design a kind of numerical calculation technique which employs Finite Element Method (FEM) to solve the two-dimensional quasi-static transverse distribution of electric field problems. A simple comparison batween FEM and other computing methods is given. Several improvements are used to make great progress in efficiency and precision of numerical analysis. For example, we utilize tensor εto replace the original scalar in Laplaee equation so that the celculation can be applied to aeolotropic crystal; we adopt a sort of new boundary condition to simulate infinite electric field-Absorbing Boundary

  14. A comparison study of on-chip short pulse generation circuits based on a coplanar waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹焕; 耿永涛; 王平山; 李家胤

    2011-01-01

    A few traditional pulse-forming circuits are implemented in a commercial 0.13 μm digital complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These circuits, based on a coplanar waveguide, are analyzed and compared through CadenceTM Spectre simulati

  15. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  16. High-Tc superconductor coplanar waveguide filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Bajuk, Louis J.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Foote, Marc C.; Hunt, Brian D.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Riley, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide (CPW) low-pass filters made of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) on LaAlO3 substrates, with dimensions suited for integrated circuits, were fabricated and packaged. A complete filter gives a true idea of the advantages and difficulties in replacing thin-film metal with a high-temperature superconductor in a practical circuit. Measured insertion losses in liquid nitrogen were superior to the loss of a similar thin-film copper filter throughout the 0- to 9.5-GHz passband. These results demonstrate the performance of fully patterned YBCO in a practical CPW structure after sealing in a hermetic package.

  17. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  18. Target splitting non-coplanar RapidArc radiation therapy for a diffuse sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp: a novel delivery technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare conventional lateral photon-electron, fixed-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), coplanar and non-coplanar RapidArc for the treatment of a diffuse sebaceous gland carcinoma of the scalp. Comprehensive dosimetry comparisons were performed among 3D-CRT, IMRT and various RapidArc plans. Target coverage, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and doses to organs at risk (OAR) were calculated. Monitor unites (MUs) and delivery time of each treatment were also recorded to evaluate the execution efficiency. The influence of target splitting technique and non-coplanar planning on plan quality was discussed. IMRT was superior to 3D-CRT concerning targets’ coverage at the sacrifice of larger irradiated brain volumes to low doses. CIs and HIs were better in coplanar RapidArc and non-coplanar RapidArc plans than 3D-CRT and IMRT. Best dose coverage and sparing of OARs were achieved in non-coplanar plans using target splitting technique. Treatment delivery time was longest in the IMRT plan and shortest in the coplanar RapidArc plan without target splitting. The 3%/3 mm gamma test pass rates were above 95% for all the plans. Target splitting technique and non-coplanar arcs are recommended for total scalp irradiation

  19. Superconducting Coplanar Switch and Phase Shifter for CMB Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Belier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Gadot, F.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zanonni, M.

    2016-08-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterization of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimize systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. A new generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting microbridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the injected current compared to the critical current. If the current injected inside the bridge is lower than the critical current, the phase of the signal passing through the bridge is tunable. A first prototype of this component working as a switch and as a phase shifter at 10 GHz has been made. The principle, the setup, and the first measurements made at 4 K will be shown.

  20. Electrode design for coplanar-grid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coplanar-grid charge sensing technique provides a method for improving the spectral response of gamma-ray detectors based on compound semiconductors, which typically have poor charge transport properties. The technique functions by effectively modifying the charge induction characteristics of the detector such that the dependence of detector signal on the depth of radiation interaction is minimized. The effectiveness of this technique however can be compromised by non-uniform charge induction characteristics across the detector. This paper examines such non-uniformity due to fringe effects near the detector edges. Alternate electrode configurations are studied that provide effective compensation for such effects. Results from experimental measurements and computer simulations are presented

  1. Coplanar, Microstrips and Coupled Microstrip Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bent Poul

    1995-01-01

    In the accessible literature is applied simplified calculation methods for coupled microstrips, as give a fair decision of the characteristic impedances within 10-20% accuracy. In this report it is succeeded to appear calculation methods that give the desired exactly calculations of differential...... mode impedance (identical to 2x odd mode impedance) and commom mode impedance (identical to 1/2x even mode impedance). The conformal mapping with Schwarz-Christoffel formula give no possibility for the inverse functions for a synthesis optimization. For that reason there is calculated figures, who can...... be used for stipulation of strip dimensions within 4% precision, referred to produced coupled microstrips and measured impedances. The report is initiated with exactly calculation of impedances for coplanar strips and microstrips, because these calculations apply to the calculations of coupled...

  2. Ionisation differential cross section measurements for N2 at low incident energy in coplanar and non-coplanar geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaamini, Ahmad; Amami, Sadek; Murray, Andrew James; Ning, Chuangang; Madison, Don

    2016-10-01

    Ionisation triple differential cross sections have been determined experimentally and theoretically for the neutral molecule N2 over a range of geometries from coplanar to the perpendicular plane. Data were obtained at incident electron energies ∼10 and ∼20 eV above the ionisation potential of the 3σ g, 1π u and 2σ g states, using both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The data were taken with the incident electron beam in the scattering plane (ψ = 0°), at 45° to this plane and orthogonal to the plane (ψ = 90°). The set of nine measured differential cross sections at a given energy were then inter-normalised to each other. The data are compared to new calculations using various distorted wave methods, and differences between theory and experiment are discussed.

  3. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  4. Optimal impulsive ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The problem of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity was investigated in this paper.With reference frame established in the centroid of the target spacecraft,the process of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous was described by the relative equations based on cy-lindrical reference frame,and then the solutions and distributions of optimal rendezvous models of a kind of close ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous were provided.The simulation results showed that the guidance law based on the optimal rendezvous model in this research has good performance,and that the distributions of optimal rendezvous models of ellipse-to-circle coplanar rendezvous with the chaser spacecraft in low eccentricity are similar,albeit with slight difference,to those of rendezvous between close circular orbits.The work in this paper is a useful extension to Prussing’s optimal ren-dezvous theory between close circular orbits.

  5. Optimization of coplanar high rate supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leimeng; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Kang; Zou, Jianping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we describe two efficient methods to enhance the electrochemical performance of high-rate coplanar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs). Through introducing MnO2 nanosheets on vertical-aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array, the areal capacitance and volumetric energy density exhibit tremendous improvements which have been increased from 0.011 mF cm-2 to 0.017 mWh cm-3 to 0.479 mF cm-2 and 0.426 mWh cm-3 respectively at an ultrahigh scan rate of 50000 mV s-1. Subsequently, by fabricating an asymmetric MSC, the energy density could be increased to 0.167 mWh cm-3 as well. Moreover, as a result of applying MnO2/VACNT as the positive electrode and VACNT as the negative electrode, the cell operating voltage in aqueous electrolyte could be increased to as high as 2.0 V. Our advanced planar MSCs could operate well at different high scan rates and offer a promising integration potential with other in-plane devices on the same substrate.

  6. SPACEBORNE SAR IMAGERY STEREO POSITIONING BASED ON RANGE-COPLANARITY EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Q. Cheng; Zhang, J. X.; Huang, G M; Luo, C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereo positioning is a important content for Spaceborne SAR imagery mapping, which is still lack of investigation depend on exterior orientation elements. In this paper, we firstly introduced the Range-Coplanarity (R-Cp) geometric imaging equation and its character for radar imagery, compared the difference and relationship between R-Cp and R-D model, and build stereo positioning rigorous model for spaceborne SAR imagery based on the R-Cp equation, satellite orbit, and pose refinement model....

  7. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of benign skull-base tumors: a dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with Rapidarc® versus non-coplanar dynamic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Fanny; Magnier, Florian; Berger, Lucie; Miroir, Jessica; Chautard, Emmanuel; Verrelle, Pierre; Lapeyre, Michel; Biau, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign tumors of the skull base are a challenge when delivering radiotherapy. An appropriate choice of radiation technique may significantly improve the patient’s outcomes. Our study aimed to compare the dosimetric results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between non-coplanar dynamic arcs and coplanar volumetric modulated arctherapy (Rapidarc®). Methods Thirteen patients treated with Novalis TX® were analysed: six vestibular schwannomas, four pituitary adenomas and three m...

  8. A dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare dosimetric parameters of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with regard to the coverage of planning target volume (PTV) and the sparing of organs at risk (OAR). Ten patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer were re-planned by VMAT (two-arc) plan and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans. Planning objectives were to deliver 60 Gy in 30 fractions to 95% of PTV, with maximum doses (Dmax) of <50 Gy to the optic nerves, optic chiasm, and brainstem, <40 Gy to the eyes and <10 Gy to the lenses. The target mean dose (Dmean) to the parotid glands was <25 Gy, and no constraints were applied to the lacrimal glands. Planning was optimized to minimized doses to OAR without compromising coverage of the PTV. VMAT and three non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) plans were compared using the heterogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) of the PTV, Dmax and Dmean of the OAR, treatment delivery time, and monitor units (MUs). The HI and CI of VMAT plan were superior to those of the 7-, 11-, and 15-beam non-coplanar IMRT. VMAT and non-coplanar IMRT (7-, 11-, and 15-beam) showed equivalent sparing effects for the optic nerves, optic chiasm, brainstem, and parotid glands. For the eyes and lenses, VMAT achieved equivalent or better sparing effects when compared with the non-coplanar IMRT plans. VMAT showed lower MUs and reduced treatment delivery time when compared with non-coplanar IMRT. In 10 patients with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer, a VMAT plan provided better homogeneity and conformity for PTV than non-coplanar IMRT plans, with a shorter treatment delivery time, while achieving equal or better OAR-sparing effects and using fewer MUs

  9. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  10. Comparison of a new noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique for craniospinal irradiation with 3 coplanar techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders T; Lukacova, Slavka; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.;

    2015-01-01

    When standard conformal x-ray technique for craniospinal irradiation is used, it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory dose coverage of the target including the area of the cribriform plate, while sparing organs at risk. We present a new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), noncoplanar...... patient using the noncoplanar IMRT-based technique, a coplanar IMRT-based technique, and a coplanar volumetric-modulated arch therapy (VMAT) technique. Dosimetry data for all patients were compared with the corresponding data from the conventional treatment plans. The new noncoplanar IMRT technique...

  11. Study of Temperature Characteristics of Micromachined Suspended Coplanar Waveguides for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent development on biosensors, coplanar waveguide based microwave dielectric sensors have been attracting more and more attentions. In this paper, microwave performance of a suspended coplanar waveguide subject to temperature variations, particularly in a small range, is studied. The prototype is realized through a MEMS fabrication foundry. The thermal transfer analysis of the device is conducted using finite element method, and the microwave properties of the device are characterized. One of the results shows that at 20 GHz, the S11 has decreased by 7.4%, and S21 has increased by 3.5% when the voltage applied to the heaters varies from 9 V to 29 V.

  12. Non-coplanar automatic beam orientation selection in cranial IMRT: a practical methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants LLC, 130 Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Li Sicong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Kapellenstrasse 12, 85622 Feldkirchen (Germany)], E-mail: escalivat@jllacer.com, E-mail: sl1@unmc.edu, E-mail: NAgazaryan@mednet.ucla.edu, E-mail: claus.promberger@brainlab.com, E-mail: Timothy.Solberg@utsouthwestern.edu

    2009-03-07

    This paper proposes a method for automatic selection of beam orientations in non-coplanar cranial IMRT. Methods of computer vision, beam's eye view techniques and neural networks are used to define a new geometry-based methodology that leads to treatment plans for cranial lesions that are comparable in quality to those generated by experienced radiation physicists. The automatic beam selection (ABS) process can be carried out in clinically useful computation times, in 1 min or less for most cases. In the process of describing the ABS process, it is shown that the cranial beam orientation optimization problem is mathematically ill posed, with the expectation that a large number of solutions will lead to similar results. Nevertheless, there are better and worse solutions and we show that the proposed ABS process, by its design, has to lead to one of the better ones. We have carried out extensive tests with 14 patients with beam selection tasks ranging from the rather simple to quite complex. The ABS process has always yielded optimizations with results that are considered good for clinic use. Seven-beam coplanar optimizations for some of the patients have also been investigated. Comparisons with non-coplanar optimizations indicate in which cases the simpler coplanar plans can be used to advantage. Parameters used in the comparisons are dose-volume histograms, minimum and maximum PTV doses, equivalent uniform doses for the PTV and OARs, and treatment volume, conformity and normal tissue indices. It is felt that the current ABS methodology is ready for extensive clinical tests.

  13. Josephson effect in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Superconducting proximity effect induced in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices. • Comparative study of Al/Bi2Se3 interfaces with various buffer layers. • Towards a Josephson super-current through the edge states of topological insulators. - Abstract: The edge states of Topological Insulators (TI) are protected against backscattering, thanks to the topological properties arising from their band structure. Coupling a TI to a superconductor (S) can induce unconventional effects, including the creation of Majorana bound states (MBS). The fabrication of coplanar hybrid devices is a fundamental step to pave the way to the understanding of proximity effects in topologically non-trivial systems, and to a large variety of experiments aimed at the possible detection of MBS. We discuss the feasibility and some relevant properties of Al–Bi2Se3–Al coplanar proximity devices. Special attention is devoted to the design of the junction, aimed at enhancing the coupling between the electrodes and the TI

  14. Concentric Coplanar Capacitive Sensor System with Quantitative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Nicola (Inventor); Chen, Tianming (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A concentric coplanar capacitive sensor includes a charged central disc forming a first electrode, an outer annular ring coplanar with and outer to the charged central disc, the outer annular ring forming a second electrode, and a gap between the charged central disc and the outer annular ring. The first electrode and the second electrode may be attached to an insulative film. A method provides for determining transcapacitance between the first electrode and the second electrode and using the transcapacitance in a model that accounts for a dielectric test piece to determine inversely the properties of the dielectric test piece.

  15. FISCAL DISCIPLINE WITHIN THE EU: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN CELEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the convergence indicators relative to fiscal area in the EU; subsequent to a description of the main peculiarities of the convergence criteria, the reseach develops a critical analysis on a comparative perspective of the actual values of fiscal convergence indicators registered in EU countries compared with the reference values of the indicators, with emphasis on the differences between emerging and developed countries.

  16. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  17. Thin foil silicon solar cells with coplanar back contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, F.; Iles, P. A.; Baraona, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    To fabricate 50 microns thick, coplanar back contact (CBC) silicon solar cells, wraparound junction design was selected and proved to be effective. The process sequence used, the cell design, and the cell performance are described. CBC cells with low solar absorptance have shown AMO efficiencies to 13%, high cells up to 14%; further improvements are projected with predictable optimization.

  18. Radiotherapy for unresectable sinonasal cancers: Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiation therapy with coplanar and non-coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for treatment of unresectable paranasal sinuses cancers (PNSCs) with different clinical presentations. Material and methods: Four patients treated for primary target volume only (group 1), four requiring elective nodal irradiation (group 2) and four with positive nodes in macroscopic disease (group 3) were selected. For each patient were generated 7 fields IMRT, coplanar VMAT (c-VMAT) and non-coplanar VMAT (nc-VMAT) treatment plans. Total doses were 70 Gy and 54 Gy to high dose planning target volume (HD-PTV) and low-dose-PTV, respectively. Dose–volume histogram, conformity and homogeneity index (CI and HI), and monitor units (MUs) per Gy were evaluated. Results: VMAT provided significantly better target coverage, in terms of V100% (Volume encompassed by the isodose 100%), than IMRT, in particular when nc-VMAT was used. In general, organ at risk sparing is similar with the three approaches, although nc-VMAT can allow a statistically significant reduction of dose to contralateral parotid gland and cochlea for all three groups. Conclusions: VMAT can offer significant improvement of treatment for all unresectable PNSCs over existing IMRT techniques. In particular, nc-VMAT may be a further advantage for those patients with sinonasal cancers and involvement of the nodes in whom large volumes and complex/irregular shape have to be irradiated, even if clinical benefits should be established in the future

  19. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova E.V.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ecological indicators designed and specified for Moldova and similar indicators of the countries of CIS is made in the work. Some general items of information about power systems of the countries of CIS (the established capacities, manufacture of the electric power are given, the analysis of dynamics of emissions GHG- СО2, NOx, SO2 in Moldova and comparison with the emissions level in other countries of CIS is made.

  20. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We develop a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in hierarchical triple systems with well separated components. We investigate systems with initially circular and coplanar orbits and comparable masses. The technique is based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector for calculating short period terms by using first order perturbation theory. The combination of the short period terms with terms arising from octupole level secular theory, results in the derivation of a rather simple formula for the eccentricity of the inner binary. The theoretical results are tested against numerical integrations of the full equations of motion. Comparison is also made with other results on the subject.

  1. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther;

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested...... and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 mu m beads from 1 mu m as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes...... of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results....

  2. Comparison of coplanar and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the differences in dose-volume data among coplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), noncoplanar IMRT, and helical tomotherapy (HT) among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Nine patients with unresectable HCC and PVT underwent step and shoot coplanar IMRT with intent to deliver 46 - 54 Gy to the tumor and portal vein. The volume of liver received 30Gy was set to keep less than 30% of whole normal liver (V30 < 30%). The mean dose to at least one side of kidney was kept below 23 Gy, and 50 Gy as for stomach. The maximum dose was kept below 47 Gy for spinal cord. Several parameters including mean hepatic dose, percent volume of normal liver with radiation dose at X Gy (Vx), uniformity index, conformal index, and doses to organs at risk were evaluated from the dose-volume histogram. HT provided better uniformity for the planning-target volume dose coverage than both IMRT techniques. The noncoplanar IMRT technique reduces the V10 to normal liver with a statistically significant level as compared to HT. The constraints for the liver in the V30 for coplanar IMRT vs. noncoplanar IMRT vs. HT could be reconsidered as 21% vs. 17% vs. 17%, respectively. When delivering 50 Gy and 60-66 Gy to the tumor bed, the constraints of mean dose to the normal liver could be less than 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. Noncoplanar IMRT and HT are potential techniques of radiation therapy for HCC patients with PVT. Constraints for the liver in IMRT and HT could be stricter than for 3DCRT

  3. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  4. Comparative analysis of energy costing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sawy, A.H.; Leigh, J.G.; Trehan, R.K.

    1979-02-01

    The methodologies used for computing levelized busbar costs of electricity from geothermal (hydrothermal) resources used by 16 organizations active in the geothermal area are discussed. The methodologies are compared by (a) comparing the results obtained by using two standard data sets, (b) a theoretical analysis of the mathematical formulation of the embedded models, and (c) an examination of differences in data and assumptions. The objective is to attempt to resolve differences in estimates of geothermal (and conventional) electric power costs, upon which policies may be formulated and research, development and demonstration activities designed and implemented.

  5. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: Characteristics and Advantages Evaluated for Radiofrequency and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers in NASA Lewis Research Center s Electron Device Technology Branch are developing transmission lines for radiofrequency and wireless circuits that are more efficient, smaller, and make lower cost circuits possible. Traditionally, radiofrequency and wireless circuits have employed a microstrip or coplanar waveguide to interconnect the various electrical elements that comprise a circuit. Although a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is widely viewed as better than a microstrip for most applications, it too has problems. To solve these problems, NASA Lewis and the University of Michigan developed a new version of a coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes. Through extensive numerical modeling and experimental measurements, we have characterized the propagation constant of the FGC waveguide, the lumped and distributed circuit elements integrated in the FGC waveguide, and the coupling between parallel transmission lines. Although the attenuation per unit length is higher for the FGC waveguide because of higher conductor loss, the attenuation is comparable when the ground plane width is twice the center conductor width as shown in the following graph. An upper limit to the line width is derived from observations that when the total line width is greater than ld/2, spurious resonances due to the parallel plate waveguide mode are established. Thus, the ground plane width must be less than ld/4 where ld is the wavelength in the dielectric. Since the center conductor width S is typically less than l/10 to maintain good transverse electromagnetic mode characteristics, it follows that a ground plane width of B = 2S would also be electrically narrow. Thus, we can now treat the ground strips of the FGC waveguide the same way that the center conductor is treated.

  6. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  7. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  8. ROMANIAN COUNTY RATING MEASUREMENT. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second wave of financial crisis, namely the sovereign debt crisis, the country’s most affected by this phenomenon are Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and last year Cyprus joined. Future more the crisis in Greece in 2015 requires local authorities to evaluate constantly their rating in order to prevent bankruptcy. In this paper we conducted a comparative analysis using Altman method and the Stickney method and correlate the scores with ratings agencies Standard & Poor's and Moody's.

  9. Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DeHoog, Edward; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-01-01

    Retinal photography requires the use of a complex optical system, called a fundus camera, capable of illuminating and imaging the retina simultaneously. The patent literature shows two design forms but does not provide the specifics necessary for a thorough analysis of the designs to be performed. We have constructed our own designs based on the patent literature in optical design software and compared them for illumination efficiency, image quality, ability to accommodate for patient refract...

  10. ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvraj Singh Chandrawat*

    2015-01-01

    We live in the age of technolgy and it is quiet obvious that it is increasing day-by-day endlessly. In this technical era researchers are focusing on the development of the existing technologies. Software engineering is the dominant branch of Computer Science that deals with the development and analysis of the software. The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the existing searching algorithms (linear search and binary search). In this paper, we will discuss both thes...

  11. Channelized-Coplanar-Waveguide PIN-Diode Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Three positive/intrinsic/negative (PIN-diode) reflective CPW (coplanar waveguide) switches demonstrated. First includes series-mounted diode to bridge gap in center strip conductor of CPW. Second includes pair of diodes to short center strip conductor to ground planes. Third includes diode to switch between band-pass filter and notch filter. Isolation exceeds 20 dB, while insertion loss is less than 1 dB.

  12. Resonance modes in coplanar lines with integrated Josephson circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, A. V.; Satanin, A. M.; Mironov, V. A.; Il'ichev, E.

    2013-11-01

    The propagation of microwave radiation in co-planar superconducting lines with Josephson circuits (microresonators) of various configurations is investigated. It is shown that dips in the frequency dependence of the transmission power of the waveguide line modes are associated with local modes of the circuit. The dependencies of shape and position of the dips on an external magnetic field and applied power are found. The calculation results can be used for developing modern cryoelectronic microwave superconducting devices.

  13. Experimental demonstrations of high-Q superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haijie; Wang, Yiwen; Wei, Lianfu; Zhou, Pinjia; Wei, Qiang (Ethan); Cao, Chunhai; Fang, Yurong; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng

    2013-01-01

    We designed and successfully fabricated an absorption-type of superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators. The resonators are made from a Niobium film (about 160 nm thick) on a high-resistance Si substrate, and each resonator is fabricated as a meandered quarter-wavelength transmission line (one end shorts to the ground and another end is capacitively coupled to a through feedline). With a vector network analyzer we measured the transmissions of the applied microwave through the reson...

  14. Noise Properties of Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Microwave Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jiansong; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; LeDuc, Henry G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have measured noise in thin-film superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators. This noise appears entirely as phase noise, equivalent to a jitter of the resonance frequency. In contrast, amplitude fluctuations are not observed at the sensitivity of their measurement. The ratio between the noise power in the phase and amplitude directions is large, in excess of 30 dB. These results have important implications for resonant readouts of various devices such as detectors, amplifiers, ...

  15. A compact wideband monopole antenna fed by coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guoping; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhou, Jiang; Su, Yan; Li, Qifu

    2016-02-01

    A compact wideband printed antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) is presented in this paper. The wideband characteristic is achieved by coupling three monopole resonant modes of the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is built and simulated to verify the design strategy. A wide impedance bandwidth of 100.5% (1.7866-5.3953 GHz) with S11antenna has stable performance, including bi-directional radiation pattern and gain. It also shows the merits of low cost and simple structure.

  16. An Ultrawideband Monopole Fractal Antenna with Coplanar Waveguide Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naeem Iqbal; Hamood-Ur-Rahman; Syeda Fizzah Jilani

    2014-01-01

    A novel ultrawideband fractal antenna in monopole configuration is proposed. Wideband behavior and miniaturization is achieved using concentric heptagonal array structure. Coplanar waveguide is used to feed fractal antenna. Base shape for fractal antenna is heptagonal geometry. Final fractal shape is achieved by performing four base shape iterations. FR4 substrate is used for antenna fabrication. Simulated and measured results comparison shows a bandwidth of 7 GHz with 9 GHz center frequency....

  17. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  18. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  19. Theoretical calculation of the triple differential cross sections of the 2p orbital of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛自明; 周雅君; 吕志伟; 王治文

    2002-01-01

    The triple differential cross sections of the 2p electron of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry have beencalculated with the modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the target Hartree-Fock approximationmethods. The damping polarization of the semi-classical short-range potentials and the Mee factor are included in thedistorting potentials of the modified DWBA. Theoretical results are compared with a recent experiment. The dynamicmechanism of inner shell ionization in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry (e, 2e) reaction are also discussed.

  20. Inpatient care in Kazakhstan: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur B Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reforms in inpatient care are critical for the enhancement of the efficiency of health systems. It still remains the main costly sector of the health system, accounting for more than 60% of all expenditures. Inappropriate and ineffective use of the hospital infrastructure is also a big issue. We aimed to analyze statistical data on health indices and dynamics of the hospital stock in Kazakhstan in comparison with those of developed countries. Materials and Methods: Study design is comparative quantitative analysis of inpatient care indicators. We used information and analytical methods, content analysis, mathematical treatment, and comparative analysis of statistical data on health system and dynamics of hospital stock in Kazakhstan and some other countries of the world [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, USA, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, and Korea] over the period 2001-2011. Results : Despite substantial and continuous reductions over the past 10 years, hospitalization rates in Kazakhstan still remain high compared to some developed countries, including those of the OECD. In fact, the hospital stay length for all patients in Kazakhstan in 2011 is around 9.9 days, hospitalization ratio per 100 people is 16.3, and hospital beds capacity is 100 per 10,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: The decreased level of beds may adversely affect both medical organization and health system operations. Alternatives to the existing inpatient care are now being explored. The introduction of the unified national healthcare system allows shifting the primary focus on primary care organizations, which can decrease the demand on inpatient care as a result of improving the health status of people at the primary care level.

  1. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M.; Gelinas, Yves; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or a combination of both. The remaining carbon, operationally defined as BC, was quantified via mass balance, elemental composition or by exploiting benzenecarboxylic acids as molecular markers or applying 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. BC concentrations measured for individual samples vary over 2 orders of magnitude (up to a factor of 571). One possible explanation for this wide range of results is that the individual BC methods rely on operational definitions with clear-cut but different boundaries and developed for specific scientific questions, whereas BC represents a continuum of materials with widely contrasting physicochemical properties. Thus the methods are inherently designed to analytically determine different parts of the continuum, and it is crucial to know how measurements made by different techniques relate to each other. It is clear from this preliminary comparative analysis that a collection of BC reference materials should be established as soon as possible 1 ) to ensure long-term intralaboratory and interlaboratory data quality and 2) to facilitate comparative analyses between different analytical techniques and scientific approaches

  2. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed ...

  3. Control of polymer-packing orientation in thin films through synthetic tailoring of backbone coplanarity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-10-22

    Controlling solid-state order of π-conjugated polymers through macromolecular design is essential for achieving high electronic device performance; yet, it remains a challenge, especially with respect to polymer-packing orientation. Our work investigates the influence of backbone coplanarity on a polymer\\'s preference to pack face-on or edge-on relative to the substrate. Isoindigo-based polymers were synthesized with increasing planarity by systematically substituting thiophenes for phenyl rings in the acceptor comonomer. This increasing backbone coplanarity, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of representative trimers, leads to the narrowing of polymer band gaps as characterized by ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Among the polymers studied, regiosymmetric II and TII polymers exhibited the highest hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), while in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), TBII polymers that display intermediate levels of planarity provided the highest power conversion efficiencies. Upon thin-film analysis by atomic force microscropy (AFM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), we discovered that polymer-packing orientation could be controlled by tuning polymer planarity and solubility. Highly soluble, planar polymers favor face-on orientation in thin films while the less soluble, nonplanar polymers favor an edge-on orientation. This study advances our fundamental understanding of how polymer structure influences nanostructural order and reveals a new synthetic strategy for the design of semiconducting materials with rationally engineered solid-state properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  5. Characterization of a Coplanar Waveguide Open Stub-Based Discontinuity for MMICs and Filter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and design of an open stub-based two-port discontinuity in a coplanar waveguide. The discontinuity has a good bandpass response and the required design characteristics were achieved by using the method of moments (MOM and the finite integration technique (FIT. The analysis is found to be computationally efficient which makes the discontinuity suitable for use in complex structure applications. The analysis of the discontinuity is also formulated using the quasi-static finite-difference technique. The proposed discontinuity structure finds applications in RFICs and MMICs. Finally, the application of the discontinuity is supported by the simulated design of a broadband bandpass filter on an MMIC with a relative bandwidth of 96%. The filter is found to have a miniature size and a fairly good stop band rejection.

  6. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  7. Losses in coplanar waveguide resonators at millikelvin temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Macha P.; Van Der Ploeg S.H.W.; Oelsner G.; Il'Ichev E.; Meyer H.-G.; Wunsch S.; Siegel M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the loss rate for a set of lambda/2 coplanar waveguide resonators at millikelvin temperatures (20 mK - 900mK) and different applied powers (3E-19 W - 1E-12 W). The loss rate becomes power independent below a critical power. For a fixed power, the loss rate increases significantly with decreasing temperature. We show that this behavior can be caused by two-level systems in the surrounding dielectric materials. Interestingly, the influence of the two-level systems is of the same order ...

  8. Noise properties of superconducting coplanar waveguide microwave resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiansong; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Mazin, Benjamin A.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2007-03-01

    The authors have measured noise in thin-film superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators. This noise appears entirely as phase noise, equivalent to a jitter of the resonance frequency. In contrast, amplitude fluctuations are not observed at the sensitivity of their measurement. The ratio between the noise power in the phase and amplitude directions is large, in excess of 30dB. These results have important implications for resonant readouts of various devices such as detectors, amplifiers, and qubits. They suggest that the phase noise is due to two-level systems in dielectric materials.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  10. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  11. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  12. Network and Internetwork a compared Multiwavelength Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cauzzi, G; Falciani, R

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the temporal behavior of Network Bright Points (NBPs), present in the solar atmosphere, using a set of data acquired during coordinated observations between ground-based observatories (mainly at the NSO/Sacramento Peak) and the Michelson Doppler Interferometer onboard SOHO. We find that, at any time during the observational sequence, all the NBPs visible in the NaD2 images are co-spatial within 1 arcsec with locations of enhanced magnetic field. In analogy with the Ca II K line, the NaD2 line center emission can be used as a proxy for magnetic structures. We also compare the oscillation properties of NBPs and internetwork areas. At photospheric levels no differences between the two structures are found in power spectra, but analysis of phase and coherence spectra suggests the presence of downward propagating waves in the internetwork. At chromospheric levels some differences are evident in the power spectrum between NBPs and internetwork. The power spectrum of NBPs at the Halpha core wavelength sho...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KURT

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed in two information categories as personal information and institutes and their virtual education applications. The English web design of the online questionnaire and the database has been prepared by Microsoft ASP codes which is the script language of Microsoft Front Page editor and has been tested on personal web site. The questionnaire has been pre applied in institutions providing virtual education in Australia. The English text of the questionnaire and web site design have been sent to educational technology and virtual education specialists in the countries of the study group. With the feedback received, the spelling mistakes have been corrected and concept and language validity have been completed. The application of the questionnaire has taken 40 weeks during March-November 2004. Only 135 institutes have replied. Two of the questionnaires have been discharged because they included mistaken coding, names of the institutions and countries. Valid 133 questionnaires cover approximately 44% of the study group. Questionnaires saved in the online database have been transferred to Microsoft Excel and then to SPSS by external database connection. In regards of the research objectives, the data collected has been analyzed on computer and by using SPSS statistics package program. In data analysis frequency (f, percentage (% and arithmetic mean ( have been used. In comparisons of country, institute, year, and other variables, che-square test, independent t

  14. Calculation of S11 Parameter of Coplanar Strip and Influence of Technology Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Heindl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a calculation of the S11 parameter of the coplanar strips. The primary parameterscalculations of the coplanar strips are described in the first part. The scattering parameters are defined. The calculation of the S11 parameter and the comparison with the measured values are showed in the last part of the work.

  15. Laser Vision Measurement System and Assessment Method for SMIC Lead Coplanarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Changku; QIU Yu; XUE Xiaojie; YE Shenghua

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a successful application of line-structured laser sensor, involved in SMIC chip lead coplanarity measurement, is presented. With the experimental measurement system and its corresponding mathematics model, a contact-datum-plane assessment of SMIC chip lead coplanarity is developed to provide method for on-line measurement.

  16. AUDITOR ROTATION - A CRITICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocanu Mihaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts out from the challenge regarding auditor tenure launched in 2010 by the Green Paper of the European Commission Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis. According to this document, the European Commission speaks both in favor of the mandatory rotation of the audit firm, and in favor of the mandatory rotation of audit partners. Rotation is considered a solution to mitigate threats to independence generated by familiarity, intimidation and self-interest in the context of a long-term audit-client relationship. At international level, there are several studies on auditor rotation, both empirical (e.g. Lu and Sivaramakrishnan, 2009, Li, 2010, Kaplan and Mauldin, 2008, Jackson et al., 2008 and normative in nature (e.g. Marten et al., 2007, Muller, 2006 and Gelter, 2004. The objective of the present paper is to perform a critical and comparative analysis of the regulations on internal and external rotation in force at international level, in the European Union and in the United States of America. Moreover, arguments both in favor and against mandatory rotation are brought into discussion. With regard to the research design, the paper has a normative approach. The main findings are first of all that by comparison, all regulatory authorities require internal rotation at least in the case of public interest entities, while the external rotation is not in the focus of the regulators. In general, the most strict and detailed requirements are those issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission from the United States of America. Second of all, in favor of mandatory rotation speaks the fact that the auditor becomes less resilient in case of divergence of opinions between him and company management, less stimulated to follow his own interest, and more scrupulous in conducting the audit. However, mandatory rotation may also have negative consequences, thus the debate on the opportunity of this regulatory measure remains open-ended.

  17. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  18. Aeroassisted transfer between coplanar elliptical orbits during near constant altitude coasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratuta, Aba; Mishne, David; Gur, Ilana

    An aeroassisted transfer between coplanar elliptical orbits is presented. The maneuver consists of three thrust impulses and a coast flight in the atmosphere. Several control strategies for the atmospheric coast are analyzed: constant altitude coast, constant velocity glide, constant heating rate coast. For each control strategy, the optimal altitude is chosen. The criterion for the maneuver efficiency was the amount of fuel consumption for a given rotation angle, subject to a heating rate limit. The results are compared with aeroassisted multipass maneuver and aeroassisted drag-only maneuver. It was shown that the coast maneuver extends the region in which the lift-controlled aeroassisted maneuver is superior to other maneuvers. Numerical examples are presented.

  19. Design of an Ultra-Wideband Transition from Double-Sided Parallel Stripline to Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design method of an ultra-wideband transition from double-sided parallel stripline (DSPSL to coplanar waveguide (CPW is proposed based on analytical expressions of characteristic impedance. The conformal mapping is used to obtain the characteristic impedance for each section of the transition within 3.7% accuracy as compared with the EM simulation results. An efficient and clear guideline for the design of the transition is proposed. The implemented transition performs less than 0.6 dB insertion loss per transition for frequencies from 40 MHz to 12 GHz and less than 1.2 dB insertion loss to 27 GHz, which well exceeds the previous results in the literature.

  20. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  1. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Chilton, Caroline Hazel

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in availability of next generation sequencing methodologies has led to extensive analysis of the genome of Clostridium difficile. In contrast, protein expression analysis, crucial to the elucidation of mechanisms of disease, has severely lagged behind. In this study, in-depth proteomic analysis of three strains of varying virulence, demonstrated previously in an animal model, has been undertaken against a background of the sequenced genomes. Strain B-1 is ...

  3. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  4. Optimized coplanar waveguide resonators for a superconductor-atom interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M. A.; Isaacs, J. A.; Booth, D.; Pritchard, J. D.; Saffman, M.; McDermott, R.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above 104 can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 μm above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  5. Magnetic hysteresis effects in superconducting coplanar microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothner, D.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Gruenzweig, M.; Ferdinand, B.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Wuensch, S.; Siegel, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Mikheenko, P.; Johansen, T.H. [University of Oslo (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    We present experimental data regarding the impact of external magnetic fields on quality factor and resonance frequency of superconducting microwave resonators in a coplanar waveguide geometry. In particular we focus on the influence of magnetic history and show with the assistance of numerical calculations that the found hysteretic behaviour can be well understood with a highly inhomogeneous microwave current density in combination with established field penetration models for type-II superconducting thin films. Furthermore we have used magneto-optical imaging techniques to check the field distribution which we have assumed in our calculations. Finally, we demonstrate that and how the observed hysteretic behaviour can be used to optimize and tune the resonator performance for possible hybrid quantum sytems in magnetic fields.

  6. Optimized Coplanar Waveguide Resonators for a Superconductor-Atom Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M A; Booth, D; Pritchard, J D; Saffman, M; McDermott, R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above $10^4$ can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 $\\mu$m above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  7. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  8. An Ultrawideband Monopole Fractal Antenna with Coplanar Waveguide Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrawideband fractal antenna in monopole configuration is proposed. Wideband behavior and miniaturization is achieved using concentric heptagonal array structure. Coplanar waveguide is used to feed fractal antenna. Base shape for fractal antenna is heptagonal geometry. Final fractal shape is achieved by performing four base shape iterations. FR4 substrate is used for antenna fabrication. Simulated and measured results comparison shows a bandwidth of 7 GHz with 9 GHz center frequency. Radiation pattern of monopole fractal antenna is omni directional. Fundamental purpose of designing and fabricating UWB fractal antenna is its application in body area networks for remote patient health monitoring. Its application also includes C and X band frequencies.

  9. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  10. MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

    2010-05-17

    The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

  11. Electromagnetic Modeling of Distributed-Source-Excitation of Coplanar Waveguides: Applications to Traveling-Wave Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Davide; Neto, Andrea; Wyss, Rolf A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work an electromagnetic model and subsequent design is presented for a traveling-wave, coplanar waveguide (CPW) based source that will operate in the THz frequency regime. The radio frequency (RF) driving current is a result of photoexcitation of a thin GaAs membrane using two frequency-offset lasers. The GaAs film is grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) and displays sub-ps carrier lifetimes which enable the material conductivity to be modulated at a very high rate. The RF current flows between electrodes deposited on the GaAs membrane which are biased with a DC voltage source. The electrodes form a CPW and are terminated with a double slot antenna that couples the power to a quasi-optical system. The membrane is suspended above a metallic reflector to launch all radiation in one direction. The theoretical investigation and consequent design is performed in two steps. The first step consists of a direct evaluation of the magnetic current distribution on an infinitely extended coplanar waveguide excited by an impressed electric current distributed over a finite area. The result of the analysis is the difference between the incident angle of the laser beams and the length of the excited area that maximizes the RF power coupled to the CPW. The optimal values for both parameters are found as functions of the CPW and membrane dimensions as well as the dielectric constants of the layers. In the second step, a design is presented of a double slot antenna that matches the CPW characteristic impedance and gives good overall performance. The design is presently being implemented and measurements will soon be available.

  12. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is qualitative method. The first advertisement is analyzed qualitatively in terms of content; there was no focus on a specific theoretical frame work, while the second advertisement analysis is based on Fairclough’s framework, the critical discourse analysis framework.  

  13. Comparative analysis of Orem's and King's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanucharurnkul, S

    1989-05-01

    Dorothea Orem and Imogene King are two nursing theorists who are contributing significantly to the development of nursing knowledge. This paper compares the similarities and differences in their strategies for theory development, their views of nursing metaparadigm concepts, and their theories of nursing system and goal attainment in terms of scope, usefulness, and their unique contribution to nursing science. PMID:2738232

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Global Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalsen, Maiken Foss

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is development of corporate social responsibility in a global context, and examines and compares the practice of CSR in different countries around the world. Furthermore, the question of whether or not CSR should be regulated by law is discussed. Nå

  15. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  16. A novel technique for post-mastectomy breast irradiation utilising non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Koshy, M; Zhang, B; S Naqvi; B. Liu; Mohiuddin, M M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if non-coplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the post-mastectomy setting can reduce the dose to normal structures and improve target coverage. We compared this IMRT technique with a standard partial wide tangential (PWT) plan and a five-field (5F) photon-electron plan. 10 patients who underwent left-sided mastectomy were planned to 50.4 Gy using either (1) PWT to cover the internal mammary (IM) nodes and supraclavicular fields, (2) 5...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Prerana Nampalli; Prakarsh Sangave

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2), (G+4), (G+6) storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cas...

  18. Analysis and comparation of animation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Joštová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the analysis and comparison of animation techniques. In the theoretical part of the thesis I define key terms, the historical development and the basic principles of animation techniques. In the practical part I describe the comparison between classic and digital types of animation. Based on this research I chose the most suitable animations that are further used to verify my hypothesis. The provided hypothesis is the order of based on how demanding it is in terms of...

  19. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  20. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate......; (2) Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production. The two case studies were conducted at two universities of two countries: University of Leuven (LU), Belgium, and University of Aarhus (AU), Denmark during the academic year 2014/2015. There were altogether 87...

  1. Comparative analysis of life insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive analysis of statistic insight into development of the world and regional life insurance markets on the basis of macroeconomic indicators. The author located domestic life insurance market on the global scale, analyzed its development and suggested the methods to calculate the marketing life insurance index. There was also approbated the mentioned methods on database of 77 countries all over the world. The author also defined the national rating on the basis of marketing life insurance index.

  2. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  3. Comparative analysis of some search engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Edosomwan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

  4. Comparative Marketing: An Interdisciplinary Framework for Institutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalkrishnan R Iyer

    1997-01-01

    Institutional analysis is proposed as an alternative theoretical methodology for the study of comparative marketing systems. This paper argues that institutional analysis offers considerable potential for understanding dynamics marketing systems and for the explicit study of change. Disciplinary insights of institutional analysis are reviewed and the richness of the conceptual apparatus of comparative institutional analysis, as applied to the study of comparative marketing systems, is explica...

  5. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2015-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  6. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  7. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structure enabled mulitlayered passive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieter, Daniel Benjamin

    Passive circuits are essential to microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency design, especially as new commercial applications emerge for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. However, it is challenging to design distributed passive circuits for CMOS due to the substrate loss and thin dielectric layers of the back-end-of-line (BEOL). Furthermore, distributed passive circuits need to be adapted for compactness and integration while overcoming these challenges and maintaining high performance. Grounded coplanar waveguide defected ground structures meet this need for compact and integrable passive circuits by utilizing the top and bottom ground planes of the transmission line to implement circuit elements. Defected ground structures (DGS) are distributed elements realized by etching specific patterns into the ground planes of transmission lines. These structures can be used in conjunction with the center conductor of planar transmission lines to reduce circuit size and/or improve performance. By implementing DGS in grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) multiple resonances and higher impedances can be achieved. The resonant-based GCPW DGS are more compact than their microstrip and CPW counterparts and fit well into the vertical technology of back-end-of-line CMOS. This research demonstrates up to 80% size reduction at 5.8GHz by realizing spiral-shaped DGS in GCPW and applying the resulting GCPW DGS unit cell to a dual-behavior band-pass filter. The filter has been scaled to 60GHz and realized in a 130nm CMOS process by using floating metal strips to reduce the impact of the lossy silicon substrate. The impedance-based GCPW DGS, called EG-GCPW, have up to a 20:1 impedance ratio on Rogers RT/DuroidRTM 5880 and an impedance ratio of 15:1 on a benzocyclobutene post-CMOS process. These high impedance ratios increased the power division ratio of an unequal Wilkinson power divider to 7:1 and reduced the size of a stepped impedance low

  8. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  9. Comparative Analysis of Frames with Varying Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana Nampalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elastic seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with 3 variations of heights, i.e. (G+2, (G+4, (G+6 storey models are compared for bare frame and frame with brick infill structures which have been analyzed for gravity as well as seismic forces and their response is studied as the geometric parameters varying from view point of predicting behavior of similar structures subjected to similar loads or load combinations. In this study, two different cases are selected i.e. frames with prismatic members and frames with non-prismatic members. The structural response of various members when geometry changes physically, as in case of linear and parabolic haunches provided beyond the face of columns at beam column joints or step variations as in case of stepped haunches was also studied. Frames have been analyzed statically as well as dynamically using ETABS-9.7.4 software referring IS: 456-2000, IS: 1893 (Part-12002 and the results so obtained are grouped into various categories

  10. Comparative analysis of enterprise risk management models

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev Igor V.

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis and the comparison of modern enterprise risk management models used in domestic and world practice. Some thesis to build such a model are proposed.Статья посвящена анализу и сравнению современных моделей управления рисками предприятий, которые используются в отечественной и зарубежной практике. Предложены некоторые положения, на которых должны базироваться такие модели....

  11. Gender and work values: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, D

    1994-04-01

    The results of recent investigations on work values suggest that the contradictory findings in regard to gender differences may be rooted in variations in the underlying structure of the work-values domain. In the present study a definitional framework for work values was proposed and tested. Smallest space analysis (SSA; Guttman, 1968) was performed on the ratings of 24 work-value items by samples of men and women from Hungary, Israel, and the Netherlands. A double-ordered conceptual system, a radex structure, was obtained in each of the samples, reflecting two hypothesized facets: modality of outcome (cognitive, affective, and instrumental) and type of system performance contingency. Essentially the same structure was obtained for women and men. However, women ranked affective outcomes as well as some of the instrumental and cognitive values higher than men did, whereas men ranked some other cognitive (influence, independence, responsibility) and instrumental (pay) items higher than women did. Personal growth and use of abilities were ranked higher by men in some samples and by women in others. PMID:8201817

  12. Comparative analysis of laparoscopic low rectal resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Chernikovsky

    2015-01-01

    to 9.3 versus 6.2 in Group1. ULAR required consumables costing an average of 45 000 rubles more than did ISR. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures are comparable in the duration of a surgical intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss, and the quality of TME. ULAR with a reservoir is functionally more preferential.  

  13. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Co-planar Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of co-planar interferometers. The platform of a co-planar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline, and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (A...

  14. Coplanar back contacts for thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, G.; Scheinine, A.; Whitehouse, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Wrigley, C.; Giuliano, M.

    1981-01-01

    The type of coplanar back contact solar cell described was constructed with interdigitated n(+) and p(+) type regions on the back of the cell, such that both contacts are made on the back with no metallization grid on the front. This cell construction has several potential advantages over conventional cells for space use namely, convenience of interconnects, lower operating temperatures and higher efficiency due to the elimination of grid shadowing. However, the processing is more complex, and the cell is inherently more radiation sensitive. The latter problem can be reduced substantially by making the cells very thin (approximately 50 micrometers). Two types of interdigitated back contact cells are possible, the types being dependent on the character of the front surface. The front surface field cell has a front surface region that is of the same conductivity type as the bulk but is more heavily doped. This creates an electric field at the surface which repels the minority carriers. The tandem junction cell has a front surface region of a conductivity type that is opposite to that of the bulk. The junction thus created floats to open circuit voltage on illumination and injects carriers into the bulk which then can be collected at the rear junction. For space use, the front surface field cell is potentially more radiation resistant than the tandem junction cell because the flow of minority carriers (electrons) into the bulk will be less sensitive to the production of recombination centers, particularly in the space charge region at the front surface.

  15. Coplanar (, 3) differential cross-section of He atom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Choubisa; A S Bhullar; K K Sud

    2003-06-01

    We present in this paper the results of our calculation of five-fold differential cross-section (FDCS) for (, 3) process on He atom in low momentum transfer and high electron impact energy in shake-off mechanism. The formalism has been developed in Born approximation using plane waves, Byron and Joachain as well as Le Sech and correlated BBK-type wave functions respectively for incident and scattered, bound and ejected electrons. The angular distribution of FDCS of our calculation is presented in various modes of coplanar geometry and comparison is made with the available experimental data. We observe that the present calculation is able to reproduce the trend of the experimental data. However, it differs in magnitude from the experiment. The present theory does not predict four-peak structure in summed mutual angle mode for lower excess ejected electron energies. We also discuss the importance of momentum transfer, post-collision interaction (PCI) and ion participation in the (, 3) process in constant 12 mode.

  16. Be discs in binary systems - I. Coplanar orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Cyr, Isabelle H.; Jones, Carol E.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio and eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar binaries. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. We find two limiting cases with respect to the effects of eccentricity: in circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc structure appears smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for small viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. In highly eccentric orbits, the effects are more complex, with the disc structure strongly dependent on the orbital phase. We also studied the effects of binarity in the disc continuum emission. Since the infrared and radio SED are sensitive to the disc size and density slope, the truncation and matter accumulation result in considerable modifications in the emergent spectrum. We conclude that binarity can serve as an explanation for the variability exhibited in observations of Be stars, and that our model can be used to detect invisible companions.

  17. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission new techniques have to be developed. One approach for carbon capture utilization (CCU) is the conversion of CO2 to more valuable chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) by means of non-thermal plasma generated at ambient conditions and supplied by excess energy from renewable sources. This paper reports about the effect of the admixture of inert gases, namely nitrogen or argon to CO2 in a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied voltage, frequency, flowrate and CO2 concentration in the influent. The composition of products, energy efficiency and yield were determined. Within the investigated parameter ranges, the maximum conversion of CO2 to CO efficiency of 1% was achieved when the specific input energy was 190 J L-1, whereas the maximum CO yield of 0.7% was achieved when the specific input energy was 210 J L-1. In conclusion, the energy efficiency can be significantly increased by operating the plasma in a diluted CO2 gas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  18. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance and...

  19. Toxicity and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase-inducing potency of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Andersson, L.

    1988-10-01

    The toxicities of the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) were compared in a 72-h study on chick embryos. The substances were injectied into the air sacs of hens's eggs preincubated for 7 days. Mortality was measured 72 h later and corresponding LD/sub 50/ values were calculated. The rank order of toxicity was PeCB>TCB>HCB. Using the same injection procedure, the potencies of these chlorobiphenyls with regard to their induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were compared. The ranking order of the substances as inducers was the same as their order when ranked according to toxicity. The three coplanar chlorobiphenyls were considerably more toxic and potent as inducers than the non-planar 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. In a 2-week toxicity study, PeCB and HCB were injected into the yolks of hens' eggs preincubated for 4 days. PeCB was about 50-fold more potent than HCB in causing embryonic death. Both substances caused abnormalities, including edema, liver lesions, microphthalmia and beak deformities.

  20. Cross-validation of two commercial methods for volumetric high-resolution dose reconstruction on a phantom for non-coplanar VMAT beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Delta4 (ScandiDos AB, Uppsala, Sweden) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL, USA) are commercial quasi-three-dimensional diode dosimetry arrays capable of volumetric measurement-guided dose reconstruction. A method to reconstruct dose for non-coplanar VMAT beams with 3DVH is described. The Delta4 3D dose reconstruction on its own phantom for VMAT delivery has not been thoroughly evaluated previously, and we do so by comparison with 3DVH. Materials and methods: Reconstructed volumetric doses for VMAT plans delivered with different table angles were compared between the Delta4 and 3DVH using gamma analysis. Results: The average γ (2% local dose-error normalization/2mm) passing rate comparing the directly measured Delta4 diode dose with 3DVH was 98.2 ± 1.6% (1SD). The average passing rate for the full volumetric comparison of the reconstructed doses on a homogeneous cylindrical phantom was 95.6 ± 1.5%. No dependence on the table angle was observed. Conclusions: Modified 3DVH algorithm is capable of 3D VMAT dose reconstruction on an arbitrary volume for the full range of table angles. Our comparison results between different dosimeters make a compelling case for the use of electronic arrays with high-resolution 3D dose reconstruction as primary means of evaluating spatial dose distributions during IMRT/VMAT verification

  1. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  2. Novel Micromachined Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Lines for Application in Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Chang-Wook; Jung, Sanghwa; Kim, Hong-Teuk; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, novel micromachined coplanar waveguide(CPW) transmission lines for application in millimeter-wave circuits are proposed. Two types of transmission lines with the length of 1 cm are fabricated and the measured characteristics are compared with those of the conventional CPW transmission line. One is the elevated CPW(ECPW) transmission line and the other is the overlay CPW(OCPW) line. These transmission lines are composed of 3-μm-thick electroplated gold lines with overhanging parts. By elevating the metal lines from the substrate using micromachining technology, the conductor and substrate dielectric loss can be reduced and easily integrated with conventional monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Compared with the conventional CPW line showing 2.65 dB/cm insertion loss at 50 GHz, the loss can be reduced to 1.9 dB/cm and 1.25 dB/cm at 50 GHz in the case of the ECPW and OCPW transmission lines, respectively. Also, the OCPW transmission line shows that the insertion loss does not vary with the change of the characteristic impedance. As shown in the measured and simulated results, the insertion loss is maintained below 1.4 dB/cm over wide impedance ranges.

  3. Secular models and Kozai resonance for planets in coorbital non-coplanar motion

    CERN Document Server

    Giuppone, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we construct and test an analytical and a semianalytical secular models for two planets locked in a coorbital non-coplanar motion, comparing some results with the case of restricted three body problem. The analytical average model replicates the numerical N-body integrations, even for moderate eccentricities ($\\lesssim$ 0.3) and inclinations ($\\lesssim10^\\circ$), except for the regions corresponding to quasi-satellite and Lidov-Kozai configurations. Furthermore, this model is also useful in the restricted three body problem, assuming very low mass ratio between the planets. We also describe a four-degree-of-freedom semianalytical model valid for any type of coorbital configuration in a wide range of eccentricities and inclinations. {Using a N-body integrator, we have found that the phase space of the General Three Body Problem is different to the restricted case for inclined systems, and establish the location of the Lidov-Kozai equilibrium configurations depending on mass ratio. We study the st...

  4. Comparative analysis of myocardial revascularization methods for ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkeev M.S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is devoted to the comparative analysis of clinical researches of efficiency and frequency of complications after application of surgical and medicamentous methods of treatment of coronary heart disease.

  5. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  6. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative maintenance costs in determining an equipment standard and e...

  7. On the beam direction search space in computerized non-coplanar beam angle optimization for IMRT-prostate SBRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Linda; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J M; Voet, Peter W J; Lanconelli, Nico; Aluwini, Shafak

    2012-09-01

    In a recent paper, we have published a new algorithm, designated 'iCycle', for fully automated multi-criterial optimization of beam angles and intensity profiles. In this study, we have used this algorithm to investigate the relationship between plan quality and the extent of the beam direction search space, i.e. the set of candidate beam directions that may be selected for generating an optimal plan. For a group of ten prostate cancer patients, optimal IMRT plans were made for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), mimicking high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry. Plans were generated for five different beam direction input sets: a coplanar (CP) set and four non-coplanar (NCP) sets. For CP treatments, the search space consisted of 72 orientations (5° separations). The NCP CyberKnife (CK) space contained all directions available in the robotic CK treatment unit. The fully non-coplanar (F-NCP) set facilitated the highest possible degree of freedom in selecting optimal directions. CK(+) and CK(++) were subsets of F-NCP to investigate some aspects of the CK space. For each input set, plans were generated with up to 30 selected beam directions. Generated plans were clinically acceptable, according to an assessment of our clinicians. Convergence in plan quality occurred only after around 20 included beams. For individual patients, variations in PTV dose delivery between the five generated plans were minimal, as aimed for (average spread in V(95): 0.4%). This allowed plan comparisons based on organ at risk (OAR) doses, with the rectum considered most important. Plans generated with the NCP search spaces had improved OAR sparing compared to the CP search space, especially for the rectum. OAR sparing was best with the F-NCP, with reductions in rectum D(Mean), V(40Gy), V(60Gy) and D(2%) compared to CP of 25%, 35%, 37% and 8%, respectively. Reduced rectum sparing with the CK search space compared to F-NCP could be largely compensated by expanding CK with beams with

  8. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Asad; Muhammad Naseem Hayat; Shafaqat Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret th...

  10. High Temperature Characteristics of Coplanar Waveguide on R-Plane Sapphire and Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of coplanar waveguide transmission lines on R-plane sapphire and alumina over the temperature range of 25 to 400 C and the frequency range of 45 MHz to 50 GHz. A Thru-Reflect-Line calibration technique and open circuited terminated stubs are used to extract the attenuation and effective permittivity. It is shown that the effective permittivity of the transmission lines and, therefore, the relative dielectric constant of the two substrates increase linearly with temperature. The attenuation of the coplanar waveguide varies linearly with temperature through 200 C, and increases at a greater rate above 200 C.

  11. Coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector with three-dimensional position sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Luke, P N; Lee Jae Sik; Yaver, H

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional position-sensitive coplanar-grid detector design for use with compound semiconductors is described. This detector design maintains the advantage of a coplanar-grid detector in which good energy resolution can be obtained from materials with poor charge transport. Position readout in two dimensions is accomplished using proximity-sensing electrodes adjacent to the electron-collecting grid electrode of the detector. Additionally, depth information is obtained by taking the ratio of the amplitudes of the collecting grid signal and the cathode signal. Experimental results from a prototype CdZnTe detector are presented.

  12. Analysis and characterizations of planar transmission structures and components for superconducting and monolithic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    The research effort was continued to design and characterize superconducting transmission line structures. The research during this period was concentrated on the implementation of a superconductor into coplanar waveguide structures. First, the superconducting coplanar waveguide was examined, and compared with a superconducting microstrip line in terms of loss characteristics and their design aspects. Then, the research was carried on the design and characterization of the coplanar waveguide family in the packaging environment. The transition between the coaxial line to the conductor backed coplanar waveguide was also designed for the measurement of the superconducting conductor backed coplanar waveguide.

  13. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

  14. Global structures in a composite system of two scale-free discs with a coplanar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Y Q; Lou, Yu-Qing; Bai, Xue-Ning

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a theoretical MHD disc problem involving a composite disc system of gravitationally coupled stellar and gaseous discs with a coplanar magnetic field in the presence of an axisymmetric dark matter halo. The two discs are expediently approximated as razor-thin, a ring-like magnetic field, and a power-law rotation curve in radius . By imposing the scale-free condition, we construct analytically stationary global MHD perturbation configurations for both aligned and logarithmic spiral patterns. MHD perturbation configurations in a composite system of partial discs in the presence of an axisymmetric dark matter halo are also considered. We derive analytically the stationary MHD dispersion relations for both aligned and unaligned perturbation structures and analyze the corresponding phase relationships between surface mass densities and the magnetic field. Compared with earlier results, we obtain three solution branches corresponding to super fast MHD density waves, fast MHD density waves and slow MHD...

  15. Constrained customization of non-coplanar beam orientations in radiotherapy of brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Carl Graham; Oldham, Mark; Webb, Steve

    1999-02-01

    A methodology for the constrained customization of non-coplanar beam orientations in radiotherapy treatment planning has been developed and tested on a cohort of five patients with tumours of the brain. The methodology employed a combination of single and multibeam cost functions to produce customized beam orientations. The single-beam cost function was used to reduce the search space for the multibeam cost function, which was minimized using a fast simulated annealing algorithm. The scheme aims to produce well-spaced, customized beam orientations for each patient that produce low dose to organs at risk (OARs). The customized plans were compared with standard plans containing the number and orientation of beams chosen by a human planner. The beam orientation constraint-customized plans employed the same number of treatment beams as the standard plan but with beam orientations chosen by the constrained-customization scheme. Improvements from beam orientation constraint-customization were studied in isolation by customizing the beam weights of both plans using a dose-based downhill simplex algorithm. The results show that beam orientation constraint-customization reduced the maximum dose to the orbits by an average of 18.8 (, 1SD)% and to the optic nerves by 11.4 (, 1SD)% with no degradation of the planning target volume (PTV) dose distribution. The mean doses, averaged over the patient cohort, were reduced by 4.2 (, 1SD)% and 12.4 ( 1SD)% for the orbits and optic nerves respectively. In conclusion, the beam orientation constraint-customization can reduce the dose to OARs, for few-beam treatment plans, when compared with standard treatment plans developed by a human planner.

  16. Comparative analysis of genomic signal processing for microarray data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert S H; Sungoor, Ala; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Genomic signal processing is a new area of research that combines advanced digital signal processing methodologies for enhanced genetic data analysis. It has many promising applications in bioinformatics and next generation of healthcare systems, in particular, in the field of microarray data clustering. In this paper we present a comparative performance analysis of enhanced digital spectral analysis methods for robust clustering of gene expression across multiple microarray data samples. Three digital signal processing methods: linear predictive coding, wavelet decomposition, and fractal dimension are studied to provide a comparative evaluation of the clustering performance of these methods on several microarray datasets. The results of this study show that the fractal approach provides the best clustering accuracy compared to other digital signal processing and well known statistical methods.

  17. A Comparative Study on Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world opinions play important role in every aspects of life so, that it is an emerging topic for discussion. It can be calculated as sentimental analysis or opinion mining. All business and important events are based on analysis and feedback of customer reviews in a positive way therefore they increases productivity and performance related to services of items. In our paper we have expressed importance of sentimental analysis and various approaches to achieve bag-of –words in convenient and easy way using opinions techniques and with briefly represented by a diagram. In this paper we have illustrate important field of sentiment analysis for emotion detection, building resources, transfer learning etc. In paper we also covered different view of sentimental analysis approach, their comparison with showing table and in last we have compared different sentimental analysis approach.

  18. A comparative analysis of multi-output frontier models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHANG; Eoghan GARVEY

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been more debates on the methods of measuring efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to make a sensitivity analysis for different frontier models and compare the results obtained from the different methods of estimating multi-output frontier for a specific application. The methods include stochastic distance function frontier, stochastic ray frontier,and data envelopment analysis. The stochastic frontier regressions with and without the inefficiency effects model are also com-pared and tested. The results indicate that there are significant correlations between the results obtained from the alternative estimation methods.

  19. Informatics in Education and Koli Calling: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The journal Informatics in Education and the conference Koli Calling are compared, starting with Simon's system for the classification of computing education papers and going on to conduct a brief bibliometric analysis of the authors of papers in both publications, including their repeat rates and the countries from which they come. The analysis finds that despite their different natures, the Lithuanian journal and the Finnish conference are highly comparable in many respects. The broad conclusion is that the two publications work well together - but it would be good to see some Lithuanian authors contributing papers to Koli Calling.

  20. Evaluating experimental bias and completeness in comparative phosphoproteomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Boekhorst

    Full Text Available Unraveling the functional dynamics of phosphorylation networks is a crucial step in understanding the way in which biological networks form a living cell. Recently there has been an enormous increase in the number of measured phosphorylation events. Nevertheless, comparative and integrative analysis of phosphoproteomes is confounded by incomplete coverage and biases introduced by different experimental workflows. As a result, we cannot differentiate whether phosphosites indentified in only one or two samples are the result of condition or species specific phosphorylation, or reflect missing data. Here, we evaluate the impact of incomplete phosphoproteomics datasets on comparative analysis, and we present bioinformatics strategies to quantify the impact of different experimental workflows on measured phosphoproteomes. We show that plotting the saturation in observed phosphosites in replicates provides a reproducible picture of the extent of a particular phosphoproteome. Still, we are still far away from a complete picture of the total human phosphoproteome. The impact of different experimental techniques on the similarity between phosphoproteomes can be estimated by comparing datasets from different experimental pipelines to a common reference. Our results show that comparative analysis is most powerful when datasets have been generated using the same experimental workflow. We show this experimentally by measuring the tyrosine phosphoproteome from Caenorhabditis elegans and comparing it to the tyrosine phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, resulting in an overlap of about 4%. This overlap between very different organisms represents a three-fold increase when compared to dataset of older studies, wherein different workflows were used. The strategies we suggest enable an estimation of the impact of differences in experimental workflows on the overlap between datasets. This will allow us to perform comparative analyses not only on datasets specifically

  1. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangbum Lee; Sumin Oh; Keunsoo Kang; Kyudong Han

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program ca...

  2. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Chari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development.

  3. Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, T B

    2004-08-09

    A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

  4. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  5. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  6. Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptic Coplanar Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilvaFernandes, Sandro; dasChagasCarvalho, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a complete first order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through Hamilton-Jacobi theory and a perturbation method based on Lie series.

  7. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    B.T.P.Madhav; HABIBULLA KHAN; SARAT K. KOTAMRAJU

    2016-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR

  8. New Techniques for Exciting Linearly Tapered Slot Antennas with Coplanar Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.; Perl, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    Two new techniques for exciting a linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) with coplanar waveguide (CPW) are introduced. In the first approach, an air bridge is used to couple power from a CPW to an LTSA. In the second approach, power is electromagnetically coupled from a finite CPW (FCPW) to an LTSA. Measured results at 18 GHz show excellent return loss and radiation patterns.

  9. Dose comparison between three planing prostate: 3-D conformational radiotherapy, coplanar arc therapy and non-coplanar arc therapy; Comparaison dosimetrique de trois balistiques prostatiques: radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle, arctherapie coplanaire et arctherapie non-coplanaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyant, C.; Baadj, A.; Biffi, K.; Leschi, D.; Lantieri, C. [Centre Hospitalier Dept. Castelluccio, Service de Radiotherapie, Ajaccio (France); Voyant, C. [Universite de Corse, Lab. SPE, CNRS-UMR 6134, Corte (France)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: Comparative study between a classical conformational prostate radiotherapy (3 D.R.T.C.) and two arc therapy techniques, a coplanar (A.T.-C) and the other non-coplanar (A.T.-N.C.). Patients and Methods:The comparison has been made retrospectively on 30 patients with localized prostate cancer (T.2-T.3a, P.S.A. < 20 ng/ml, Gleason < 7). The objective criteria for comparison were the N.T.C.P., E.U.D., and dose volume (on D.V.H.), for the volumes of bladder wall, rectal wall, femoral heads, small bowel, prostate (P) and seminal vesicles (V.S.). The treatment was 46 Gy on P.T.V.1 (V.S. + P + margins), and then an overdose of 30 Gy on P.T.V.1 (P + margins). Results: For prostate volumes exceeding 75 cm{sup 3}, arc therapy leads to a decrease in uniformity in the target volume and an increase in the dose received by the femoral heads, this method does not seem appropriate. For prostate volumes less than 75 cm{sup 3}, in addition to the coverage almost tumor, and radiation toxicity equivalent to the bladder and the small intestine, there is a significant increase in the dose to the femoral heads, while the remaining is still within limits, such as clinically tolerable. The contribution of arc therapy is mainly observed at the level of rectal doses. The dose received by 30% of the rectum is reduced by - 12% for A.T.-C and - 11.7% for A.T-N.C., and E.U.D. rectum - 5.2% and - 4.8%. Conclusion: In this virtual study, the arc therapy seems to generate a true dose reduction in the rectum wall. These results encourage us to continue the investigation for a possible integration in a dynamic clinical routine. (authors)

  10. Coplanar VMAT vs. noncoplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Zhong-Hua; Mu, Jin-Ming; Mo, Jun-Chong; Gao, Ming; Li, Qi-Lin; Gu, Wen-Dong; Pei, Hong-Lei [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Changzhou (China); Jiang, Jing-Ting; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Lu-Jun [The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, Changzhou (China); Jin, Jian-Xue [Elekta China Co. Ltd, Department of Radiation Physics, Beijing, Chaoyang District (China)

    2014-10-08

    Previous studies showed that noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (NC-IMRT) for sinonasal cancer is superior to coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a newly introduced treatment modality, and the performance of noncoplanar VMAT for sinonasal cancer has not been well described to date. To compare the dosimetry difference of noncoplanar VMAT (NC-VMAT), coplanar VMAT (co-VMAT), and NC-IMRT for sinonasal cancer. Ten postoperative patients with sinonasal cancer were randomly selected for planning with NC-VMAT, co-VMAT, and NC-IMRT. Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured representing high-risk and low-risk regions set to receive a median absorbed dose (D{sub 50} {sub %}) of 68 Gy and 59 Gy, respectively. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose-volume histograms (DVHs), and delivery efficiency were all evaluated. Both NC-VMAT and co-VMAT showed superior dose homogeneity and conformity in PTVs compared with NC-IMRT. There was no significant difference between NC-VMAT and co-VMAT in PTV coverage. Both VMAT plans provided a better protection for organs at risk (OARs) than NC-IMRT plans, and NC-VMAT showed a small improvement over co-VMAT in sparing of OARs. For peripheral doses, the doses to breast, thyroid, and larynx in the NC-IMRT plans were significantly higher than those in both VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT significantly reduced peripheral doses. NC-VMAT and co-VMAT reduced the average delivery time by 63.2 and 64.2 %, respectively, in comparison with NC-IMRT. No differences in delivery efficiency were observed between the two VMAT plans. Compared to NC-VMAT, co-VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and comparable OAR sparing but significantly reduced peripheral doses and positioning uncertainty. We propose to give priority to coplanar VMAT in the treatment of sinonasal cancer. (orig.) [German] Fruehere Studien zeigten, dass die nichtkoplanare intensive modulierte

  11. Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    volumes are compared - especially when the models are uncalibrated. The occurrences of flooding and surcharge are highly dependent on both hydrological and hydrodynamic parameters. Thus, the conclusion of the paper is that if the use of model simulations is to be a reliable tool for drainage system...... analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed....

  12. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IPIDACRIN AND PIRIDOXIN INFLUENCE ON THE

    OpenAIRE

    Sharova E.V; Zaitsev O.S; Cheliapina M.V; Korotaeva M.V; Lifshits M.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of neuromedin and piridoksin psichophysiological effects attwo examinees – volunteers is lead. Neuromedin (unlike nonspecific influencepiridoksin) causes: A) similar influence in both supervision on cortical-subcortical brainstructures and B) individual changes (cortical lateralization), dependent on an initialcondition of the cortex.

  13. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IPIDACRIN AND PIRIDOXIN INFLUENCE ON THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharova E.V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of neuromedin and piridoksin psichophysiological effects attwo examinees – volunteers is lead. Neuromedin (unlike nonspecific influencepiridoksin causes: A similar influence in both supervision on cortical-subcortical brainstructures and B individual changes (cortical lateralization, dependent on an initialcondition of the cortex.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…

  15. QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOOSPHERE DEVELOPMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the total problems of formation and development of the knowledge economy, we highlighted the environmental aspect and the comparative analysis of the fundamental ideas of the knowledge economy and the noosphere concept development in terms of their complementarity

  16. Comparative Analysis of Cryptography Library in IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uday; Borgohain, Tuhin; Sanyal, Sugata

    2015-05-01

    The paper aims to do a survey along with a comparative analysis of the various cryptography libraries that are applicable in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The first half of the paper briefly introduces the various cryptography libraries available in the field of cryptography along with a list of all the algorithms contained within the libraries. The second half of the paper deals with cryptography libraries specifically aimed for application in the field of Internet of Things. The various libraries and their performance analysis listed down in this paper are consolidated from various sources with the aim of providing a single comprehensive repository for reference to the various cryptography libraries and the comparative analysis of their features in IoT.

  17. Correlations of emission concentrations among PCDDs/PCDFs, co-planar PCBs and HCB from major thermal stationary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.C.; Choe, S.H.; Na, J.G.; Hwang, S.R.; Lee, Z.H.; Chang, J.Y.; Cho, H.J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Inchon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are known as unintentionally produced chemicals (UPCs) from a variety of manufacturing and thermal processes. The UPCs are contained in products as impurities or byproducts in the manufacturing processes of chlorinated pesticides and solvents, and in the bleaching process of pulp. In particular, thermal processes such as incinerator and melting or smelting furnaces produce theses chemicals as products of incomplete combustion (PICs), which are resulted from the insufficient 3Ts for complete combustion: temperature, time, and turbulence. These characteristics of UPCs, therefore, lead to difficulty not only in estimating the formation and emission concentrations but also in applying removal technologies for these chemicals. In addition, PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs have many congeners of 210 and 209 types, respectively, and are emitted into the atmosphere at trace levels. Thus, the analysis of the emission concentration of UPCs requires a precise sampling and analytical procedure, which is time-consuming and high cost-consumable work. Some articles6,7, which discussed municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, have proposed the prediction of the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs with simply measured indicators, such as operating parameters or other low-molecular-weight chemicals in flue gas. In the present study, major stationary emission sources of UPCs, such as MSW incinerators, sintering furnaces, and smelting furnaces in the ferrous and nonferrous metal industry were selected for an investigation of the emission levels of UPCs. HCB, which has single congener and can be more simply measured by gaschromatographic separation than PCDDs/PCDFs or co-planar PCBs, was used as an indicator to evaluate the correlation of emission concentrations among UPCs and to predict the emission level of PCDDs/PCDFs and co-planar PCBs.

  18. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes. PMID:24959585

  19. BLAT-based comparative analysis for transposable elements: BLATCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbum; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Han, Kyudong

    2014-01-01

    The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs) is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT) based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT) program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  20. BLAT-Based Comparative Analysis for Transposable Elements: BLATCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbum Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of several whole genome sequences makes comparative analyses possible. In primate genomes, the priority of transposable elements (TEs is significantly increased because they account for ~45% of the primate genomes, they can regulate the gene expression level, and they are associated with genomic fluidity in their host genomes. Here, we developed the BLAST-like alignment tool (BLAT based comparative analysis for transposable elements (BLATCAT program. The BLATCAT program can compare specific regions of six representative primate genome sequences (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque on the basis of BLAT and simultaneously carry out RepeatMasker and/or Censor functions, which are widely used Windows-based web-server functions to detect TEs. All results can be stored as a HTML file for manual inspection of a specific locus. BLATCAT will be very convenient and efficient for comparative analyses of TEs in various primate genomes.

  1. Dermoscopy analysis of RGB-images based on comparative features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Neretin, Evgeny Y.; Kozlov, Sergey V.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for color and texture analysis for dermoscopic images of human skin based on Haar wavelets, Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram Analysis. This approach is a modification of «7-point checklist» clinical method. Thus, that is an "absolute" diagnostic method because one is using only features extracted from tumor's ROI (Region of Interest), which can be selected manually and/or using a special algorithm. We propose additional features extracted from the same image for comparative analysis of tumor and healthy skin. We used Euclidean distance, Cosine similarity, and Tanimoto coefficient as comparison metrics between color and texture features extracted from tumor's and healthy skin's ROI separately. A classifier for separating melanoma images from other tumors has been built by SVM (Support Vector Machine) algorithm. Classification's errors with and without comparative features between skin and tumor have been analyzed. Significant increase of recognition quality with comparative features has been demonstrated. Moreover, we analyzed two modes (manual and automatic) for ROI selecting on tumor and healthy skin areas. We have reached 91% of sensitivity using comparative features in contrast with 77% of sensitivity using the only "absolute" method. The specificity was the invariable (94%) in both cases.

  2. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  3. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  4. Mammalian comparative sequence analysis of the Agrp locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Kaelin

    Full Text Available Agouti-related protein encodes a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake. Agrp expression in the brain is restricted to neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is elevated by states of negative energy balance. The molecular mechanisms underlying Agrp regulation, however, remain poorly defined. Using a combination of transgenic and comparative sequence analysis, we have previously identified a 760 bp conserved region upstream of Agrp which contains STAT binding elements that participate in Agrp transcriptional regulation. In this study, we attempt to improve the specificity for detecting conserved elements in this region by comparing genomic sequences from 10 mammalian species. Our analysis reveals a symmetrical organization of conserved sequences upstream of Agrp, which cluster into two inverted repeat elements. Conserved sequences within these elements suggest a role for homeodomain proteins in the regulation of Agrp and provide additional targets for functional evaluation.

  5. Comparative analysis of tax administration system in Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevich Naydenov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on tax administration attractiveness for taxpayers in the Russian Federation. The authors provide an overview of existing approaches to understanding the nature of the tax administration. To solve the problem of estimating the attractiveness of the tax administration in this study, we proposed a methodological approach based on comparative analysis of the rank of territorial systems of tax administration. In the basis of comparative analysis is the calculation of a set of indicators that characterize the tax administration system attractiveness from the standpoint of the taxpayer, with subsequent calculation of integral indexes and rankings of the Russian Federation. The results assessing the attractiveness of the tax administration system in the regions are shown. In this paper, we attempt to assess modern tax administration as one of the key economic institutions, as well as to obtain quantitative data on the status of the tax administration in Russia's regions.

  6. Strategic planning effectiveness comparative analysis of the Macedonian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobek Šuklev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is an important element in the organizational success and the key to effectiveness and overall competitiveness of the organizations. Strategic planning practice and effectiveness has been the subject of much academic debate in the Western context, but little empirical research and comparative analysis exists on this subject in emerging and developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strategic planning and the organizational effectiveness with the examination of a wider list of strategic planning dimensions and different approaches and measures to assess the strategic planning effectiveness in the case of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as to conduct comparative analysis of the strategic planning effectiveness in different emerging and developing countries. After the initial processing of the total number of received questionnaires, 113 questionnaires proceeded to the next phase of processing, as companies were found to be strategic planners. Two regression models were performed, enclosed with necessary tests, as well as in order to achieve unidimensionality, factor analysis was performed for all stated items for each of the investigated variables. The empirical analysis conducted in Macedonian companies shows that strategic planning can generally contribute to organizational effectiveness. A significant correlation between different strategic planning dimensions and the strategic planning effectiveness was found in the relationship between the formality of strategic planning, the management participation in strategic planning and the employee participation in strategic planning. The comparative analysis conducted in this study with the purpose of comparing the case of Republic of Macedonia with the studies in the other emerging and developing counties, and indicating the probable reasons for potential differences in strategic planning effectiveness in different counties, refers to

  7. Overview and comparative analysis of digital airborne photogrammetric surveying systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tamše, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    In the thesis, three the most important digital airborne photogrammetric systems are described, as well as their comparative analysis and the application of this technology in Slovenia are presented. Digital technology is being constantly developed and use of aerial images is being increased. Traditionally, aerial images were mostly used for digital topographic mapping, nowadays their use is focused on producing digital orthophoto, which is being used in different areas. First, main character...

  8. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yu-ling

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations, the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives( Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance . The comparison point out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different and analyzes the differences and similarities of the five accounting elements including ...

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2015-01-01

    The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, w...

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR COMPARED ANALYSIS AT ROMANIAN SMEs LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mihaela POPESCU; Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2013-01-01

    Finding new solutions that point out existing human potential in SMEs is an important element in reviving the national economy. Featured by diminished personnel, high flexibility and the possibility of a fast answer to external factors development, SMEs are based on human agent and on informal relations between organization’s members, Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) being an important competitive advantage. Our study is a compared analysis of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior ...

  11. Comparative analysis of some brushless motors based on catalog data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kalapish

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Brushless motors (polyphased AC induction, synchronous and brushless DC motors have no alternatives in modern electric drives. They possess highly efficient and very wide range of speeds. The objective of this paper is to represent some relation between the basic parameters and magnitudes of electrical machines. This allows to be made a comparative analysis and a choice of motor concerning each particular case based not only on catalogue data or price for sale.

  12. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Public Management in Romania and EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the essential co-ordonates of public management with the view of realization of comparative analysis of manner of carrying on of activities in the field of public management in E.U. countries and in our country. Also the main changes are presented which have marked this field of science and practice at world-wide level and the manner how these changes have conducted to effectiveness of public services of administrative system of our country.

  14. Comparative visual analysis of 3D urban wind simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Salim, Mohamed; Grawe, David; Leitl, Bernd; Böttinger, Michael; Schlünzen, Heinke

    2016-04-01

    Climate simulations are conducted in large quantity for a variety of different applications. Many of these simulations focus on global developments and study the Earth's climate system using a coupled atmosphere ocean model. Other simulations are performed on much smaller regional scales, to study very small fine grained climatic effects. These microscale climate simulations pose similar, yet also different, challenges for the visualization and the analysis of the simulation data. Modern interactive visualization and data analysis techniques are very powerful tools to assist the researcher in answering and communicating complex research questions. This presentation discusses comparative visualization for several different wind simulations, which were created using the microscale climate model MITRAS. The simulations differ in wind direction and speed, but are all centered on the same simulation domain: An area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg that hosted the IGA/IBA exhibition in 2013. The experiments contain a scenario case to analyze the effects of single buildings, as well as examine the impact of the Coriolis force within the simulation. The scenario case is additionally compared with real measurements from a wind tunnel experiment to ascertain the accuracy of the simulation and the model itself. We also compare different approaches for tree modeling and evaluate the stability of the model. In this presentation, we describe not only our workflow to efficiently and effectively visualize microscale climate simulation data using common 3D visualization and data analysis techniques, but also discuss how to compare variations of a simulation and how to highlight the subtle differences in between them. For the visualizations we use a range of different 3D tools that feature techniques for statistical data analysis, data selection, as well as linking and brushing.

  15. Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prosdocimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

  16. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we presented a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes in gastropods. Nucleotide and amino acids composition was calculated and a comparative visual analysis of the start and termination codons was performed. The organization of the genome was compared calculating the number of intergenic sequences, the location of the genes and the number of reorganized genes (breakpoints) in comparison with the sequence that is presumed to be ancestral for the group. In order to calculate variations in the rates of molecular evolution within the group, the relative rate test was performed. In spite of the differences in the size of the genomes, the amino acids number is conserved. The nucleotide and amino acid composition is similar between Vetigastropoda, Ceanogastropoda and Neritimorpha in comparison to Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda. The mitochondrial genomes of the group are very compact with few intergenic sequences, the only exception is the genome of Patellogastropoda with 26,828 bp. Start codons of the Heterobranchia and Patellogastropoda are very variable and there is also an increase in genome rearrangements for these two groups. Generally, the hypothesis of constant rates of molecular evolution between the groups is rejected, except when the genomes of Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are compared.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CELEBRITY AND NON-CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Asad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to make a comparative analysis of celebrity advertisement and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchase intentions, and advertising attributes. For this purpose, a simple random sample of 200 students studying four different disciplines was taken from the Private University in Lahore. For econometric proof, reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and independent sample T-test was used to interpret the results. Our findings show that there is no significant difference between celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement with respect to attitude toward advertisement, attitude toward brand, purchasing intentions, and advertising attributes. The limitations and recommendations of this research are also given.

  18. Interactions of Nucleic Acid Bases with Temozolomide. Stacked, Perpendicular, and Coplanar Heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasende, Okuma Emile; Nziko, Vincent de Paul N; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-09-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) was paired with each of the five nucleic acid bases, and the potential energy surface searched for all minima, in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory and MP2 methods. Three types of arrangements were observed, with competitive stabilities. Coplanar H-bonding structures, reminiscent of Watson-Crick base pairs were typically the lowest in energy, albeit by a small amount. Also very stable were perpendicular arrangements that included one or more H-bonds. The two monomers were stacked approximately parallel to one another in the third category, some of which contained weak and distorted H-bonds. Dispersion was found to be a dominating attractive force, largest for the stacked structures, and smallest for the coplanar dimers.

  19. Coplanar waveguide microwave filter of YBa2Cu3O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wilbert; Riley, A. L.; Rascoe, Daniel L.; Hunt, Brian D.; Foote, Marc C.; Cooley, Thomas W.; Bajuk, Louis J.

    1991-01-01

    Thin film low-pass microwave filters have been made with laser-ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) deposited on LaAlO3 substrates, using a coplanar waveguide structure. The coplanar waveguide sections had dimensions suited for integrated circuits. Measured losses in liquid nitrogen were superior to the loss in a similar thin-film copper filter throughout the 0 to 9.5 GHz pass-band. A simple transmission-line model is adequate for filter design using YBCO films with repeatable characteristics. The measured filters demonstrate the performance of fully patterned YBCO after sealing in space-qualifiable hermetic packages. Five packaged filters of this design were delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory as candidates for space flight in the High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment.

  20. Application of pulse-shape discrimination to coplanar CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Sellin, P. J.

    2013-11-01

    A digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithm for the identification of multi-site γ-ray interactions in coplanar CdZnTe detectors has been developed. The algorithm is used to suppress the Compton continuum in γ-ray spectroscopy measurements by rejecting the single-site events. The results of our study with a 15×15×7.5 mm3 detector demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for revealing low intensity γ-ray peaks in the examined energy range (511-1274 keV), which is of importance for environmental and security applications. The method is also very useful for background reduction in the neutrinoless double beta-decay experiments for which coplanar CdZnTe detectors are of interest.

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

  2. Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Comparative Analysis of Altered Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk M. Lutful Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer represents the second most frequent neoplasm in humans and sexually intact female dogs after lung and skin cancers, respectively. Many similar features in human and dog cancers including, spontaneous development, clinical presentation, tumor heterogeneity, disease progression and response to conventional therapies have supported development of this comparative model as an alternative to mice. The highly conserved similarities between canine and human genomes are also key to this comparative analysis, especially when compared to the murine genome. Studies with canine mammary tumor (CMT models have shown a strong genetic correlation with their human counterparts, particularly in terms of altered expression profiles of cell cycle regulatory genes, tumor suppressor and oncogenes and also a large group of non-coding RNAs or microRNAs (miRNAs. Because CMTs are considered predictive intermediate models for human breast cancer, similarities in genetic alterations and cancer predisposition between humans and dogs have raised further interest. Many cancer-associated genetic defects critical to mammary tumor development and oncogenic determinants of metastasis have been reported and appear to be similar in both species. Comparative analysis of deregulated gene sets or cancer signaling pathways has shown that a significant proportion of orthologous genes are comparably up- or down-regulated in both human and dog breast tumors. Particularly, a group of cell cycle regulators called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs acting as potent tumor suppressors are frequently defective in CMTs. Interestingly, comparative analysis of coding sequences has also shown that these genes are highly conserved in mammals in terms of their evolutionary divergence from a common ancestor. Moreover, co-deletion and/or homozygous loss of the INK4A/ARF/INK4B (CDKN2A/B locus, encoding three members of the CKI tumor suppressor gene families (p16/INK4A, p14ARF and p15

  3. Milk transfer and neonatal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective accumulation of 3,3'4,3'-tetrachlorobiphenyl metabolites in late gestational foetal blood and soft tissues in mice as a result of administration of different coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, is reported elsewhere. The situation in the nursing neonate after maternal exposure to the same congeners is now studied: The 14C-labelled congeners 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-126), 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-169) (all three non-ortho congeners) and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-105) (mono-ortho congener) were injected intravenously in lactating mice at day 11 post partum. One day and four days later, milk and neonatal/maternal tissues and plasma radioactivity was monitored by liquid scintillation counting (dose: 2.0 μmol (20-50 μCi)/kg body weight). In milk, CB-126, -169 and -105 showed higher levels (1450-2520 pmol/ml; one day after administration) than did CB-77 (580 pmol/ml), and in neonates, the relative whole-body levels of radioactivity (CB-169 and -105 highest) were related to the levels seen in milk (probably the consequences of their metabolic persistence). The comparably high 14C-concentration found in neonatal liver (about 15,000 pmol/kg) after CB-126 administration and in plasma (880 pmol/ml) after CB-77 administration could be explained by binding to specific proteins. In general, neonatal mice had two to seven times higher plasma levels than those of their mothers. These results indicate that CB-126, -169 and -105 are transferred via milk to neonates in considerable quantity and are deposited mainly in neonatal liver, whereas CB-77 is transferred in a comparably lower amount and accumulated in neonatal plasma. The lower 14C-levels in the NMRI mothers and offspring (about half of C57BL values in maternal and neonatal plasma), could possibly be explained by a differentiated metabolism of CB-77 in these two strains. (au

  4. Transparent, low-power pressure sensor matrix based on coplanar-gate graphene transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qijun; Kim, Do Hwan; Park, Sang Sik; Lee, Nae Yoon; Zhang, Yu; Lee, Jung Heon; Cho, Kilwon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-07-16

    A novel device architecture for preparing a transparent and low-voltage graphene pressure-sensor matrix on plastic and rubber substrates is demonstrated. The coplanar gate configuration of the graphene transistor enables a simplified procedure. The resulting devices exhibit excellent device performance, including a high transparency of ca. 80% in the visible range, a low operating voltage less than 2 V, a high pressure sensitivity of 0.12 kPa(-1) , and excellent mechanical durability over 2500 cycles.

  5. Continuation from a flat to a round Earth model in the coplanar orbit transfer problem

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Max; Haberkorn, Thomas; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we focus on the problem of minimization of the consumption for the coplanar orbit transfer problem. This problem is usually solved numerically by a shooting method, based on the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, however the shooting method is known to be hard to initialize and the convergence is difficult to obtain due to discontinuities of the optimal control. Several tricks are known in order to overcome that problem, however in this article we introduce ...

  6. A thickness-shear MEMS resonator employing electromechanical transduction through a coplanar waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, W. L.; Wallis, T.M.; Kabos, P.; Rocas Cantenys, Eduard; Collado Gómez, Juan Carlos; Liew, L.A.; Ha, J.Y.; Davydov, A. V.; Plankis, A.; Heyliger, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a vibrationally trapped thickness-shear MEMS resonator is presented. This device is intended to avoid various limitations of flexural MEMS resonators, including nonlinearity, clamping losses, thermoelastic damping, and high damping in liquid. It includes a silicon bridge and a reference line on an SOI wafer, a coupled Au/Cr coplanar waveguide, Lorentz-force coupling, variations in waveguide thickness for vibration...

  7. Coplanarity inspection of BGA solder balls based on laser interference structure light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhe; Xiao, Zexin; Zhang, Xuefei; Zhou, Haiying

    2011-11-01

    Using laser interference structure light for profilometry is a rapid, non-contact, full-field profile and high accuracy measuring method.And it has been a promising technique in complicated geometrical shape measurement. In this paper, a fast and cost-effective measurement method of coplanarity inspection of ball grid array (BGA) solder balls is proposed. Laser interference structure light can be obtained by using the principle of shearing interferometry. The collimated and beam expanded laser produced interference fringe by the high reflection rate optical flat. After laser interference fringe project on the surface of object and the structured light would modulated. The light signal pass through the image optical grabber and captured by the CCD image sensor. The height of each point on object can be demodulated by the imaging processing software.This method to construct the measurement appliance for coplanarity inspection of ball grid array (BGA) chip solder ball. Experiments have shown that the coplanarity measurement of BGA solder balls is very efficient and effective with the measurement. The measurement accuracy achieve micrometer level. The processing time of the measurement accuracy is less than 3s on a personal computer. This measurement appliance could completely meet the demand of measure.

  8. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Coplanar Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  9. PLATFORM DEFORMATION PHASE CORRECTION FOR THE AMiBA-13 COPLANAR INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics, and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Guo-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, 251-37 Tamsui, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Molnar, Sandor M. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yen, E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: jhpw@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  10. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  11. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen;

    2015-01-01

    proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC......-term protection are still needed. In order to identify proteins with therapeutic potential, we have used mass spectrometry-based Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics method which allows us to compare the proteomes of pathogenic strains to commensal E. coli....... In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our...

  12. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Topological Routing Protocols in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVITA KHATKAR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Network has drawn the attention of various researchers all around the world in the recent years. The reason can be attributed towards its capability in solving real world problems like traffic congestion. Although quite useful, the development of such systems is inherited with some challenges. The development of efficient communication protocols is one of the major problems which need to be addressed. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three such algorithms namely; AODV, DSDV and ZRP. The algorithms are implemented using Network Simulator and their performance is compared in terms of throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and End-to-End delay. The result shows that none of the algorithms performs best in terms of all parameters while AODV and ZRP’s performance are quite encouraging in terms of throughput and PDR.

  13. Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multi-vitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren.

  14. Sequence and comparative analysis of Leuconostoc dairy bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars H; Neve, Horst; Hammer, Karin; Jacobsen, Susanne; Pedersen, Per D; Sørensen, Søren J; Heller, Knut J; Vogensen, Finn K

    2014-04-17

    Bacteriophages attacking Leuconostoc species may significantly influence the quality of the final product. There is however limited knowledge of this group of phages in the literature. We have determined the complete genome sequences of nine Leuconostoc bacteriophages virulent to either Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains. The phages have dsDNA genomes with sizes ranging from 25.7 to 28.4 kb. Comparative genomics analysis helped classify the 9 phages into two classes, which correlates with the host species. High percentage of similarity within the classes on both nucleotide and protein levels was observed. Genome comparison also revealed very high conservation of the overall genomic organization between the classes. The genes were organized in functional modules responsible for replication, packaging, head and tail morphogenesis, cell lysis and regulation and modification, respectively. No lysogeny modules were detected. To our knowledge this report provides the first comparative genomic work done on Leuconostoc dairy phages.

  15. Feature-level sentiment analysis by using comparative domain corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-06-01

    Feature-level sentiment analysis (SA) is able to provide more fine-grained SA on certain opinion targets and has a wider range of applications on E-business. This study proposes an approach based on comparative domain corpora for feature-level SA. The proposed approach makes use of word associations for domain-specific feature extraction. First, we assign a similarity score for each candidate feature to denote its similarity extent to a domain. Then we identify domain features based on their similarity scores on different comparative domain corpora. After that, dependency grammar and a general sentiment lexicon are applied to extract and expand feature-oriented opinion words. Lastly, the semantic orientation of a domain-specific feature is determined based on the feature-oriented opinion lexicons. In evaluation, we compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods (including unsupervised and semi-supervised) using a standard product review test collection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of using comparative domain corpora.

  16. Peace Negotiations in the Third World: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Benítez Manaut

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the negotiations and peace processes in the Third World are analized from a comparative viewpoint in order to focus in on the case of Centroamerica. Reference is made to the special features and common elements of those peace processes in otherregions of the Third World and they are compared to those which have taken place in Centroamerica. It is a retrospective and comparative analysis. For this reason, the author has decided to carry out a brief typology of those conflicts offered by Centroamerica: inNicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. Later, the author goes on to analyse the most relevant peace and negotiation processes involving the Third World including one or two from Latin America: the cases of Panama, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq, Colombia, southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Angola and Cambodia. Later, the author goes overthe peace process periods in Centroamerica and the temporary contradictions which are presented by internal conflict, regional conflict and geopolitical conflict. Finally, a comparative methodological exercise is carried out which allows to focus on modes of implementation of the peace processes.

  17. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  18. A comparative analysis of Media Lengua and Quichua vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of F1 and F2 vowel frequencies from Pijal Media Lengua (PML) and Imbabura Quichua. Mixed-effects models are used to test Spanish-derived high and low vowels against their Quichua-derived counterparts for statistical significance. Spanish-derived and Quichua-derived high vowels are also tested against Spanish-derived mid vowels. This analysis suggests that PML may be manipulating as many as eight vowels where Spanishderived high and low vowels coexist as near-mergers with their Quichua-derived counterparts, while high and mid vowels coexist with partial overlap. Quichua, traditionally viewed as a three-vowel system, shows similar results and may be manipulating as many as six vowels. PMID:25721292

  19. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

    2002-12-15

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  20. The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloukas, P; Earthrowl, M E; Grafham, D V; Rubenfield, M; French, L; Steward, C A; Sims, S K; Jones, M C; Searle, S; Scott, C; Howe, K; Hunt, S E; Andrews, T D; Gilbert, J G R; Swarbreck, D; Ashurst, J L; Taylor, A; Battles, J; Bird, C P; Ainscough, R; Almeida, J P; Ashwell, R I S; Ambrose, K D; Babbage, A K; Bagguley, C L; Bailey, J; Banerjee, R; Bates, K; Beasley, H; Bray-Allen, S; Brown, A J; Brown, J Y; Burford, D C; Burrill, W; Burton, J; Cahill, P; Camire, D; Carter, N P; Chapman, J C; Clark, S Y; Clarke, G; Clee, C M; Clegg, S; Corby, N; Coulson, A; Dhami, P; Dutta, I; Dunn, M; Faulkner, L; Frankish, A; Frankland, J A; Garner, P; Garnett, J; Gribble, S; Griffiths, C; Grocock, R; Gustafson, E; Hammond, S; Harley, J L; Hart, E; Heath, P D; Ho, T P; Hopkins, B; Horne, J; Howden, P J; Huckle, E; Hynds, C; Johnson, C; Johnson, D; Kana, A; Kay, M; Kimberley, A M; Kershaw, J K; Kokkinaki, M; Laird, G K; Lawlor, S; Lee, H M; Leongamornlert, D A; Laird, G; Lloyd, C; Lloyd, D M; Loveland, J; Lovell, J; McLaren, S; McLay, K E; McMurray, A; Mashreghi-Mohammadi, M; Matthews, L; Milne, S; Nickerson, T; Nguyen, M; Overton-Larty, E; Palmer, S A; Pearce, A V; Peck, A I; Pelan, S; Phillimore, B; Porter, K; Rice, C M; Rogosin, A; Ross, M T; Sarafidou, T; Sehra, H K; Shownkeen, R; Skuce, C D; Smith, M; Standring, L; Sycamore, N; Tester, J; Thorpe, A; Torcasso, W; Tracey, A; Tromans, A; Tsolas, J; Wall, M; Walsh, J; Wang, H; Weinstock, K; West, A P; Willey, D L; Whitehead, S L; Wilming, L; Wray, P W; Young, L; Chen, Y; Lovering, R C; Moschonas, N K; Siebert, R; Fechtel, K; Bentley, D; Durbin, R; Hubbard, T; Doucette-Stamm, L; Beck, S; Smith, D R; Rogers, J

    2004-05-27

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence. PMID:15164054

  1. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  2. Comparative analysis of model assessment in community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian cluster inference with a flexible generative model allows us to detect various types of structures. However, it has problems stemming from computational complexity and difficulties in model assessment. We consider the stochastic block model with restricted hyperparameter space, which is known to correspond to modularity maximization. We show that it not only reduces computational complexity, but is also beneficial for model assessment. Using various criteria, we conduct a comparative analysis of the model assessments, and analyze whether each criterion tends to overfit or underfit. We also show that the learning of hyperparameters leads to qualitative differences in Bethe free energy and cross-validation errors.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Transport Terminologyusage on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Petrėtienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he paper deals with the comparative analysis of the usage of transport terminology on the Internet using the popular search engine www.google.lt. It analyses the frequency of correct and incorrect usage of lexis, word-building and pronominal forms. The charts show what mistakes are mostly made and that they are mainly term building mistakes. The usage of new loanwords can be justified because most of them are not considered as serious language mistakes. Although, mistakes of another kind can only be explained as the negligence of the authors of the Internet text.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, which means that they have been accepted by all the members of the organization.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Value Added Tax Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Anca Postole

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of indirect taxes is analysed in the study of evolution, especially the VAT for the economic activity of the company studied. During the reporting period, namely January 2009 – December 2011 the supporting documents were checked which records on VAT deductible and collected were based on, in compliance with legal norms and principles of financial accounting. Also the data processed were the basis for an analysis to compare the evolution of VAT. VAT shall be paid for the entire activity of the company.

  6. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ......What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary...

  7. Quantitative and comparative analysis of hyperspectral data fusion performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 张晔; 李硕; 沈毅

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral data fusion technique is the key to hyperspectral data processing in recent years. Manyfusion methods have been proposed, but little research has been done to evaluate the performances of differentdata fusion methods. In order to meet the urgent need, quantitative correlation analysis (QCA) is proposed toanalyse and compare the performances of different fusion methods directly from data before and after fusion. Ex-periment results show that the new method is effective and the results of comparison are in agreement with theresults of application.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Measured and Predicted Shrinkage Strain in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossakowski P. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to concrete shrinkage. The basic information on the phenomenon is presented as well as the factors that determine the contraction are pointed out and the stages of the process are described. The guidance for estimating the shrinkage strain is given according to Eurocode standard PN-EN 1992-1-1:2008. The results of studies of the samples shrinkage strain of concrete C25/30 are presented with a comparative analysis of the results estimated by the guidelines of the standard according to PN-EN 1992-1- 1:2008

  9. ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE MARKETING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    FUCIU Mircea; Hortensia GORSKI

    2012-01-01

    We are in an age of continuous change. The development of the Internet and of the information and communication technologies have led to important shifts in the way companies do business. This paper aims to present the concept and the evolution of a new internet-based instrument: the online social network (OSN). We underline the impact of these new changes on the marketing concept, and the importance of OSN for a company`s future development. We are presenting a comparative analysis, from the...

  10. Comparative study of analysis methods in biospeckle phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    In this work we present a review of main statistical properties of speckle patterns and accomplish a comparative study of the more used methods for analysis and extraction of information from optical grainy. The first and second order space-time statistics are dicussed in an overview perspective. The biospeckle phenomenon has detailed attention, specially in its application on monitoring of activity in tissues. The main techniques used to obtain information from speckle patterns are presented, with special prominence to autocorrelation function, co-occurrence matrices, Fujii's method, Briers' contrast and spatial and temporal contrast analisys (LASCA and LASTCA). An incipient method for analysis, based on the study of sucessive correlations contrast, is introduced. Numerical simulations, using diferent probability density functions for velocities of scatterers, were made with two objectives: to test the analysis methods and to give subsidies for interpretation of in vivo results. Vegetable and animal tissues are investigated, achieving the monitoring of senescence process and vascularization maps on leaves, the accompaniment of fungi contamined fruits, the mapping of activity in flowers and the analisys of healing in rats subjected to abdominal surgery. Experiments using the biospeckle phenomenon in microscopy are carried out. At last, it is evaluated the potentiality of biospeckle as diagnosis tool in chronic vein ulcer cared with low intensity laser therapy and the better analysis methods for each kind of tissue are pointed.

  11. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  12. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of benign skull-base tumors: a dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with Rapidarc® versus non-coplanar dynamic arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign tumors of the skull base are a challenge when delivering radiotherapy. An appropriate choice of radiation technique may significantly improve the patient’s outcomes. Our study aimed to compare the dosimetric results of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between non-coplanar dynamic arcs and coplanar volumetric modulated arctherapy (Rapidarc®). Thirteen patients treated with Novalis TX® were analysed: six vestibular schwannomas, four pituitary adenomas and three meningioma. Two treatment plans were created for each case: dynamic arcs (4–5 non coplanar arcs) and Rapidarc® (2 coplanar arcs). All tumors were >3 cm and accessible to both techniques. Patients had a stereotactic facemask (Brainlab) and were daily repositioned by Exactrac®. GTV and CTV were contoured according to tumor type. A 1-mm margin was added to the CTV to obtain PTV. Radiation doses were 52.2–54 Gy, using 1.8 Gy per fraction. Treatment time was faster with Rapidarc®. The mean PTV V95 % was 98.8 for Rapidarc® and 95.9 % for DA (p = 0.09). Homogeneity index was better with Rapidarc®: 0.06 vs. 0.09 (p = 0.01). Higher conformity index values were obtained with Rapidarc®: 75.2 vs. 67.9 % (p = 0.04). The volume of healthy brain that received a high dose (V90 %) was 0.7 % using Rapidarc® vs. 1.4 % with dynamic arcs (p = 0.05). Rapidarc® and dynamic arcs gave, respectively, a mean D40 % of 10.5 vs. 18.1 Gy (p = 0.005) for the hippocampus and a Dmean of 25.4 vs. 35.3 Gy (p = 0.008) for the ipsilateral cochlea. Low-dose delivery with Rapidarc® and dynamic arcs were, respectively, 184 vs. 166 cm3 for V20 Gy (p = 0.14) and 1265 vs. 1056 cm3 for V5 Gy (p = 0.67). Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy using Rapidarc® for large benign tumors of the skull base provided target volume coverage that was at least equal to that of dynamics arcs, with better conformity and homogeneity and faster treatment time. Rapidarc® also offered better sparing of the ipsilateral cochlea and hippocampus

  13. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  14. 2004/2008 labour market information comparative analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Characterization of a multimode coplanar waveguide parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoen, M., E-mail: simoen@chalmers.se; Krantz, P.; Bylander, Jonas; Shumeiko, V.; Delsing, P. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg SE-412 96 (Sweden); Chang, C. W. S.; Wilson, C. M. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wustmann, W. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg SE-412 96 (Sweden); Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    We characterize a Josephson parametric amplifier based on a flux-tunable quarter-wavelength resonator. The fundamental resonance frequency is ∼1 GHz, but we use higher modes of the resonator for our measurements. An on-chip tuning line allows for magnetic flux pumping of the amplifier. We investigate and compare degenerate parametric amplification, involving a single mode, and nondegenerate parametric amplification, using a pair of modes. We show that we reach quantum-limited noise performance in both cases.

  16. Design and performance evaluation of a coplanar multimodality scanner for rodent imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, E; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Tapias, G; Abella, M; Rodriguez-Ruano, A; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, J E [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza (Spain); Udias, A [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada (Spain)], E-mail: elage@mce.hggm.es

    2009-09-21

    This work reports on the development and performance evaluation of the VrPET/CT, a new multimodality scanner with coplanar geometry for in vivo rodent imaging. The scanner design is based on a partial-ring PET system and a small-animal CT assembled on a rotatory gantry without axial displacement between the geometric centers of both fields of view (FOV). We report on the PET system performance based on the NEMA NU-4 protocol; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment and the imaging capability of the whole system are also evaluated on phantom and animal studies. Tangential spatial resolution of PET images ranged between 1.56 mm at the center of the FOV and 2.46 at a radial offset of 3.5 cm. The radial resolution varies from 1.48 mm to 1.88 mm, and the axial resolution from 2.34 mm to 3.38 mm for the same positions. The energy resolution was 16.5% on average for the entire system. The absolute coincidence sensitivity is 2.2% for a 100-700 keV energy window with a 3.8 ns coincident window. The scatter fraction values for the same settings were 11.45% for a mouse-sized phantom and 23.26% for a rat-sized phantom. The peak noise equivalent count rates were also evaluated for those phantoms obtaining 70.8 kcps at 0.66 MBq/cc and 31.5 kcps at 0.11 MBq/cc, respectively. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment is below half the PET resolution, and the image quality of biological specimens agrees with measured performance parameters. The assessment presented in this study shows that the VrPET/CT system is a good performance small-animal imager, while the cost derived from a partial ring detection system is substantially reduced as compared with a full-ring PET tomograph.

  17. Comparative Numerical Analysis Of Advertising Board Tower Using Adina And Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the subject of comparative stress and displacement analysis for different computer aided design program environments is discussed. For the purposes of analysis ADINA and Autodesk ROBOT program were used. In both programs an advertising board tower was modeled. Static analysis was adopted for the computations. Obtained results allowed showing small differences and limitations between those two environments.

  18. In silico comparative genomic analysis of GABAA receptor transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Christopher J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtypes of the GABAA receptor subunit exhibit diverse temporal and spatial expression patterns. In silico comparative analysis was used to predict transcriptional regulatory features in individual mammalian GABAA receptor subunit genes, and to identify potential transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of the GABAA receptor gene clusters. Results Previously unreported putative promoters were identified for the β2, γ1, γ3, ε, θ and π subunit genes. Putative core elements and proximal transcriptional factors were identified within these predicted promoters, and within the experimentally determined promoters of other subunit genes. Conserved intergenic regions of sequence in the mammalian GABAA receptor gene cluster comprising the α1, β2, γ2 and α6 subunits were identified as potential long range transcriptional regulatory components involved in the coordinate regulation of these genes. A region of predicted DNase I hypersensitive sites within the cluster may contain transcriptional regulatory features coordinating gene expression. A novel model is proposed for the coordinate control of the gene cluster and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunits, based upon the selective action of putative Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions (S/MARs. Conclusion The putative regulatory features identified by genomic analysis of GABAA receptor genes were substantiated by cross-species comparative analysis and now require experimental verification. The proposed model for the coordinate regulation of genes in the cluster accounts for the head-to-head orientation and parallel expression of the α1 and β2 subunit genes, and for the disruption of transcription caused by insertion of a neomycin gene in the close vicinity of the α6 gene, which is proximal to a putative critical S/MAR.

  19. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  20. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  1. White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

  2. Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Mouse and Human Cardiac Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideki Uosaki; Y-h Taguchi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how human cardiomyocytes mature is crucial to realizing stem cell-based heart regeneration, modeling adult heart diseases, and facilitating drug discovery. However, it is not feasible to analyze human samples for maturation due to inaccessibility to samples while cardiomy-ocytes mature during fetal development and childhood, as well as difficulty in avoiding variations among individuals. Using model animals such as mice can be a useful strategy;nonetheless, it is not well-understood whether and to what degree gene expression profiles during maturation are shared between humans and mice. Therefore, we performed a comparative gene expression analysis of mice and human samples. First, we examined two distinct mice microarray platforms for shared gene expression profiles, aiming to increase reliability of the analysis. We identified a set of genes display-ing progressive changes during maturation based on principal component analysis. Second, we demonstrated that the genes identified had a differential expression pattern between adult and ear-lier stages (e.g., fetus) common in mice and humans. Our findings provide a foundation for further genetic studies of cardiomyocyte maturation.

  3. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik; Scott W. Ducharme; Avelino C. Amado; Joseph Hamill

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short-and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  5. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomic Analysis of Mycobacterium Kansasii

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahid, Yara

    2014-04-01

    The group of Mycobacteria is one of the most intensively studied bacterial taxa, as they cause the two historical and worldwide known diseases: leprosy and tuberculosis. Mycobacteria not identified as tuberculosis or leprosy complex, have been referred to by ‘environmental mycobacteria’ or ‘Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is one of the most frequent NTM pathogens, as it causes pulmonary disease in immuno-competent patients and pulmonary, and disseminated disease in patients with various immuno-deficiencies. There have been five documented subtypes of this bacterium, by different molecular typing methods, showing that type I causes tuberculosis-like disease in healthy individuals, and type II in immune-compromised individuals. The remaining types are said to be environmental, thereby, not causing any diseases. The aim of this project was to conduct a comparative genomic study of M. kansasii types I-V and investigating the gene expression level of those types. From various comparative genomics analysis, provided genomics evidence on why M. kansasii type I is considered pathogenic, by focusing on three key elements that are involved in virulence of Mycobacteria: ESX secretion system, Phospholipase c (plcb) and Mammalian cell entry (Mce) operons. The results showed the lack of the espA operon in types II-V, which renders the ESX- 1 operon dysfunctional, as espA is one of the key factors that control this secretion system. However, gene expression analysis showed this operon to be deleted in types II, III and IV. Furthermore, plcB was found to be truncated in types III and IV. Analysis of Mce operons (1-4) show that mce-1 operon is duplicated, mce-2 is absent and mce-3 and mce-4 is present in one copy in M. kansasii types I-V. Gene expression profiles of type I-IV, showed that the secreted proteins of ESX-1 were slightly upregulated in types II-IV when compared to type I and the secreted forms of ESX-5 were highly down

  6. Industrial Acetogenic Biocatalysts: A Comparative Metabolic and Genomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R.; Poehlein, Anja; Linder, Sonja; Erz, Catarina; Hummel, Tim; Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Daniel, Rolf; Dürre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains (Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. autoethanogenum, C. ragsdalei, and C. coskatii) are acetic acid and ethanol. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol. Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type (WT) strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. ragsdalei and C. coskatii were sequenced and the genome sequences of all four biocatalytic strains analyzed in comparative manner. Growth and product spectra (acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol) of C. autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei were rather similar. In contrast, C. coskatii produced significantly less ethanol and its genome sequence lacks two genes encoding aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (AOR). Comparative genome sequence analysis of the four WT strains revealed high average nucleotide identity (ANI) of C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum (99.3%) and C. coskatii (98.3%). In contrast, C. ljungdahlii WT and C. ragsdalei WT showed an ANI-based similarity of only 95.8%. Additionally, recombinant C. ljungdahlii strains were constructed that harbor an artificial acetone synthesis operon (ASO) consisting of the following genes: adc, ctfA, ctfB, and thlA (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase, acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase subunits A and B, and thiolase) under the control of thlA promoter (PthlA) from C. acetobutylicum or native pta-ack promoter (Ppta-ack) from C. ljungdahlii. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2

  7. Comparative Traffic Performance Analysis of Urban Transportation Network Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Behnam; Mojarradi, Morteza; Derrible, Sybil

    2015-01-01

    The network structure of an urban transportation system has a significant impact on its traffic performance. This study uses network indicators along with several traffic performance measures including speed, trip length, travel time, and traffic volume, to compare a selection of seven transportation networks with a variety of structures and under different travel demand conditions. The selected network structures are: modified linear, branch, grid, 3-directional grid, 1-ring web, 2-ring web, and radial. For the analysis, a base origin-destination matrix is chosen, to which different growth factors are applied in order to simulate various travel demand conditions. Results show that overall the 2-ring web network offers the most efficient traffic performance, followed by the grid and the 1-ring networks. A policy application of this study is that the branch, 3-directional grid, and radial networks are mostly suited for small cities with uncongested traffic conditions. In contrast, the 2-ring web, grid, and 1-r...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  9. Cytogenetic analysis from DNA by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Aboura, A; Lapierre, J M; Viguié, F

    2000-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in situ hybridization technique which allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. In CGH analysis, two differentially labelled genomic DNA (study and reference) are co-hybridized to normal metaphase spreads. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Since its development, CGH has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. CGH may also have a role in clinical cytogenetics for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities.

  10. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Partial Occlusion Using Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Nallammal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of partial occlusion using face recognition techniques that gives in which technique produce better result for total success rate. The partial occlusion of face recognition is especially useful for people where part of their face is scarred and defect thus need to be covered. Hence, either top part/eye region or bottom part of face will be recognized respectively. The partial face information are tested with Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, Local NMF (LNMF and Spatially Confined NMF (SFNMF. The comparative results show that the recognition rate of 95.17% with r = 80 by using SFNMF for bottom face region. On the other hand, eye region achieves 95.12% with r = 10 by using LNMF.

  12. Comparative dynamic analysis of the full Grossman model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, W

    1998-08-01

    The paper applies the method of comparative dynamic analysis to the full Grossman model. For a particular class of solutions, it derives the equations implicitly defining the complete trajectories of the endogenous variables. Relying on the concept of Frisch decision functions, the impact of any parametric change on an endogenous variable can be decomposed into a direct and an indirect effect. The focus of the paper is on marginal changes in the rate of health capital depreciation. It also analyses the impact of either initial financial wealth or the initial stock of health capital. While the direction of most effects remains ambiguous in the full model, the assumption of a zero consumption benefit of health is sufficient to obtain a definite for any direct or indirect effect.

  13. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Splice Site Regions by Information Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Shashi Rekha; Chanchal K. Mitra

    2006-01-01

    We have applied concepts from information theory for a comparative analysis of donor (gt) and acceptor (ag) splice site regions in the genes of five different organisms by calculating their mutual information content (relative entropy) over a selected block of nucleotides. A similar pattern that the information content decreases as the block size increases was observed for both regions in all the organisms studied. This result suggests that the information required for splicing might be contained in the consensus of ~6-8 nt at both regions. We assume from our study that even though the nucleotides are showing some degrees of conservation in the flanking regions of the splice sites, certain level of variability is still tolerated,which leads the splicing process to occur normally even if the extent of base pairing is not fully satisfied. We also suggest that this variability can be compensated by recognizing different splice sites with different spliceosomal factors.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

  18. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks -- a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. U...

  19. Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of IAX and RSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjur S Kolhar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP is a technology to transport media over IP networks such as the Internet. VoIP has the capability of connecting people over packet switched networks instead of traditional circuit switched networks. Recently, the InterAsterisk Exchange Protocol (IAX has emerged as a new VoIP which is gaining popularity among VoIP products. IAX is known for its simplicity, NAT-friendliness, efficiency, and robustness. More recently, the Real time Switching (RSW control criterion has emerged as a multimedia conferencing protocol. In this paper, we made a comparative evaluation and analysis of IAX and RSW using Mean Opinion Score rating (MOS and found that they both perform well under different network packet delays in ms. Keywords-VoIP; MOS; InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol and Real Time Switching Control Criteria.

  20. Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of IAX and RSW

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhar, Manjur S; Abouabdalla, Omar; Wan, Tat Chee; Manasrah, Ahmad M

    2010-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is a technology to transport media over IP networks such as the Internet. VoIP has the capability of connecting people over packet switched networks instead of traditional circuit switched networks. Recently, the InterAsterisk Exchange Protocol (IAX) has emerged as a new VoIP which is gaining popularity among VoIP products. IAX is known for its simplicity, NAT friendliness, efficiency, and robustness. More recently, the Real time Switching (RSW) control criterion has emerged as a multimedia conferencing protocol. In this paper, we made a comparative evaluation and analysis of IAX and RSW using Mean Opinion Score rating (MOS) and found that they both perform well under different network packet delays in ms.

  1. COMPUTER SIMULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARES ARENA® AND PROMODEL®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Enéias Zanetti Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The computer simulation is not exclusive areas of Logistics and Production, implementation takes place within the limits of technical expertise of professionals. Although not widespread at present, there is a rise of projection in use, as the numerous application possibilities, if properly modeled in reality presented face. This article proposes to present comparative and qualitative analysis of two computer simulation software, version Arena® 14,000 Student and ProModel® RunTimeSilve version - Demo, according to the following criteria: desktop, access to commands, ease in developing the software model and accessories, and can be seen the main features of each simulation software, as well as the differences between their interfaces, however, both were confirmed as great tools to support management processes.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Algorithms for Single Source Shortest Path Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Shweta Srivastava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The single source shortest path problem is one of the most studied problem in algorithmic graph theory. Single Source Shortest Path is the problem in which we have to find shortest paths from a source vertex v to all other vertices in the graph. A number of algorithms have been proposed for this problem. Most of the algorithms for this problem have evolved around the Dijkstra’s algorithm. In this paper, we are going to do comparative analysis of some of the algorithms to solve this problem. The algorithms discussed in this paper are- Thorup’s algorithm, augmented shortest path, adjacent node algorithm, a heuristic genetic algorithm, an improved faster version of the Dijkstra’s algorithm and a graph partitioning based algorithm.

  3. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION DYNAMICS IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Voronin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise to prominence in the international community following the end of the Cold War, the growth in economic power and population numbers project that China will become the leading world power within several decades, regardless of the course its government takes. The article aimes to contribute to answering the question whether this rise will be peaceful through a comparative analysis of resolved and unresolved territorial disputes between China and groups of neighbouring states between 1986 and 2013. While previous studies have focused rather exclusively on Chinese behaviour, this text will examine both sides of the dispute and the behavior of the parties in light of regional dynamics. 

  5. A comparative analysis of academic dissertation management systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Min; JIN; Yuling; WANG; Zhengjun; DAI; Yumei; WANG; Ruiyun

    2010-01-01

    The paper is to do a comparative evaluation on the four major digital theses and dissertations management systems used in the mainland China,which are TRS,TPI,TASi and IDL-ETD.The evaluation analysis is primarily based on the systematic tests on these systems conducted by DUT(Dalian University of Technology)Library.Special focuses are on the distinctive features of each system such as their performance in terms of stability,reliability,openness,capacity of backdating,copyright protection,service monitoring,document conversion and release automation,log management,statistical tabulations,vendor’s technical support and so on.In addition,authors provide a statistics on the choice of academic dissertation system of most 985a)colleges and universities in China.

  6. A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigue Agnes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features. Methods A comparative metal transporter inventory was built for the following four Pseudomonas species: P.putida (Ppu KT2440, P.aeruginosa (Pae PA01, P.fluorescens (Pfl Pf-5 and P.syringae (Psypv.tomato DC3000 using TIGR-CMR and Transport DB. Genomic analysis of essential and toxic metal ion transporters was accomplished from the above inventory. Metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features were identified using Islandpath analysis. Results Dataset cataloguing has been executed for 262 metal transporters from the four spp. Additional metal ion transporters belonging to NiCoT, Ca P-type ATPase, Cu P-type ATPases, ZIP and MgtC families were identified. In Psy DC3000, 48% of metal transporters showed strong GI features while it was 45% in Ppu KT2440. In Pfl Pf-5 and Pae PA01 only 26% of their metal transporters exhibited GI features. Conclusion Our comparative inventory of 262 metal transporters from four versatile Pseudomonas spp is the complete suite of metal transportomes analysed till date in a prokaryotic genus. This study identified differences in the basic composition of metal transportomes from Pseudomonas occupying diverse ecological niches and also elucidated their novel features. Based on this inventory we analysed the role of horizontal gene transfer in expansion and variability of metal transporter families.

  7. Comparative analysis of plasmids in the genus Listeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kuenne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We sequenced four plasmids of the genus Listeria, including two novel plasmids from L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2c and 7 strains as well as one from the species L. grayi. A comparative analysis in conjunction with 10 published Listeria plasmids revealed a common evolutionary background. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All analysed plasmids share a common replicon-type related to theta-replicating plasmid pAMbeta1. Nonetheless plasmids could be broadly divided into two distinct groups based on replicon diversity and the genetic content of the respective plasmid groups. Listeria plasmids are characterized by the presence of a large number of diverse mobile genetic elements and a commonly occurring translesion DNA polymerase both of which have probably contributed to the evolution of these plasmids. We detected small non-coding RNAs on some plasmids that were homologous to those present on the chromosome of L. monocytogenes EGD-e. Multiple genes involved in heavy metal resistance (cadmium, copper, arsenite as well as multidrug efflux (MDR, SMR, MATE were detected on all listerial plasmids. These factors promote bacterial growth and survival in the environment and may have been acquired as a result of selective pressure due to the use of disinfectants in food processing environments. MDR efflux pumps have also recently been shown to promote transport of cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP as a secreted molecule able to trigger a cytosolic host immune response following infection. CONCLUSIONS: The comparative analysis of 14 plasmids of genus Listeria implied the existence of a common ancestor. Ubiquitously-occurring MDR genes on plasmids and their role in listerial infection now deserve further attention.

  8. Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In France, nuclear facilities were designed to very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, exceptional climatic events have given rise to surges much larger than observations (outliers and had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches including the Annual Maxima (AM, the Peaks-Over Threshold (POT and the r-Largest Order Statistics (r-LOS. These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All the data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameters stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on: (i the uncertainty degrees, (ii the adequacy criteria and tests and (iii the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distributions parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500 yr return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fitting at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativity of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

  9. Comparative analysis of the biochemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Granjeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil during the recent decades has contributed to the installation of several new undergraduate and graduate study programs, as is the case of the undergraduate biochemistry programs at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The new biochemical professionals are being prepared to work mainly in Industries, research Institutes, government agencies and Universities in all fields that involve Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the courses in Biochemistry in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative analysis of the course units of the UFV, UFSJ and UEM programs, centered on the curricula contents and organization and on the profiles of the students in terms of parameters such as the number of admissions and the graduation completion rates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The UFV and UEM programs present a very similar distribution of workload over the biological, exact sciences, humanities, biochemical specialties and technological applications. The UFSJ program presents higher workloads in the areas of biological sciences and technological applications. No significant differences in the distribution of the workloads of mandatory and optional disciplines, complementary activities and supervised activities were detected. Over the past five years there was a decrease in the number of students that abandoned the programs, despite the increased retention time in the three courses. Most graduated students at both UFV and UFSJ continue their academic career toward the Master or Doctor degrees. CONCLUSION: Little difference between the study programs analyzed. This is somewhat surprising if one considers the fact that individual conception of each program was based on different local conditions and needs, which indeed justify small differences. The similarity of the programs, on the other hand, reflects the universality of the biochemical sciences and their broad

  10. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  11. Bottom-gate coplanar graphene transistors with enhanced graphene adhesion on atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong-Wook; Mikael, Solomon; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    A graphene transistor with a bottom-gate coplanar structure and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gate dielectric is demonstrated. Wetting properties of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under different deposition conditions are investigated by measuring the surface contact angle. It is observed that the relatively hydrophobic surface is suitable for adhesion between graphene and ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To achieve hydrophobic surface of ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a methyl group (CH{sub 3})-terminated deposition method has been developed and compared with a hydroxyl group (OH)-terminated deposition. Based on this approach, bottom-gate coplanar graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated and characterized. A post-thermal annealing process improves the performance of the transistors by enhancing the contacts between the source/drain metal and graphene. The fabricated transistor shows an I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio, maximum transconductance, and field-effect mobility of 4.04, 20.1 μS at V{sub D} = 0.1 V, and 249.5 cm{sup 2}/V·s, respectively.

  12. N-terminal protein processing: A comparative proteogenomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonissone, Stefano; Gupta, Nitin; Romine, Margaret F.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Terminal Methionine Excision (NME) is a universally conserved mechanism with the same specificity across all life forms that removes the first Methionine in proteins when the second residue is Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr, Pro, or Val. In spite of its necessity for proper cell functioning, the functional role of NME remains unclear. In 1988, Arfin and Bradshaw connected NME with the N-end protein degradation rule and postulated that the role of NME is to expose the stabilizing residues with the goal to resist protein degradation. While this explanation (that treats 7 stabilizing residues in the same manner) has become the de facto dogma of NME, comparative proteogenomics analysis of NME tells a different story. We suggest that the primary role of NME is to expose only two (rather than seven) amino acids Ala and Ser for post-translational modifications (e.g., acetylation) rather than to regulate protein degradation. We argue that, contrary to the existing view, NME is not crucially important for proteins with 5 other stabilizing residue at the 2nd positions that are merely bystanders (their function is not affected by NME) that become exposed to NME because their sizes are comparable or smaller than the size of Ala and Ser.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese and Shona Vowels

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    Herbert Mushangwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative analysis between Chinese and Shona vowel system. The research is biased towards helping Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona however it is expected to benefit other researchers interested in comparative researches. The main focus of this research is on the major differences that exist between these two languages, with an aim to predict and combat the possible pronunciation errors that may result from native language transfer. The research findings show that Chinese language’s vowel system is more complex than the Shona vowel system. It is therefore assumed that though Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona language may find it challenging to acquire the Chinese vowel system, however if students are advised in advanced the differences between the Chinese and Shona vowels represented by same letters in the writing systems of these two languages, students are likely to have less pronunciation errors in Chinese since they will not borrow the Shona pronunciation strategies.

  14. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

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    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  15. Comparative Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Phenotype Stratified Prostate Cells.

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    Tanya C Burch

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most prevalent cancer amongst men and the second most common cause of cancer related-deaths in the USA. Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease ranging from indolent asymptomatic cases to very aggressive life threatening forms. The goal of this study was to identify differentially expressed metabolites and lipids in prostate cells with different tumorigenic phenotypes. We have used mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, lipidomic profiling, bioinformatic and statistical methods to identify, quantify and characterize differentially regulated molecules in five prostate derived cell lines. We have identified potentially interesting species of different lipid subclasses including phosphatidylcholines (PCs, phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs, glycerophosphoinositols (PIs and other metabolites that are significantly upregulated in prostate cancer cells derived from distant metastatic sites. Transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of key enzymes that are involved in lipid metabolism demonstrate the significant upregulation of choline kinase alpha in the metastatic cells compared to the non-malignant and non-metastatic cells. This suggests that different de novo lipogenesis and other specific signal transduction pathways are activated in aggressive metastatic cells as compared to normal and non-metastatic cells.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Different LIDAR System Calibration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    With light detection and ranging (LiDAR) now being a crucial tool for engineering products and on the fly spatial analysis, it is necessary for the user community to have standardized calibration methods. The three methods in this study were developed and proven by the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG) for airborne LiDAR systems and are as follows; Simplified, Quasi-Rigorous, and Rigorous. In lieu of using expensive control surfaces for calibration, these methods compare overlapping LiDAR strips to estimate the systematic errors. These systematic errors are quantified by these methods and include the lever arm biases, boresight biases, range bias and scan angle scale bias. These three methods comprehensively represent all of the possible flight configurations and data availability and this paper will test the limits of the method with the most assumptions, the simplified calibration, by using data that violates the assumptions it's math model is based on and compares the results to the quasi-rigorous and rigorous techniques. The overarching goal is to provide a LiDAR system calibration that does not require raw measurements which can be carried out with minimal control and flight lines to reduce costs. This testing is unique because the terrain used for calibration does not contain gable roofs, all other LiDAR system calibration testing and development has been done with terrain containing features with high geometric integrity such as gable roofs.

  17. Molecular organization in liquid crystals: A comparative computational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative computational analysis of molecular organization in four-nematogenic acids (nOCAC) having two, four, six, and eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain is carried out with respect to translatory and orientational motions. The evaluation of the atomic charge and dipole moment at each atomic center is performed through the complete neglect differential overlap (CNDO/2) method. The Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, along with the multicentered-multipole expansion method, is employed to evaluate the long-range interactions, while the '6-exp' potential function is assumed for short-range interactions. The total interaction-energy values obtained through these computations are used to calculate the probability of each configuration at the phase transition temperature via the Maxwell-Boltzmann formula. Further, the flexibility of various configurations is studied in terms of variation of probability due to small departures from the most probable configuration. A comparative picture of molecular parameters, such as the total energy, binding energy, and total dipole moment, is given. An attempt is made to explain the nematogenic behavior of these liquid crystals in terms of their relative order and, thereby, to develop a molecular model for the liquid crystallinity.

  18. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  19. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  20. A Comparative Analysis of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course Platforms

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    Maria CONACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MOOC platforms have known a considerable development in recent years due to the enlargement of online space and the shifting between traditional to virtual activities. These plat-forms made it possible for people almost everywhere to take online academic courses offered by top universities via open access to web and with unlimited participation. Thus, it came naturally to us to address the question what makes them so successful? The purpose of this paper is to report comparatively MOOC platforms in terms of features, based on the user’s implication and demands. First, we chose four relevant lifelong learning platforms and then we structured three main categories for the platforms' qualification, depending on which we built our theory regarding the comparison between them. Our analysis consists of three sets of criteria: business model, course design and popularity among online users. Starting from this perspective, we built a range of representative factors for which we highlighted the major aspects for each plat-form in our comparative research

  1. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    S. V. Malchikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  2. THE COMPARATIVE COST-EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Malchikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ХР/10. Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions. 

  3. Transcriptomics and comparative analysis of three antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic notothenioid fish have undergone extraordinary periods of evolution and have adapted to a cold and highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. While these species are considered an attractive model with which to study physiology and evolutionary adaptation, they are poorly characterized at the molecular level, and sequence information is lacking. The transcriptomes of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and Pleuragramma antarcticum were obtained by 454 FLX Titanium sequencing of a normalized cDNA library. More than 1,900,000 reads were assembled in a total of 71,539 contigs. Overall, 40% of the contigs were annotated based on similarity to known protein or nucleotide sequences, and more than 50% of the predicted transcripts were validated as full-length or putative full-length cDNAs. These three Antarctic fishes shared 663 genes expressed in the brain and 1,557 genes expressed in the liver. In addition, these cold-adapted fish expressed more Ub-conjugated proteins compared to temperate fish; Ub-conjugated proteins are involved in maintaining proteins in their native state in the cold and thermally stable Antarctic environments. Our transcriptome analysis of Antarctic notothenioid fish provides an archive for future studies in molecular mechanisms of fundamental genetic questions, and can be used in evolution studies comparing other fish.

  4. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use.

  5. Comparative analysis of methods for genome-wide nucleosome cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintales, Luis; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Nucleosomes contribute to compacting the genome into the nucleus and regulate the physical access of regulatory proteins to DNA either directly or through the epigenetic modifications of the histone tails. Precise mapping of nucleosome positioning across the genome is, therefore, essential to understanding the genome regulation. In recent years, several experimental protocols have been developed for this purpose that include the enzymatic digestion, chemical cleavage or immunoprecipitation of chromatin followed by next-generation sequencing of the resulting DNA fragments. Here, we compare the performance and resolution of these methods from the initial biochemical steps through the alignment of the millions of short-sequence reads to a reference genome to the final computational analysis to generate genome-wide maps of nucleosome occupancy. Because of the lack of a unified protocol to process data sets obtained through the different approaches, we have developed a new computational tool (NUCwave), which facilitates their analysis, comparison and assessment and will enable researchers to choose the most suitable method for any particular purpose. NUCwave is freely available at http://nucleosome.usal.es/nucwave along with a step-by-step protocol for its use. PMID:25296770

  6. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RICE VARIETY BY GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High growth-rate of plantlet is the integral index of intensity of physiological processes at rice and other cultures. 20 typical plantlets from each of two variants were studded (in the distilled water in thermostat at a temperature 29° C by: length of embryonic root and coleoptile. Comparative analysis of trait characterizing the growth rates of rice varieties showed reliable advantage of Russian ones above the Italian and Chinese. Local varieties, regionalized until the year 2000, exceed new ones on this trait. Highest growth rates were characterized by medium grain samples. The white grain and red grain varieties are excelled other groups on the height of plantlet. Analysis rates of height of plantlets in the distinguished groups showed the necessity of prosecution of improvement of the above enumerated signs at the varieties of late term of ripening, long grain, with Waxy gene, colored grain. We recommend to sow this type of varieties on fields with good leveling, because of low speed of growth

  8. Comparative analysis of face recognition techniques with illumination variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illumination variation is one of the major challenges in the face recognition. To deal with this problem, this paper presents comparative analysis of three different techniques. First, the DCT is employed to compensate for illumination variations in the logarithm domain. Since illumination variation lies mainly in the low frequency band, an appropriate number of DCT coefficients are truncated to reduce the variations under different lighting conditions. The nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance is employed for classification. Second, the performance of PCA is checked on normalized image. PCA is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to a lower dimension for analysis. Third, LDA based methods gives a satisfactory result under controlled lighting condition. But its performance under large illumination variation is not satisfactory. So, the performance of LDA is checked on normalized image. Experimental results on the Yale B and ORL database show that the proposed approach of application of PCA and LDA on normalized dataset improves the performance significantly for the face images with large illumination variations.

  9. Comparative sequence-structure analysis of Aves insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mirazul; Aktaruzzaman, M; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Normal blood glucose level depends on the availability of insulin and its ability to bind insulin receptor (IR) that regulates the downstream signaling pathway. Insulin sequence and blood glucose level usually vary among animals due to species specificity. The study of genetic variation of insulin, blood glucose level and diabetics symptoms development in Aves is interesting because of its optimal high blood glucose level than mammals. Therefore, it is of interest to study its evolutionary relationship with other mammals using sequence data. Hence, we compiled 32 Aves insulin from GenBank to compare its sequence-structure features with phylogeny for evolutionary inference. The analysis shows long conserved motifs (about 14 residues) for functional inference. These sequences show high leucine content (20%) with high instability index (>40). Amino acid position 11, 14, 16 and 20 are variable that may have contribution to binding to IR. We identified functionally critical variable residues in the dataset for possible genetic implication. Structural models of these sequences were developed for surface analysis towards functional representation. These data find application in the understanding of insulin function across species.

  10. COMPETITIVENESS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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    Jelena Mićić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness or market competition is the basic regulatory mechanism of the market. Today, some economic theorists propose that the competitiveness actually measures the wealth of a society in another way, so it is very important that it contributes to innovation, improvement of the business and overall economic growth. Bosnia and Herzegovina is located close to the very bottom of the European countries according to the competitiveness of its economy. Occasionally it is possible to notice positive changes, but unfortunately they were not strong enough or continuous for achieving economic development or improving living standard. Benchmark analysis of competitiveness deepened the view of the overall movement of the BiH competitiveness and its key factors, as well as the comparison with the selected reference countries. So, the competitiveness of our economy in the period 2007-2015 is the main topic of this paper, with the basic hypothesis that BiH has a positive trend in competitiveness relative to comparable countries in the reporting period. The aim of the research is to determine the conditions, trends and underlying determinants of competitiveness of Bosnia and Herzegovina and state of our competitiveness in relation to comparative economies. Through application of standard scientific methodology, particularly methods of statistical analysis, we came to results that show that BiH economy had significant growth of competitiveness in most observed indicators, with minor variations in the period 2007-2014, while the level of variability in 2015 was so huge that we have been excluded from the Global Competitiveness Report for 2014-2015 year of the World Economic Forum. Although our country generally exhibits the lower performance than the comparative countries it is possible to perceive areas where we have strengths and potentials. The fact that the World Economic Forum, for the first time, has omitted Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Global

  11. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kramer, Christian; Vulpetti, Anna; Gedeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable. PMID:23613770

  12. Comparability of mixed IC₅₀ data - a statistical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available The biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 is the most commonly used metric for on-target activity in lead optimization. It is used to guide lead optimization, build large-scale chemogenomics analysis, off-target activity and toxicity models based on public data. However, the use of public biochemical IC50 data is problematic, because they are assay specific and comparable only under certain conditions. For large scale analysis it is not feasible to check each data entry manually and it is very tempting to mix all available IC50 values from public database even if assay information is not reported. As previously reported for Ki database analysis, we first analyzed the types of errors, the redundancy and the variability that can be found in ChEMBL IC50 database. For assessing the variability of IC50 data independently measured in two different labs at least ten IC50 data for identical protein-ligand systems against the same target were searched in ChEMBL. As a not sufficient number of cases of this type are available, the variability of IC50 data was assessed by comparing all pairs of independent IC50 measurements on identical protein-ligand systems. The standard deviation of IC50 data is only 25% larger than the standard deviation of Ki data, suggesting that mixing IC50 data from different assays, even not knowing assay conditions details, only adds a moderate amount of noise to the overall data. The standard deviation of public ChEMBL IC50 data, as expected, resulted greater than the standard deviation of in-house intra-laboratory/inter-day IC50 data. Augmenting mixed public IC50 data by public Ki data does not deteriorate the quality of the mixed IC50 data, if the Ki is corrected by an offset. For a broad dataset such as ChEMBL database a Ki- IC50 conversion factor of 2 was found to be the most reasonable.

  13. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Hjernø, Karin; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence-related factors produced by the pathogen of interest. However, recent work indicates that proteins that are not unique to the pathogen but instead selectively expressed compared to its non-pathogenic counterpart could also be vaccine candidates or targets for drug development. Modern methods in quantitative proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract whereas ETEC is the major cause of human diarrhea which affects hundreds of millions annually. In spite of the disease burden associated with these pathogens, effective vaccines conferring long-term protection are still needed. In order to identify proteins with therapeutic potential, we have used mass spectrometry-based Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics method which allows us to compare the proteomes of pathogenic strains to commensal E. coli. In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our experimental approach. In addition we find proteins that are not unique to the pathogenic strains but expressed at levels different from the commensal strain, including the

  14. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Human Lung Squamous Carcinoma Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui; TANG Can'e; DUAN Chaojun; YI Hong; XIAO Zhiqiang; CHEN Zhuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles with high resolution and reproducibility from human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue, and to identify differential expression tumor-associated proteins by using proteome analysis. Methods: Comparative proteome analysis with 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and the paired normal bronchial epithelial tissues adjacent to tumors was carried out. The total proteins of human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue were separated by means of immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining. The differential expression proteins were analyzed and then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results: (1) Well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE patterns of human lung squamous carcinoma and adjacent normal bronchial epithelial tissues were obtained. For tumor tissue, average spots of 3 gels were 1567±46, and 1436±54 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.6%. For control, average spots of 3 gels were 1349±58, and 1228±35 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.03%. The average position deviation of matched spots was 0.924±0.128 mm in IEF direction, and 1.022±0.205 mm in SDS-PAGE direction; (2)A total of 1178±56 spots were matched between the electrophoretic maps of 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissues. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were screened; (3) Sixty-eight differential proteins were identified by PMF, some proteins were the products of oncogenes, and others involved in the regulation of cell cycle and signal transduction;(4) In order to validate the reliability of the identified results, the expression of 3 proteins mdm2, c-jun and EGFR, which was correlated with lung

  15. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-05-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters.

  16. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-05-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algorithms. Surveys and comparisons exist in the literature, but because of the large number and variety of biclustering algorithms, they are quickly outdated. In this article we partially address this problem of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing biclustering methods. We used the BiBench package to compare 12 algorithms, many of which were recently published or have not been extensively studied. The algorithms were tested on a suite of synthetic data sets to measure their performance on data with varying conditions, such as different bicluster models, varying noise, varying numbers of biclusters and overlapping biclusters. The algorithms were also tested on eight large gene expression data sets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed on the resulting biclusters, and the best enrichment terms are reported. Our analyses show that the biclustering method and its parameters should be selected based on the desired model, whether that model allows overlapping biclusters, and its robustness to noise. In addition, we observe that the biclustering algorithms capable of finding more than one model are more successful at capturing biologically relevant clusters. PMID:22772837

  17. A Comparative Study of Kernel and Robust Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashad M. Alam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of measures of canonical correlation coefficient are now used in multimedia related fields like object recognition, image segmentation facial expression recognition and pattern recognition in the different literature. Some robust forms of classical canonical correlation coefficient are introduced recently to address the robustness issue of the canonical coefficient in the presence of outliers and departure from normality. Also a few number of kernels are used in canonical analysis to capture nonlinear relationship in data space, which is linear in some higher dimensional feature space. But not much work has been done to investigate their relative performances through i simulation from the view point of sensitivity, breakdown analysis as well as ii using real data sets. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare performances of kernel canonical correlation coefficients (Gaussian function, Laplacian function and Polynomial function with that of robust and classical canonical correlation coefficient measures using simulation with five sample sizes (50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000, influence function, breakdown point along with several real data and a multi-modal data sets, focusing on the specific case of segmented images with associated text. We investigate the bias, mean square error(MISE, qualitative robustness index (RI, sensitivity curve of each estimator under a variety of situations and also employ box plots and scatter plots of canonical variates to judge their performances. We have observed that the class of kernel estimators perform better than the class of classical and robust estimators in general and the kernel estimator with Laplacian function has shown the best performance for large sample size and break down is high in case of nonlinear data.

  18. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Jeppesen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. Methods: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder carcinoma FL3 cells. The fractions were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, total protein quantification and immunoblotting for CD81, TSG101, syntenin, VDAC1 and calreticulin. Results: NTA revealed the lowest background particle count in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media devoid of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration and composition of the obtained fractions. In addition, HEK293 and FL3 vesicles displayed marked differences in sedimentation characteristics. Exosomes were pelleted already at 33,000×g, a g-force which also removed most contaminating microsomes. Optimal vesicle-to-protein yield was obtained at 67,000×g for HEK293 cells but 100,000×g for FL3 cells. Relative expression of exosomal markers (TSG101, CD81, syntenin suggested presence of exosome subpopulations with variable sedimentation characteristics. Conclusions: Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. The vesicle sedimentation profile differed between the 2 cell lines.

  19. Comparative analysis of different methods for graphene nanoribbon synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are thin strips of graphene that have captured the interest of scientists due to their unique structure and promising applications in electronics. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of morphological properties of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by different methods. Various methods have been reported for graphene nanoribons synthesis. Lithography methods usually include electron-beam (e-beam lithography, atomic force microscopy (AFM lithography, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM lithography. Sonochemical and chemical methods exist as well, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD and anisotropic etching. Graphene nanoribbons can also be fabricated from unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs. We propose a new highly efficient method for graphene nanoribbons production by gamma irradiation of graphene dispersed in cyclopentanone (CPO. Surface morphology of graphene nanoribbons was visualized with atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that dimensions of graphene nanoribbons are inversely proportional to applied gamma irradiation dose. It was established that the narrowest nanoribbons were 10-20 nm wide and 1 nm high with regular and smooth edges. In comparison to other synthesis methods, dimensions of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by gamma irradiation are slightly larger, but the yield of nanoribbons is much higher. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for structural analysis of graphene nanoribbons. Results of photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed for the first time that synthesized nanoribbons showed photoluminescence in the blue region of visible light in contrast to graphene nanoribbons synthesized by other methods. Based on disclosed facts, we believe that our synthesis method has good prospects for potential future mass production of graphene nanoribbons with uniform size, as well as for future investigations of carbon nanomaterials for

  20. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  1. Two-level optimization approach for Mars orbital long-duration, large non-coplanar rendezvous phasing maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Zhang, Jin

    2013-09-01

    A relative dynamics equation-set based on orbital element differences with J2 effects is derived, based on which a two-level approach is proposed to optimize the Mars orbital rendezvous phasing with a large difference in the initial ascending node. The up-level problem uses the revolution deviation between the target spacecraft and the chaser as the design variable, and employs a linear search to find the optimum. The low-level problem uses the maneuver revolutions, locations, and impulses as the design variables, and is solved using a hybrid genetic algorithm combined with sequential quadratic programming. To improve the solution accuracy, an iteration method is developed to satisfy the terminal constraints of the absolute numerical integration trajectory. Test cases involving Mars sample return missions with large initial node differences are presented, which show that the relative dynamics, two-level optimization model, and hybrid optimization algorithm are efficient and robust. Compared with previously published results, the total velocity increment has been further reduced by utilizing this proposed approach. It is found that a five-impulse plan requires the least quantity of propellant, and a propellant-optimal minimum rendezvous duration exists for this long-duration, large non-coplanar rendezvous problem.

  2. Size reduction and harmonic supression in coplanar rat-race coupler using defected ground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Avanish; Sharma, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed, verified and studied defected ground structures (DGS) in coplanar rat-race coupler to reduce its size and harmonic suppression in transmission characteristics. The dumbbell geometry has been chosen as a DGS unit-cell in a systematic manner in the proposed structure. The EM simulation results from IE3D tool presented with experimental validation to study the transmission behavior of proposed structures. The operation frequency has been reduced from 5.4 GHz down to 4.4 GHz after introduction of defected ground structures along the suppression of higher order harmonics.

  3. A compact coplanar MMIC Mixer For 2.4 GHz transponder systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tempel, R.; Lütke, W.; Wolff, I.

    1998-01-01

    A compact coplanar passive MMIC mixer has been developed, realized and tested successfully as a cost effective part of an I/Q demodulator module for applications in 2.4 GHz transponder systems. Although there are no external elements required, the cold-FET mixer's size is only 1 mm2 including bias and active matching networks. Operating with 6V/15mA DC bias, required by the active matching FETs, the mixer has a maximum conversion gain of -2 dB at 9.5 dBm LO power and 100 MHz IF frequency. Int...

  4. Driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions from a co-planar microwave waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, S D; Merkt, F; Thiele, T; Filipp, S; Wallraff, A

    2011-01-01

    The coherent interaction between ensembles of helium Rydberg atoms and microwave fields in the vicinity of a solid-state co-planar waveguide is reported. Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, at frequencies between 25 GHz and 38 GHz, have been studied for states with principal quantum numbers in the range 30 - 35 by selective electric-field ionization. An experimental apparatus cooled to 100 K was used to reduce effects of blackbody radiation. Inhomogeneous, stray electric fields emanating from the surface of the waveguide have been characterized in frequency- and time-resolved measurements and coherence times of the Rydberg atoms on the order of 250 ns have been determined.

  5. Load-application devices: a comparative strain gauge analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; de Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-01-01

    In view of the low loading values commonly employed in dentistry, a load-application device (LAD) was developed as option to the universal testing machine (UTM), using strain gauge analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a load-application device (LAD) and compare the LAD with the UTM apparatus under axial and non-axial loads. An external hexagonal implant was inserted into a polyurethane block and one EsthetiCone abutment was connected to the implant. A plastic prosthetic cylinder was screwed onto the abutment and a conical pattern crown was fabricated using acrylic resin. An impression was made and ten identical standard acrylic resin patterns were obtained from the crown impression, which were cast in nickel-chromium alloy (n=10). Four strain gauges were bonded diametrically around the implant. The specimens were subjected to central (C) and lateral (L) axial loads of 30 kgf, on both devices: G1: LAD/C; G2: LAD/L; G3: UTM/C; G4: UTM/L. The data (με) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the UTM and LAD devices, regardless of the type of load. It was concluded that the LAD is a reliable alternative, which induces microstrains to implants similar to those obtained with the UTM. PMID:26200149

  6. An Optimization Framework for Comparative Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With a myriad of alternative vehicle powertrain architectures emerging in the industry, such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, it is beneficial that the most appropriate system is chosen for the desired vehicle class and duty cycle, and to minimize a given cost function. This paper investigates this issue, by proposing a novel framework that evaluates different types of powertrain architectures under a unified modular powertrain structure. This framework provides a systematic and objective approach to comparing different types of powertrain architectures simultaneously, and will highlight the benefits that can be achieved from each architecture, thus making it possible to develop the reasoning for manufacturers to implement such systems, and potentially accelerate customer take-up of alternative powertrain technology. The results from this investigation have indicated that such analysis is indeed possible, by way of identifying the “cross-over point” between powertrain architectures, where one powertrain architecture transitions into a different architecture with increments in the required travel range.

  7. The Knowledge Competitiveness of Macedonian Economy – Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftimoski Dimitar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When a firm or economy realizes a competitive advantage, actually it possesses something which others lack, and does something which others cannot do, or do not know how to do it. Firms’ competitiveness, mostly, stems from knowledge and competency. Basically, it is the accumulation of capital in the form of knowledge, in most of the firms’ constitutive systems. Competitivenessdetermines the productivity level of an economy, whereas the productivity level determines the sustainable prosperity level of an economy. The knowledge economy offers virtually unlimited resources, as human capacity to create is boundless. Taking into consideration the abovementioned facts, the aim of this paper is to provide responses to the following questions: Why should contemporary firms and economies invest in new knowledge? What is the knowledge competitiveness level of the Macedonian firms and economy? What is the knowledge competitiveness of the Macedonian economy in comparisonwith the knowledge competitiveness of innovation-driven economies and the remaining efficiency-driven economies? In order to obtain the answers to these questions, we will make use of some theoretical experiences, supported by a comparative empirical analysis which, in essence, is based on the composite indicators - Knowledge Index and Global Competitiveness Index.

  8. Engine System Loads Analysis Compared to Hot-Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Jennings, John M.; Mims, Katherine; Brunty, Joseph; Christensen, Eric R.; McConnaughey, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Early implementation of structural dynamics finite element analyses for calculation of design loads is considered common design practice for high volume manufacturing industries such as automotive and aeronautical industries. However with the rarity of rocket engine development programs starts, these tools are relatively new to the design of rocket engines. In the NASA MC-1 engine program, the focus was to reduce the cost-to-weight ratio. The techniques for structural dynamics analysis practices, were tailored in this program to meet both production and structural design goals. Perturbation of rocket engine design parameters resulted in a number of MC-1 load cycles necessary to characterize the impact due to mass and stiffness changes. Evolution of loads and load extraction methodologies, parametric considerations and a discussion of load path sensitivities are important during the design and integration of a new engine system. During the final stages of development, it is important to verify the results of an engine system model to determine the validity of the results. During the final stages of the MC-1 program, hot-fire test results were obtained and compared to the structural design loads calculated by the engine system model. These comparisons are presented in this paper.

  9. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Hvam, Michael L; Primdahl-Bengtson, Bjarke;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugat......BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete...... ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. METHODS: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder...... of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration...

  10. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrivens James H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93 of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.

  11. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  12. Comparing Administration of Hospital Wastes Using Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management requires interaction between different players. It is important to map theses interactions to identify key players. This study utilizes social network analysis to compare the organization of waste management activities at two different hospitals. One of these hospitals was a large public hospital whereas the other one was a small private hospital. The structure and characteristics of the waste management network varied at both hospitals. On the whole the network at the larger hospital was institutional and the one at the smaller hospital was social in nature. At the larger hospital communication between any two members on average required three degrees of freedom. Moreover, its waste management network was characterized by the presence of three brokers whose absence could split the network into smaller disparate components. At the smaller hospital the waste management activities suffered from a lack of involvement from the paramedic staff. Thus its waste management network was more compact and communication between most of the network members did not require an intermediary. In both hospitals, a feedback mechanism between the municipal sanitary staff and hospital management was conspicuous by its absence. Hence issues such as an incidence of hazardous items mixed in the general waste could not be communicated to the hospital directly. The key positions identified in this study can be used for behavioral changes related to waste management among the concerned hospital staff.

  13. Comparative Analysis of German and Anglo-Saxon Business Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamburg Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two premises built the starting point for following study: that cultural background, cultural conditioning have a considerable influence upon business area at one hand and at the other hand that nations having common origins are likely to present similar cultural conditioning. The first hypothesis found proving in the works of theoreticians and practitioners like E.T. Hall, Geert Hofstede, Richard Gesteland and others dealing with the problem of people’s “mental programming” called culture and with cultural differences around the world. For the second premise we wanted to analyze three cultures having common Germanic roots namely the German, British (focusing on the English component of it and American cultures through the prism of their concept of time, relation to business, working and communicational style, structure of management, attitude towards hierarchy and interpersonal distance including physical contact. As the results of our comparative analysis showed above mentioned business cultures had very much in common regarding attitude to time, business and interpersonal distance but in the other segments they presented considerable differences as well. Taking all aspects into consideration the similarities deriving from their common Germanic origin offer the three cultures in question some advantages in business relations but the essential differences they present should be minded, too to avoid failure in deal making.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Community Wind Power DevelopmentModels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Wind, Tom; Juhl, Dan; Grace, Robert; West, Peter

    2005-05-20

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned windpower development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for windpower. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus cooperative ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Serial Decision Tree Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nwokejizie Anyanwu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification of data objects based on a predefined knowledge of the objects is a data mining and knowledge management technique used in grouping similar data objects together. It can be defined as supervised learning algorithms as it assigns class labels to data objects based on the relationship between the data items with a pre-defined class label. Classification algorithms have a wide range of applications like churn prediction, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, and credit card rating etc. Also there are many classification algorithms available in literature but decision trees is the most commonly used because of its ease of implementation and easier to understand compared to other classification algorithms. Decision Tree classification algorithm can be implemented in a serial or parallel fashion based on the volume of data, memory space available on the computer resource and scalability of the algorithm. In this paper we will review the serial implementations of the decision tree algorithms, identify those that are commonly used. We will also use experimental analysis based on sample data records (Statlog data sets to evaluate the performance of the commonly used serial decision tree algorithms

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  17. Comparative Analysis of PSO Algorithms for PID Controller Tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ŠTIMAC Goranka; BRAUT Sanjin; ŽIGULIĆRoberto

    2014-01-01

    The active magnetic bearing(AMB) suspends the rotating shaft and maintains it in levitated position by applying controlled electromagnetic forces on the rotor in radial and axial directions. Although the development of various control methods is rapid, PID control strategy is still the most widely used control strategy in many applications, including AMBs. In order to tune PID controller, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) method is applied. Therefore, a comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithms is carried out, where two PSO algorithms, namely (1) PSO with linearly decreasing inertia weight(LDW-PSO), and (2) PSO algorithm with constriction factor approach(CFA-PSO), are independently tested for different PID structures. The computer simulations are carried out with the aim of minimizing the objective function defined as the integral of time multiplied by the absolute value of error(ITAE). In order to validate the performance of the analyzed PSO algorithms, one-axis and two-axis radial rotor/active magnetic bearing systems are examined. The results show that PSO algorithms are effective and easily implemented methods, providing stable convergence and good computational efficiency of different PID structures for the rotor/AMB systems. Moreover, the PSO algorithms prove to be easily used for controller tuning in case of both SISO and MIMO system, which consider the system delay and the interference among the horizontal and vertical rotor axes.

  18. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  19. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Mugemangango Cyprien; Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing t...

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  2. A comparative analysis on two solar proton events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE GuiMing; HAN YanBen; ZHANG YiJun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis on the two Solar Proton Events (SPE), which occurred on 14 July 2000 (Bastille Day) and 28 October 2003 (28OCT03) respectively. It is found that although the peak flux of the latter seemed to be greater than that of the former based on geostationary observations, the maximum intensities of the energetic protons (>10 MeV and 30 MeV) during the Bastille Day event were all higher than those of the 28OCT03 event according to the interplanetary observations. Further analysis indicated that the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energies exceeding 10 and 30 MeV by the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-driven shock on 14 July 2000, was far larger than that of the 28OCT03 event. In the Bastille Day case, when the CME approached to the height around 14 R⊙, the CME-driven shock would reach its maximum capacity in accelerating the solar energetic protons (>100 MeV). In contrast, on 28 October 2003, when CME approached to the height about 58R⊙, the CME-driven shock reached its highest potential in accelerating the solar energetic protons of the same category. At this moment, the peak flux (>100 MeV) was about 155 pfu, which was much lower than 355 pfu measured on 14 July 2000. This demonstrated that in the Bastille Day event, the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energy beyond 100 MeV, was significantly larger than its counterpart in the 28OCT03 case. Therefore, the peak flux of an SPE event depends not only on the interplanetary intensity of the solar energetic particles, but also on the velocity of the associated CME-driven shock, and the quantity of the seed particles as well as on the interplanetary magnetic environment. This paper also reveals that the magnetic sheath associated with ICME on 28 October 2003 captured a large number of solar energetic protons, including those having energy greater than 100 MeV.

  3. Multisite surface electromyography and complementary healing intervention: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D P; Cram, J R

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analysis was conducted on a series of three experimental studies that examined the effect of various local and nonlocal (distant) complementary healing methods on multisite surface electromyographic (sEMG) and autonomic measures. The series concentrated sEMG electrode placement on specific neuromuscular paraspinal centers (cervical [C4], thoracic [T6], and lumbar [L3]), along with the frontalis region, due to the fact that these sites corresponded to the location of individual chakra centers as delineated in ancient Eastern medical and philosophical texts. It was hypothesized that the sEMG assessment procedure had the potential to provide objective, quantifiable correlates for complementary healing treatment effects, as well as assess the energy flow through the chakras during a healing treatment. The studies were the first of their kind to incorporate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols in order to evaluate correlative neuromuscular multisite sEMG paraspinal measures with different complementary healing treatment interventions. Although the measurement protocols were similar between experiments, the results, demonstrated by the individual studies, varied. Whereas the overall findings of the series are encouraging because they indicate a potential objective scientific correlate to complementary healing treatment intervention, the results are considered preliminary in nature and appear to be linked to either the meditational experience of the subjects or dependent on the particular healer(s) used. Additional research is needed in order to establish the multisite sEMG assessment procedure as a reliable correlative measure for complementary healing treatment effects and to determine whether a consistent replicative treatment effect can be demonstrated independent of the specific subject population or practitioner(s) used. PMID:9449057

  4. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: It's Characteristics and Advantages for Use in RF and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.

    1998-01-01

    To solve many of the problems encountered when using conventional coplanar waveguide (CPW) with its semi-infinite ground planes, a new version of coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes has been developed. This new transmission line which we call Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) waveguide has several advantages which make it a better transmission line for RF and wireless circuits. Since the ground planes are electrically narrow, spurious resonances created by the CPW ground planes and the metal carrier or package base are eliminated. In addition, lumped and distributed circuit elements may now be integrated into the ground strips in the same way as they traditionally have been integrated into the center conductor to realize novel circuit layouts that are smaller and have less parasitic reactance. Lastly, FGC is shown to have lower coupling between adjacent transmission lines than conventional CPW.

  5. The effect of electrode tilt angle on the characteristics of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges with Xe-Ne mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Seung Bo; Song, In Cheol; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2011-07-01

    The results of a two-dimensional fluid simulation of a plasma display panel (PDP) cell show that the discharge characteristics of a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge can be controlled by the electrode tilt angle rather than by the gas mixture ratio or gap distance. The change in the tilt angle results in a significant change in the wall charge distribution and the discharge duration for each pulse. Therefore, the breakdown voltage, plasma density, light brightness, and luminous efficacy can be controlled by the tilt angle. A concave electrode structure allows large wall charge accumulation near the outer edge of two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a long-duration discharge, high luminance, and high luminous efficacy. On the other hand, a convex electrode structure allows high wall charge accumulation near the gap between two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a short-duration discharge with a decreased breakdown voltage.

  6. Comparative analysis of 60Co intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Lynch, Bart; Men, Chunhua; Aleman, Dionne M.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we perform a scientific comparative analysis of using 60Co beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In particular, we evaluate the treatment plan quality obtained with (i) 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co IMRT; (ii) different numbers of static multileaf collimator (MLC) delivered 60Co beams and (iii) a helical tomotherapy 60Co beam geometry. We employ a convex fluence map optimization (FMO) model, which allows for the comparison of plan quality between different beam energies and configurations for a given case. A total of 25 clinical patient cases that each contain volumetric CT studies, primary and secondary delineated targets, and contoured structures were studied: 5 head-and-neck (H&N), 5 prostate, 5 central nervous system (CNS), 5 breast and 5 lung cases. The DICOM plan data were anonymized and exported to the University of Florida optimized radiation therapy (UFORT) treatment planning system. The FMO problem was solved for each case for 5-71 equidistant beams as well as a helical geometry for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung cases, and for 3-7 equidistant beams in the upper hemisphere for breast cases, all with 6 MV, 18 MV and 60Co dose models. In all cases, 95% of the target volumes received at least the prescribed dose with clinical sparing criteria for critical organs being met for all structures that were not wholly or partially contained within the target volume. Improvements in critical organ sparing were found with an increasing number of equidistant 60Co beams, yet were marginal above 9 beams for H&N, prostate, CNS and lung. Breast cases produced similar plans for 3-7 beams. A helical 60Co beam geometry achieved similar plan quality as static plans with 11 equidistant 60Co beams. Furthermore, 18 MV plans were initially found not to provide the same target coverage as 6 MV and 60Co plans; however, adjusting the trade-offs in the optimization model allowed equivalent target coverage for 18 MV. For plans with comparable target coverage

  7. Development of a micro-CMM with scanning touch probe and high-precision coplanar platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Lu, Chin-Tu; Chen, Hung-Chi; Ke, Jhih-Sian; Chang, Chao-Ming

    2013-10-01

    This study develops a micro-CMM incorporating a scanning touch probe and a high-precision coplanar platform. The measurement performance of the proposed system was enhanced through the use of a rigid aluminum double-arch-bridge structure to support the scanning touch probe. For the working stage, a linear motor was used for long-stroke positioning and a piezoelectric actuator was then employed to fine-tune the positioning so as to achieve a requirement of highprecision. The platform has two characteristics: (i) the driving and measuring axes are designed along the same line so that Abbe error of the stage can be eliminated; (ii) the coplanar design makes the X and Y axes reach a goal of two-axis concurrent. The aforementioned two designs can reduce the error of the platform so that the micro-CMM reaches a positioning accuracy of ±0.1μm for a working volume of 80×80×40 mm3. Furthermore, the reliability of the probe mechanism of three degrees of freedom was analyzed and validated. The sensor coordinates a laser diode with Position Sensor Detectors (PSD) working with an optical path to measure placement of Z-axis and angle placement of XY-axis. By validation through an experiment, the three dimensional scanning touch probe developed by this study has a measuring range of ±1mm × ±1mm × 1mm with a unidirectional repeatability of 0.6μm.

  8. Microwave Characterization of Low-k Dielectric Thin Films using a Coplanar Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radican, Kevin P.; Koeck, Deborah C.; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Spencer, Gregory; Donnelly, David; Galloway, Heather C.

    2003-03-01

    As microelectronic logic devices increase in speed the RC time delay is becoming of greater concern. One remedy is the use of low-k dielectrics along with less resistive metals such as Cu in back end processing. We have demonstrated a method of forming coplanar waveguides on low-k dielectric materials deposited on SiC/Si wafers. These thin films are prepared by the usual semiconductor industry methods. Then, the dielectric properties of the low-k dielectric thin films on wafers were measured at microwave frequencies using coplanar waveguide test structures. Several OSG low k materials were investigated before and after chemical mechanical planarization processing which involves placing the dielectrics in a liquid abrasive slurry. We will report on the details of the fabrication of the waveguide structures using argon laser beam lithography, magnetron sputter deposition, and reactive plasma etching. We will also report on the electrical changes observed due to the chemical processing. Electrical measurements were taken using an Agilent network analyzer, and Cascade Microtech probe station.

  9. An Algorithm for LOD by Merging Near Coplanar Faces Based on Gauss Sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weiqun; BAO Hujun; PENG Qunsheng

    2001-01-01

    LOD (Level of Detail) models are widely used recently to accelerate the rendering of 3D scenes. An algorithm that creates multiple levels of detail for 3D scene by merging near-coplanar faces is presented in this paper. First a Gauss sphere is defined for the model of scene and it is divided into meshes near-uniformly. Then, the faces of objects are attached to the respective spherical meshes according to their normal direction. If faces attached to the same mesh are connected with each other, they are merged to form a near coplanar patch (Superface). Isolated vertices inside the patch are removed and the patch is retriangulated.To further improve the simplification, vicinity vertices on the boundary of the surface patch are merged. In the algorithm, a planar separate rule planar-enneatree is adopted to set up a hierarchical structure of the Gauss sphere, which is used to support the hierarchical model of the scene (LOD). The experimental result shows that the algorithm can achieve desired simplification effects.

  10. Direct Force Control of a Rudder with the Action of a Coplanar Waveguide Product Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-Kai; ZHOU Ben-Mou; LIU Hui-Xing; LIU Zhi-Gang; JI Yan-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of electromagnetic body force in a fluid boundary layer produced by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and focus on the fluid dynamic control effects of a rudder. The electromagnetic body force along the CPW direction can be created by the mutual coupling of landscape orientated electric and magnetic fields. With CPWs arranged on the rudder's surface, a direct-force-control rudder can be realized by adjusting the microwave sources. It is also found that a streamwise microwave electromagnetic body force can markedly enhance lift force and suppress rudder vibration, thus improving response time lag significantly. Furthermore, navigation stall caused by a large angle of attack can be avoided.%@@ We investigate the distribution of electromagnetic body force in a fluid boundary layer produced by a coplanar waveguide(CPW)and focus on the fluid dynamic control effects of a rudder.The electromagnetic body force along the CPW direction can be created by the mutual coupling of landscape orientated electric and magnetic fields.With CPWs arranged on the rudder's surface,a direct-force-control rudder can be realized by adjusting the microwave sources.It is also found that a streamwise microwave electromagnetic body force can markedly enhance lift force and suppress rudder vibration,thus improving response time lag significantly.Fhrthermore,navigation stall caused by a large angle of attack can be avoided.

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance of epitaxial Fe nanodots grown on MgO measured using coplanar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, M; Takanashi, K, E-mail: mizuguchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-02-16

    Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of Fe nanodots epitaxially grown on a MgO layer were carried out using a coplanar waveguide to investigate the dynamic behaviours of spins in a magnetic dot assembly. The resonant peaks of Fe nanodots with an average diameter of 10 nm were successfully observed, and a strong magnetic anisotropy was found in the peak frequency shift depending on the magnetic field applied in the film plane. A difference was clearly seen in the peak shift behaviour between Fe nanodots and continuous Fe thin films. The Gilbert damping parameter of the Fe nanodots (nominal thickness: 3 nm) was estimated to be 0.008 12 from the width of the resonant peaks, substantially larger than that of a continuous Fe thin film with a thickness of 8 nm. This difference in damping is attributed to the distribution of the effective field in each nanodot due to size dispersion. Ferromagnetic resonance studies using coplanar waveguides thus enable clarification of the spin dynamics of magnetic dot arrays and the fundamental spin dynamics of a single nanodot.

  12. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Co-planar Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T P; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; 10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/71

    2013-01-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of co-planar interferometers. The platform of a co-planar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline, and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modelled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we reco...

  13. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugemangango Cyprien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing the given data.

  14. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Cracking Behavior of Brittle Sandstone Containing Two Non-coplanar Fissures Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ranjith, P. G.; Ju, Yang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the fracture mechanism in all kinds of rock engineering, it is important to investigate the fracture evolution behavior of pre-fissured rock. In this research, we conducted uniaxial compression experiments to evaluate the influence of ligament angle on the strength, deformability, and fracture coalescence behavior of rectangular prismatic specimens (80 × 160 × 30 mm) of brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures. The experimental results show that the peak strength of sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures depends on the ligament angle, but the elastic modulus is not closely related to the ligament angle. With the increase of ligament angle, the peak strength decreased at a ligament angle of 60°, before increasing up to our maximum ligament angle of 120°. Crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence were all observed and characterized from the inner and outer tips of pre-existing non-coplanar fissures using photographic monitoring. Based on the results, the sequence of crack evolution in sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures was analyzed in detail. In order to fully understand the crack evolution mechanism of brittle sandstone, numerical simulations using PFC2D were performed for specimens containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results. By analyzing the stress field, the crack evolution mechanism in brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression is revealed. These experimental and numerical results are expected to improve the understanding of the unstable fracture mechanism of fissured rock engineering structures.

  15. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  16. Use of short roll C-arm computed tomography and fully automated 3D analysis tools to guide transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michael S; Bracken, John; Eshuis, Peter; Chen, S Y James; Fullerton, David; Cleveland, Joseph; Messenger, John C; Carroll, John D

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the coplanar view is a critical component of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The safety and accuracy of a novel reduced angular range C-arm computed tomography (CACT) approach coupled with a fully automated 3D analysis tool package to predict the coplanar view in TAVR was evaluated. Fifty-seven patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis deemed prohibitive-risk for surgery and who underwent TAVR were enrolled. Patients were randomized 2:1 to CACT vs. angiography (control) in estimating the coplanar view. These approaches to determine the coplanar view were compared quantitatively. Radiation doses needed to determine the coplanar view were recorded for both the CACT and control patients. Use of CACT offered good agreement with the actual angiographic view utilized during TAVR in 34 out of 41 cases in which a CACT scan was performed (83 %). For these 34 cases, the mean angular magnitude difference, taking into account both oblique and cranial/caudal angulation, was 1.3° ± 0.4°, while the maximum difference was 7.3°. There were no significant differences in the mean total radiation dose delivered to patients between the CACT and control groups as measured by either dose area product (207.8 ± 15.2 Gy cm(2) vs. 186.1 ± 25.3 Gy cm(2), P = 0.47) or air kerma (1287.6 ± 117.7 mGy vs. 1098.9 ± 143.8 mGy, P = 0.32). Use of reduced-angular range CACT coupled with fully automated 3D analysis tools is a safe, practical, and feasible method by which to determine the optimal angiographic deployment view for guiding TAVR procedures. PMID:27091735

  17. Assessment of dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology: principal component analysis compared with confirmatory factor analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Monier, Florent; Le Moual, Nicole; de Batlle, Jordi; Miranda, Gemma; Pison, Christophe,; Romieu, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Maccario, Jean

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the field of nutritional epidemiology, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to derive patterns, but the robustness of interpretation might be an issue when the sample size is small. The authors proposed the alternative use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to define such patterns. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare dietary patterns derived through PCA and CFA used as equivalent approaches in terms of stability and relevance. DESIGN: PCA and CFA were performed in ...

  18. ROLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN IN SME COMPARE WITH DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Shaikh

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of western women in Small and Medium enterprises business compare with Pakistani women. The western women are playing a very important role in economic development through SMEs in comparison with the South Asia and specially in Pakistan where women is not free to develop their own business but only few visible cases has been studies and it was observed that despite of many obstacles our women is playing a vital role in developing countries in SME and...

  19. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Blande, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Tuomainen, M.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In

  1. Dielectric dispersion of BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin film with parallel-plate and coplanar interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Song, Qing; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Su; Wang, Peng; Ong, C. K.

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) thin films with x = 0.25 and 0.5 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal LaAlO3 and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates, respectively. Capacitors were then fabricated from the BST thin films based on coplanar interdigital electrodes (CIEs) and parallel-plate electrodes (PPEs). The dielectric properties of the BST film with CIE and PPE were investigated and compared over a wide frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 GHz. The dielectric dispersion in PPE configuration, caused by the interfacial polarization in film/electrode interfaces, exhibited a strong dependence on frequency. However, the permittivity ɛCIE in CIE configuration shows a gentle variation with the frequency indicating interfacial polarization substantially suppressed. The influence upon the dielectric properties of the columnar BST grains due to the use of different forms of electrodes was discussed.

  2. Dielectric dispersion of BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin film with parallel-plate and coplanar interdigital electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroelectric BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) thin films with x = 0.25 and 0.5 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal LaAlO3 and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates, respectively. Capacitors were then fabricated from the BST thin films based on coplanar interdigital electrodes (CIEs) and parallel-plate electrodes (PPEs). The dielectric properties of the BST film with CIE and PPE were investigated and compared over a wide frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 GHz. The dielectric dispersion in PPE configuration, caused by the interfacial polarization in film/electrode interfaces, exhibited a strong dependence on frequency. However, the permittivity εCIE in CIE configuration shows a gentle variation with the frequency indicating interfacial polarization substantially suppressed. The influence upon the dielectric properties of the columnar BST grains due to the use of different forms of electrodes was discussed.

  3. Coplanar metal–semiconductor–metal light-emitting devices with an n++ InGaN layer and their application to display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H.; Zeng, Y. P.; Mei, Y.; Ying, L. Y.; Zhang, B. P.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a new kind of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diode (LED) with simplified fabrication processes, where only one round of photolithography and electrode deposition is necessary. The electrical and optical properties of this LED, which is defined as a coplanar metal–semiconductor–metal (CMSM) LED, were characterized. The electroluminescence spectrum only exhibits blue emission at 450 nm, meaning that the light comes exclusively from MQWs. The optical output at 20 mA was comparable to that of conventional LEDs. A shunt circuit model with a surface thin film resistance, an n++ InGaN/p-GaN/n-GaN structure and a p-GaN/n-GaN junction was proposed to explain the working mechanism of the CMSM LED. A proof-of–concept display was demonstrated, exploiting the promising application of CMSM LED to display.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KEY GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Krylov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses current transformations in the system of global economic governance. State-led, mixed and private models of global economic governance are examined in the comparative perspective.

  5. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  6. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2013-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  7. Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabir, Parag Deepak; Ottosen, Peter; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques;

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma......Comparative analysis of two and three marker immunohistochemical cocktails in the diagnosis of prostata carcinoma...

  8. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. PMID:26948618

  9. Comparative Analysis of Vehicle Make and Model Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Ayub Syed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Make and Model Recognition (VMMR has emerged as a significant element of vision based systems because of its application in access control systems, traffic control and monitoring systems, security systems and surveillance systems, etc. So far a number of techniques have been developed for vehicle recognition. Each technique follows different methodology and classification approaches. The evaluation results highlight the recognition technique with highest accuracy level. In this paper we have pointed out the working of various vehicle make and model recognition techniques and compare these techniques on the basis of methodology, principles, classification approach, classifier and level of recognition After comparing these factors we concluded that Locally Normalized Harris Corner Strengths (LHNS performs best as compared to other techniques. LHNS uses Bayes and K-NN classification approaches for vehicle classification. It extracts information from frontal view of vehicles for vehicle make and model recognition.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis as a tool for biologicaldiscovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Biology is a discipline rooted in comparisons. Comparative physiology has assembled a detailed catalogue of the biological similarities and differences between species, revealing insights into how life has adapted to fill a wide-range of environmental niches. For example, the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying capacity of vertebrate has evolved to provide strong advantages for species respiring at sea level, at high elevation or within water. Comparative- anatomy, -biochemistry, -pharmacology, -immunology and -cell biology have provided the fundamental paradigms from which each discipline has grown.

  11. CIS Countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia: Comparative Analysis of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleshchuk Irina Ivanovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the logistics services market of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia on the basis of the LPI for 2011 and the LPI for 2013. The countries under analysis were divided into 3 groups depending on the logistics services market development. Due to the experts’ survey the strengths and weaknesses of the CIS countries, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia logistics systems were revealed, the influence of the external environment factors was analyzed, as a result the matrix of the transport-logistics sphere condition of the countries under analysis was built. The authors analyzed the groups of the countries depending on the logistics sphere development.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Logan, J.; Bird, L.; Short, W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  13. Extensions to the quasi-static expressions for the line parameters of coplanar waveguide with relatively thick conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-planar waveguide (CPW) transmission line can be configured as a sensor to measure the complex permittivity of biological materials. By placing a material with unknown permittivity on the CPW and measuring the scattering parameters with a vector network analyzer, the characteristic impedance and e...

  14. Aborted and refractory status epilepticus in children : A comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechtsen, Florise A. C. P.; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, and EEG findings of status epilepticus aborted with medication (ASE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), (2) to describe the treatment response of status epilepticus (SE), an

  15. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  16. Reference Management Software: A Comparative Analysis of Four Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Ron; Cobus-Kuo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Reference management (RM) software is widely used by researchers in the health and natural sciences. Librarians are often called upon to provide support for these products. The present study compares four prominent RMs: CiteULike, RefWorks, Mendeley, and Zotero, in terms of features offered and the accuracy of the bibliographies that they…

  17. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  18. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  19. High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis using spotted oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, B; Ouwerkerk, E; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, comparative genomic hybridisation array (array CGH) is the method of choice for studying genome wide DNA copy number changes. To date, either amplified representations of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)/phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) or cDNAs have been spotted as

  20. Online Genome Analysis Resources for Educators, a Comparative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2012-01-01

    A comparative review of several companies that offer similar kits or services that allow students to isolate DNA (human and others), amplify it by PCR, and in some cases sequence the resulting sample.  The companies include:  Carolina® Biological Supply Company, Bio-Rad®, Edvotek® Inc., Hiram Genomics Store, and 23andMe.

  1. Environment Reporters and U.S. Journalists: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsman, David B.; Simon, James; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    2008-01-01

    This study provides baseline data regarding environment reporters in the twenty-first century, and then compares this baseline information about a specialized journalism beat to existing studies of U.S. journalists in general. This comparison between 652 environmental journalists working at daily newspapers and television stations and more than…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  3. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  4. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  7. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  8. UHF coplanar-slot antenna for aircraft-to-satellite data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The initiative for starting the Aircraft-to-Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR) Program came from a recognition that much of the world's weather originates in the data sparse area of the tropics which are primarily ocean. The ASDAR system consists of (1) a data acquisition and control unit to acquire, store and format these data; (2) a clock to time the data sampling and transmission periods; and (3) a transmitter and low-profile upper hemisphere coverage antenna to relay the formatted data via satellite to the National Weather Service ground stations, as shown schematically. The low-profile antenna is a conformal antenna based on the coplanar-slot approach. The antenna is circular polarized and has an on-axis gain of nearly 2.5 dB and a HPBW greater than 90 deg. The discussion covers antenna design, radiation characteristics, flight testing, and system performance.

  9. The geometry of three-dimensional measurement from paired coplanar x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    This article outlines the geometric principles which underlie the process of making craniofacial measurements in three dimensions by combining information from pairs of coplanar x-ray images. The main focus is upon the rationale of the method rather than upon the computational details. We stress particularly the importance of having available accurate measurements as to the relative positions of the x-ray tubes and the film plane. The use of control arrays of radiopaque "points" whose projected images upon the film plane allow the retrospective calculation of the spatial relationship between the x-ray tubes and the film plane is explained. Finally, the question of correcting for movement of the subject between two films of an image pair is considered briefly.

  10. A Reconfigurable Coplanar Waveguide Bowtie Antenna Using an Integrated Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel printed antenna with a frequency reconfigurable feed network is presented. The antenna consists of a bowtie structure patch radiating element in the inner space of an annulus that is on a nongrounded substrate with a ferroelectric (FE Barium Strontium Titanate (BST thin film. The bowtie patch is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission line that also includes a CPW-based BST shunt varactor. Reconfiguration of the compact 8 mm × 8 mm system has been demonstrated by shifting the antenna system’s operating frequency 500 MHz in the 7–9 GHz band by applying a DC voltage bias.

  11. Electron impact ionization of Li+ (ls2) in the coplanar equal energy-sharing geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾祥富; 刘明海

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the triple differential cross section for the low-energy electron impact ionization of the Li+ ionis considered in the coplanar equal energy-sharing kinematics at an incident energy of 114.083eV. The emergence of structures in the calculated cross sections is explained in terms of isolated two-body final-state interactions and three-body coupling. The cross section shows two peaks originating from ‘classical' sequential two-body collisions. The position of these peaks is determined by two-body final-state interactions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the signature of three-body interactions is carried by the magnitude and ratio of these two peaks. The direct and exchange amplitudes are also considered.

  12. Noise reduction in CdZnTe coplanar-grid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Paul N.; Lee, Julie S.; Amman, Mark; Yu, Kin M.

    2001-11-15

    Noise measurements on CdZnTe detectors show that the main sources of detector-related noise are shot noise due to bulk leakage current and 1/f noise due to the detector surfaces. The magnitude of surface leakage current appears to have little or no effect on the detector noise. Measurements on guard-ring devices fabricated using gold-evaporated contacts show that the contacts behave as Schottky barriers, and the bulk current at typical operating voltages is likely dependent on the contact properties rather than directly on the material's bulk resistivity. This also suggests that the level of shot noise is affected by the detector contacts and not necessarily by the material's bulk resistivity. A significant reduction in the noise of coplanar-grid detectors has been obtained using a modified contact fabrication process.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on PTFE surfaces by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tučeková, Zlata; Koval'ová, Zuzana; Zahoranová, Anna; Machala, Zdenko; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) was tested for decontamination of bacteria Escherichia coli on polymer surfaces. We investigated the optical parameters of DCSBD plasma generated in synthetic air with different relative humidity. Our study was provided to estimate the main plasma components active during the DCSBD plasma degradation of E. coli contamination prepared on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) surface, in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The DCSBD plasma was characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. The inactivation of E. coli bacteria was evaluated by standard microbiological cultivation (CFU plate counting). The experimental results of the germicidal efficiency obtained for short plasma exposure times proved the effectiveness of DCSBD plasma for the polymer surface decontamination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  14. Characterization of a large CdZnTe coplanar quad-grid semiconductor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Joachim; Gehre, Daniel; Hagner, Caren; Heidrich, Nadine; Klingenberg, Rainer; Kröninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian; Oldorf, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Rajek, Silke; Rebber, Henning; Rohatsch, Katja; Tebrügge, Jan; Temminghoff, Robert; Theinert, Robert; Timm, Jan; Wonsak, Björn; Zatschler, Stefan; Zuber, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The COBRA collaboration aims to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay of $^{116}$Cd. A demonstrator setup with 64 CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, each with a volume of 1cm$^3$, is currently being operated at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. This paper reports on the characterization of a large (2 $\\times$ 2 $\\times$ 1.5)cm$^3$ CdZnTe detector with a new coplanar-grid design for applications in $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy and low-background operation. Several studies of electric properties as well as of the spectrometric performance, like energy response and resolution, are conducted. Furthermore, measurements including investigating the operational stability and a possibility to identify multiple-scattered photons are presented.

  15. Planar self-aligned imprint lithography for coplanar plasmonic nanostructures fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a cost-efficient nanopatterning technology because of its promising advantages of high throughput and high resolution. However, accurate multilevel overlay capability of NIL required for integrated circuit manufacturing remains a challenge due to the high cost of achieving mechanical alignment precision. Although self-aligned imprint lithography was developed to avoid the need of alignment for the vertical layered structures, it has limited usage in the manufacture of the coplanar structures, such as integrated plasmonic devices. In this paper, we develop a new process of planar self-alignment imprint lithography (P-SAIL) to fabricate the metallic and dielectric structures on the same plane. P-SAIL transfers the multilevel imprint processes to a single-imprint process which offers higher efficiency and less cost than existing manufacturing methods. Such concept is demonstrated in an example of fabricating planar plasmonic structures consisting of different materials. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a split-ring-resonator-based left-handed coplanar waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2011-04-01

    We study the propagation of quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a nonlinear left-handed coplanar waveguide coupled with split-ring resonators. By considering the relevant transmission line analog, we derive a nonlinear lattice model which is studied analytically by means of a quasidiscrete approximation. We derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and find that the system supports bright envelope soliton solutions in a relatively wide subinterval of the left-handed frequency band. We perform systematic numerical simulations, in the framework of the nonlinear lattice model, to study the propagation properties of the quasidiscrete microwave solitons. Our numerical findings are in good agreement with the analytical predictions, and suggest that the predicted structures are quite robust and may be observed in experiments.

  17. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed excreting system. Aim: To compare the result and advantages of both endonasal endoscopic and external DCR regarding the patency rate, patient compliance and complications. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted for 16 months duration in a teaching hospital with 50 cases of endoscopic and 30 cases of external DCR with a follow-up of minimum 6 months. Data regarding surgical outcome and complications were analysed and compared using χ2 test. Results: Total 72 patients were included in the study with six having bilateral involvement, out of which 20 were male and 52 were female. The mean age for endoscopic and external DCR was 33.6 years and 46.0 years, respectively. Right eye (63.8% was involved more commonly than left eye (36.2%. Epiphora was the commonest presenting symptom (63.7%. Mean duration of surgery was much lengthier in external (mean 119.6 minutes than endoscopic (mean 49.0 minutes DCR. Bleeding was the most common immediate postoperative complication seen in 33.3% and 10.0% of external and endoscopic DCR cases, respectively. Primary surgical success rate was 90% and 96.7% for endoscopic and external DCR, respectively ( P = 0.046. Among the endoscopic DCR group, four patients underwent revision surgery giving a total successful surgical outcome of 98% at third month of follow-up. However, at 6 month of follow-up, success rate was 92% for endoscopic DCR and 93.3% for external DCR. The difference was not statistically significant ( P = 0.609. Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR.

  18. Comparative analysis of team work in kindergartens and schools

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelajac, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The thesis work I determined and compared the team work in kindergarten and school. I was interested in cooperation between a preschool teacher and an assistant preschool teacher and a primary school teacher and a preschool teacher at school. The participants and members of the team directly share roles and they are equivalent to each other. However, it is necessary to emphasize their difference in knowledge, skills and abilities. They do not have the same level of competence, motivation and ...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias Patterns in Microsporidian Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Heng; Zhang, Ruizhi; Butler, Robert R.; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Li; Pombert, Jean-François; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different evolutionary forces are applied on the group as a whole. In this study, we have compared the codon usage bias (CUB) between eight taxonomica...

  20. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  1. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  2. A comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Kemal; Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.

    2012-01-01

    The need to analyze high-dimension biological data is driving the development of new data mining methods. Biclustering algorithms have been successfully applied to gene expression data to discover local patterns, in which a subset of genes exhibit similar expression levels over a subset of conditions. However, it is not clear which algorithms are best suited for this task. Many algorithms have been published in the past decade, most of which have been compared only to a small number of algori...

  3. Online Genome Analysis Resources for Educators, a Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative review of several companies that offer similar kits or services that allow students to isolate DNA (human and others, amplify it by PCR, and in some cases sequence the resulting sample.  The companies include:  Carolina® Biological Supply Company, Bio-Rad®, Edvotek® Inc., Hiram Genomics Store, and 23andMe.

  4. Contingency contracting within the Department of Defense: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McMillon, Chester L.

    2000-01-01

    Contingencies such as regional conflicts, humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, or international or domestic disaster relief missions dictate the immediate deployment of military forces. This rapid deployment of Service members and other military assets requires concurrent deployment of supporting assets such as Contingency Contracting Officers (CCOs). The purpose of this research was to detail and compare the contingency contracting establishments of the Air Force, Army, Navy/Marine Corps,...

  5. New World and Mediterranean wine tourism: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Charters, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper providing a comparative overview of wine tourism in the New World and Europe – particularly the Mediterranean region. The review is timely because while there has been substantial wine tourism research in Anglophone countries, less has occurred in Europe, despite the fact that it has such a long history of wine production. The paper suggests a series of differences between the two areas based on both structural factors affecting the context in which wine is produce...

  6. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Ron; SMITH, ANDREW M.; Heisler, Lawrence E.; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platfor...

  7. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Andrew M; Ammar Ron; Heisler Lawrence E; Giaever Guri; Nislow Corey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarra...

  8. Poverty Consequences of Globalisation in OIC Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Majeed

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of globalisation on cross-country poverty using a new comparable panel data set for developing countries over a long period 1970-2008. The main findings of the study are: First, openness to trade exerts adverse effects on poverty in all sample developing countries while FDI helps in reducing poverty only in OIC countries. Second, growth elasticity of poverty is negative and significant in all countries; however, the growth elasticity of poverty is high in the ca...

  9. Linux, OpenBSD, and Talisker : a comparative complexity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Security engineering requires a combination of features and assurance to provide confidence that security policy is correctly enforced. Rigorous engineering principles are applicable across a broad range of systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare three operating systems, including two general-purpose operating systems (Linux and OpenBSD) and a commercially available, embedded operating system (Talisker). The basis...

  10. Comparative analysis on the adoption of innovation in furniture companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Hermes Petter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors categorical adoption of innovation in three main groups: in products, processes and administrative procedures in a group of micro and small enterprises in the furniture sector, located in the middle western state of Santa Catarina. In particular, the study sought to compare the data of a survey conducted by SEBRAE (2009 observed the same factors present innovation in micro and small businesses scattered throughout the Brazilian territory, in order to compare the national stage for the adoption of innovation in relation the scenario presented by the companies studied in this research. Data collection took place by means of a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice closed questions related to the three aforementioned groups of innovation, which was answered by managers of the constituent companies of the group studied. As a result of this research, it was found that the adoption of innovation in product development is the most important aspect in the surveyed companies. It was also found that they seek to adopt the innovation with the objective of entering new markets. However, the main difficulty in adopting innovation were identified lack of skilled labor, shortage and / or lack of access to technology and financial difficulties. Compared to general adoption of innovation by micro and small enterprises studied by SEBRAE (2009, the studied firms have a tendency to develop in the same direction.

  11. Comparative analysis of nanoscale MOS device architectures for RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranti, Abhinav; Armstrong, G. Alastair

    2007-05-01

    The suitability of nanoscale non-planar FinFETs and classical planar single and double gate SOI MOSFETs for rf applications is examined via extensive 3D device simulations and detailed interpretation. It is shown that although nanoscale FinFETs achieve higher values of intrinsic dc gain (nearly 20 dB higher than planar SG devices), they also present higher gate capacitance that severely undermines their rf performance. We also show that at large values of drain currents, well-designed conventional planar single and double gate SOI MOSFETs attain higher values of cut-off frequency compared to FinFETs, whereas at lower drain currents, a well-aligned planar double gate SOI MOSFET is the optimal structure. The reason for higher parasitic capacitance in FinFETs as compared to planar MOSFETs is examined in detail. An assessment of the impact of back gate misalignment on the rf performance of a 25 nm gate length planar double gate MOSFET indicates that a misalignment of 12 nm towards the source end is acceptable to give superior performance to a FinFET. The importance of source/drain extension region engineering in nanoscale FinFETs for ultra-low voltage analogue applications is also investigated. RF figures of merit for planar and vertical MOS devices are also compared based on layout-area calculations. The paper provides valuable design insights for optimizing device parameters for nanoscale planar and vertical MOSFETs.

  12. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Zia, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes, which have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here, we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we ide...

  13. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Computer Literacy Education for Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Richard C.; Skiba, Diane J.

    1982-01-01

    Despite recent advances by nursing in the computer field computer literacy is a rarity among nursing professionals. Our analysis of existing educational models in nursing (baccalaureate, staff development, continuing education, and vendor) shows that no single educational strategy is likely to be effective in achieving computer literacy for all nurses. A refinement of the computer literacy concept is proposed which divides the educational needs of nurses into specific objectives based on desi...

  15. Alternative Approaches for Rating INDCs: a Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davide, Marinella; Vesco, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The “Intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) communicated by both developing and developed countries represent a crucial element of the Paris agreement. This paper aims at analysing the INDCs submitted by Parties, through the different tools and approaches proposed by the research community. In particular, our analysis looks at the different ways to assess the effectiveness of the proposed emission reduction pledges, both in terms of aggregate and national efforts. However, we a...

  16. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, e...

  17. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Rodrigues, PMM

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnightstays in each region. Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggest...

  18. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnight stays in each region.Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany,the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggests that,...

  19. Comparative analysis of credit risk models for loan portfolios.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, C

    2014-01-01

    This study is distinct from previous studies in its inclusion of new models, consideration of sector correlation and performance of comprehensive sensitivity analysis. CreditRisk++, CreditMetrics, the Basel II internal-ratings-based method and the Mercer Oliver Wyman model are considered. Risk factor distribution and the relationship between risk components and risk factors are the key distinguishing characteristics of each model. CreditRisk++, due to its extra degree of freedom, has the high...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Pattern Recognition Methods: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    M.Subba Rao; Dr. B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The identification or interpretation of the pattern in an image can be described effectively with the help of Pattern Recognition (PR). It aims to extract information about the image to classify its contents. Inputs are in the form of digitized binary valued 2D images or textures containing the pattern to be classified. The analysis and recognition of the patterns such as images and textures are becoming more and more complex and multiform. This is because in general the patterns to be analyz...

  1. Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis of a Zygopteran Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Shanku, Alexander G; McPeek, Mark A.; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the damselfly (Enallagma hageni) through the use of 454 pyrosequencing. E. hageni is a member of the suborder Zygoptera, in the order Odonata, and Odonata organisms form the basal lineage of the winged insects (Pterygota). To date, sequence data used in phylogenetic analysis of Enallagma species have been derived from either mitochondrial DNA or ribosomal nuclear DNA. This Enallagma transcriptome contained 31,661 contigs that...

  2. Bayesian models for comparative analysis integrating phylogenetic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemereuil Pierre de

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncertainty in comparative analyses can come from at least two sources: a phylogenetic uncertainty in the tree topology or branch lengths, and b uncertainty due to intraspecific variation in trait values, either due to measurement error or natural individual variation. Most phylogenetic comparative methods do not account for such uncertainties. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty leads to false perceptions of precision (confidence intervals will be too narrow and inflated significance in hypothesis testing (e.g. p-values will be too small. Although there is some application-specific software for fitting Bayesian models accounting for phylogenetic error, more general and flexible software is desirable. Methods We developed models to directly incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty into a range of analyses that biologists commonly perform, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Results We demonstrate applications in linear regression, quantification of phylogenetic signal, and measurement error models. Phylogenetic uncertainty was incorporated by applying a prior distribution for the phylogeny, where this distribution consisted of the posterior tree sets from Bayesian phylogenetic tree estimation programs. The models were analysed using simulated data sets, and applied to a real data set on plant traits, from rainforest plant species in Northern Australia. Analyses were performed using the free and open source software OpenBUGS and JAGS. Conclusions Incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty through an empirical prior distribution of trees leads to more precise estimation of regression model parameters than using a single consensus tree and enables a more realistic estimation of confidence intervals. In addition, models incorporating measurement errors and/or individual variation, in one or both variables, are easily formulated in the Bayesian framework. We show that BUGS is a useful, flexible

  3. Comparative Analysis on Pesticide Management System between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunzheng; ZHANG; Yong; GONG; Weili; SHAN; Xianjin; LIU

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage amount of pesticides in US rank the leading position in the world. On the basis of protecting the environment and human health, US government has enacted a series of laws and regulations to normalize and manage the production and use of pesticides so as to ensure the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, US pesticide management system is briefly reviewed and compared with the pesticide management system of China, which may provide good reference for china in establishing its own management system and make steps towards the international standard.

  4. Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Haney, Maria; Jantzen, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Different Fabric Defects Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In last few years’ different textile companies aim to produce the quality fabrics. Major loss of any textile oriented company occurs due to defective fabrics. So the detection of faulty fabrics plays an important role in the success of any company. Till now most of the inspection is done using human visual. This way is too much time consuming, cumbersome and prone to human errors. In past, many advances are made in developing automated and computerized systems to reduce cost and time whereas, increasing the efficiency of the process. This paper aims at comparing some of these techniques on the basis of classification methods and accuracy.

  6. Stock Market Liquidity: Comparative Analysis of Croatian and Regional Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Benić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Croatian stock market liquidity has never been in the focus of academic research thus we find it necessary to observe liquidity at the aggregate level. This paper observes multi-dimensional liquidity through the impact of turnover on price change together with several one-dimensional measures. In our empirical research we applythe illiquidity measureto seven different stock markets. We focus on the Croatian stock market as compared to other markets in the Central and Eastern Europe and German market. The results of the research indicate a substantial level of illiquidity in the Croatian and other developing markets.

  7. The Canadian Unemployment Insurance Generosity: Reflections from a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Samir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment compensation system is at the centre of the current economic and political debate in many Western countries which, under the effects of the increase in public debt, must decide the level of their unemployment insurance while taking into account its impact on the performance of the labour market. In this article, we compare the generosity of such public policy in France and in Canada, while focusing on the experience of central and eastern Europe. By building a composite index, we show that the French unemployment insurance is more generous only in pecuniary terms, and not in its qualitative dimension.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Instruments Measuring Time Varying Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Carvalho, Frederico Marques

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial class A and class S power quality (PQ) instruments when measuring time-varying harmonics. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, two meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. Three-phase voltage signals are applied to PQ instruments, considering 3 situations of time-varying harmonic distortions, whose harmonic distortion values are in accordance with typical values found in power systems. This work is relevant considering that international standardization documents do not pay much attention to this aspect of harmonic distortion.

  9. Plan Quality and Treatment Efficiency for Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases: Non-Coplanar RapidArc vs Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the dosimetry and efficiency of two modern radiosurgery (SRS modalities for multiple brain metastases (Gamma Knife and LINAC-based RapidArc/volumetric modulated arc therapy, with a special focus on the comparison of low dose spread.Methods: Six patients with three or four small brain metastases were used in this study. The size of targets varied from 0.1 ~ 10.5 cc. SRS doses were prescribed according to size of lesions. SRS plans were made using both Gamma Knife® Perfexion and a single-isocenter, multiple non-coplanar RapidArc®. Dosimetric parameters analyzed included RTOG conformity index (CI, gradient index (GI, 12 Gy isodose volume (V12Gy for each target, and the dose spread (Dspread for each plan. Dspread reflects SRS plan’s capability of confining radiation to within the local vicinity of the lesion and to not spread out to the surrounding normal brain tissues. Each plan has a dose (Dspread, such that once dose decreases below Dspread (on total tissue DVH, isodose volume starts increasing dramatically. Dspread is defined as that dose when volume increase first exceeds 20 cc per 0.1 Gy dose decrease. Results: RapidArc SRS has smaller CI (1.19 ±0.14 vs. 1.50 ± 0.16, p<0.001 and larger GI (4.77 ± 1.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.98, p <0.01. V12Gy results were comparable (2.73 ± 1.38 cc vs. 3.06 ± 2.20 cc, p = 0.58. Moderate to lower dose spread, V6, V4.5, and V3, were also equivalent. Gamma Knife plans achieved better very low dose spread (≤3 Gy and also had slightly smaller Dspread, 1.9 Gy vs 2.5 Gy. Total treatment time for Gamma Knife is estimated between 60~100 min. Gamma Knife treatments are between 3~5 times longer compared to RapidArc treatment techniques.Conclusion: Dosimetric parameters reflecting prescription dose conformality (CI, dose fall off (GI, radiation necrosis indicator (V12Gy, and dose spread (Dspread were compared between Gamma Knife SRS and RapidArc SRS for multi-mets. RapidArc plans have

  10. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  11. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  12. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  13. Comparative Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear AMLI-Cycle Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaozhe [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xu, Jinchao [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of our paper is to provide a comprehensive convergence analysis of the nonlinear algebraic multilevel iteration (AMLI)-cycle multigrid (MG) method for symmetric positive definite problems. We show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle MG method is uniformly convergent, based on classical assumptions for approximation and smoothing properties. Furthermore, under only the assumption that the smoother is convergent, we show that the nonlinear AMLI-cycle method is always better (or not worse) than the respective V-cycle MG method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  14. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  15. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density, but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 μm features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 μm feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 μm size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Vehicle Classification Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Yousaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle classification has emerged as a significant field of study because of its importance in variety of applications like surveillance, security system, traffic congestion avoidance and accidents prevention etc. So far numerous algorithms have been implemented for classifying vehicle. Each algorithm follows different procedures for detecting vehicles from videos. By evaluating some of the commonly used techniques we highlighted most beneficial methodology for classifying vehicles. In this paper we pointed out the working of several video based vehicle classification algorithms and compare these algorithms on the basis of different performance metrics such as classifiers, classification methodology or principles and vehicle detection ratio etc. After comparing these parameters we concluded that Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Network (HDBN Classification algorithm is far better than the other algorithms due to its nature of estimating the simplest features of vehicles from different videos. HDBN detects vehicles by following important stages of feature extraction, selection and classification. It extracts the rear view information of vehicles rather than other information such as distance between the wheels and height of wheel etc.

  17. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  18. Comparative analysis of two emerging rice seed bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fory, P A; Triplett, L; Ballen, C; Abello, J F; Duitama, J; Aricapa, M G; Prado, G A; Correa, F; Hamilton, J; Leach, J E; Tohme, J; Mosquera, G M

    2014-05-01

    Seed sterility and grain discoloration limit rice production in Colombia and several Central American countries. In samples of discolored rice seed grown in Colombian fields, the species Burkholderia glumae and B. gladioli were isolated, and field isolates were compared phenotypically. An artificial inoculation assay was used to determine that, although both bacterial species cause symptoms on rice grains, B. glumae is a more aggressive pathogen, causing yield reduction and higher levels of grain sterility. To identify putative virulence genes differing between B. glumae and B. gladioli, four previously sequenced genomes of Asian and U.S. strains of the two pathogens were compared with each other and with two draft genomes of Colombian B. glumae and B. gladioli isolates generated for this study. Whereas previously characterized Burkholderia virulence factors are highly conserved between the two species, B. glumae and B. gladioli strains are predicted to encode distinct groups of genes encoding type VI secretion systems, transcriptional regulators, and membrane-sensing proteins. This study shows that both B. glumae and B. gladioli can threaten grain quality, although only one species affects yield. Furthermore, genotypic differences between the two strains are identified that could contribute to disease phenotypic differences. PMID:24261408

  19. Comparative analysis of ribonuclease P RNA of the planctomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Margaret K; Fuerst, John A

    2004-07-01

    The planctomycetes, order Planctomycetales, are a distinct phylum of domain Bacteria. Genes encoding the RNA portion of ribonuclease P (RNase P) of some planctomycete members were sequenced and compared with existing database planctomycete sequences. rnpB gene sequences encoding RNase P RNA were generated by a conserved primer PCR strategy for Planctomyces brasiliensis, Planctomyces limnophilus, Pirellula marina, Pirellula staleyi strain ATCC 35122, Isosphaera pallida, one other Isosphaera strain, Gemmata obscuriglobus and three other strains of the Gemmata group. These sequences were aligned against reference bacterial sequences and secondary structures of corresponding RNase P RNAs deduced by a comparative approach. P12 helices were found to be highly variable in length, as were helices P16.1 and P19, when present. RNase P RNA secondary structures of Gemmata isolates were found to have unusual features relative to other planctomycetes, including a long P9 helix and an insert in the P13 helix not found in any other member of domain Bacteria. These unique features are consistent with other unusual properties of this genus, distinguishing it from other bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that relationships between planctomycetes derived from RNase P RNA are consistent with 16S rRNA-based analyses. PMID:15280311

  20. Comparative analysis of different methods for image enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笑峰; 胡仕刚; 赵瑾; 李志明; 李劲; 唐志军; 席在芳

    2014-01-01

    Image enhancement technology plays a very important role to improve image quality in image processing. By enhancing some information and restraining other information selectively, it can improve image visual effect. The objective of this work is to implement the image enhancement to gray scale images using different techniques. After the fundamental methods of image enhancement processing are demonstrated, image enhancement algorithms based on space and frequency domains are systematically investigated and compared. The advantage and defect of the above-mentioned algorithms are analyzed. The algorithms of wavelet based image enhancement are also deduced and generalized. Wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) is a method for detecting the fractal dimension of a signal, it is well used for image enhancement. The image techniques are compared by using the mean (μ), standard deviation (s), mean square error (MSE) and PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). A group of experimental results demonstrate that the image enhancement algorithm based on wavelet transform is effective for image de-noising and enhancement. Wavelet transform modulus maxima method is one of the best methods for image enhancement.

  1. Methodology for comparative analysis of sustainability in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Barbosa Lopes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The work analyzes the political/institutional links and technological formats of agroforestry systems in the Caí and Taquari river valleys of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in an effort to determine a value for their ability to endure: their sustainability. Sustainability indicators are created for the analysis of these systems. The indicator values will be used to create a Sustainability Index (SI for each studied agroforestry system and to identify each system’s sustainability pattern. The different agroforestry systems will also be classified according to their structural characteristics. Analysis of the identified patterns and indexes will reveal the adequacy of the methodology employed and the consequence of each system’s institutional arrangement, technological format, and sustainability pattern. The agro forestry system that combines exotic forest species with watermelon and the system that combines native forest species with citrus fruit stand out as being most sustainable while, from an institutional perspective, those systems that were linked in an "associative" arrangement had the highest sustainability index values.

  2. Comparative analysis of redirection methods for asteroid resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth analysis and systematic comparison of asteroid redirection methods are performed within a resource exploitation framework using different assessment mechanisms. Through this framework, mission objectives and constraints are specified for the redirection of an asteroid from a near-Earth orbit to a stable orbit in the Earth-Moon system. The paper provides a detailed investigation of five redirection methods, i.e., ion beam, tugboat, gravity tractor, laser sublimation, and mass ejector, with respect to their capabilities for a redirection mission. A set of mission level criteria are utilized to assess the performance of each redirection method, and the means of assigning attributes to each criterion is discussed in detail. In addition, the uncertainty in physical characteristics of the asteroid population is quantified through the use of Monte Carlo analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation provides insight into the performance robustness of the redirection methods with respect to the targeted asteroid range. Lastly, the attributes for each redirection method are aggregated using three different multicriteria assessment approaches, i.e., the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a utility-based approach, and a fuzzy aggregation mechanism. The results of each assessment approach as well as recommendations for further studies are discussed in detail.

  3. Federated queries for comparative effectiveness research: performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ronald C; Huth, Derick; Smith, Jody; Harper, Steve; Pace, Wilson; Pulver, Gerald; Kahn, Michael G; Schilling, Lisa M; Facelli, Julio C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the performance of federated queries implemented in a system that simulates the architecture proposed for the Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet). Performance tests were conducted using both physical hardware and virtual machines within the test laboratory of the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah. Tests were performed on SAFTINet networks ranging from 4 to 32 nodes with databases containing synthetic data for several million patients. The results show that the caGrid FQE (Federated Query Engine) is capable and suitable for comparative effectiveness research (CER) federated queries given its nearly linear scalability as partner nodes increase in number. The results presented here are also important for the specification of the hardware required to run a CER grid. PMID:22941983

  4. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  5. Comparative analysis of different methods to detect Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Buttrini, Mirko; Martinelli, Monica; Gorrini, Chiara; Montecchini, Sara; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Covan, Silvia; Chezzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection, particularly in North America and Europe, have brought renewed focus on the most appropriate method to detect C. difficile and/or its toxins in stools. This prospective study evaluated the usefulness of the Illumigene TM C. difficile assay in diagnostic practice for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile DNA in clinical samples. A total of 88 out of 306 stool samples analysed were positive both by Illumigene and the combination of toxigenic C. difficile culture (TC) and immunochromatographic assay (IC) with a concordance of 100%. Of the 218 samples negative by the combination of TC and IC, 204 were negative also by Illumigene with a concordance of 93.57%. In our experience, compared to conventional assays Illumigene assay proved to be easy to perform, accurate and prompt giving results within 1 hour at a cost of 28 euro per sample. PMID:23435816

  6. Comparative cost analysis of wind and photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation from wind power and solar radiation is at present - and this can be described as generally accepted consent of energy economy - considered as the electricity generation option which is characterized by the lowest environmental loads. Greatest disadvantage of energy generation by using these renewable energy sources are - compared to conventional power generation options - the still to high production costs for electric power. Therefore government promotional programs have been initiated (e.g. 250 MW wind program and 1000-roof program) in order to attain cost reductions and thus to make a broader use of these energy sources possible. Against this background this study aims at presenting and discussing the production costs of power generation from wind power and solar radiation with and without government promotion under the meteorological conditions in the FRG. (orig.)

  7. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  8. Comparative analysis of toxin detection in biological and enviromental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogert, Robert A.; Burans, James; O'Brien, Tom; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    The basic recognition schemes underlying the principles of standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) protocols are increasingly being adapted for use with new detection devices. A direct comparison was made using a fiber optic biosensor that employs evanescent wave detection and an ELISA using avidin-biotin. The assays were developed for the detection of Ricinus communis agglutinin II, also known as ricin or RCA60. Detection limits between the two methods were comparable for ricin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), however results in complex samples differed slightly. In PBS, sensitivity for ricin was 1 ng/ml using the fiber optic device and 500 pg/ml using the ELISA. The fiber optic sensor could not detect ricin directly in urine or serum spiked with 5 ng/ml ricin, however, the ELISA showed detection but at reduced levels to the PBS control.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT BETWEEN ROMANIA AND MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the social security literature noted a major change towards the legal aspects in this field, lowering the importance of the expense and tax issues pursued by economists in their activities. Without minimizing the consistent and continuous importance of the legal foundations of the social security policy implementation, it is necessary that not only the media and the governmental authority websites to disclose information in the social insurance field, but the role of specialists, researchers and academics in finance, tax and even accounting have the role to interpret and give relevant solutions to these issues. Therefore, in this paper, we present in detail the comparative aspects of how the social security segment is organized, mainly the unemployment insurance in both Romania and Moldova by highlighting the financial differences and similarities of these systems.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter Summarell

    Full Text Available Vibrissae are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system and are used to detect vibrotactile stimuli in the environment. Pinnipeds have the largest and most highly innervated vibrissae among mammals, and the hair shafts function as a biomechanical filter spanning the environmental stimuli and the neural mechanoreceptors deep in the follicle-sinus complex. Therefore, the material properties of these structures are critical in transferring vibrotactile information to the peripheral nervous system. Vibrissae were tested as cantilever beams and their flexural stiffness (EI was measured to test the hypotheses that the shape of beaded vibrissae reduces EI and that vibrissae are anisotropic. EI was measured at two locations on each vibrissa, 25% and 50% of the overall length, and at two orientations to the point force. EI differed in orientations that were normal to each other, indicating a functional anisotropy. Since vibrissae taper from base to tip, the second moment of area (I was lower at 50% than 25% of total length. The anterior orientation exhibited greater EI values at both locations compared to the dorsal orientation for all species. Smooth vibrissae were generally stiffer than beaded vibrissae. The profiles of beaded vibrissae are known to decrease the amplitude of vibrations when protruded into a flow field. The lower EI values of beaded vibrissae, along with the reduced vibrations, may function to enhance the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors to detection of small changes in flow from swimming prey by increasing the signal to noise ratio. This study builds upon previous morphological and hydrodynamic analyses of vibrissae and is the first comparative study of the mechanical properties of pinniped vibrissae.

  11. Comparative analysis of student self-reflections on course projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales-García, Cristina; Cortés Barreto, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the skills, experiences, and values identified in project self-reflections of 161 undergraduate engineering students. Self-reflections from two different engineering design courses, which provide experiences in project-based learning (PBL), are analysed through the content analysis methodology. Results show that 'application', 'true life', 'satisfaction', and 'communication' are the common keywords shared in the reflections. Multiple hypothesis tests to identify differences between courses, project types, years, and gender suggest that there are no significant differences between experiences, skills, and values self-reported by students who completed either a case study or an industry project. Based on research findings, recommendations will be provided to enhance the engineering curriculum based on PBL experiences to support the development of relevant professional skills and experiences.

  12. Job flexibility in Latin America: A comparative analysis

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    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about labor flexibility show a partial image of the situation of Latin America labor markets. They are limited to confirm, the existence of high degrees of rigidity and the necessity to conduct labor reforms to the margin of specific national circumstances. The design of a synthetic labor rigidity indicator using methodology considered by the oecd, through a factor analysis for countries of IberoAmerica, allows obtaining certain advances in relation to this debate. The results establish the high importance of the rigidity in the procedures of collective dismissal, over normative aspects related to fixed term contracts. Finally, it is establish the little relation between flexibility levels and results in terms of economic development, putting into question the assertions that try to extrapolate strategies of flexibilization like isolated measurement to facilitate the economic progress of a country.

  13. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. PMID:24382658

  14. Apples, oranges, and angles: Comparative kinematic analysis of disparate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, Stephen M; Pollard, Nancy S

    2011-08-01

    Tetrapod limbs exhibit diverse postures and movements during terrestrial locomotion. As with morphological traits, the history of kinematic evolution should be accessible to reconstruction through analysis of limb motion patterns in a phylogenetic framework. However, the angular data comprising most kinematic descriptions appear to suffer from limitations that preclude meaningful comparison among disparate species. Using simple planar models, we discuss how geometric constraints render joint and elevation angles independent of neither morphology, degree of crouch, nor one another during the stance phase of locomotion. The implicit null hypothesis of potential similarity is invalidated because angular data are not viably transferable among limbs of dissimilar proportion and/or degree of crouch. Overlooking or dismissing the effect of constraints on angular parameterization hampers efforts to quantitatively elucidate the evolution of locomotion. We advocate a search for alternative methods of measuring limb movement that can decouple intersegmental coordination from morphology and posture. PMID:21600220

  15. Comparative Analysis of Eubacterial DNA Polymerase Ⅲ Alpha Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qian Zhao; Jian-Fei Hu; Jun Yu

    2006-01-01

    DNA polymerase Ⅲ is one of the five eubacterial DNA polymerases that is responsible for the replication of DNA duplex. Among the ten subunits of the DNA polymerase Ⅲ core enzyme, the alpha subunit catalyzes the reaction for polymerizing both DNA strands. In this study, we extracted genomic sequences of the alpha subunit from 159 sequenced eubacterial genomes, and carried out sequencebased phylogenetic and structural analyses. We found that all eubacterial genomes have one or more alpha subunits, which form either homodimers or heterodimers.Phylogenetic and domain structural analyses as well as copy number variations of the alpha subunit in each bacterium indicate the classification of alpha subunit into four basic groups: polC, dnaE1, dnaE2, and dnaE3. This classification is of essence in genome composition analysis. We also consolidated the naming convention to avoid further confusion in gene annotations.

  16. Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareborg Niclas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at http://www.phylofoot.org/. Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting.

  17. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  18. Comparative Analysis of Pattern Recognition Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Subba Rao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification or interpretation of the pattern in an image can be described effectively with the help of Pattern Recognition (PR. It aims to extract information about the image to classify its contents. Inputs are in the form of digitized binary valued 2D images or textures containing the pattern to be classified. The analysis and recognition of the patterns such as images and textures are becoming more and more complex and multiform. This is because in general the patterns to be analyzed are shifting from simple to complex, and because the patterns of heavy variations and with heavy noise have to be treated. Therefore it is proposed to develop sophisticated strategies of pattern analysis to cope with these difficulties. Pattern recognition is the research area that studies the operation and design of systems that recognize patterns in data.In this work three basic approaches of pattern recognition are analyzed: statistical pattern recognition, structural pattern recognition and neural pattern recognition. In the statistical approach the recognition is based on the decision boundaries that are established in the feature space by statistical distribution of the patterns. In the structural (syntactic approach each pattern class is defined by a structural description or representation. The recognition is performed according to the similarity of structures. This is based on the fact that the significant information is not only the features but also the relationships consisting among the features.In the neural network based approach the artificial neural networks are able to form complex decision regions for pattern recognition. The present work involves in the study of Pattern recognition methods on Texture Classifications.

  19. Comparative analysis of old-age mortality estimations in Africa.

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    Eran Bendavid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data. METHODS: Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals ((5q(x. We then compare our (5q(x estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old. FINDINGS: We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased. WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%. However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8-7.9% and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6-15.5%. Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60. INTERPRETATION: Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing

  20. Comparative Analysis of Old-Age Mortality Estimations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Eran; Seligman, Benjamin; Kubo, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data. Methods Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals (5qx). We then compare our 5qx estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD) to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old. Findings We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased). WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%). However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8–7.9%) and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6–15.5%). Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60. Interpretation Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing countries will become

  1. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-01-01

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness. PMID:27173218

  2. Democracy and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Nigeria and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Olawale Bestoyin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and Malaysia share certain features in common. Both are plural societies; both experienced colonialism and both are federal and “democratic” states. However, unlike Nigeria, Malaysia has been able to tackle not only its cultural and religious differences, but also economic challenges. Within the past three decades, it has deepened its democracy and achieved a significant level of economic development via responsible political leadership as well as consistent economic planning hence, Malaysia is now one of the emerging economies in the world with a prospect of joining the league of developed nations in the nearest future. This is a great feat for the country that was far behind Nigeria in the 70s in terms of economic development. Using descriptive and historical approach as well as data from secondary sources such as text books, journal articles, newspapers, magazines and monographs, this paper, comparatively appraises the practice of democracy, and development efforts in both countries over the years. The aim is to unearth how Malaysia was able to strengthen its democracy and achieve economic transformation, whereas Nigeria has not. The paper concludes that the Malaysian experience is a clear testament that democracy and development can be achieved in plural societies like Nigeria, but only when public policies are informed by collective interest and driven by an unfailing political will.

  3. Comparative analysis of two bacteriophages of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Dóra; Frank, Tamara; Rákhely, Gábor; Doffkay, Zsolt; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Walnut blight caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) is one of the most frequent infective diseases of walnut, resulting in serious economic losses. One potential solution to control this disease could be the application of bacteriophages. In this study, 24 phages were isolated from soil and walnut aerial tissues infected with Xaj. Two polyvalent bacteriophages, Xaj2 and Xaj24 were chosen for further characterization including their morphological, physiological and genomic analyses. Xaj2 was classified as Siphoviridae whereas Xaj24 belonged to the Podoviridae family. Both phages demonstrated lytic effect on Xaj in laboratory trials. Complete genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 were determined. Genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 consisted of 49.241 and 44.861 nucleotides encoding 80 and 53 genes, respectively. Comparative genome analyses have revealed that Xaj2 had a unique genome sequence, while Xaj24 was a phiKMV-like phage and it was most similar to the Prado phage which is virulent for Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas spp. In this study, we present the first two complete Xaj phage sequences enabling an insight into the genomics of Xaj phages.

  4. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Manon; Missotten, Pierre; Schroyen, Sarah; Nindaba, Desiderate; Adam, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country. Participants and methods Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. PMID:27601889

  5. Cat, cougar, and jaguar spermatogenesis: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative review about the spermatogenic process in cats (Felis domestica, jaguars (Panthera onca and cougars (Puma concolor, with emphasis on testicular biometry, gonadossomatic index, volumetric proportion of testicular parenchyma components, tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial height and seminiferous tubule length. It was an approach of the differences among the cell proportions that allowed conclusions about the overall yield of spermatogenic process and Sertoli cell index in three feline species.O processo espermatogênico do gato doméstico (Felis domestica, da onça-pintada (Panthera onca e da onça-parda (Puma concolor são analisados de forma comparativa, dando-se ênfase à biometria testicular, ao índice gonadossomático, à proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do parênquima testicular, ao diâmetro tubular, à altura do epitélio seminífero e ao comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos. Abordam-se ainda as diferenças entres as razões celulares que permitem conclusões sobre o rendimento do processo espermatogênico e índices de células de Sértoli das três espécies.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Inversors for Small PV Systems Grid Connected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy produced by a grid connected photovoltaic system is a function of weather conditions, mainly available radiation and temperature, photovoltaic array efficiency and inverter characteristics. The results obtained in experimental measurements with four small grid-connected inverters are described in this work. The main goal is to know the inverter performance in real operation conditions. For this purpose a 2 kW photovoltaic system has been used. These results allow us to know both the inverter efficiency and its output power quality. The following parameters have been evaluated as a function of output inverter power: efficiency, point of maximum power tracking, intensity and voltage waveform, total harmonic distortion and harmonic values to 31 order, frequency, power factor and reactive power. Other interesting parameters like stand-by energy consumption and daily losses due to the inverter threshold have also been analyzed. The results allow us to know the inverter features as a function of its real work point. In our comparative study it is possible to observe remarkable differences between the inverters; these results show how important it is to have a unique standard for inverters to photovoltaic grid-connected systems. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Radiometer Systems Using Non-Stationary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Paul; Lang, Roger; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Radiometers require periodic calibration to correct for instabilities in the receiver response. Various calibration techniques exist that minimize the effect of instabilities in the receivers. The optimal technique depends upon many parameters. Some parameters are constrained by the particular application and others can be chosen in the system design. For example, the measurement uncertainty may be reduced to the limits of the resolution of the measurement (sensitivity) if periodic absolute calibration can be performed with sufficient frequency. However if the period between calibrations is long, a reference-differencing technique, i.e. Dicke-type design, can yield better performance. The measurement uncertainty not only depends upon the detection scheme but also on the number of pixels between calibrations, the integration time per pixel, integration time per calibration reference measurement, calibration reference temperature, and the brightness temperature of what is being measured. The best scheme for reducing the measurement uncertainty also depends, in large part, on the stability of the receiver electronics. In this presentation a framework for evaluating calibration schemes for a wide range of system architectures is presented. Two methods for treating receiver non-stationarity are compared with radiometer measurements.

  9. Comparative Analysis between Fuzzy and Traditional Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of the techniques commonly used for prioritizing different alternatives, by using complex criteria. In real applications, conventional AHP assumes the expert judgment as it is exact and use crisp number leading to inconsideration of the uncertainty that came from linguistic variable. Fuzzy logic deals with situations which are vague or unwell defined and gives a quantify value. In this study a comparison is made between traditional AHP and fuzzy AHP by taking a case of selecting an effective oil refinery. The selection is conducted using system effectiveness as a criterion. The two approaches have been compared on the same hierarchy structure and criteria set and the result show that in both case dual drum scheme (DDS has the highest priority but different value that is 0.51 and 0.36 for AHP and FAHP respectively which shows that if the expert opinion is certain AHP should be used if not FAHP should be preferred

  10. Comparative analysis of below-knee prosthetic socket liner materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, R; Slater, K

    1998-01-01

    Four materials used in lining prosthetic sockets were compared for their potential usefulness in below-knee applications. Tests carried out included determinations of resistance to compression, resistance to flexural abrasion and coefficients (static and dynamic) of friction. These tests were designed, respectively, to assess changes occurring during end-use brought about by extensive application of compressive or shear force, and to predict the ability to retain contact with the body and socket. Of the four materials in the study (Bock-Lite, Pedilin, polyurethane and silicone), Bock-Lite and silicone had high compression resistance, Bock-Lite had good resistance to flexural abrasion, and polyurethane and silicone had high coefficients of frictional resistance. Thus, Bock-Lite will be the most durable of the four materials but, since it had the lowest frictional coefficient, it may slip in use. Conversely, silicone and polyurethane, which will be retained in position more easily, are easily torn or compressed, so are likely to need replacement more frequently.

  11. Comparative analysis of two bacteriophages of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Dóra; Frank, Tamara; Rákhely, Gábor; Doffkay, Zsolt; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Walnut blight caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) is one of the most frequent infective diseases of walnut, resulting in serious economic losses. One potential solution to control this disease could be the application of bacteriophages. In this study, 24 phages were isolated from soil and walnut aerial tissues infected with Xaj. Two polyvalent bacteriophages, Xaj2 and Xaj24 were chosen for further characterization including their morphological, physiological and genomic analyses. Xaj2 was classified as Siphoviridae whereas Xaj24 belonged to the Podoviridae family. Both phages demonstrated lytic effect on Xaj in laboratory trials. Complete genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 were determined. Genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 consisted of 49.241 and 44.861 nucleotides encoding 80 and 53 genes, respectively. Comparative genome analyses have revealed that Xaj2 had a unique genome sequence, while Xaj24 was a phiKMV-like phage and it was most similar to the Prado phage which is virulent for Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas spp. In this study, we present the first two complete Xaj phage sequences enabling an insight into the genomics of Xaj phages. PMID:27275846

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONGESTION CONTROL MODELS FOR CELLULAR WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade A. J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellular wireless systems like GSM suffer from congestion resulting in overall system degradation and poor service delivery. When the traffic demand in a geographical area is high, the input traffic rate will exceed thecapacity of the output lines. This work focused on homogenous wireless network (the network traffic and resource dimensioning that are statistically identical such that the network performance evaluation can be reduced to a system with single cell and a single traffic type. Such system can employa queuing model to evaluate the performance metric of a cell in terms of blocking probability. Five congestion control models were compared in the work to ascertain their peculiarities, they are Erlang B, Erlang C, Engset (cleared, Engset (buffered, and Bernoulli. To analyze the system, an aggregate onedimensional Markov chain wasderived, such that it describes a call arrival process under the assumption that it is Poisson distributed. The models were simulated and their results show varying performances, however the Bernoulli model (Pb5 tends to show a situation that allows more users access to the system and the congestion level remain unaffected despite increase in the number of users and the offered traffic into the system.

  13. Subpicosecond and picosecond laser ablation of dental enamel: comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Andrei V.; Madsen, Nathan R.; Kolev, Vesselin Z.; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dawes, Judith M.; Chan, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report the use of sub-picosecond near-IR and ps UV pulsed lasers for precision ablation of freshly extracted human teeth. The sub-picosecond laser wavelength was ~800nm, with pulsewidth 150 fs and pulse repetition rate of 1kHz; the UV laser produced 10 ps pulses at 266 nm with pulse rate of ~1.2x105 pulses/s; both lasers produced ~1 W of output energy, and the laser fluence was kept at the same level of 10-25 J/cm2. Laser radiation from both laser were effectively absorbed in the teeth enamel, but the mechanisms of absorption were radically different: the near-IR laser energy was absorbed in a plasma layer formed through the optical breakdown mechanism initiated by multiphoton absorption, while the UV-radiation was absorbed due to molecular photodissociation of the enamel and conventional thermal deposition. The rise in the intrapulpal temperature was monitored by embedded thermocouples, and was shown to remain low with subpicosecond laser pulses, but risen up to 30°C, well above the 5°C pain level with the UV-laser. This study demonstrates the potential for ultra-short-pulsed lasers to precision and painless ablation of dental enamel, and indicated the optimal combination of laser parameters in terms of pulse energy, duration, intensity, and repetition rate, required for the laser ablation rates comparable to that of mechanical drill.

  14. A comparative critical analysis of modern task-parallel runtimes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Stark, Dylan; Murphy, Richard C.

    2012-12-01

    The rise in node-level parallelism has increased interest in task-based parallel runtimes for a wide array of application areas. Applications have a wide variety of task spawning patterns which frequently change during the course of application execution, based on the algorithm or solver kernel in use. Task scheduling and load balance regimes, however, are often highly optimized for specific patterns. This paper uses four basic task spawning patterns to quantify the impact of specific scheduling policy decisions on execution time. We compare the behavior of six publicly available tasking runtimes: Intel Cilk, Intel Threading Building Blocks (TBB), Intel OpenMP, GCC OpenMP, Qthreads, and High Performance ParalleX (HPX). With the exception of Qthreads, the runtimes prove to have schedulers that are highly sensitive to application structure. No runtime is able to provide the best performance in all cases, and those that do provide the best performance in some cases, unfortunately, provide extremely poor performance when application structure does not match the schedulers assumptions.

  15. Islamic medicine and evolutionary medicine: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration.

  16. A comparative analysis of acoustic energy models for churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Umberto; Cirillo, Ettore; Martellotta, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Different models to improve prediction of energy-based acoustic parameters in churches have been proposed by different researchers [E. Cirillo and F. Martellotta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 232-248 (2005); T. Zamarreño et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 234-250 (2006)]. They all suggested variations to the "revised" theory proposed by Barron and Lee [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 618-628 (1988)], starting from experimental observations. The present paper compares these models and attempts to generalize their use taking advantage of the measurements carried out in 24 Italian churches differing in style, typology, and location. The whole sample of churches was divided into two groups. The first was used to fine-tune existing models, with particular reference to the "mu model," which was originally tested only on Mudejar-Gothic churches. Correlations between model parameters and major typological and architectural factors were found, leading to a classification that greatly simplifies parameter choice. Finally, the reliability of each model was verified on the rest of the sample, showing that acoustic parameters can be predicted with reasonable accuracy provided that one of the specifically modified theories is used. The results show that the model requiring more input parameters performs slightly better than the other which, conversely, is simpler to apply. PMID:19813798

  17. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  18. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  19. Spiral structure in nearby galaxies II. comparative analysis and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, S; Kennicutt, R C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of two-armed spiral structure in a sample of galax- ies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), with particular focus on the relationships between the properties of the spiral pattern in the stellar disc and the global struc- ture and environment of the parent galaxies. Following Paper I we have used a combination of Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared imaging and visible multi-colour imaging to isolate the spiral pattern in the underlying stellar discs, and we examine the systematic behaviours of the observed amplitudes and shapes (pitch angles) of these spirals. In general, spiral morphology is found to correlate only weakly at best with morphological parameters such as stellar mass, gas fraction, disc/bulge ratio, and vflat. In contrast to weak correlations with galaxy structure a strong link is found between the strength of the spiral arms and tidal forcing from nearby companion galaxies. This appears to support the longstanding suggestion that ei...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Fatty Acid Desaturases in Cyanobacterial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. The fatty acid desaturases from 37 cyanobacterial genomes were identified and classified based upon their conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic analysis, which help to determine the amounts and distributions of desaturases in cyanobacterial species. The filamentous or N2-fixing cyanobacteria usually possess more types of fatty acid desaturases than that of unicellular species. The pathway of acyl-lipid desaturation for unicellular marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus differs from that of other cyanobacteria, indicating different phylogenetic histories of the two genera from other cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, soil, or symbiont. Strain Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 was isolated from calcareous rock and lacks thylakoid membranes. The types and amounts of desaturases of this strain are distinct to those of other cyanobacteria, reflecting the earliest divergence of it from the cyanobacterial line. Three thermophilic unicellular strains, Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 and two Synechococcus Yellowstone species, lack highly unsaturated fatty acids in lipids and contain only one Δ9 desaturase in contrast with mesophilic strains, which is probably due to their thermic habitats. Thus, the amounts and types of fatty acid desaturases are various among different cyanobacterial species, which may result from the adaption to environments in evolution.

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peritoneal Dialysate from Chronic Glomerulonephritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD frequently contributes to peritoneal damage which cannot be easily identified without invasive techniques, implying the urgent need for biomarkers and revealing mechanisms. Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN is one of the leading causes of receiving dialysis treatment. Here, we attempted to analyze the peritoneal dialysate collected from CGN patients when they receive continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD treatment for the first time and after a year to reveal the protein changes that resulted from PD. Proteins were displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE. Altered gel spots were digested followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis for protein identification. Eight proteins were found to have differential expression levels between two groups. Their differential expressions were validated by Western blots in other sets of peritoneal dialysates. Proteins identified with higher levels in the first-time dialysate suggested their dominant appearance in CGN patients, while those that showed higher levels in peritoneal dialysate collected after one year may result from initial peritoneal inflammation or changes in the permeability of the peritoneum to middle-sized proteins. All the identified proteins may provide a perceptiveness of peritoneal changes caused by PD and may function as potential biomarkers or drug targets.

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  3. Comparative analysis of design methods of transversally loaded diaphragms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonić Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete diaphragms are in-built supporting structures constructed directly in the ground. They are intended for reception of lateral soil pressures, and due to the thickness-height ratio they belong to the group of deformable structures. The paper presents different design methods of transversally loaded diaphragms as well as constitutive soil models which can be used on this occasion. For comparison of the described methods, one example of design of reinforced-concrete diaphragm with the analysis of obtained results was done. The diaphragm is firstly treated using classical analytical methods, and then using the numerical methods based on the concept of problem discretization using finite differences method and the STRESS, TOWER and PLAXIS software. The goal of the paper is as accurate prediction of the diaphragm and surrounding soil behavior as possible, as well as finding of the relevant impacts required for the design. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36028: Development and improvement of methods for analyses of soil - structure interaction based on theoretical and experimental research

  4. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H. Bergstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria.

  5. Comparative proteome analysis of butachlor-degrading bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Yitong; Chen, Yingying

    2008-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain, named ER1, was isolated from an agricultural soil and found to actively degrade the herbicide butachlor. The enzyme extracted from ER1 could degrade butachlor. Furthermore, incubation of ER1 in a medium containing 50 mg/kg of butachlor after 3 days resulted in the high butachlor-degrading enzyme activity of ER1. Response of ER1 to butachlor might be related to changes in protein composition at both quantitative and qualitative levels. Total proteins were extracted from control strain (incubated in the medium without butachlor) and the treated strain (incubated in the medium with butachlor). The proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of the total number of ER1 protein, 11 spots were significantly changed under butachlor stress. Analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry coupled with database searching allowed the function of some proteins which were similar to the hydrolases activity or oxidoreductase activity.

  6. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste

  7. Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis of a Zygopteran Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanku, Alexander G; McPeek, Mark A; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-03-11

    In this paper we present a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the damselfly, Enallagma hageni, through the use of 454 pyrosequencing. E. hageni is a member of the suborder Zygoptera within the order Odonata, and the Odonata are the basal lineage of the winged insects (Pterygota). To date, sequence data used in phylogenetic analysis of Enallagma species have been derived from either mtDNA or ribosomal nuclear DNA. This transcriptome contained 31,661 contigs that were assembled and translated into 14,813 individual open reading frames. Using these data, we constructed an extensive dataset of 634 orthologous nuclear protein-coding genes across 11 species of Arthropoda, and used Bayesian techniques to elucidate Enallagma's place in the Arthropod phylogenetic tree. Additionally, we demonstrate that the Enallagma transcriptome contains 169 genes that are evolving at rates that differ relative to the rest of the transcriptome (29 accelerated and 140 decreased), and through multiple Gene Ontology searches and clustering methods, we present the first functional-annotation of any palaeopteran's transcriptome in the literature. PMID:23550132

  8. THE ROLE OF FORCE IN STATE FORMATION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ojo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic thrust of this article is an in-depth analysis of the established proposition in the existing literature on civil–military relations (CMR that the military or instrumentality of force is a sine qua non to the formation and consolidation of the state. From that premise, the article considers the views of the founding fathers of CMR and with historical facts lend credence to that proposition. On the other hand, the article emphasises the fact that force and brute force alone is not sufficient to attain national integration. The study on which this article reports, surveyed stages of state evolution and inferred that force and nation building are in dialectical opposition, whereas consensus and cooperation are required more than force in the process of nationhood. The article infers that in this 21st century, even after attaining nationhood, the state is still in need of very strong armed forces because of the challenges of globalisation, which include terrorism and territorial expansion by neighbouring and far-away states.

  9. The analysis of collective mindsets: introducing a new method of institutional analysis in comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Pohlmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific qualitative method - the Collective Mindset Analysis (CMA - that is applicable within the frame of institutional analysis to map the cognitive and normative institutions at work. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the method and its methodology as well. The paper will elaborate on how the method is applied to international research and will provide concrete examples drawn from a bigger research project on economic elites in eleven countries. It will demonstrate the steps of interpretation of interview material from this project with the help of CMA, using concrete text sequences. The sequences have been extracted from interviews with Brazilian top managers that were conducted in the context of an international research project. The paper will show, how an institutional approach, that is relying on the sociology of knowledge, can be supported by a method, that helps to reconstruct the cognitive and normative rules in a given culture and to analyze, how these rules are translated in action orientations to solve culturally significant problems. Thus, the method can be a remedy for the shortcomings of institutional analysis in mapping and comparing the knowledge stocks in different cultures and a new tool in international comparative research.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Bias Patterns in Microsporidian Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xiang

    Full Text Available The sub-3 Mbp genomes from microsporidian species of the Encephalitozoon genus are the smallest known among eukaryotes and paragons of genomic reduction and compaction in parasites. However, their diminutive stature is not characteristic of all Microsporidia, whose genome sizes vary by an order of magnitude. This large variability suggests that different evolutionary forces are applied on the group as a whole. In this study, we have compared the codon usage bias (CUB between eight taxonomically distinct microsporidian genomes: Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Spraguea lophii, Trachipleistophora hominis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Nematocida parisii, Nosema bombycis and Nosema ceranae. While the CUB was found to be weak in all eight Microsporidia, nearly all (98% of the optimal codons in S. lophii, T. hominis, E. bieneusi, N. parisii, N. bombycis and N. ceranae are fond of A/U in third position whereas most (64.6% optimal codons in the Encephalitozoon species E. intestinalis and E. cuniculi are biased towards G/C. Although nucleotide composition biases are likely the main factor driving the CUB in Microsporidia according to correlation analyses, directed mutational pressure also likely affects the CUB as suggested by ENc-plots, correspondence and neutrality analyses. Overall, the Encephalitozoon genomes were found to be markedly different from the other microsporidians and, despite being the first sequenced representatives of this lineage, are uncharacteristic of the group as a whole. The disparities observed cannot be attributed solely to differences in host specificity and we hypothesize that other forces are at play in the lineage leading to Encephalitozoon species.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Three Lycoris Species

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    Yongqiang Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The major active constituents from Amaryllidaceae family were reported to be Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs, which exhibited a wide spectrum of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, and acetyl-cholinesterase-inhibitory activities. In order to better understand their potential as a source of bioactive AAs and the phytochemical variations among three different species of Lycoris herbs, the HPLC fingerprint profiles of Lycoris aurea (L. aurea, L. radiata, and L. guangxiensis were firstly determined and compared using LC-UV and LC-MS/MS. As a result, 39 peaks were resolved and identified as AAs, of which nine peaks were found in common for all these three species, while the other 30 peaks could be revealed as characteristic AAs for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. Thus, these AAs can be used as chemical markers for the identification and quality control of these plant species. To further reveal correlations between chemical components and their pharmaceutical activities of these species at the molecular level, the bioactivities of the total AAs from the three plant species were also tested against HepG2 cells with the inhibitory rate at 78.02%, 84.91% and 66.81% for L. aurea, L. radiata and L. guangxiensis, respectively. This study firstly revealed that the three species under investigation were different not only in the types of AAs, but also in their contents, and both contributed to their pharmacological distinctions. To the best of our knowledge, the current research provides the most detailed phytochemical profiles of AAs in these species, and offers valuable information for future valuation and exploitation of these medicinal plants.

  12. Comparative analysis of current diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhieva, Mariya V; Atanasova, Iliana; Zacharieva, Sabina; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Dimitrova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare current guidelines for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to identify the ones that are the most relevant for application among pregnant Bulgarian population. Methods A total of 800 pregnant women at high risk for GDM underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation as antenatal screening. The results were interpreted and classified according to the guidelines of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), American Diabetes Association (ADA), Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society, Canadian Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, New Zealand Society for the study of Diabetes and World Health Organization. Results The application of different diagnostic criteria resulted in prevalences of GDM between 10.8% and 31.6%. Using any two sets of criteria, women who were classified differently varied between 0.1% and 21.1% (P < 0.001).The IADPSG criteria were the most inclusive criteria and resulted in the highest prevalence of GDM. There was a significant difference in the major metabolic parameters between GDM and control groups, regardless of which of the diagnostic criteria applied. GDM diagnosed according to all criteria resulted in increased proportion of delivery by caesarean section (CS). However, only ADA and IADPSG criteria identified both increased macrosomia (odds ratio, 2.36; 2.29) and CS rate. Conclusion The need for GDM screening is indisputable. In our view, the new IADPSG guidelines offer a unique opportunity for a unified national and global approach to GDM.

  13. Comparative analysis of the shrinkage stress of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Pereira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the shrinkage stress of composite resins by three methods. In the first method, composites were inserted between two stainless steel plates. One of the plates was connected to a 20 kgf load cell of a universal testing machine (EMIC-DL-500. In the second method, disk-shaped cavities were prepared in 2-mm-thick Teflon molds and filled with the different composites. Gaps between the composites and molds formed after polymerization were evaluated microscopically. In the third method, the wall-to-wall shrinkage stress of the resins that were placed in bovine dentin cavities was evaluated. The gaps were measured microscopically. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05. The obtained contraction forces were: Grandio = 12.18 ± 0.428N; Filtek Z 250 = 11.80 ± 0.760N; Filtek Supreme = 11.80 ± 0.707 N; and Admira = 11.89 ± 0.647 N. The gaps obtained between composites and Teflon molds were: Filtek Z 250 = 0.51 ± 0.0357%; Filtek Supreme = 0.36 ± 0.0438%; Admira = 0.25 ± 0.0346% and Grandio = 0.16 ± 0.008%. The gaps obtained in wall-to-wall contraction were: Filtek Z 250 = 11.33 ± 2.160 µm; Filtek Supreme = 10.66 ± 1.211µm; Admira = 11.16 ± 2.041 µm and Grandio = 10.50 ± 1.224 µm. There were no significant differences among the composite resins obtained with the first (shrinkage stress generated during polymerization and third method (wall-to-wall shrinkage. The composite resins obtained with the second method (Teflon method differed significantly regarding gap formation.

  14. Comparative analysis of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases to discriminate canonical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabaharan Dharmar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide dismutases (SOD are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportion of superoxide to peroxide and molecular oxygen through alternate oxidation and reduction of their metal ions. In general, SODs are classified into four forms by their catalytic metals namely; FeSOD, MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. In addition, a cambialistic form that uses Fe/Mn in its active site also exists. Cyanobacteria, the oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes, produce reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular components leading to cell death. Thus, the co-evolution of an antioxidant system was necessary for the survival of photosynthetic organisms with SOD as the initial enzyme evolved to alleviate the toxic effect. Cyanobacteria represent the first oxygenic photoautotrophs and their SOD sequences available in the databases lack clear annotation. Hence, the present study focuses on structure and sequence pattern of subsets of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases. Result The sequence conservation and structural analysis of Fe (Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1 and MnSOD (Anabaena sp. PCC7120 reveal the sharing of N and C terminal domains. At the C terminal domain, the metal binding motif in cyanoprokaryotes is DVWEHAYY while it is D-X-[WF]-E-H-[STA]-[FY]-[FY] in other pro- and eukaryotes. The cyanobacterial FeSOD differs from MnSOD at least in three ways viz. (i FeSOD has a metal specific signature F184X3A188Q189.......T280......F/Y303 while, in Mn it is R184X3G188G189......G280......W303, (ii aspartate ligand forms a hydrogen bond from the active site with the outer sphere residue of W243 in Fe where as it is Q262 in MnSOD; and (iii two unique lysine residues at positions 201 and 255 with a photosynthetic role, found only in FeSOD. Further, most of the cyanobacterial Mn metalloforms have a specific transmembrane hydrophobic pocket that distinguishes FeSOD from Mn isoform. Cyanobacterial Cu/ZnSOD has a copper domain and two

  15. Urban Detection, Delimitation and Morphology: Comparative Analysis of Selective "MEGACITIES"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, B.; Arellano, B. E.; Roca, J.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last 50 years, the world has faced an impressive growth of urban population. The walled city, close to the outside, an "island"for economic activities and population density within the rural land, has led to the spread of urban life and urban networks in almost all the territory. There was, as said Margalef (1999), "a topological inversion of the landscape". The "urban" has gone from being an island in the ocean of rural land vastness, to represent the totally of the space in which are inserted natural and rural "systems". New phenomena such as the fall of the fordist model of production, the spread of urbanization known as urban sprawl, and the change of scale of the metropolis, covering increasingly large regions, called "megalopolis" (Gottmann, 1961), have characterized the century. However there are no rigorous databases capable of measuring and evaluating the phenomenon of megacities and in general the process of urbanization in the contemporary world. The aim of this paper is to detect, identify and analyze the morphology of the megacities through remote sensing instruments as well as various indicators of landscape. To understand the structure of these heterogeneous landscapes called megacities, land consumption and spatial complexity needs to be quantified accurately. Remote sensing might be helpful in evaluating how the different land covers shape urban megaregions. The morphological landscape analysis allows establishing the analogies and the differences between patterns of cities and studying the symmetry, growth direction, linearity, complexity and compactness of the urban form. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new methodology to detect urbanized land of some megacities around the world (Tokyo, Mexico, Chicago, New York, London, Moscow, Sao Paulo and Shanghai) using Landsat 7 images.

  16. Comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences of Streptococcus suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengli; WEI Wu; LI Yixue; MA Yuanyuan; DING Guohui; LI Xiaoping; WANG Xiaojing; ZHANG Liwen; SUN Jingchun; WANG Yong; TU Kang; WANG Ningning; HAO Pei; WANG Chuan; CAO Zhiwei; SHI Tieliu

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of Streptococcus suis recently in some districts of Sichuan Province in China has caused over 30 deaths and over 200 infections in human beings. In order to study the pathogenicity mechanism and to prevent the bacteria from spreading and infecting human beings and swine, we have annotated and analyzed the genomes of two strains, Streptococcus suis P1/7 and 89-1591 respectively. The whole length of P1/7 is 2.007 Mb,and has 1969 ORFs. In contrast, the partial genome sequence of 89-1591 is 1.98 Mb in length and exists in 177 contigs with 1918 ORFs. Analysis shows that the average lengths of CDSs in two genomes are very close, and the numbers of the homolog ORFs are 1306 between those two strains. Most of the toxicity factors of the two strains are homologeous, but there are still some significant differences between those two strains. For example, among the 11 genes (cps2A-cps2K) encoding for the capsules in P1/7, 4(cps2A, 2B, 2I, 2J) are not detected in strain 89-1591.At the same time, the genes encoding EF and Haemolysin in P1/7 are also not found in strain 89-1591. Besides, the genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination differ from each other significantly and there also exist certain differences among the surface proteins. Those characteristics indicate that those two strains have evolved their own specific functions to adapt to the different environments and that the pathogenesis of the two strains is different. We have accumulated comprehensive genomics information for future systematic studies of S.sui. Our results are helpful for disease prevention,vaccine development, as well as drug design for S.suis.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Global Cropping Systems Models and Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. B.; You, L.; Wood, S.; Wood-Sichra, U.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the land cover of the Earth, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million km2 of the Earth's land cover - amounting to 12% of the Earth's ice-free land surface - yet information on the distribution and performance of specific crops is often available only through national or sub-national statistics. While remote sensing products offer spatially disaggregated information, those currently available on a global scale are ill-suited for many applications due to the limited separation of crop types within the area classified as cropland. Recently, however, there have been multiple independent efforts to incorporate the detailed information available from statistical surveys with supplemental spatial information to produce a spatially explicit global dataset specific to individual cropss for the year 2000. While these datasets provide analysts and decision makers with improved information on global cropping systems, the final global cropping maps differ from one another substantially. This study aims to explore and quantify systematic similarities and differences between four major global cropping systems products: the monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRAC2000) dataset, the spatial production allocation model (SPAM), the global agro-ecological zone (GAEZ) dataset, and the dataset developed by Monfreda et al., 2008. The analysis explores not only the final cropping systems maps but also the interdependencies of each product, methodological differences and modeling assumptions, which will provide users with information vital for discerning between datasets in selecting a product appropriate for each intended application.

  18. Comparative Analysis Study of Open Source GIS in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open source origin might appear like a major prospective change which is qualified to deliver in various industries and also competing means in developing countries. The leading purpose of this research study is to basically discover the degree of adopting Open Source Software (OSS) that is connected with Geographic Information System (GIS) application within Malaysia. It was derived based on inadequate awareness with regards to the origin ideas or even on account of techie deficiencies in the open origin instruments. This particular research has been carried out based on two significant stages; the first stage involved a survey questionnaire: to evaluate the awareness and acceptance level based on the comparison feedback regarding OSS and commercial GIS. This particular survey was conducted among three groups of candidates: government servant, university students and lecturers, as well as individual. The approaches of measuring awareness in this research were based on a comprehending signal plus a notion signal for each survey questions. These kinds of signs had been designed throughout the analysis in order to supply a measurable and also a descriptive signal to produce the final result. The second stage involved an interview session with a major organization that carries out available origin internet GIS; the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia (JPBD). The impact of this preliminary study was to understand the particular viewpoint of different groups of people on the available origin, and also their insufficient awareness with regards to origin ideas as well as likelihood may be significant root of adopting level connected with available origin options

  19. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  20. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role

  1. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  2. Proteome of human colon cancer stem cells: A comparative analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zou; Xiao-Feng Yu; Zhi-Jun Bao; Jie Dong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify the biological characteristics of human colon cancer stem cells (SW1116 cells) and further study their proteome. METHODS: SW1116 cells were isolated and cultured with a serum-free medium (SFM). Sphere formation was assayed to observe the formation of colon cancer stem cell spheres. SW1116 cells were inoculated into a serum-containing medium for observing their differentiation characteristics. Proliferation curve and cross-resistance of SW1116 cells to different drugs were detected by MTT. Percentage of SP cells in SW1116 cells was detected with Hoechst33342 staining. Telomerase activity in SW1116cells was checked by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of stem cell relevant genes and proteins were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Total protein was isolated from SW1116 cells by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). RESULTS: The isolated SW1116 cells presented as spheroid and suspension growths in SFM with a strong self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and drug-resistance ability. The percentage of SP cells in SW1116 cells was 38.9%. The SW1116 cells co-expressed the CD133 and CD29 proteins. The telomerase activity in SW1116 cells was increased. The expressions of different stem cell relevant genes and proteins were detected. The proteomic analysis showed that the 26 protein spots were differently expressed in SW1116 cells and 10 protein spots were identified as ubiquitin fusiondegradation 1-like protein, nuclear chloride channel protein, tubulin b, Raichu404X, stratifin, F-actin capping protein a-1 subunit, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta isoform 2, hypothetical protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and guanine nucleotide binding protein b polypeptide 2-like 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: SW1116 cells are biologically

  3. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  4. Web Based Image Retrieval System Using Color, Texture and Shape Analysis: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Bhagat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The internet is one of the best media to disseminate scientific and technological research results [1, 2, 6]. It deals with the implementation of a web-based extensible architecture that is easily integral with applications written in different languages and linkable with different data sources. This paper work deals with developing architecture which is expandable and modular; its client–server functionalities permit easily building web applications that can be run using any Internet browser without compatibility problems regarding platform, program and operating system installed. This paper presents the implementation of Content Based Image Retrieval using different methods of color, texture and shape analysis. The primary objective is to compare the different methods of image analysis.

  5. Advantages Of A Time Series Analysis Using Wavelet Transform As Compared With A Fourier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleziak Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of changes in the structure of the average annual discharges, average annual air temperature, and average annual precipitation time series in Slovakia. Three time series with lengths of observation from 1961 to 2006 were analyzed. An introduction to spectral analysis with Fourier analysis (FA is given. This method is used to determine significant periods of a time series. Later in this article a description of a wavelet transform (WT is reviewed. This method is able to work with non-stationary time series and detect when significant periods are presented. Subsequently, models for the detection of potential changes in the structure of the time series analyzed were created with the aim of capturing changes in the cyclical components and the multiannual variability of the time series selected for Slovakia. Finally, some of the comparisons of the time series analyzed are discussed. The aim of the paper is to show the advantages of time series analysis using WT compared with FT. The results were processed in the R software environment.

  6. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    sensing satellite industry. In commissioning this study, NOAA's goal was to better understand the role that U.S. Government policies and regulations have in shaping the prospects for emerging commercial remote sensing satellite firms. The study assessed the risks against broader trends in the larger U.S. remote sensing industry and geospatial technology and effective policy implementation. The Department of Commerce is working with NOAA licensees to identify foreign actions which could restrict market access by U.S. firms, and seeking to provide a "level playing field" for U.S. service providers. The Department of Commerce has dedicated new resources to its licensing activities. In Fiscal Year 2002, the Department obtained 1.2 million in funding to support the NOAA program, through staff, equipment, technical support, constituent outreach, and market and policy studies. To better understand the market and make more well-informed licensing decisions, NOAA is participating in a broad-based market study effort under the direction of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program. This study is providing long-term analysis of the commercial remote sensing industry. It is being supported by interviews with industry and government experts, a web-based survey, and a thorough review and analysis of related literature. The project should more clearly determine future remote sensing needs and requirements, and maximize the industry's baselines, standards, and socio-economic potential. NOAA, through its participation in this study, has gained important new insights into the status and future trends of this industry. The study's initial findings estimate 2001 industry revenue at 2 billion, growing at 13% per year, to an approximate level of 6 billion in 2010 (in constant, calendar year 2000 dollars). Currently, across all sectors, the most active market segments are in nati onal /glo bal security, mapping

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of using non-coplanar techniques in radiotherapy of the abdomen formed 3D; Ventajas e inconvenientes del uso de tecnicas con coplanares en radiaoterpia 3D conformada de abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena Llinares, A.; Castro Ramirez, I.; Iborra Oquendo, M. A; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Angulo Pain, E.

    2011-07-01

    3D Radiotherapy locations abdomen, especially in pancreas and stomach cancers is often extremely difficult if we are to meet the dose constraints to organs at risk due to proximity and many of these (liver, kidneys, intestines, lungs, bone. ..). Of these, the most critical are the kidneys, which also present values of tolerance, in most cases difficult to meet. This is done in our hospital are using non-coplanar techniques performing well both as coating PTV dose to both kidneys.

  8. Cost utility analysis of sildenafil compared with papaverine-phentolamine injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); M. Caffa; E.J. Meuleman; F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To compare the cost effectiveness of sildenafil and papaverine-phentolamine injections for treating erectile dysfunction. DESIGN: Cost utility analysis comparing treatment with sildenafil (allowing a switch to injection therapy) and treatment with

  9. Customized spectral band analysis compared with conventional Fourier analysis of heart rate variability in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, N A M; Andriessen, P; Berendsen, R C M; Oei, S G; Wijn, P F F; Oetomo, S Bambang

    2004-12-01

    A customized filtering technique is introduced and compared with fast Fourier transformation (FFT) for analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in neonates from short-term recordings. FFT is classically the most commonly used spectral technique to investigate cardiovascular fluctuations. FFT requires stability of the physiological signal within a 300 s time window that is usually analyzed in adults. Preterm infants, however, show characteristics of rapidly fluctuating heart rate and blood pressure due to an immature autonomic regulation, resulting in non-stationarity of these signals. Therefore neonatal studies use (half-overlapping or moving) windows of 64 s length within a recording time of 2-5 min. The proposed filtering technique performs a filtering operation in the frequency range of interest before calculating the spectrum, which allows it to perform an analysis of shorter periods of only 42 s. The frequency bands of interest are 0.04-0.15 Hz (low frequency, LF) and 0.4-1.5 Hz (high frequency, HF). Although conventional FFT analysis as well as the proposed alternative technique result in errors in the estimation of LF power, due to spectral leakage from the very low frequencies, FFT analysis is more sensitive to this effect. The response times show comparable behavior for both the techniques. Applying both the methods to heart rate data obtained from a neonate before and after atropine administration (inducing a wide range of HRV), shows a very significant correlation between the two methods in estimating LF and HF power. We conclude that a customized filtering technique might be beneficial for analyzing HRV in neonates because it reduces the necessary time window for signal stability.

  10. Phase Shift of a Coplanar Waveguide by Bias Voltage on Thick Lead Zirconate Titanate Film at Microwave Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kouji; Iijima, Takashi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2008-09-01

    A coplanar waveguide was fabricated by depositing a 1-µm-thick Au film on a multilayer dielectric, consisting of a 2-µm-thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film over an Al2O3 substrate, through etching. Following this, the reflection constant, transmission constant, and phase variation were measured for this transmission line as bias voltage was varied from 30 to 50 V. As a result, it was confirmed that the phase variation becomes about 15° at a 50 V bias at a frequency of 10 GHz. We then confirmed the basic input-output characteristics of this type of structure in the microwave band. Finally, the relative permittivity of a PZT thick film as a coplanar waveguide was estimated using the measurement results of relative permittivity according to the split cavity resonator method, and phase variation under the condition in which a bias voltage was applied.

  11. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  12. Comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Kaiser, Frans

    2001-01-01

    Chapters four to twelve have presented the situation with regard to the most important dividing lines between higher education sectors and higher education institutions in each of the national systems involved in the project, the Netherlands, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Finland, Flanders, France, Swe

  13. A First-Order Analytical Theory for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Arbitrary Elliptical Coplanar Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes; Francisco das Chagas Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    A complete first-order analytical solution, which includes the short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited-power transfers between arbitrary elliptic coplanar orbits in a Newtonian central gravity field is obtained through canonical transformation theory. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control theory with Cartesian elements—position and velocity vectors—as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin maximum principle and determi...

  14. Ink jet printed graphene oxide (GO) coplanar waveguide (CPW) structures for measurement of microwave propagation in GO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kate; Barry, Edwin; Griep, Mark; Daniel, Johhny; Morris, Derek; Karna, Shashi

    2011-03-01

    Chemically reduced graphene~(CGR) has been successfully inkjet printed using a commercially available printer. The CGR with sheet sizes below 200 nm were dispersed in a mixture of water and ethanol. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) structures were deposited on CGR and plastic substrates, scattering (S) parameters were measured in order to extract material parameter for incorporation into simulation tools. Measurements and modeling of microwave propagation in graphene shall be presented.

  15. Mach-Zehnder Type Annealed Proton Exchange Waveguide and Coplanar Waveguide Modulation Electrode LiNbO3 Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian; ZHU Xue-jun

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional LiNbO3 intensity modulator made up of a Mach-Zehnder(MZ) type annealed proton exchange(APE) waveguide and coplanar waveguide(CPW) modulation electrode are presented. The APE waveguide characteristics and their relations with process parameters are analyzed. At the same time, the electrical characteristics of modulation electrode, such as modulation voltage, microwave effective index associated with modulation bandwidth, characteristics impedance, are also investigated in detail.

  16. Magnetic-field dependence of the critical currents in a periodic coplanar array of narrow superconducting strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, John R [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3160 (United States); Brojeny, Ali A Babaei [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mawatari, Yasunori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    We calculate the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current due to both geometrical edge barriers and bulk pinning in a periodic coplanar array of narrow superconducting strips. We find that in zero or low applied magnetic fields the critical current can be considerably enhanced by the edge barriers, but in modest applied magnetic fields the critical current reduces to that due to bulk pinning alone.

  17. MOCVD-SrTiO3 thin film microwave coplanar tunable devices: modelling of varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensbittel, A.; Dégardin, A. F.; Kreisler, A. J.

    2008-02-01

    SrTiO3 (STO) ferroelectric (FE) thin films associated with High Temperature Superconductor (HTSC) is a good compromise to realize electronically tunable microwave devices combining tunable dielectric properties of FE films with low loss microwave conductivity in HTSC. STO, which exhibits a perovskite structure, is suitable for epitaxial growth of YBaCuO films and has been widely studied to realize tunable components around 77 K. Up to now, STO thin films were essentially deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. In the framework of this study, we have explored the feasibility of microwave devices made from STO thin films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). We have characterized Au/STO(250 nm thick)/MgO coplanar waveguide transmission lines and microwave variable capacitors (varactors) from 45 MHz up to 40 GHz, in the 300 K to 60 K temperature range. Dielectric characteristics of the STO films were extracted from measurements and studied as a function of frequency, electric field and temperature. The geometry of the interdigital capacitors (IDC) was chosen after evaluating their capacitances using an analytical theoretical model. We have used a de-embedding method to extract, from electromagnetic simulations using Sonnet® Software, the capacitance of the IDC alone.

  18. Flexible terahertz modulator based on coplanar-gate graphene field-effect transistor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Li, Pingjian; Chen, Yuanfu; Song, Xinbo; Mao, Qi; Wu, Yang; Qi, Fei; Zheng, Binjie; He, Jiarui; Yang, Hyunsoo; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Wanli

    2016-02-15

    The terahertz (THz) modulators, as an essential component of the THz system, have been developed by many efforts until now. However, the development of flexible THz modulators is hindered due to the lack of flexible THz modulating materials. Herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrated the feasibility of flexible THz modulators based on the coplanar-gate field-effect transistor (FET) structure of ion-gel/graphene/polyethylene terephthalate. The THz transmittance through this THz graphene modulator can be well controlled with a modulation depth up to 22% by tuning the carrier concentration of graphene via electrical gating. Furthermore, because of the integration of high flexibilities of graphene, ion-gel, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the proposed THz graphene modulator shows superior flexible performance, where the modulation properties can be maintained almost unchanged, not only under bending deformations, but also before and after bending 1000 times. In addition, due to the unique structure of ion-gel/graphene/PET, the flexible THz graphene modulator has a low insertion loss (1.2 dB). Therefore, this Letter is expected to be beneficial for the potential applications, ranging from the traditional compact THz system to a new flexible THz technology. PMID:26872196

  19. Template-stripped, ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Nagaiyanallur V; Pei, Jia; Cremmel, Clément V M; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-08-01

    Ultraflat gold surfaces with coplanar, embedded titanium micropatterns, exhibiting extremely low roughness over the entire surface, have been obtained by a modified template-stripping procedure. Titanium is deposited onto photolithographically predefined regions of a silicon template. Following photoresist lift-off, the entire surface is backfilled with gold, template stripping is conducted, and an ultraflat micropatterned surface is revealed. Atomic force microscopy confirms a roughness of surface-chemical maps of the patterned surfaces have been obtained by means of imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (i-XPS) as well as time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). They confirm the presence of well-separated Ti and Au regions, with a chemical contrast that is sharp (as determined by ToF-SIMS) and complete (as determined by i-XPS) across the Ti-Au interface. Thus, a surface has been fabricated that is physically homogeneous down to the nanoscale incorporating chemically distinct micropatterns consisting of two different metals, with totally contrasting surface chemistries.

  20. Coplanar Waveguide Fed Compact Wide Circular-Slotted Antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samsuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed printing and wide circular slotted, dual band antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX applications are presented. The antenna mainly encompasses a ground with a wide circular slot in the centre, a rectangular feeding strip, and two pairs of symmetric planar inverted L (SPIL strips connecting with the slotted ground. The tuning effects of the rectangular patch, ground size, and SPIL strips to the resonance and matching condition are examined by HFSS and the prototype is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experimental results show that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth with −10 dB reflection coefficients 600 MHz (3.26–3.86 GHz, lower band and 1040 MHz (5.02–6.26 GHz, upper band, which can cover both the Wi-Fi 5.2/5.5/5.8 GHz and WiMAX 3.3/3.5/3.7/5.8 GHz bands. Moreover, a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern and average peak gain for lower band 3.23 dB and upper band 5.93 dB have been achieved, respectively.