WorldWideScience

Sample records for analogues skeletal modification

  1. [Insulin analogues: modifications in the structure, molecular and metabolic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Romero, E

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has provided insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, with an efficacy and safety that has improved the treatment of this disease. We briefly review the principal characteristics of the insulin analogues currently available. Both rapid-acting (lispro, aspart and glulisine) and long acting (glargine and determir) insulin analogues are included in this review. We describe the pharmacology of each insulin analogue, their differences with the human insulin, the administration, indication, efficacy and safety. In addition we discussed the main controversies of the use of these insulin analogues. In particular, those related with the risk of cancer and retinopathy, and their use in pregnant women. PMID:23517895

  2. Glutathione depletion and acute exercise increase O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj, Tina Tinkara; Marsh, Susan A; Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Briskey, David; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) profoundly affects protein structure, function, and metabolism. Although many skeletal muscle proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, the modification has not been extensively studied in this tissue, especially in the context of exercise. This study investigated the effects of glutathione depletion and acute exercise on O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle. Diethyl maleate (DEM) was used to deplete intracellular glutathione and rats were subjected to a treadmill run. White gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed for glutathione status, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein levels, and mRNA expression of OGT, O-GlcNAcase and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase. DEM and exercise both reduced intracellular glutathione and increased O-GlcNAc. DEM upregulated OGT protein expression. The effects of the interventions were significant 4 h after exercise (P exercise. PMID:25416863

  3. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 μg/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 μg/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 μg/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 μg/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered. (author)

  4. The measurement of reversible redox dependent post-translational modifications and their regulation of mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Philip A.; Duan, Jicheng; Qian, Weijun; Marcinek, David J.

    2015-11-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  5. Fewer intrusions after an attentional bias modification training for perceptual reminders of analogue trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The present experimental analogue study used computerised attention training to investigate the role of attention bias in the prediction of intrusive memories. After exposure to a trauma film, participants in a training group (n = 22) were presented with a variant of the exogenic cueing task (ECT) i

  6. Effects of a piperidine ligand on DNA modification by antitumor cisplatin analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, Jana; Nováková, Olga; Najajreh, Y.; Gibson, D.; Perez, J.M.; Brabec, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2003), s. 1424-1432. ISSN 0893-228X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1552; GA AV ČR KJB5004301; GA AV ČR IBS5004009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA * piperidine ligand * antitumor cisplatin analogues Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.332, year: 2003

  7. Modification of the magnetic properties in molecular magnets based on Prussian blue analogues through adsorbed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of guest molecules (H2O, N2, CO2, ethanol, methanol) with the metal ions at the pore surface in porous molecular magnets (M3[Fe(CN)6]2·xH2O, M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) was studied by x-ray diffraction, together with Moessbauer and magnetic data. These compounds can be dehydrated at relatively low temperature, usually below 100 deg. C. On the removal of water a cell contraction of about 4% of the cell volume is observed. This corresponds to a shortening of the metal-metal distance and to a strengthening for the metal-metal interaction through the CN bridge groups. In these materials the outer metal (M) is always found at the pore surface and the guest-host interactions modify the electronic structure of the host solid. Such interactions and their effect on the material electronic structure were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy for the guest molecules mentioned. The most pronounced metal-metal charge overlapping was observed for the host solid free of adsorbed species. When the guest molecules were absorbed the observed changes in the solid electronic structure followed the order N2∼CO2C) and Curie-Weiss (θCW) constant values were found for the anhydrous solids, when the metal at the pore surface only interacts with the CN bridge groups. This corresponds to an increase in the charge delocalization among metal centres on the removal of water, an effect already detected by x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer data. Since, during the water adsorption and desorption processes, the cell symmetry is preserved, such changes for the TC and θCW values cannot be ascribed to a variation in the linearity of the overlapping path. The observed effects are common to all the compounds studied and not to a particular metal ion. An explanation of such behaviour for the materials studied based on a tetrahedral coordination for the metal (M) linked at the N end of the CN groups in the anhydrous phase was discarded. In the cubic structure for Prussian blue analogues a true

  8. Fluorescent modification and orientation of myosin sulfhydryl 2 in skeletal muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a protocol for the selective covalent labeling of the sulfhydryl 2 (SH2) on the myosin cross-bridge in glycerinated muscle fibers using the sulfhydryl-selective label 4-[N-[(iodoacetoxy)ethyl]-N-methylamino]-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD). The protocol promotes the specificity of IANBD by using the ability to protect sulfhydryl 1 (SH1) from modification by binding the cross-bridge to the actin filament and using cross-bridge-bound MgADP to promote the accessibility of SH2. They determined the specificity of the probe using fluorescence gel scanning of fiber-extracted proteins to isolate the probe on myosin subfragment 1 (S1), limited proteolysis of the purified S1 to isolate the probe on the 20-kilodalton fragment of S1, and titration of the free SH1's on purified S1 using the radiolabeled SH1-specific reagent [14C]iodoacetamide or enzymatic activity measurements. They characterized the angular distribution of the IANBD on cross-bridges in fibers when the fibers are in rigor, in relaxation, in the presence of MgADP, and in isometric contraction using wavelength-dependent fluorescence polarization. They find that the SH2 probe distinguishes the different states of the fiber such that rigor and MgADP are ordered and maintain a similar orientation throughout the excitation wavelength domain. The relaxed cross-bridge is ordered and has an orientation that is distinct from the orientation of the cross-bridge in rigor and MgADP over the entire wavelength domain. The active isometric cross-bridge is also oriented differently from the other states, suggesting the presence of a predominant actin-bound cross-bridge state that precedes the power stroke during muscle contraction

  9. Sensitivity of an actinic reticuloid cell strain to near-ultraviolet radiation and its modification by Trolox-C, a vitamin E analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralli, A.; Moss, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    Near-UV radiation (365 nm)-induced lethality, as measured by colony-forming ability, showed an actinic reticuloid cell strain to be sensitive relative to normal human fibroblasts, when irradiated at 25/sup 0/C. This effect was not seen after far-UV (254 nm) irradiation. Trolox-C, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, incorporated in the pre-irradiation growth medium or in the post-irradiation plating medium, protected the actinic reticuloid cells to the extent that they were as resistant as normal cells. Plating medium containing Trolox-C did not provide differential protection against inactivation of the two cell strains by wavelengths in the far-UV region. The protection provided by Trolox-C, an analogue of the natural antioxidant vitamin E, suggests some free radical involvement in the aetiology of the disease.

  10. Calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in the lateral chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Patil, Shivaputra A; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane D; Dopico, Alex M

    2012-10-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. We performed a structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the accessory BK β1 subunit. The latter protein is highly abundant in smooth muscle but scarce in most other tissues. Modifications to the LCA lateral chain length and functional group yielded two novel smooth muscle BK channel activators in which the substituent at C24 has a small volume and a net negative charge. Our data provide detailed structural information that will be useful to advance a pharmacophore in search of β1 subunit-selective BK channel activators. These compounds are expected to evoke smooth muscle relaxation, which would be beneficial in the pharmacotherapy of prevalent human disorders associated with increased smooth muscle contraction, such as systemic hypertension, cerebral or coronary vasospasm, bronchial asthma, bladder hyperactivity, and erectile dysfunction. PMID:22945504

  11. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Enzmann Harald G; Weise Martina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing aut...

  12. Covert Behavior Modification: An Experimental Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J.; And Others

    Data are presented from two experiments investigating whether covert responses can be modified. Imagery was chosen as a target because of its significant role in behavior therapy techniques. Resent evidence on the facilitative effects of imagery in paired-associate learning suggested to the experimenters the use of performance on a…

  13. Skeletal mastocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, S M; Freemont, A J

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To characterise the condition of skeletal mastocytosis, an uncommon cause of apparently "idiopathic" osteoporosis. METHODS--Transiliac crest biopsy specimens submitted over a period of five years were examined for nodular accumulation of mast cells. The cases were reviewed histologically and clinical follow up was obtained from hospital notes. RESULTS--Six cases of mastocytosis occurring in bone biopsy specimens submitted to our department were identified. Four patients presented initia...

  14. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  15. Metabolic and clinical assessment of efficacy of cryoablation therapy on skeletal masses by {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and visual analogue scale (VAS): initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Alberto D.; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neuroradiology, Pozzilli (Italy); Policlinico Tor Vegata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Various therapy modalities have been proposed as standard treatments in management of bone metastases. Radiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized bone pain, but up to 30% of them do not experience notable pain relief. Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive technique that induces necrosis by alternately freezing and thawing a target tissue. This technique is successfully used to treat a variety of malignant and benign diseases in different sites. {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) is a single technique of imaging that provides in a ''single step'' both morphological and metabolic features of neoplastic lesions of the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the cryosurgical technique on secondary musculoskeletal masses according to semi-quantitative PET analysis and clinical-test evaluation with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We enrolled 20 patients with painful bone lesions (score pain that exceeded 4 on the VAS) that were non-responsive to treatment; one lesion per patient was treated. All patients underwent a PET-CT evaluation before and 8 weeks after cryotherapy; maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) was measured before and after treatment for metabolic assessment of response to therapy. After treatment, 18 patients (90%) showed considerable reduction in SUV{sub max} value (>50%) suggestive of response to treatment; only 2 patients did not show meaningful reduction in metabolic activity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that quantitative analysis provided by PET correlates with response to cryoablation therapy as assessed by CT data and clinical VAS evaluation. (orig.)

  16. Metabolic and clinical assessment of efficacy of cryoablation therapy on skeletal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and visual analogue scale (VAS): initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various therapy modalities have been proposed as standard treatments in management of bone metastases. Radiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized bone pain, but up to 30% of them do not experience notable pain relief. Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive technique that induces necrosis by alternately freezing and thawing a target tissue. This technique is successfully used to treat a variety of malignant and benign diseases in different sites. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is a single technique of imaging that provides in a ''single step'' both morphological and metabolic features of neoplastic lesions of the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the cryosurgical technique on secondary musculoskeletal masses according to semi-quantitative PET analysis and clinical-test evaluation with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We enrolled 20 patients with painful bone lesions (score pain that exceeded 4 on the VAS) that were non-responsive to treatment; one lesion per patient was treated. All patients underwent a PET-CT evaluation before and 8 weeks after cryotherapy; maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured before and after treatment for metabolic assessment of response to therapy. After treatment, 18 patients (90%) showed considerable reduction in SUVmax value (>50%) suggestive of response to treatment; only 2 patients did not show meaningful reduction in metabolic activity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that quantitative analysis provided by PET correlates with response to cryoablation therapy as assessed by CT data and clinical VAS evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  18. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  19. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  20. Skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient

  1. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined. PMID:23738259

  2. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  3. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang

    2009-01-01

    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.

  4. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  5. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  6. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  7. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  8. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  9. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  10. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  11. Mandibular dimensional changes and skeletal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growth and development of the human face provides a fascinating interplay of form and function. Among the various facial bones, the mandible plays a very important role during various growth-modification therapies. These treatment modalities will yield a better result in less time if properly correlated with skeletal maturity. It is very essential to know where the site of growth occurs and also the time when it occurs or ceases to occur. This study was conducted to assess the mandibular dimensions at various stages of skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The subjects included 6 to 18-year-old children who were grouped according to their middle phalanx of the third finger stages of skeletal maturity. Lateral cephalographs were taken and, from their cephalometric tracings, linear and angular measurements of the mandible were made. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that the mandibular height, length and symphysis thickness increased with skeletal maturity. An increase in angles SNB (Sella, Nasion, Supramentale and L1-MP (Long axis lower incisors- Mandibular plane and a decrease in the gonial angle and ANB (Subspinale, Nasion, Supramentale angle were observed. Conclusion: The study showed a significant correlation between mandibular growth and skeletal maturity.

  12. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging: prospective tools for monitoring skeletal cells and skeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Catarina Costa; Tare, Rahul S.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The use of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) for cell-based therapies is currently one of the most promising areas for skeletal disease treatment and skeletal tissue repair. The ability for controlled modification of SSCs could provide significant therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine, with the prospect to permanently repopulate a host with stem cells and their progeny. Currently, SSC differentiation into the stromal lineages of bone, fat and cartilage is assessed using different approaches that typically require cell fixation or lysis, which are invasive or even destructive. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy present an exciting alternative for studying biological systems in their natural state, without any perturbation. Here we review the applications of Raman spectroscopy and CARS imaging in stem-cell research, and discuss the potential of these two techniques for evaluating SSCs, skeletal tissues and skeletal regeneration as an exemplar. PMID:27170652

  13. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  14. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP...... of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...

  15. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  16. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  17. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin. PMID:26872656

  18. Archaeological analogues and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One solution retained for the management of high-level and long living radioactive wastes is the disposal in deep underground. Among the studies carried out by the Andra for the evaluation this solution, one concerns the research on metals corrosion for the development of reliable containers. Laboratory corrosion tests are in progress and are compared to the corrosion state of archaeological metal specimens of several hundred years old. Gallic or Mesopotamian remnants are some of these archaeological analogues which are analyzed using the most advanced techniques of materials science. (J.S.)

  19. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in some they are oblique. Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical muscle cell. An individual ... made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue ...

  20. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin is a naturally occurring tetradecapeptide that inhibits the secretion of many hormones. Large numbers of binding sites with high affinity for somatostatin have been reported in a variety of tumors. An octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, octreotide (Sandostatin), is currently used in the treatment of patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors to limit hormonal hyper secretion. In an effort to utilize the high specificity of octreotide for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, a tyrosine derivative of octreotide was prepared and labeled with the radioactive isotope, I-123. While the early clinical results obtained with this radiopharmaceutical were encouraging, the I-123 labeling procedure proved cumbersome and variable. To circumvent these difficulties, researchers at University Hospital Rotterdam (Holland) and Sandoz Research Institute (Switzerland) developed an In-111 labeled analogue of octreotide. This radiopharmaceutical is easy to prepare and has proven to be even more effective than the I-123 derivative in the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. These radiopharmaceutical developments and clinical observations are discussed in light of their relevance to the generation of new radiolabeled peptides for the diagnosis and potential radiotherapy of cancer. (authors). 30 refs., 5 figs

  1. Arginylation of Myosin Heavy Chain Regulates Skeletal Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle S. Cornachione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginylation is a posttranslational modification with an emerging global role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. To test the role of arginylation in the skeletal muscle, we generated a mouse model with Ate1 deletion driven by the skeletal muscle-specific creatine kinase (Ckmm promoter. Ckmm-Ate1 mice were viable and outwardly normal; however, their skeletal muscle strength was significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Mass spectrometry of isolated skeletal myofibrils showed a limited set of proteins, including myosin heavy chain, arginylated on specific sites. Atomic force microscopy measurements of contractile strength in individual myofibrils and isolated myosin filaments from these mice showed a significant reduction of contractile forces, which, in the case of myosin filaments, could be fully rescued by rearginylation with purified Ate1. Our results demonstrate that arginylation regulates force production in muscle and exerts a direct effect on muscle strength through arginylation of myosin.

  2. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel curcumin analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Zhang; Yao Fu; Hao Wei Wang; Tao Gong; Yong Qin; Zhi Rong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Five novel curcumin analogues bearing different substituents at 4-position of phenyl group were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectrum. Their cytotoxic activities against six tumor cell lines were tested by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results indicated that four analogues (1A-1C, 1E) with solubilizing moieties showed selective potent cytotoxicity against HepG2, HeLa and CT26 cell lines, and analogue 1A and 1C exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than curcumin against CT26 cell line. It was suggested that introduction of appropriate substituents to 4-position of phenyl group might be a potential option for structural modification of curcumin.

  3. Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrès, Romain; Yan, Jie; Egan, Brendan;

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a covalent biochemical modification controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Exercise elicits gene expression changes that trigger structural and metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. We determined whether DNA methylation plays a role in exercise-induced gene ex...

  4. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  5. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  6. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  7. DNA modifications of cisplatin analogues containing enantiomeric amine ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malina, Jaroslav; Nováková, Olga; Natile, Giovanni; Brabec, Viktor

    Rimini, 2005. s. 184. [European Conference on Chemistry for Life Sciences /1./. 04.10.2005-08.10.2005, Rimini] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5004101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : platinum anticancer drugs * DNA conformation * chemical probes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. [Muscle-skeletal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygonskaya, M V; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed. The high efficacy and safety of ketorolac in treatment of nonspecific muscle/skeletal pain is demonstrated. PMID:27042717

  9. Behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  10. The skeletal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkels, PGJ

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a group of disorders with a disturbance in development and/or growth of cartilage and/or bone. Epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis of long bones are affected in a generalized manner with or without involvement of membranous bone of the skull. A dysostosis affects one or some

  11. Aligned electrospun polymer fibres for skeletal muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJ Aviss

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle repair is often overlooked in surgical procedures and in serious burn victims. Creating a tissue-engineered skeletal muscle would not only provide a grafting material for these clinical situations, but could also be used as a valuable true-to-life research tool into diseases affecting muscle tissue. Electrospinning of the elastomer PLGA produced aligned fibres that had the correct topology to provide contact guidance for myoblast elongation and alignment. In addition, the electrospun scaffold required no surface modifications or incorporation of biologic material for adhesion, elongation, and differentiation of C2C12 murine myoblasts.

  12. Redox characterization of functioning skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZuo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle physiology is influenced by the presence of chemically reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS. These molecules regulate multiple redox-sensitive signaling pathways that play a critical role in cellular processes including gene expression and protein modification. While ROS have gained much attention for their harmful effects in muscle fatigue and dysfunction, research has also shown ROS to facilitate muscle adaptation after stressors such as physical exercise. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of redox signaling in skeletal muscle. ROS-induced oxidative stress and its role in the aging process are discussed. Mitochondria have been shown to generate large amounts of ROS during muscular contractions, and thus are susceptible to oxidative stress. ROS can modify proteins located in the mitochondrial membrane leading to cell death and osmotic swelling. ROS also contribute to the necrosis and inflammation of muscle fibers that is associated with muscular diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It is imperative that future research continues to investigate the exact role of ROS in normal skeletal muscle function as well as muscular dysfunction and disease.

  13. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype.

  14. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  15. Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805

  16. Skeletal parallel programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Fernando; Printista, Alicia Marcela; Piccoli, María Fabiana

    2007-01-01

    In the last time the high-performance programming community has worked to look for new templates or skeletons for several parallel programming paradigms. This new form of programming allows to programmer to reduce the time of development, since it saves time in the phase of design, testing and codification. We are concerned in some issues of skeletons that are fundamental to the definition of any skeletal parallel programming system. This paper present commentaries about these issues in the c...

  17. Reversibility of skeletal fluorosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean, P; Thomsen, G

    1983-01-01

    At two x ray examinations in 1957 and 1967, 17 cases of skeletal fluorosis were identified among long term cryolite workers in Copenhagen. In 1982 four of these patients were alive, eight to 15 years after exposure had ended. Radiographs were obtained, and the urinary fluoride excretion was measured. A similar picture emerged in all four cases: extensive fading of the sclerosis of trabecular bone in ribs, vertebral bodies, and pelvis, whereas cortical bone thickening and calcification of musc...

  18. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid;

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy for....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  19. PGC-1alpha-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Kiilerich, Kristian; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases are rapidly increasing at least in part due to less physical activity. The health beneficial effects of regular physical activity include metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, which are thought to be elicited by cumulative effects of transient gene responses to each...... involved in angiogenesis and the anti-oxidant defence as well as to affect expression of inflammatory markers. Exercise increases PGC-1alpha transcription and potentially PGC-1alpha activity through post-translational modifications, and concomitant PGC-1alpha-mediated gene regulation is suggested to be an...... underlying mechanism for adaptations in skeletal muscle, when exercise is repeated. The current review presents some of the key findings in PGC-1alpha-mediated regulation of metabolically related, anti-oxidant and inflammatory proteins in skeletal muscle in the basal state and in response to exercise...

  20. Comprehensive analysis of tropomyosin isoforms in skeletal muscles by top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases. PMID:27090236

  1. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  2. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  3. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

  4. Molecular dynamics of sialic acid analogues and their interaction with influenza hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessia T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic sialic acid analogues with multiple modifications at different positions(C-1/C-2/C-4/C-8/C-9 are investigated by molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics to determine their conformational preferences and structural stability to interact with their natural receptors. Sialic acids with multiple modifications are soaked in a periodic box of water as solvent. Molecular mechanics and a 2 nanosecond molecular dynamics are done using amber force fields with 30 picosecond equilibrium. Direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds existing in the sialic acid analogues, aiding for their structural stabilization are identified in this study. The accessible conformations of side chain linkages of sialic acid analogues holding multiple substituents are determined from molecular dynamics trajectory at every 1ps interval. Transitions between different minimum energy regions in conformational maps are also noticed in C-1, C-2, C-4, C-8 and C-9 substituents. Docking studies were done to find the binding mode of the sialic acid analogues with Influenza hemagglutinin. This finding provides stereo chemical explanation and conformational preference of sialic acid analogues which may be crucial for the design of sialic acid analogues as inhibitors for different sialic acid specific pathogenic proteins such as influenza toxins and neuraminidases.

  5. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  6. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzmann Harald G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions.

  7. q-Analogue of Wright Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a q-analogues of Wright function and its auxiliary functions as Barnes integral representations and series expansion. The relations between q-analogues of Wright function and some other functions are investigated.

  8. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  9. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  10. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.;

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  11. A receptor that is highly specific for extracellular ATP in developing chick skeletal muscle in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S A; Zawisa, M. J.; Lin, X.; Hume, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activated an early excitatory conductance followed by a late potassium conductance in developing chick skeletal muscle. A series of ATP analogues were tested for their ability to activate these two conductances. All compounds tested were either agonists for both responses or for neither. Furthermore, the potency of agonists was similar for the two responses. 2. The order of potency for agonists was ATP approximately adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotripho...

  12. The skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joy of diagnostic radiology is derived in great measure in its neverending variety including the unveiling of new diagnostic entities and new information concerning known disease processes. This year is no exception in the fascinating documentation of skeletal disease. In the study of disorders of the joints, CT investigation of the temporomandibular joint and arthotomography of the shoulder are gaining in popularity. New observations concerning cyst-like osseous lesions in lupus erthematosis, destructive joint lesions in renal osteodystrophy, and intra- and periarticular calcifications secondary to steroid injections have come forward. Articles discussing interesting observations concerning chondrosarcoma are included as well as one that describes the demonstration of fluid levels in aneurysmal bone cysts by CT. Ossification in soft tissues following resection of giant cell tumors as evidence of residual neoplasm is an important new sign. Marrow transplantation for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis represents a new therapeutic breakthrough. Some of the skeletal manifestions of hypomagnesemia, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and aluminum are elucidated in this year's articles on metabolic disease. Further studies of methods of measuring bone density are also included

  13. Long-acting lipidated analogue of human pancreatic polypeptide is slowly released into circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Elling, Christian E; Madsen, Andreas N;

    2011-01-01

    human pancreatic polypeptide analogue specific for the human (h)Y(2) and hY(4) receptor with PEGs of different size and palmitic acid. Receptor specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding studies. Modifications had only a small influence on binding affinities and no influence on secondary...

  14. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, M A; Brito, F A; Passos, E

    2015-01-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.

  15. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.

  16. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, M.A.(Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil); Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2015-01-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the par...

  17. Synthesis of a simplified triazole analogue of pateamine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemi Cumming, A; Brown, Sarah L; Tao, Xu; Cuyamendous, Claire; Field, Jessica J; Miller, John H; Harvey, Joanne E; Teesdale-Spittle, Paul H

    2016-06-14

    Pateamine A is a naturally occurring metabolite extracted from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli. It exhibits potent cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines and has been shown to target protein translation initiation via inhibition of the function of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A proteins. We have synthesised a simplified analogue of pateamine A, consisting of the skeletal core of the natural product but with the thiazole heterocycle replaced by a triazole. The convergent design of the synthesis features a base-induced opening of a δ-valerolactone to access the Z,E-dienoate moiety, Julia-Kocienski olefination and copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Bioactivity testing of the simplified pateamine A analogue (3) indicated a significant reduction in cytotoxicity, compared to natural pateamine A. We propose that this reduced activity is due mainly to the substitution of the thiazole for the triazole heterocycle. This supports the hypothesis that the thiazole of pateamine A is important for binding to its biological target. PMID:27180995

  18. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon; Boesen, Sven; Krämer, Alwin; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The SAR of the griseofulvin analogues toward the two fungi followed the same trend with the majority being less active than griseofulvin and none had more than twice the potency of the parent compound. A ...

  19. Monitoring of progressive collapse of skeletal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose an idea of monitoring the state of skeletal structures of high importance (e.g. roof structures over large area buildings) with the aim of identification of slowly-developing plastic zones. This is formulated as an inverse problem within the framework of the Virtual Distortion Method, which was used previously to identify stiffness/mass modifications in similar manner. Permanent plastic strains developed in a truss element can be modeled by an initial strain (virtual distortion) introduced to the structure. The formation of subsequent plastic zones in the structure is assumed to be slow. Consequently, the design variable (plastic strain) is time-independent, which makes the inverse analysis efficient. This article presents problem formulation and numerical algorithm for identification of the plastic strains int russ structures. The identification relies on gradient-based optimization. A numerical example is included to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  20. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  1. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  2. Visual analogue measurement of pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, W. I.; Lewis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two separate studies were carried out to determine if three visual analogue scales for various feelings including pain could be marked consistently by patients, without reference to previously completed scales. Sixty patients undergoing extraction of their lower third molars had measurements of acute preoperative anxiety, expected postoperative pain and postoperative perceived pain three times in quick succession. There was no significant difference between the three measurements for any of t...

  3. Policy issues in space analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  4. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  5. Skeletal changes in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the skeletal changes which were found in six cases with confirmed tuberous sclerosis. The bone changes of this rare condition are summarised. The differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  6. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    state is determined by the overall content / activity of the regulatory proteins PDH kinase (PDK), of which there are 4 isoforms, and PDH phosphatase (PDP), of which there are 2 isoforms. The overall aim of the PhD project was to elucidate 4 issues. 1: Role of muscle type in resting and exercise......-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle. 2: Effect of muscle glycogen on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 3: The impact of physical inactivity on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. 4: Elucidating the importance of PGC-1? in PDH...... regulation in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate...

  7. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  8. [Key regulators of skeletal myogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopantseva, E E; Belyavsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myogenesis has been extensively studied at both morphological and molecular levels. This review considers the main stages of embryonic skeletal myogenesis and myogenic factors that trigger their initiation, focusing on specific protein interactions involved in somitic myogenesis, head myogenesis, and limb myogenesis. The second part of the review describes the role of noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs) in myogenesis. This information is of particular interest, because regulation of cell processes by noncoding RNAs is an actively developing field of molecular biology. Knowledge of mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis is of applied significance. Various transcription factors, noncoding RNAs, and other myogenic regulators can be employed in the induction of myogenic reprogramming in stem cells and differentiated somatic cells. Current trends and strategies in the field of skeletal myogenic reprogramming are discussed in the last part of the review. PMID:27239841

  9. Regulation of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Proteolysis is a component of protein turnover, controlled by multiple proteolytic systems. Alterations in system components within skeletal muscle has been associated with hypertrophy, remodelling, atrophy, apoptosis and metabolic dysregulation. Key components may have novel regulatory roles, e. g. calpain-3 and cathepsin-L. Experiments described within this thesis investigated the hypothesis that the gene expression of specific proteolytic system components within skeletal muscle may be co-...

  10. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  11. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  12. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity. PMID:27143250

  13. Synthetic analogues of natural semiochemicals as promising insect control agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After decades of research and development, insect pheromones and other semiochemicals became indispensable tools of ecologically based agricultural pest and disease vector management programmes with main uses as: 1) detection and population monitoring of emerging and migrating insects, 2) mass trapping of insects, 3) combined formulation of semiochemicals and insecticides ('lure-and-kill'), and 4) mating disruption with specially formulated pheromone components. In spite of their demonstrated safety and biodegradability, the direct application of these semiochemicals for pest control has not fulfilled initial expectations. Nonetheless considerable field experience has been accumulated (Carde and Minks 1995). Evidently, two important factors limit the practical potential of these substances: 1) inherent in their particular mode of action, semiochemicals, especially pheromones, are effectively cleared by specific enzymes in the insect antennae, and 2) some of these compounds contain labile functional moieties that are prone to degradation (oxidation, isomerisation and polymerisation) under field conditions. Appropriate chemical modifications of these natural compounds, however, can circumvent these problems by providing synthetic analogues (sometimes also called parapheromones or antipheromones; for early studies, see Roelofs and Comeau 1971, Payne et al. 1973) which in ideal cases are not only more potent and environmentally acceptable but more economical as well. It should also be mentioned that many effective attractants have been discovered through the empirical screening of synthetic chemicals, some of which have actually turned out to be structural relatives of natural semiochemicals of the particular insect. In this paper, selected case studies of analogues of sex pheromones and kairomones will be presented. The examples from our work include nitrile bioisosteres of labile aldehyde pheromone components of the cranberry girdler moth, Chrysoteuchia topiaria

  14. Strategies for improving the solubility and metabolic stability of griseofulvin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A B; Konotop, G; Hanafiah, N H M; Hammershøj, P; Raab, M S; Krämer, A; Clausen, M H

    2016-06-30

    We report two types of modifications to the natural product griseofulvin as strategies to improve solubility and metabolic stability: the conversion of aryl methyl ethers into aryl difluoromethyl ethers at metabolic hotspots and the conversion of the C-ring ketone into polar oximes. The syntheses of the analogues are described together with their solubility, metabolic half-life in vitro and antiproliferative effect in two cancer cell lines. We conclude that on balance, the formation of polar oximes is the most promising strategy for improving the properties of the analogues. PMID:27061984

  15. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  16. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  17. Analogue imprecision in MLP training

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Hardware inaccuracy and imprecision are important considerations when implementing neural algorithms. This book presents a study of synaptic weight noise as a typical fault model for analogue VLSI realisations of MLP neural networks and examines the implications for learning and network performance. The aim of the book is to present a study of how including an imprecision model into a learning scheme as a"fault tolerance hint" can aid understanding of accuracy and precision requirements for a particular implementation. In addition the study shows how such a scheme can give rise to significant

  18. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  19. Biological Evaluation of Double Point Modified Analogues of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 as Potential Anti-Leukemic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Corcoran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Structurally similar double-point modified analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2 were screened in vitro for their pro-differentiating activity against the promyeloid cell line HL60. Their affinities towards human full length vitamin D receptor (VDR and metabolic stability against human vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1 were also tested. The analogues (PRI-1730, PRI-1731, PRI-1732, PRI-1733 and PRI-1734 contained 5,6-trans modification of the A-ring and of the triene system, additional hydroxyl or unsaturation at C-22 in the side chain and reversed absolute configuration (24-epi at C-24 of 1,25D2. As presented in this paper, introduction of selected structural modifications simultaneously in two distinct parts of the vitamin D molecule resulted in a divergent group of analogues. Analogues showed lower VDR affinity in comparison to that of the parent hormones, 1,25D2 and 1,25D3, and they caused effective HL60 cell differentiation only at high concentrations of 100 nM and above. Unexpectedly, introducing of a 5,6-trans modification combined with C-22 hydroxyl and 24-epi configuration switched off entirely the cell differentiation activity of the analogue (PRI-1734. However, this analogue remained a moderate substrate for CYP24A1, as it was metabolized at 22%, compared to 35% for 1,25D2. Other analogues from this series were either less (12% for PRI-1731 and PRI-1733 or more (52% for PRI-1732 resistant to the enzymatic deactivation. Although the inactive analogue PRI-1734 failed to show VDR antagonism, when tested in HL60 cells, its structure might be a good starting point for our design of a vitamin D antagonist.

  20. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. Deshmukh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC, MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  1. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  2. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39Ar/4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Muscle Type-Dependent and Age-Dependent Protein Carbonylation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Juan; Xie, Hongwei; Meany, Danni L.; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified mitochondrial proteins susceptible to carbonylation in a muscle type (slow- vs fast-twitch)-dependent and age-dependent manner from Fischer 344 rat skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle contained twice as many carbonylated mitochondrial proteins than did slow-twitch muscle, with 22 proteins showing signif...

  4. Lysine methyltransferase G9a methylates the transcription factor MyoD and regulates skeletal muscle differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Belinda Mei Tze; Bharathy, Narendra; Chung, Teng-Kai; Kok, Wai Kay; Li, SiDe; Tan, Yong Hua; Rao, Vinay Kumar; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Walsh, Martin J.; Taneja, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle cells have served as a paradigm for understanding mechanisms leading to cellular differentiation. The proliferation and differentiation of muscle precursor cells require the concerted activity of myogenic regulatory factors including MyoD. In addition, chromatin modifiers mediate dynamic modifications of histone tails that are vital to reprogramming cells toward terminal differentiation. Here, we provide evidence for a unique dimension to epigenetic regulation of skeletal myog...

  5. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  6. The chaos machine: analogue computing rediscovered (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambaum, Maarten H. P.; Harrison, R. Giles

    2011-01-01

    Analogue computers provide actual rather than virtual representations of model systems. They are powerful and engaging computing machines that are cheap and simple to build. This two-part Retronics article helps you build (and understand!) your own analogue computer to simulate the Lorenz butterfly that's become iconic for Chaos theory.

  7. Component-based syntheses of trioxacarcin A, DC-45-A1 and structural analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magauer, Thomas; Smaltz, Daniel J.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2013-10-01

    The trioxacarcins are polyoxygenated, structurally complex natural products that potently inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cells. Here we describe syntheses of trioxacarcin A, DC-45-A1 and structural analogues by late-stage stereoselective glycosylation reactions of fully functionalized, differentially protected aglycon substrates. Key issues addressed in this work include the identification of an appropriate means to activate and protect each of the two 2-deoxysugar components, trioxacarcinose A and trioxacarcinose B, as well as a viable sequencing of the glycosidic couplings. The convergent, component-based sequence we present allows for rapid construction of structurally diverse, synthetic analogues that would be inaccessible by any other means, in amounts required to support biological evaluation. Analogues that arise from the modification of four of five modular components are assembled in 11 steps or fewer. The majority of these are found to be active in antiproliferative assays using cultured human cancer cells.

  8. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  9. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; HongLi; CHOU; JiFan

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  10. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. S...

  11. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  12. Opioid profiles of Cys2-containing enkephalin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Nevena; Milanov, Peter; Vezenkov, Lubomir; Pajpanova, Tamara; Naydenova, Emilia

    2004-09-13

    To elucidate the structural features determining delta-opioid receptor properties of enkephalin analogues containing Cys(O2NH2) in position 2, a series of Cys2-containing derivatives were synthesized and tested for their effectiveness in depressing electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens (predominantly enkephalin-selective delta-opioid receptors) and the guinea-pig ileum (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors). The peptidase resistance of the compounds was also tested. The ratio IC50 in the guinea-pig ileum/IC50 in the mouse vas deferens, indicating selectivity for delta-opioid receptors, was high for Cys(O2NH2)2-containing analogues and especially for [Cys(O2NH2)2, Leu5]enkephalin, which was about seven times more selective than delta-opioid receptor selective ligand cyclic [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). The dissociation constant (KA) and relative efficacy (e(rel)) of the compounds in the mouse-isolated vas deferens were determined using explicit formulae derived by fitting of the data points with two-parametric hyperbolic function. The obtained values for KA and e(rel) suggest that: (i) incorporation of Cys(O2NH2)2 in the molecule of [Leu5]enkephalin highly increases the efficacy and does not change significantly the affinity of the respective analogues to delta-opioid receptors; [Cys(O2NH2)2, Leu5]enkephalin has higher affinity than DPDPE, but is less resistant to enzyme degradation; the effect of this modification on the efficacy is decreased when methionine is in position 5; (ii) D-configuration of Cys(O2NH2)2-containing analogues increases their peptidase resistance, but reduces efficacy and affinity of the peptides towards delta-opioid receptors; (iii) the substitution of Cys(O2NH2) with Hcy(O2NH2) reduces the efficacy, affinity and potency of the respective analogues and maintains their sensitivity to endogenous peptidases; (iv) the substitution of the sulfonamide group with benzyl group in the molecule of Cys in position 2 decreases their

  13. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  14. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...... and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration....

  15. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion...... between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal...

  16. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  17. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  20. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties. PMID:22721390

  1. Acoustojet: acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated for the first time that an existence of acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon, called acoustojet, providing for subwavelength localization of acoustic field in the shadow area of arbitrary 3D penetrable mesoscale particle, is possible.

  2. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  3. Total Synthesis of the Analogue of Icogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jie HOU; Peng XU; Liang ZHOU; De Quan YU; Ping Sheng LEI; Chuan Chun ZOU

    2006-01-01

    One of the analogues of icogenin, a natural furostanol saponin showing strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cell, was first synthesized via convergent strategy by using diosgenin and available monosaccharides as starting materials,

  4. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  5. Synthesis of caged Garcinia xanthone analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Cheal

    2009-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy is developed toward the synthesis of the caged Garcinia xanthone analogues. The key to the strategy is a Pd-catalyzed reverse prenylation reaction. This new synthetic approach provides a rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues, including cluvenone which is known to induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. Evaluation of their growth inhibitory activities also leads to identification of the pharmacophoric motif of...

  6. Analogue of the Event Horizon in Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Friedrich; Philbin, Thomas G.; Kuklewicz, Chris; Robertson, Scott; Hill, Stephen; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    In conclusion, we have developed a theory for artificial event horizons in fibers. Experimentally, light was blue-shifted by a near group velocity-matched pulse. The measured data was explained by the presence of an optical group velocity horizon inside the fiber. A very good agreement between theory and experiment was observed. The blue shifting corresponds to the optical analogue of trans-Planckian frequency shifts in astrophysics (t'Hooft, 1985; Jacobson, 1991). The temperature of analogue...

  7. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Girish C; Manikandan S; Jayanthi M

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid...

  8. Somatostatin analogue treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    de Herder, W. W.; van der Lely, A.J.; Lamberts, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    The long-acting analogues of somatostatin have an established place in the medical treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. They act through binding with specific, high-affinity membrane receptors. Somatostatin analogue therapy is an effective and safe treatment for most growth hormone and thyrothropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. The potential therapeutic consequences of the presence of somatostatin receptors on clinically 'nonfunctioning' pituitary tumours are still uncertain. So...

  9. Readers of histone modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks.Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is interpreted.

  10. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  11. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  12. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The...... analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin in...

  13. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  14. Skeletal scintigraphy manifestations of hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal manifestations are common in hematologic disorders. Benign entities such as Sickle cell disease develop microvascular embolization causing skeletal crisis. Leukemia, acute myeloblastic or lymphoblastic may develop bone marrow infarcts. Compromised immunity makes them susceptible to secondary infection leading to osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Exposure to steroids may lead to osteonecrosis in these cases. Presented here is an atlas of various scintigraphic skeletal manifestations encountered over the past 10 years, in hematologic disorders

  15. The Effects of Lactate on Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Willkomm, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical activity are cornerstones in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and age-related sarcopenia. The associated health benefits arise from a number of tissues but due to its high plasticity skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role. The resident stem cells of skeletal muscle tissue, so called Satellite cells (SCs), contribute significantly to skeletal muscle adaptation and hence, maintenance of heal...

  16. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  17. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Barai Sukanta; Bandopadhayaya G; Julka P; Dhanapathi H; Haloi A; Seith A

    2004-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was consid...

  18. Convergent syntheses of LeX analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of three Lex derivatives from one common protected trisaccharide is reported. These analogues will be used respectively for competitive binding experiments, conjugation to carrier proteins and immobilization on gold. An N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide acceptor was first glycosylated at O-4 with a galactosyl imidate. This coupling was performed at 40 °C under excess of BF3·OEt2 activation and proceeded best if the acceptor carried a 6-chlorohexyl rather than a 6-azidohexyl aglycon. The 6-chlorohexyl disaccharide was then converted to an acceptor and submitted to fucosylation yielding the corresponding protected 6-chlorohexyl Lex trisaccharide. This protected trisaccharide was used as a precursor to the 6-azidohexyl, 6-acetylthiohexyl and 6-benzylthiohexyl trisaccharide analogues which were obtained in excellent yields (70–95%. In turn, we describe the deprotection of these intermediates in one single step using dissolving metal conditions. Under these conditions, the 6-chlorohexyl and 6-azidohexyl intermediates led respectively to the n-hexyl and 6-aminohexyl trisaccharide targets. Unexpectedly, the 6-acetylthiohexyl analogue underwent desulfurization and gave the n-hexyl glycoside product, whereas the 6-benzylthiohexyl analogue gave the desired disulfide trisaccharide dimer. This study constitutes a particularly efficient and convergent preparation of these three Lex analogues.

  19. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid onset of action. The antiapoptotic property, mediated through insulin substrate receptor-2 has a favourable protective action on beta cells. Insulin detemir is a long acting analogue, soluble at neutral pH, which reversibly binds to albumin in plasma, prolonging its action. Its lower affinity for insulin receptors necessitates higher doses compared to human insulin. The reduction in body weight is an additional advantage of detemir. A major concern about all newer insulin analogues is their altered mitogenic properties and resultant risk of carcinogenicity on long term use. Albulin is a latest addition of insulin analogue which is under various in vitro and in vivo studies. Inhaled insulin in powder form (Exubera is recently approved by FDA and appears promising.

  20. Pharmacokinetic model for the absorption of subcutaneously injected soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanoski, Z; Wach, P; Kotanko, P; Ott, A; Skraba, F

    1993-09-01

    A subcutaneous insulin absorption model is presented for parameter estimation from the time course of plasma insulin. Modifications of a published model were made for the absorption of soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues in the range of therapeutic concentrations and volumes. The modified diffusion-dissociation model with distributed parameters was approximated by a multiple-compartment model. Subcutaneous absorption of soluble insulin and monomeric insulin analogues with various volumes, concentrations, and injection depths was simulated. The model for soluble insulin exhibits volume, concentration, and injection depth dependent absorption, as experimentally observed. It was found that binding of soluble insulin in the subcutaneous tissue is negligible for U-40 and U-100 strengths. The absorption of identical doses (10 U) of soluble U-40 insulin was markedly faster (T-50% = 159.4 min) than the absorption of U-100 (T-50% = 196.2 min). According to the simulation results, the absorption rate of monomeric analogues is not dependent on concentration. No significant chances of the absorption rate could also be observed by varying volume and injection depth of the monomeric analogues. PMID:8218870

  1. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem A.

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  2. Geomagnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of planetary processes in Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we study the geomagnetic properties of Proxima b analogues, namely, solid planets with masses close but larger than Earth's mass, periods of rotation of several days and habitable surface conditions. Assuming different planetary masses, bulk compositions and periods of rotations, we calculate for each planetary analogue its radius, heat flux, time of inner core formation, dynamo lifetime and minimum dipole magnetic moment. We find that most ($\\gtrsim$70\\%) Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last at least 3 Gyr, although only half of them are older than the present age of the host star ($4-6$ Gyr). Relying in our planetary evolution models, we p...

  3. Behavior Modification is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawney, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  4. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  5. Skeletal scintigraphy following incidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of antecedent trauma in skeletal scintigraphy was assessed in 503 patients, of whom 241 (46%) had prior fracture or tooth extraction. In patients with sufficiently accurate histories for site-by-site analysis, 33 of 131 fracture sites and 16 of 83 dental-procedure sites were positive scintigraphically. In general, the frequency of scan positivity diminished as the interval between trauma and scanning increased, but a significant number of patients showed prolonged uptake at fracture sites. Several patterns of uptake suggested trauma rather than metastatic disease. Knowledge of a history of trauma is often critical in bone scan interpretation

  6. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  7. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  8. Somatostatin analogues for acute bleeding oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Hrobjartsson, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatostatin and its derivatives are sometimes used for emergency treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. OBJECTIVES: To study whether somatostatin or its analogues improve survival or reduce the need for blood transfusions in patients with...... bleeding oesophageal varices. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library were searched (November 2007). Reference lists of publications, contacts with authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials comparing somatostatin or analogues with placebo or no treatment in patients suspected of acute or...

  9. Natural analogues in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to validate predictive models of the very long-term processes which effect the performance of radioactive waste repositories, there has been increasing interest in the information which can be obtained from studying similar mechanisms in natural systems. Although such analogues have been studied for many years, performance assessment methodology has now matured to the point where it can enlist the support which analogues can offer. Consequently this book assesses the safety levels attributable to underground depositories for radioactive waste be examining natural depositories to radioactive material and their degree of migration

  10. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  11. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  12. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac, skele...

  13. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  14. Molecular networks in skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle phenotype is subject to considerable malleability depending on use as well as internal and external cues. In humans, low-load endurance-type exercise leads to qualitative changes of muscle tissue characterized by an increase in structures supporting oxygen delivery and consumption, such as capillaries and mitochondria. High-load strength-type exercise leads to growth of muscle fibers dominated by an increase in contractile proteins. In endurance exercise, stress-induced signaling leads to transcriptional upregulation of genes, with Ca(2+) signaling and the energy status of the muscle cells sensed through AMPK being major input determinants. Several interrelated signaling pathways converge on the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α, perceived to be the coordinator of much of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. Strength training is dominated by a translational upregulation controlled by mTORC1. mTORC1 is mainly regulated by an insulin- and/or growth-factor-dependent signaling cascade as well as mechanical and nutritional cues. Muscle growth is further supported by DNA recruitment through activation and incorporation of satellite cells. In addition, there are several negative regulators of muscle mass. We currently have a good descriptive understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the muscle phenotype. The topology of signaling networks seems highly conserved among species, with the signaling outcome being dependent on the particular way individual species make use of the options offered by the multi-nodal networks. As a consequence, muscle structural and functional modifications can be achieved by an almost unlimited combination of inputs and downstream signaling events. PMID:26792332

  15. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund;

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle and...... adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  16. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  17. Synthesis of Firefly Luciferin Analogues and Evaluation of the Luminescent Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Shuji; Saitoh, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Satoshi; Suzuki, Koji; Maki, Shojiro A; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Imoto, Masaya; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2016-06-27

    Five new firefly luciferin (1) analogues were synthesized and their light emission properties were examined. Modifications of the thiazoline moiety in 1 were employed to produce analogues containing acyclic amino acid side chains (2-4) and heterocyclic rings derived from amino acids (5 and 6) linked to the benzothiazole moiety. Although methyl esters of all of the synthetic derivatives exhibited chemiluminescence activity, only carboluciferin (6), possessing a pyrroline-substituted benzothiazole structure, had bioluminescence (BL) activity (λmax =547 nm). Results of bioluminescence studies with AMP-carboluciferin (AMP=adenosine monophosphate) and AMP-firefly luciferin showed that the nature of the thiazoline mimicking moiety affected the adenylation step of the luciferin-luciferase reaction required for production of potent BL. In addition, BL of 6 in living mice differed from that of 1 in that its luminescence decay rate was slower. PMID:27220106

  18. Synthesis and Comparative Study of Anti-Adenoviral Activity of 6-Azacytidine and Its Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, Inna; Nosach, Lydia; Palchykovska, Larisa; Usenko, Lyubov; Povnitsa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of synthesis and study of cytotoxicity and the anti-adenoviral activity of new N4-derivatives of 6-azacytidine and its α-L-glycopyranosyl analogues obtained by the simplified one-pot version of the silyl condensation method. The resulting acylated 4-methylmercapto-1,2,4-triazin-3(2Н)-one glycosides then underwent the amination and/or ammonolysis to provide 6-azacytidine glycoside analogues (2-6, 12, 15, 17) and compounds with modifications at both base and sugar fragments (11, 15). The evaluation of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of new compounds against AdV5 showed high selectivity indexes for N4-methyl-6-azacytidine (2) and N,O-tetraacetyl-6-azacytidine (8). High anti-adenoviral activity of N4-methyl-6-azacytidine as well as very low cytotoxicity may suggest its further investigation as potential compound for the therapy of AdV infection. PMID:26167665

  19. The PAAG group and natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of how OECD/NEA is organized with regard to questions dealing with management of radioactive wastes. The role of the two advisory groups, PAAG and ISAG, to the Radioactive waste management Committee is discussed with specific regard to the use of natural analogues in safety assessments

  20. Second-Generation Fluorescent Quadracyclic Adenine Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumat, Blaise; Bood, Mattias; Wranne, Moa S.;

    2015-01-01

    quadracyclic adenine analogues. The compounds were efficiently synthesized from a common intermediate through a two-step pathway with the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling as the key step. Two of the compounds, qAN1 and qAN4, display brightnesses (epsilon Phi(F)) of 1700 and 2300, respectively, in water and behave as...

  1. Synthesis of C-Arylnucleoside Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Len

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified nucleoside analogues are of great biological importance as antiviral and antitumoral agents. There is special interest in the preparation of C-aryl nucleosides with an aromatic ring in different positions of the glycone for their biological activity. Different chemical synthesis strategies for these targets are described in this review.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine. PMID:11003150

  3. Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (111 In-pentetreotide) is useful in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. But this radiopharmaceutical accumulates also in solid tumours or in inflammatory diseases such as granulomatosis. We present a case of 111 In-pentetreotide uptake in a tuberculous adenopathy. (author)

  4. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  5. Phosphate analogues in the dissection of mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi J. Korhonen; Conway, Louis P.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoryl group transfer is central to genetic replication, cellular signalling and many metabolic processes. Understanding the mechanisms of phosphorylation and phosphate ester and anhydride cleavage is key to efforts towards biotechnological and biomedical exploitation of phosphate-handling enzymes. Analogues of phosphate esters and anhydrides are indispensable tools, alongside protein mutagenesis and computational methods, for the dissection of phosphoryl transfer mechanisms. Hydrolysable...

  6. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27301366

  7. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  8. Recent advances in topoisomerase I-targeting agents, camptothecin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Lee, Namkyu

    2002-12-01

    The present review concentrates on camptothecin (CPT) analogues, the most extensively studied topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors, and provides concise information on the structural features of human topo I enzyme, mechanisms of interaction of CPT with topo I, structure-activity relationship study of CPT analogues including the influence of lactone stability on antitumor activity, and recent updates of valuable CPT analogues. PMID:12370044

  9. Proteomic Profiling of Mitochondrial Enzymes during Skeletal Muscle Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Staunton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are of central importance for energy generation in skeletal muscles. Expression changes or functional alterations in mitochondrial enzymes play a key role during myogenesis, fibre maturation, and various neuromuscular pathologies, as well as natural fibre aging. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics suggests itself as a convenient large-scale and high-throughput approach to catalogue the mitochondrial protein complement and determine global changes during health and disease. This paper gives a brief overview of the relatively new field of mitochondrial proteomics and discusses the findings from recent proteomic surveys of mitochondrial elements in aged skeletal muscles. Changes in the abundance, biochemical activity, subcellular localization, and/or posttranslational modifications in key mitochondrial enzymes might be useful as novel biomarkers of aging. In the long term, this may advance diagnostic procedures, improve the monitoring of disease progression, help in the testing of side effects due to new drug regimes, and enhance our molecular understanding of age-related muscle degeneration.

  10. Proteomic responses of skeletal and cardiac muscle to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regular exercise is effective in the prevention of chronic diseases and confers a lower risk of death in individuals displaying risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Thus, knowledge of the molecular responses to exercise provides a valuable contrast for interpreting investigations of disease and can highlight novel therapeutic targets. While exercise is an everyday experience and can be conceptualized in simple terms, exercise is a complex physiological phenomena and investigation of exercise responses requires sophisticated analytical techniques and careful standardization of the exercise stimulus. Proteomic investigation of exercise is in its infancy but the ability to link changes in function with comprehensive changes in protein expression and post-translational modification holds great promise for advancing physiology. This review highlights recent pioneering work investigating the effects of exercise in skeletal and cardiac muscle that has uncovered novel mechanisms underling the benefits of physical activity. PMID:21679117

  11. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the...

  12. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.)

  13. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, LIANG; WANG, JINGCHENG; FENG, XINMIN; TAO, YUPING; YANG, JIANDONG; ZHANG, SHENFEI; CAI, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastatic disease. In conclusion, the diagnosis of this condition by conventional diagnostic methods is challenging. The importance of CT-guided needle biopsy and open biopsy in the diagnosis of skeletal TB was emphasized. PMID:27073438

  14. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  15. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  16. Design and synthesis of new fluconazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pore, Vandana S; Agalave, Sandip G; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen K; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad I

    2015-06-21

    We have synthesized new fluconazole analogues containing two different 1,2,3-triazole units in the side chain. The synthesis of new amide analogues using a variety of acids is also described. All the compounds showed very good antifungal activity. A hemolysis study of the most active compounds 6e and 13j showed that both compounds did not cause any hemolysis at the dilutions tested. These compounds did not exhibit any toxicity to L929 cells at MIC and lower concentrations. In the docking study, the overall binding mode of 6e and 13j appeared to be reasonable and provided a good insight into the structural basis of inhibition of Candida albicans Cyp51 by these compounds. PMID:25975803

  17. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  18. Effect of cellular phospholipid modification on phorbol diester binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of cellular lipid composition on the specific binding of [20-3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate to intact human promyelocytic leukemia cells was investigated. Cellular phospholipid composition could be manipulated by culturing cells in serum-free, chemically defined media containing base analogues of phospholipid polar head groups. Human promyelocytic leukemia cells grown in the presence of dimethylethanolamine, monomethylethanolamine, 3-aminopropanol, or isopropylethanolamine assimilated these natural and unnatural base moieties into endogenous phospholipids to the extent that 22 to 52% of the cell glycerophospholipids contained the base analogue. The formation of the phospholipid analogues was accompanied by a pronounced reduction in the levels of intracellular choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. Analogue-supplemented cultures exhibited a reduced growth rate compared to control cells maintained in choline-containing medium. Specific [20-3H ]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding was examined in lipid-altered cells and shown to be markedly higher (approximately 200% of control) in cells grown with dimethyl- or monomethylethanolamine. In contrast, exposure of cells to 3-aminopropanol or isopropylethanolamine resulted in a major reduction in [20-3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding. Only minimal changes in nonspecific binding occurred between control and experimental cells. Because phorbol esters are highly membrane targeted, it is possible that phospholipid modification or the resulting changes in membrane organization influence receptor dynamics

  19. Relational Quadrilateralland. Analogues of Isospin and Hypercharge

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    I consider the momenta and conserved quantities for CP^2 interpreted as the space of quadrilaterals. This builds on seminar I and II's kinematics via making use of MacFarlane's work considering the SU(3)-like (and thus particle physics-like) conserved quantities that occur for CP^2. I perform the additional step of further interpreting that as the configuration space of all relational quadrilaterals and thus an interesting toy model for whole-universe, relational and geometrodynamical-analogu...

  20. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  1. Acremolin : : Synthesis, Structural Revision and Analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Januar, Lawrence Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the total synthesis of the natural product acremolin and its structural reassignment along with attempts towards synthesizing analogues of natural product. Acremolin is a natural product reported as a 1H- azirine-containing guanine derivative isolated from Acremonium strictum. Due to the known structural instability of 1H-azirines systems, the original assignment is highly improbable. Two alternative structures were proposed based on the evaluation of spectroscopic data r...

  2. Analogue memories for high speed detectors signals

    CERN Document Server

    Caponetto, L H

    2000-01-01

    An analogue memory chip family has been developed as a switched capacitor cell array. The family is an ongoing prototyping project within the readout system of the silicon drift detectors for the Inner Tracker System of the ALICE experiment. All chips consist of several capturing channels whose cells number is varying within the family. Chips design choices and performances are briefly discussed here. (5 refs).

  3. SYNTHESIS AND BIOEVALUATION OF KETOCONAZOLE THIOSEMICARBAZONE ANALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Murti

    2011-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KTZ) is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including C. albicans. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against fungal infection are urgently required. With this view, ketoconazole thiosemicarbazone analogues (Compounds 1-10) were synthesized wherein condensation of different thiosemic...

  4. Analogues of a transformation formula of Ramanujan

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Atul

    2009-01-01

    We derive two new analogues of a transformation formula of Ramanujan involving the Gamma and Riemann zeta functions present in the Lost Notebook. Both involve infinite series consisting of Hurwitz zeta functions and yield modular relations. As a special case of the first formula, we obtain an identity involving polygamma functions given by Andrew P. Guinand and as a limiting case of the second formula, we derive the transformation formula of Ramanujan.

  5. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary

  6. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, N

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of hadronic matter that takes place immediately after a heavy ion collision has certain similarity with the cosmological expansion. We study the analogue geometry of the expanding hadronic fluid, using the the formalism of relativistic acoustic geometry. We show that the propagation of massless pions provides a geometric analog of expanding spacetime equivalent to an open (k=-1)FRW cosmology. Here, we study general conditions for the formation of a trapped region with the inner boundary as a marginally trapped surface.

  7. Applying Acylated Fucose Analogues to Metabolic Glycoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Rosenlöcher; Verena Böhrsch; Michael Sacharjat; Véronique Blanchard; Christoph Giese; Volker Sandig; Christian P R Hackenberger; Stephan Hinderlich

    2015-01-01

    Manipulations of cell surface glycosylation or glycan decoration of selected proteins hold immense potential for exploring structure-activity relations or increasing glycoprotein quality. Metabolic glycoengineering describes the strategy where exogenously supplied sugar analogues intercept biosynthetic pathways and are incorporated into glycoconjugates. Low membrane permeability, which so far limited the large-scale adaption of this technology, can be addressed by the introduction of acylated...

  8. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  9. Instructional influences on analogue functional analysis outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Northup, John; Kodak, Tiffany; Grow, Laura; Lee, Jennifer; Coyne, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Analogue assessments were conducted with a common contingency (escape from tasks) that varied only by three different instructions describing the contingency. In one condition, the contingency was described as "taking a break," in another condition it was described as "time-out," and no description of the contingency was provided in a third condition. The participant was a typically developing 5-year-old child with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rates of inappropriat...

  10. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva;

    2016-01-01

    on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion, and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable, and thus one of the few organ systems which can be experimentally manipulated (e.g. by exercise) to study physiologic regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus...... during health, but poorly controlled in disease - resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact...... on 1) the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity, and 2) highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes and ultrastructural...

  11. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  12. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  13. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-01-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physio...

  14. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  15. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Jingcheng; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; ZHANG, SHENFEI; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastat...

  16. Stem cells for skeletal muscle repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly specialized tissue composed of non-dividing, multi-nucleated muscle fibres that contract to generate force in a controlled and directed manner. Skeletal muscle is formed during embryogenesis from a subset of muscle precursor cells, which generate both differentiated muscle fibres and specialized muscle-forming stem cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells remain associated with muscle fibres after birth and are responsible for muscle growth and repair throug...

  17. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  18. Environmental Modification: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.; Kyte, Nancy S.

    1975-01-01

    This study shows that environmental modification is a surprisingly intricate technique. This may account for its relatively low use and also for its more frequent use by MSW than non-MSW caseworkers. The findings indicate the need for further research on environmental modification. (Author)

  19. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  20. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  1. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  2. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J

    2015-01-01

    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  3. Graft Copolymers of Maleic Anhydride and Its Isostructural Analogues: High Performance Engineering Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rzayev, Zakir M O

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional and non-conventional synthetic and natural polymers, including biodegradable polymers, mechanism of grafting and graft copolymerization, in situ grafting reactions in melt by reactive extrusion systems, in solutions and solid state (photo- and plasma-induced graftings), and H-bonding effect in the reactive blend processing. The structural phenomena, unique properties and application areas of these copolymers and their various modifications and composites as high performance engineering materials have been also described.

  4. Stiffness of modified Type 1a linear external skeletal fixators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaugh, H F; Rochat, M C; Bruce, C W; Galloway, D S; Payton, M E

    2007-01-01

    Modifications of a Type 1a external skeletal fixator (ESF) frame were evaluated by alternately placing transfixation pins on opposite sides of the connecting rod (Type 1a-MOD) or by placing additional connecting rods on either of the two inside (Type 1a-INSIDE) or two outside (Type 1a-OUTSIDE) transfixation pins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stiffness of these modifications in terms of axial compression (AC), cranial-caudal bending (CCB), and medial-lateral bending (MLB). We hypothesized that these designs would allow significant increase in unilateral frame stiffness, over Type 1a, without proportional increase in frame complexity or technical difficulty of application. All of the ESF frames were constructed using large IMEX SKtrade mark clamps, 3.2 mm threaded fixation pins, 9.5 mm carbon fibre connecting rods and Delrin rods as bone models. Nine, eight pin frames of each design were constructed, and subjected to repetitive non-destructive loading forces (AC, CCB, MLB) using a materials testing machine. Frame construct stiffness for each force (AC, CCB, MLB) was derived from load-deformation curve analysis and displayed in N/mm. Data revealed the 1a-MOD and 1a-OUTSIDE constructs had significantly increased stiffness in CCB and AC as compared to the Type 1a constructs while all of the modified constructs were significantly stiffer in MLB than the Type 1a constructs. PMID:18038001

  5. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul; Gnaiger, Erich; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  6. Uncovering Mass Segregation with Galaxy Analogues in Dark Matter Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gandhali D; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark matter simulations. Subhalos identified by the AHF and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhalos as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halo-centric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within $0.5\\,r_{vir}$) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy anal...

  7. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa;

    2016-01-01

    Insulin analogues are commonly used in pregnant women with diabetes. It is not known if the use of insulin analogues in pregnancy is associated with any higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring compared with use of human insulin. We performed a literature search for studies of pregnant...... women with pregestational diabetes using insulin analogues in the first trimester and information on congenital anomalies. The studies were analysed to compare the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses of mothers using insulin analogues with foetuses of mothers using human insulin. Of 29 studies, we...... included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate...

  8. Anomalous isobaric analogue resonance in 71As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 G. M. Temmer et al., reported observing five anomalous substructures in a spin 1/2+ isobaric analogue resonance in 71As at E/sub p/ = 5.05 MeV. They suggested that these substructures could be interpreted as ''hallway states'' coupling a ''doorway state'' to compound nuclear states. Although doorway states are well established interpretations of isobaric analogue resonances, hallway states have no such acreditation. The case investigated in this paper was the first reported evidence suggesting the existence of hallway states in an isobaric analogue resonance. In this work the validity of the hallway state interpretation was ascertained for two of the five substructures. The spin and parity of these two substructures were determined to be 5/2+; therefore, their interpretation as hallway states is incorrect since it would not conserve angular momentum. The spins and parities of all the substructures were determined by measuring the analyzing power of the elastic reaction 70Ge(p(pol),p0) from an energy E/sub p/ = 4.92 MeV to an energy E/sub p/ = 5.23 MeV in 10 keV steps. The analyzing power was then remeasured over the last two substructures at E = 5.05 MeV and E = 5.14 MeV in 5 keV steps. These last two substructures also decayed strongly to the 2+ first excited state in 70Ge. The angular correlation between the first inelastic proton and the subsequently emitted gamma ray was measured in the Goldfarb--Seyler geometry and was then expanded in terms of cosine functions. The expansion coefficients implied that the spins of these two resonances were greater than or equal to 5/2, in agreement with the analyzing power measurements

  9. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  10. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic analogues of nonrelativistic integrals in R-matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic analogues of integrals are applied to the nonrelativistic R-matrix code to demonstrate the possibilities of the method. An expression for the relativistic analogue of the multipole integral is obtained. Energy levels and electron impact excitation cross sections for transitions in C2+, Fe22+ and W70+, calculated with different codes, are compared. It is found that the relativistic analogues of integrals method shows good agreement with results calculated using a relativistic code. (letter to the editor)

  12. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  13. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  14. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  15. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  16. Analogues of Euler and Poisson Summation Formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Rane

    2003-08-01

    Euler–Maclaurin and Poisson analogues of the summations $\\sum_{a < n ≤ b}(n)f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n) f(n), \\sum_{a < n ≤ b}d(n)(n) f(n)$ have been obtained in a unified manner, where (()) is a periodic complex sequence; () is the divisor function and () is a sufficiently smooth function on [, ]. We also state a generalised Abel's summation formula, generalised Euler's summation formula and Euler's summation formula in several variables.

  17. Analogue cosmology in a hadronic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Neven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog gravity models of general relativity seem promising routes to providing laboratory tests of the foundation of quantum field theory in curved space-time. In contrast to general relativity, where geometry of a spacetime is determined by the Einstein equations, in analog models geometry and evolution of analog spacetime are determined by the equations of fluid mechanics. In this paper we study the analogue gravity model based on massless pions propagating in a expanding hadronic fluid. The analog expanding spacetime takes the form of an FRW universe, with the apparent and trapping horizons defined in the standard way.

  18. Phonon analogue of topological nodal semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Kane and Lubensky proposed a mapping between bosonic phonon problems on isostatic lattices to chiral fermion systems based on factorization of the dynamical matrix [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014)]. The existence of topologically protected zero modes in such mechanical problems is related to their presence in the fermionic system and is dictated by a local index theorem. Here we adopt the proposed mapping to construct a two-dimensional mechanical analogue of a fermionic topological nodal semimetal that hosts a robust bulk node in its linearized phonon spectrum. Such topologically protected soft modes with tunable wavevector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  19. Electronic analogue simulator of radio cardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various parameters of the heart pump and of the blood circulation can be determined by radio-cardio-graphical techniques. The curves thus obtained can be more easily used in radiocardiography if the electronic analogue simulator described here is employed. The experimental and simulated radio-cardiograms are made to coincide by varying the electrical parameters of the simulator. Using simple charts it is possible to obtain directly the actual original physiological parameters from these electrical parameters. Some examples are given showing the excellent accuracy obtained in the determination of ejection indices by the simulator. (authors)

  20. Satellite television analogue and digital reception techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Herve

    1999-01-01

    Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec

  1. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  2. Surface modification of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ion beam and pulsed laser processing is reviewed for the near-surface modification of a wide range of materials. The techniques of ion implantation doping, ion beam and laser mixing, and pulsed-laser annealing are stressed with particular emphasis on the nonequilibrium aspects of these processing techniques and on new materials properties which can result. Examples are presented illustrating the utility of these techniques for fundamental materials research as well as practical surface modifications

  3. Scintigraphy with labelled analogues of the somatostatin; Scintigraphie aux analogues marques de la somatostatine (octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duet, M.; Ajzenberg, C.; Warnet, A.; Mundler, O. [Hopital Lariboisiere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-02-01

    The receptors of the somatostatin have been localized in a big number of tumors, whom a great number are neuro-endocrine tumors. However, some tumors that have not this differentiation (breast cancer, lymphomas, cerebral tumors) possess them as well. Analogues of somatostatin, labelled with isotopes having a gamma emission, allow from now their detection in vivo. (N.C.)

  4. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  5. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed.

  6. Chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of cis- and trans-12,13-cyclopropyl and 12,13-cyclobutyl epothilones and related pyridine side chain analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaou, K C; Namoto, K; Ritzén, A; Ulven, T; Shoji, M; Li, J; D'Amico, G; Liotta, D; French, C T; Wartmann, M; Altmann, K H; Giannakakou, P

    2001-01-01

    The design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl epothilone analogues (3-12, Figure 1) are described. The synthetic strategies toward these epothilones involved a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling to form the C15-C16 carbon-carbon bond, an aldol...... reaction to construct the C6-C7 carbon-carbon bond, and a Yamaguchi macrolactonization to complete the required skeletal framework. Biological studies with the synthesized compounds led to the identification of epothilone analogues 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 11 as potent tubulin polymerization promoters and......-activity relationships, including the conclusion that neither the epoxide nor the stereochemistry at C12 are essential, while the stereochemistry at both C13 and C15 are crucial for biological activity. These studies also confirmed the importance of both the cyclopropyl and 5-methylpyridine moieties in conferring potent...

  7. Sympathetic Activation Induces Skeletal Fgf23 Expression in a Circadian Rhythm-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masanobu; Kinoshita, Saori; Shimba, Shigeki; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock network is well known to link food intake and metabolic outputs. Phosphorus is a pivotal nutritional factor involved in energy and skeletal metabolisms and possesses a circadian profile in the circulation; however, the precise mechanisms whereby phosphate metabolism is regulated by the circadian clock network remain largely unknown. Because sympathetic tone, which displays a circadian profile, is activated by food intake, we tested the hypothesis that phosphate metabolism was regulated by the circadian clock network through the modification of food intake-associated sympathetic activation. Skeletal Fgf23 expression showed higher expression during the dark phase (DP) associated with elevated circulating FGF23 levels and enhanced phosphate excretion in the urine. The peaks in skeletal Fgf23 expression and urine epinephrine levels, a marker for sympathetic tone, shifted from DP to the light phase (LP) when mice were fed during LP. Interestingly, β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), induced skeletal Fgf23 expression when administered at ZT12, but this was not observed in Bmal1-deficient mice. In vitro reporter assays revealed that ISO trans-activated Fgf23 promoter through a cAMP responsive element in osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. The mechanism of circadian regulation of Fgf23 induction by ISO in vivo was partly explained by the suppressive effect of Cryptochrome1 (Cry1) on ISO signaling. These results indicate that the regulation of skeletal Fgf23 expression by sympathetic activity is dependent on the circadian clock system and may shed light on new regulatory networks of FGF23 that could be important for understanding the physiology of phosphate metabolism. PMID:24302726

  8. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  9. Diet-induced Lethality Due to Deletion of the Hdac3 Gene in Heart and Skeletal Muscle*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zheng; Singh, Nikhil; Mullican, Shannon E.; Everett, Logan J.; Li LI; Yuan, Lijun; Liu, Xi; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2011-01-01

    Many human diseases result from the influence of the nutritional environment on gene expression. The environment interacts with the genome by altering the epigenome, including covalent modification of nucleosomal histones. Here, we report a novel and dramatic influence of diet on the phenotype and survival of mice in which histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is deleted postnatally in heart and skeletal muscle. Although embryonic deletion of myocardial Hdac3 causes major cardiomyopathy that reduces ...

  10. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  11. Alligator Rivers Analogue project - Geologic Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the author synthesizes the results of the investigations carried over more than 20 years in the Koongarra area. It describes its regional geologic setting, geological evolution and the exploration activities carried out to date. The secondary ore of the Koongarra No. 1 uranium orebody provides a natural analogue suitable for validation of models for radionuclide transport. Although the primary uranium mineralisation occurs as uraninite veins and veinlets in fractures and brecciated zones that cross cut the steeply dipping (55 deg.C) host schists, weathering and dispersion of uranium within the zone of weathered schists has formed this secondary ore. The interaction of the weathering processes with the mineralogy and geochemistry of the unweathered host schists, and the primary hydrothermal alteration halo with and around the primary uranium mineralisation, has also been critical in the development of the secondary ore. This secondary ore natural analogue being at a shallow depth, plus the availability of open boreholes and drill core/borehole samples, has facilitated groundwater and rock investigations. 49 refs., 4 tabs., 42 figs

  12. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  13. SIRT1 activation by pterostilbene attenuates the skeletal muscle oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yedong; Di, Shouyin; Fan, Chongxi; Cai, Liping; Gao, Chao; Jiang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Dong, Yushu; Li, Tian; Wu, Guiling; Lv, Jianjun; Yang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is harmful to skeletal muscles and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Pterostilbene (PTE), an analogue of resveratrol, has organic protective effects against oxidative stress. However, no studies have investigated whether PTE can protect against IR-related skeletal muscular injury. In this study, we sought to evaluate the protective effect of PTE against IR-related skeletal muscle injury and to determine the mechanisms in this process. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with PTE for a week and then underwent limb IR surgery. The IR injury induced segmental necrosis and apoptosis, myofilament disintegration, thicker interstitial spaces, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in the muscular tissue was inhibited, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde concentration and myeloperoxidase activity were up-regulated, and superoxide dismutase was down-regulated after IR. However, these effects were significantly inhibited by PTE in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism underlying IR injury is attributed to the down-regulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)-FOXO1/p53 pathway and the increase of the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, Cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1, Cleaved Caspase 3, which can be reversed with PTE. Furthermore, EX527, an SIRT1 inhibitor, counteracted the protective effects of PTE on IR-related muscle injury. In conclusion, PTE has protective properties against IR injury of the skeletal muscles. The mechanism of this protective effect depends on the activation of the SIRT1-FOXO1/p53 signaling pathway and the decrease of the apoptotic ratio in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:27270300

  14. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue with...... its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro...

  15. Erythrocyte membrane modifying agents and the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth: structure-activity relationships for betulinic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Franzyk, Henrik; Sairafianpour, Majid; Tabatabai, Mehrnoush; Tehrani, Mahboubeh D; Bagherzadeh, Karim; Hägerstrand, Henry; Staerk, Dan; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2004-01-01

    The natural triterpene betulinic acid and its analogues (betulinic aldehyde, lupeol, betulin, methyl betulinate and betulinic acid amide) caused concentration-dependent alterations of erythrocyte membrane shape towards stomatocytes or echinocytes according to their hydrogen bonding properties. Thus, the analogues with a functional group having a capacity of donating a hydrogen bond (COOH, CH(2)OH, CONH(2)) caused formation of echinocytes, whereas those lacking this ability (CH(3), CHO, COOCH(3)) induced formation of stomatocytes. Both kinds of erythrocyte alterations were prohibitive with respect to Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth; all compounds were inhibitory with IC(50) values in the range 7-28 microM, and the growth inhibition correlated well with the extent of membrane curvature changes assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Erythrocytes pre-loaded with betulinic acid or its analogues and extensively washed in order to remove excess of the chemicals could not serve as hosts for P. falciparum parasites. Betulinic acid and congeners can be responsible for in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts, as shown for Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Labiatae) and Zizyphus vulgaris Lam. (Rhamnaceae). The activity is evidently due to the incorporation of the compounds into the lipid bilayer of erythrocytes, and may be caused by modifications of cholesterol-rich membrane rafts, recently shown to play an important role in parasite vacuolization. The established link between erythrocyte membrane modifications and antiplasmodial activity may provide a novel target for potential antimalarial drugs. PMID:14697777

  16. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident ph...

  17. Occipital projections in the skeletal dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occipital projections of the cranium have been reported in a number of skeletal dysplasias and syndromes. We observed two cases of atelosteogenesis type I with a bony occipital projection. This finding has neither been noted nor reported in any form of atelosteogenesis. This led us to search the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry for occipital projections, and we found them in four other syndromes in which they had not been reported. Thus occipital spurs are a non-diagnostic feature that can be found in at least ten distinct disorders as well as a normal variant. (orig.)

  18. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Wei; Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, Tianmin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of t...

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Gallagher, Iain J.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  20. Role of microRNAs in skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of body weight, and is important for locomotion, as well as for metabolic homeostasis. Adult skeletal muscle mass is maintained by a fine balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. In response to cytokines, nutrients, and mechanical stimuli, skeletal muscle mass is increased (hypertrophy), whereas skeletal muscle mass is decreased (atrophy) in a variety of conditions, including cancer cachexia, starvation, immobilization, aging, and n...

  1. Chronic alcohol ingestion delays skeletal muscle regeneration following injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyser, Graham J; Clary, Caroline R; OTIS, JEFFREY S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-match...

  2. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  3. Black Hole Analogue in Bose–Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tangmei He

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed a black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation. By introducing the Painlevé co-ordinates and using K–G equations, we have obtained the critical temperature of the black hole analogue in a Bose–Einstein condensation.

  4. A q-Analogue of Rucinski-Voigt Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto B. Corcino; Charles B. Montero

    2012-01-01

    A q-analogue of Rucinski-Voigt numbers is defined by means of a recurrence relation, and some properties including the orthogonality and inverse relations with the q-analogue of the limit of the differences of the generalized factorial are obtained.

  5. Somatostatin analogue in short term management of hyperinsulinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J M; Di Silvio, L; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Five infants with hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism were treated for between three and 11 days with a somatostatin analogue, which raised the mean blood glucose concentration and lowered the glucose requirements in all. Somatostatin analogue appears to be useful in the short term management of these patients.

  6. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  7. Readers of PCNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Helle D; Takahashi, Tomio

    2013-08-01

    The eukaryotic sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), acts as a central coordinator of DNA transactions by providing a multivalent interaction surface for factors involved in DNA replication, repair, chromatin dynamics and cell cycle regulation. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as mono- and polyubiquitylation, sumoylation, phosphorylation and acetylation, further expand the repertoire of PCNA's binding partners. These modifications affect PCNA's activity in the bypass of lesions during DNA replication, the regulation of alternative damage processing pathways such as homologous recombination and DNA interstrand cross-link repair, or impact on the stability of PCNA itself. In this review, we summarise our current knowledge about how the PTMs are "read" by downstream effector proteins that mediate the appropriate action. Given the variety of interaction partners responding to PCNA's modified forms, the ensemble of PCNA modifications serves as an instructive model for the study of biological signalling through PTMs in general. PMID:23580141

  8. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sestieri

    2000-06-01

    Vibration and acoustic requirements are becoming increasingly important in the design of mechanical structures, but they are not usually of primary concern in the design process. So the need to vary the structural behaviour to solve noise and vibration problems often occurs at the prototype stage, giving rise to the so-called structural modification problem. In this paper, the direct problem of determing the new response of a system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers.

  9. Visualizing Sweetness: Increasingly Diverse Applications for Fluorescent-Tagged Glucose Bioprobes and Their Recent Structural Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Williams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is a fundamental aspect of life and its dysregulation is associated with important diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Traditionally, glucose radioisotopes have been used to monitor glucose utilization in biological systems. Fluorescent-tagged glucose analogues were initially developed in the 1980s, but it is only in the past decade that their use as a glucose sensor has increased significantly. These analogues were developed for monitoring glucose uptake in blood cells, but their recent applications include tracking glucose uptake by tumor cells and imaging brain cell metabolism. This review outlines the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose analogues, describes their recent structural modifications and discusses their increasingly diverse biological applications.

  10. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true...... flow.A new design flow for automated layout generation of general analogue integrated circuits is presented. The design flow provides an automated design path from a sized circuit schematic to the final layout containing the placed, but unrouted, devices of the circuit. The analogue circuit layout is...... generated using a full-custom layout style and is based on a library of CMOS process independent device generators. The placement for the analogue circuit is derived using the interactive floorplan optimization algorithm described above. This ensures that a high degree of user control is implemented in the...

  11. Development of new mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, B S; Lin, H J; Cheng, L; Remers, W A; Bradner, W T

    1981-08-01

    New mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues were prepared by treating mitomycin A and N-methylmitomycin A with a variety of amines, including aziridines, allylamines, propargylamines, chloroalkylamines, hydroxyalkylamines, glycine derivatives, aralkylamines, and heterocyclic amines. All analogues were evaluated against P-388 murine leukemia and selected ones were examined for their leukopenic properties. Certain analogues were found to be superior to mitomycin C in potency, efficacy, and therapeutic ratio in the P-388 assay. The most active substituents at the mitosane 7 position included aziridine, 2-methylaziridine, propargylamine, furfurylamine, methyl glycinate, and 3-aminopyridine. Mitomycin A and the 7-aziridino, 7-(2-methylaziridino), and 3-aminopyridine analogues were less leukopenic than mitomycin C. Certain other analogues, including propargylamino and methyl glycinate, were highly leukopenic. The three compounds tested against B-16 melanoma in mice were significantly more effective than mitomycin C in this assay. Previously established structure--activity relationships were found inadequate to account for all of the new data. PMID:7328599

  12. The development of somatostatin analogues mediated tumor targeting and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide labelled somatostatin analogues have been widely used in the detection of neuro-endocrine tumors. Till now, most of somatostatin analogues only have high affinity to somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), further clinical applications was limitted. A new generation of somatostatin analogues such as 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclodocecane-N, N', N'', N''' -tetaraacetic acid-Na 13- octertide (DOTA-NOC) etc, binding to somatostatin receptors not only SSTR2 but other subtypes has been used mainly in preclinical study. In this review, we discussed these new somatostatin analogues, chelating agent, and their new labelled compounds, these new radionuclide labelled somatostatin analogues may hold great promise for the receptor-mediated tumor imaging and treatments. (authors)

  13. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    CERN Document Server

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinary strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as electronic diode function is provided by a nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differing by a factor of 65.

  14. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  15. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Ichiro Setsune

    2012-11-01

    Expanded porphyrin analogues with unique figure-eight conformation were prepared by way of useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. Supramolecular chirogenesis of cyclooctapyrrole O1 with 32-cycloconjugation was successfully applied to determine absolute configuration of chiral carboxylic acids. Dinuclear CuII complex of cyclooctapyrrole O2 with interrupted -conjugation was resolved by HPLC into enantiomers and their helical handedness was determined by theoretical simulation of their CD spectral pattern. Enantioselective induction of helicity in the metal helicate formation in the presence of a chiral promoter was demonstrated by using ()-(+)-1-(1-phenyl)ethylamine that favoured , helicity. Dinuclear CoII complexes of cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3 were found to be substitution labile and pick up amino acid anions in water. Those amino acid complexes of O3Co2 were rendered to adopt a particular unidirectional helical conformation preferentially depending on the ligated amino acid anion.

  16. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND BIOEVALUATION OF KETOCONAZOLE THIOSEMICARBAZONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Murti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole (KTZ is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Resistance to ketoconazole has been observed in a number of clinical fungal isolates, including C. albicans. Thus new effective agents with less toxicity against fungal infection are urgently required. With this view, ketoconazole thiosemicarbazone analogues (Compounds 1-10 were synthesized wherein condensation of different thiosemicarbazides substituted by different cyclic and aromatic amines with the KTZ was done. Investigation of in-vitro antifungal activity of compounds was done by broth microdilution assay method against five pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Ketoconazole was used as reference for inhibitory activity against fungi. All the compounds were found potent antifungal agents, while compounds 8, 9 and 10 exhibited excellent in-vitro antifungal activity showing importance of halogenated compounds.

  18. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  19. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Jupiter analogues and planets of active stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Combined results are now available from a 15 year long search for Jupiter analogues around solar-type stars using the ESO CAT + CES, ESO 3.6 m + CES, and ESO 3.6 m + HARPS instruments. They comprise planet (co-discoveries (ι Hor and HR 506 and confirmations (three planets in HR 3259 as well as non-confirmations of planets (HR 4523 and ɛ Eri announced elsewhere. A long-term trend in ɛ Ind found by our survey is probably attributable to a Jovian planet with a period >30 yr, but we cannot fully exclude stellar activity effects as the cause. A 3.8 year periodic variation in HR 8323 can be attributed to stellar activity.

  1. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues. PMID:27195798

  2. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH)2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  3. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity. PMID:19778048

  4. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  5. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses

  6. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  7. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N. [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W.; Fritz, P.; Geyer, S.; Geyer, W.; Hanschman, G.; Kopinke, F.D.; Poerschmann, J. [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I.D. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E.; Hughes, C.R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E.K. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B. [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A.F. [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J.A.T. [ed.] [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  8. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  9. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik A.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4 to...

  10. Tuberous sclerosis complex: skeletal CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the skeletal CT imaging manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and to analyze their diagnostic value so as to establish an adequate skeletal change imaging data for the diagnosis of TSC. Methods: Thirteen patients fulfilling TSC diagnostic criteria were examined with CT of the brain (n=13) and abdomen (n=7). Examinations from January, 2004 to July, 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were three forms of lesions being demonstrated on CT: (l) Multiple sclerosing nodule (n=13): numerous, ovoid and circular, homogeneous, small and well- defined foci and symmetrical lesions were revealed in all cases in the central marrow portion of the bones, which could mimic blastic metastases. Follow-up CT imaging showed no change in both size and number. The lesions measured approximately 2-10 mm. (2) Local sclerosing bone dysplasia with little bone expansion (n=7). Symmetrical and irregular density in the radix of the posterior arch of the vertebral body (n=5). (3) The spherical periosteal proliferation demonstrating as a cortex double line sign (n=2), and cortical thickening of metatarsals (n=3). The appearance of the skeletal manifestation was as that in adulthood. Conclusion: CT imaging of the skeletal system in TSC has some characteristics, by which the diagnosis of TSC could be made if combined with other main clinical diagnostic criteria. We suggest that those particular findings can be added as primary diagnostic features in the clinical diagnosis of TSC. (authors)

  11. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included in the...

  12. Sexual selection on skeletal shape in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Carrier, David R

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime reproductive success of males is often dependent upon the ability to physically compete for mates. However, species variation in social structure leads to differences in the relative importance of intraspecific aggression. Here, we present a large comparative dataset on sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape in Carnivora to test the hypotheses that carnivorans exhibit sexual dimorphism in skeletal anatomy that is reflective of greater specialization for physical aggression in males relative to females and that this dimorphism is associated with the intensity of sexual selection. We tested these hypotheses using a set of functional indices predicted to improve aggressive performance. Our results indicate that skeletal shape dimorphism is widespread within our sample. Functional traits thought to enhance aggressive performance are more pronounced in males. Phylogenetic model selection suggests that the evolution of this dimorphism is driven by sexual selection, with the best-fitting model indicating greater dimorphism in polygynous versus nonpolygynous species. Skeletal shape dimorphism is correlated with body size dimorphism, a common indicator of the intensity of male-male competition, but not with mean body size. These results represent the first evidence of sexual dimorphism in the primary locomotor system of a large sample of mammals. PMID:26969835

  13. Correction of Skeletal Anomalies of Maxillofacial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyuk А.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is described a case of correction of skeletal forms of malocclusions with an orthodontist and orthognathic surgeon participation. The observation emphasizes the necessity of team approach to solve esthetic and functional defects in dentition in marked forms of pathological occlusions.

  14. Correction of Skeletal Anomalies of Maxillofacial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Senyuk А.N.; Marakhtanov N.B.

    2012-01-01

    There is described a case of correction of skeletal forms of malocclusions with an orthodontist and orthognathic surgeon participation. The observation emphasizes the necessity of team approach to solve esthetic and functional defects in dentition in marked forms of pathological occlusions.

  15. Vasodilatory mechanisms in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifford, Philip S.; Hellsten, Ylva

    2004-01-01

    and stabilizes within 30 s during dynamic exercise under normal conditions. Vasodilator substances may be released from contracting skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, or red blood cells. The importance of specific vasodilators is likely to vary over the time course of flow, from the initial rapid...

  16. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  17. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  18. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  19. A guide to tropical modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to {\\it tropical modifications}, which have already become a folklore in tropical geometry. Tropical modifications are used in tropical intersection theory, the study of singularities, and admit interpretations in various contexts, such as hyperbolic geometry, Berkovich spaces, and non-standard analysis. One must say that the name "modification" is used in two different senses: the modification as a well-defined {\\it operation}, and a modification along $X$ as a {\\it...

  20. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. : AMPK in skeletal musclemetabolic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas,; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen,

    2014-01-01

    : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production an...

  1. Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate therapy for bone pain palliation in skeletal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Madhavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic therapy with radionuclides may be used for the treatment of patients with painful skeletal metastases owing to its efficacy, low cost and low toxicity. Imported radionuclides for pain palliation, like Strontium-89 are expensive; particularly for developing countries. In the Indian scenario, Samarium-153 (Sm-153 is produced in our own reactors and as a result, it is readily available and economical. AIM: We undertook this study to determine the efficacy and toxicity of single-dose Sm-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate as a palliative treatment for painful skeletal metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eightysix patients with painful skeletal metastases from various primaries, were treated with Sm-153 EDTMP at a dose of 37 MBq/kg. The effects were evaluated according to change in visual analogue pain score, analgesic consumption, Karnofsky performance score, mobility score and blood count tests, conducted regularly for 16 weeks. STATISTICS: Repeated measures analysis. RESULTS: The overall response rates were 73%, while complete response was seen in 12.4%. Reduction in analgesic consumption with improvement in Karnofsky performance score and mobility score, was seen in all responders. Response rates were 80.3 and 80.5% in breast and prostate cancer, respectively. One case, each of Wilms tumor, ovarian cancer, germ cell tumor testis, multiple myeloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and oesophageal cancer, did not respond to therapy. No serious side-effects were noted, except for fall in white blood cell, platelet and haemoglobin counts, which gradually returned to normal levels by six-eight weeks. CONCLUSION: Sm-153 EDTMP provided effective palliation in 73% patients with painful bone metastases: the major toxicity was temporary myelosuppression.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  3. Personalizing Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Debra G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Process reinforcement is proposed as a reinforcement method that is more comfortable, personal, comprehensive, and interactive than traditional behavior modification. Process reinforcement strengthens desired behaviors by engaging learners in a one-on-one examination of how they achieved correct responses and by practicing comfortable eye contact…

  4. Defining Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoplos, Florence; Valletutti, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the proposition that: "The educational problem involved in behavior modification, in the evaluationand measurement of learning, is the integration and coordination of three types of information affecting the achievement of specific behavioral goals: (1) information about the child, (2) information about the task, and (3) information…

  5. Biblical behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L

    1996-07-01

    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving. PMID:8826763

  6. Modifications of Paroemia Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliya F. Pecherskikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of modifications of paroemia invariants proves that language constantly changes and develops. The realization of communication need through the new evocative forms of expression is generality of the opposite linguistic phenomena of occasional variants of paroemia, aimed at the establishment of equilibrium in phraseology.

  7. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  8. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  9. Solid-phase synthesis of polyamine toxin analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Hasse; Krikstolaityte, Sonata; Andersen, Anne J; Andersen, Kim; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Egebjerg, Jan; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2002-01-01

    receptors, in particular Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA and kainate receptors. We have previously shown that an analogue of PhTX-433 with one of the amino groups replaced by a methylene group, philanthotoxin-83 (PhTX-83) is a selective and potent antagonist of AMPA receptors. We now describe the solid-phase...... synthesis of analogues of PhTX-83 and the electrophysiological characterization of these analogues on cloned AMPA and kainate receptors. The polyamine portion of PhTX-83 was modified systematically by changing the position of the secondary amino group along the polyamine chain. In another series of...

  10. Recent developments in naturally derived antimalarials: cryptolepine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Colin W

    2007-06-01

    Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs has made the need for new agents increasingly urgent. In this paper, the potential of cryptolepine, an alkaloid from the West African shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, as a lead towards new antimalarial agents is discussed. Several cryptolepine analogues have been synthesized that have promising in-vitro and in-vivo antimalarial activity. Studies on the antimalarial modes of action of these analogues indicate that they may have different or additional modes of action to the parent compound. Elucidation of the mode of action may facilitate the development of more potent antimalarial cryptolepine analogues. PMID:17637183

  11. Dexamethasone enhances insulin-like growth factor-I effects on skeletal muscle cell proliferation. Role of specific intracellular signaling pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Giorgino; R.J. Smith

    1995-01-01

    IGF-I stimulation of cell proliferation and c-Fos expression in skeletal muscle cells is markedly enhanced by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone is not mediated by changes in IGF-binding proteins, as evidenced by similar effects of dexamethasone on the actions of insulin, PDGF-BB, and the IGF-I analogue long R3IGF-I. Dexamethasone also does not alter autocrine IGF-II secretion by muscle cells. To investigate the mechanism of the augmentation of IGF-I action, the effects of dexamethaso...

  12. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since it...... is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very...... high substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by...

  13. PES fabric plasma modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatuňa, T.; Špatenka, P.; Píchal, J.; Koller, J.; Aubrecht, L.; Wiener, J.

    2004-03-01

    Polyester ranks the upper position in the world fiber production — nearly 54% of the total production of synthetic fibers. Troubles connected with minimizing of the textile hydrophobicity are usually being solved by the textile fibers’ surface chemical modification, but from ecological point of view modification of fabric with low temperature plasma is superior to classical chemical wet processes. Application of various plasmas for PES treatment has been already described. To compare the effectiveness of different plasma sources we performed a series of experiment both in RF and MW plasmas. For working gas nitrogen, oxygen and their mixtures were employed. Internal plasma control was provided by measurement of optical emission spectra. The hydrophilicity degree was determined by the drop test. Paper discusses optimal conditions of the PES fabric plasma treatment.

  14. A New View on Interstellar Dust - High Fidelity Studies of Interstellar Dust Analogue Tracks in Stardust Flight Spare Aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Postberg F.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bugiel, S.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002 the Stardust Mission exposed aerogel collector panels for a total of about 200 days to the stream of interstellar grains sweeping through the solar system. The material was brought back to Earth in 2006. The goal of this work is the laboratory calibration of the collection process by shooting high speed [5 - 30km/s] interstellar dust (ISD) analogues onto Stardust aerogel flight spares. This enables an investigation into both the morphology of impact tracks as well as any structural and chemical modification of projectile and collector material. First results indicate a different ISD flux than previously assumed for the Stardust collection period.

  15. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy: an 18 Months Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hartlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion. One group (n = 13 were treated postoperatively with skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation (IMF while the other group (n = 13 where threated without skeletal elastic IMF. Results: The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.44 mm and 7.22 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.74 mm and -0.29 mm at Pog. The mean advancement at B-point and Pog in the no skeletal elastic IMF group was 6.30 mm and 6.45 mm, respectively. Relapse at follow-up at B-point was -0.97 mm and -0.86 mm at Pog. There was no statistical significant (P > 0.05 difference between the skeletal IMF group and the no skeletal group regarding advancement nor relapse at B-point or Pog. Conclusions: Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is characterized as a stable treatment to correct Class II malocclusion. This study demonstrated no difference of relapse between the skeletal intermaxillary fixation group and the no skeletal intermaxillary fixation group. Because of selection-bias and the reduced number of patients it still remains inconclusive whether to recommend skeletal intermaxillary fixation or not in the prevention of relapse after mandibular advancement.

  17. Skeletal scintigraphy in benign and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper begins with a discussion of the technical factors in skeletal scintigraphy, including collimation, the use of three-phase bone scan, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Skeletal scintigraphy for benign conditions is commonly indicated for the patient presenting with pain (trauma, sports-related injury, posttraumatic pain syndrome, painful orthopedic prosthesis) and for the patient with abnormal laboratory test results (metabolic bone disease, Paget disease). For malignant conditions, the bone scan is useful in the evaluation of metastases in patients with extraosseous malignancies and primary bone tumors. The discussion addresses the various scan patterns seen in the more common tumors, such as prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and lung carcinoma. Bone scintigraphy is an exquisitely sensitive modality. With some understanding of the techniques necessary for obtaining the optimal bone scan, and of the patterns that can be seen in various clinical conditions, the radiologist will find the bone scan a very specific tool for evaluating both benign and malignant diseases

  18. Spatial resolution requirements in digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology use requires definition of spatial resolution parameters necessary to maintain diagnostic quality. Skeletal radiography requirements differ from past applications focusing on chest imaging. In this study radiographs of 56 nondisplaced fractures and matched normal studies are digitized to varying spatial resolution, evaluated by 10 radiologists, and analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Pixel size greater than 0.16 mm (2.88 1p/mm) results in significantly lower diagnostic accuracy than that of conventional radiographs. Spatial resolution requirements are more demanding in skeletal radiography than in many other digital applications. Implications concerning digital systems (including teleradiology) and methods of using available technology to satisfy image quality demands need to be determined

  19. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  20. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, C; Budzik, J F; Kermarrec, E; Balbi, V; Le Thuc, V; Cotten, A

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques. PMID:20392583

  1. Tractography of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of human peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles by means of diffusion tensor imaging and tractograpy has been a recent area of research. These techniques have been successfully applied in both volunteers and patients, providing non-invasively, quantitative microstructural parameters (mainly mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient) and offering a three-dimensional visualization tool of nerves and muscles fibers. DTI and tractography may reveal abnormalities that are beyond the resolution of conventional MR techniques and hence open the way to potential clinical applications. In this article, we will first summarize the current state of DTI and tractography in the evaluation of peripheral nerves and skeletal muscles as well as their potential future clinical applications. Then, we will address important technical considerations, which understanding is necessary to appropriately apply DTI and tractograhy, and in order to understand the current limitations of these innovative and promising techniques.

  2. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  3. Developing Skin Analogues for a Robotic Octopus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Richard H.C.Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    In order to fabricate a biomimetic skin for an octopus inspired robot,a new process was developed based on mechanical properties measured from real octopus skin.Various knitted nylon textiles were tested and the one of 10-denier nylon was chosen as reinforcement.A combination of Ecoflex 0030 and 0010 silicone rubbers was used as matrix of the composite to obtain the right stiffness for the skin-analogue system.The open mould fabrication process developed allows air bubble to escape easily and the artificial skin produced was thin and waterproof.Material properties of the biomimetic skin were characterised using static tensile and instrumented scissors cutting tests.The Young's moduli of the artificial skin are 0.08 MPa and 0.13 MPa in the longitudinal and transverse directions,which are much lower than those of the octopus skin.The strength and fracture toughness of the artificial skin,on the other hand are higher than those of real octopus skins.Conically-shaped skin prototypes to be used to cover the robotic arm unit were manufactured and tested.The biomimetic skin prototype was stiff enough to maintain it conical shape when filled with water.The driving force for elongation was reduced significantly compared with previous prototypes.

  4. Progress in the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Steering Committee agreed on 1 October 1987 to sponsor the International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) for a three year program with a formal starting date of 1 September 1987. The participants are six organisations from five NEA Member States with ANSTO as the managing participant. A detailed tehnical program was agreed by a Joint Technical Committee and this comprises six main technical sub-projects: modelling of radionuclide migration, hydrogeology at Koongarra, uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies, colloid and groundwater studies, fission product studies and transuranic nuclide studies. A modelling workshop for participants and contractors was held in Sydney in February 1988 and a field visit was undertaken in May 1988. Laboratory studies on samples obtained in previous field visits were carried out from September 1987. Data from the project are being provided for participants as case 8 in the INTRAVAL model validation project coordinated by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. A Joint Technical Committee meeting to approve the technical program and budjet for the second year will be held in Sydney in July 1988

  5. A positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Lauren K

    2015-01-01

    The classical permutohedron Perm is the convex hull of the points (w(1),...,w(n)) in R^n where w ranges over all permutations in the symmetric group. This polytope has many beautiful properties -- for example it provides a way to visualize the weak Bruhat order: if we orient the permutohedron so that the longest permutation w_0 is at the "top" and the identity e is at the "bottom," then the one-skeleton of Perm is the Hasse diagram of the weak Bruhat order. Equivalently, the paths from e to w_0 along the edges of Perm are in bijection with the reduced decompositions of w_0. Moreover, the two-dimensional faces of the permutohedron correspond to braid and commuting moves, which by the Tits Lemma, connect any two reduced expressions of w_0. In this note we introduce some polytopes Br(k,n) (which we call bridge polytopes) which provide a positive Grassmannian analogue of the permutohedron. In this setting, BCFW bridge decompositions of reduced plabic graphs play the role of reduced decompositions. We define Br(k,...

  6. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Groundwater Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume is to provide an account of the groundwater sampling and analysis program undertaken at Koongarra, as part of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Chemical parameters were investigated in groundwaters at various locations and depths in the vicinity of the Koongarra orebody. Measurements of the pH, redox state, conductivity, and bicarbonate alkalinity provided a starting point for interpreting water chemistry. Groundwater samples were obtained using submersible pumps, or, in a few cases, bailers. The concentrations of major cations and anions, such as magnesium and phosphate, were determined using a variety of standard techniques. Numerous elements were routinely analysed using quantitative or semi-quantitative ICPMS. Uranium series radionuclides and environmental isotopes were measured using radiochemical techniques and mass spectrometry. The distributions of isotopes such as deuterium, tritium, 210Pb, 13C and 14C enabled groundwater mixing and flow-paths to be studied. The occurrence and distributions of major species at Koongarra are presented in this volume, using both cross-sections and contour plans. Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater analyses carried out during the project are included in the Appendices. 47 refs., 16 tabs., 58 figs

  7. Spectroscopy analogue-to-digital converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of world trends in the branch of electronic constructions for spectroscopy analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) applied in different fields of nuclear physics and techniques has been done. Data sheets and graphical comparison of main parameters for ADC that have appeared in world literature are also added. Recent methods applied for conversion of voltage pulse amplitude with linear coding scale have been described. Future trends up to year 1990 anticipating the increase of spectroscopy ADC resolution up to 15 bits and the shortening of ADC conversion time down to 1 μs have been presented. The dynamic development of very fast converters with low accuracy has been predicted. Present ADC are capable of sampling pulses from nuclear detectors with repetition rate up to 100 MHz. Examples of different correction methods for deleting ADC measurement errors show that both hardware and software tools may be used. On the ground of these methods one can use for spectroscopy ADC design commercially available integrated circuits with large scale integration. Then good metrology parameters, simplicity of realization and small overall dimensions may be obtained. These correction methods make a compromise between speed and precision of ADC operation possible. 81 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  9. Summarization on the synthesis and radionuclide-labeling of peptide nucleic acid for an oligonucleotide analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is one kind of antisense nucleic acid compounds and an oligonucleotide analogue that binds strongly to DNA and RNA in a sequence specific manner, has its unique advantages in the field of molecular diagnostics and treatment of diseases. Now, people gradually attach more importance to PNA. To optimize the application of PNA in genetic re- search and therapy, a great number of backbone modifications on the newly- type structures of PNA were synthesized to improve its physicochemical proper- ties, such as hybridization speciality, solubility in biofluid, or cell permeability. The modified PNA labeled with radionuclides, which can obtain the aim at specific target and minimal non-target trauma, has important role in research and application of tumorous genitherapy. Here a review on the basic synthesis idea and several primary synthetic methods of PNA analogs was given, and also correlative studies and expectation on the compounds belonging to PNA series labeled with radionuclides were included. (authors)

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Etoposide Analogues as Cytotoxic Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-Qian; YANG Hua; TIAN Xuan

    2006-01-01

    Five novel compounds composed of etoposide and 5-fluorouracil derivatives joined by an ester linkage were prepared and evaluated for their antitumor potential. Most of these analogues have exhibited promising in vitro cytotoxic activity against cell cultures of murine leukaemia P-388 and human lung carcinoma A-549. The results presented herein challenged the long-standing structure-activity relationships, which proposed that a free 4'-hydroxyl group is essential structural requirement for etoposide-like activity. And in addition, the 4'-position was suggested to tolerate chemical modifications such as esterification. The preliminary testing results also indicated that the design and synthesis of these compounds were beneficial for therapeutic values of etoposide.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  12. Treatment of Skeletal Muscle Injury: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Bossche, L. C.; Vanderstraeten, G; Almqvist, K.F.; Rimbaut, S.; Witvrouw, E.; Philips, N.; Van den Steen, E; Baoge, L

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries and present a challenge in primary care and sports medicine. Most types of muscle injuries would follow three stages: the acute inflammatory and degenerative phase, the repair phase and the remodeling phase. Present conservative treatment includes RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy. However, if use improper, NSAIDs may suppress an essential inflammator...

  13. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  14. Impaired skeletal muscle microcirculation in systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Partovi, Sasan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Aschwanden, Markus; Staub, Daniel; Benz, Daniela; Imfeld, Stephan; Jacobi, Björn; Broz, Pavel; Jäger, Kurt A; Takes, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Bilecen, Deniz; Walker, Ulrich A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle symptoms in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may originate from altered skeletal muscle microcirculation, which can be investigated by means of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods After ethics committee approval and written consent, 11 consecutive SSc patients (5 men, mean age 52.6 years, mean SSc disease duration 5.4 years) and 12 healthy volunteers (4 men, mean age 45.1 years) were included. Subjects with peripheral arterial occlusi...

  15. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Raghav; Naveen Kumar; Shishir Shingh; N K Ahuja; Priyanka Ghalaut

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis...

  16. Skeletal muscle HIF-1 and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Rundqvist, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Regular physical activity prevents and improves a number of disease conditions and reduces the risk for premature death substantially. From a clinical as well as a basic science point of view it is important to create a more fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the improved functional capacity induced by regular physical activity. Skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a remarkable ability to adapt to altered demands. Training adaptations include...

  17. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, K.G.

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate transport, enzyme activity, etc) differ considerably between species. The major drawbacks in equine training physiological research are the lack of an appropriate training model and the lack of control o...

  18. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  19. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  20. Multiple myeloma: imaging evaluation of skeletal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crichlow, Candice; Sexton, Carlton

    2013-01-01

    This patient is a 56-year-old woman with a history of IGG k multiple myeloma diagnosed 15 years prior to admission. She had widespread lytic bone lesions and pathological fractures, which remarkably had not been accompanied by significant pain, but were mostly refactory to chemotherapy.Keywords: multiple myeloma; skeletal; pathological fracture; imaging(Published: 5 July 2013)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2013, 3: 21419 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jchi...

  1. Heat stress inhibits skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Frier, Bruce C.; Locke, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that aid in protein synthesis and trafficking and have been shown to protect cells/tissues from various protein damaging stressors. To determine the extent to which a single heat stress and the concurrent accumulation of Hsps influences the early events of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, Sprague-Dawley rats were heat stressed (42°C, 15 minutes) 24 hours prior to overloading 1 plantaris muscle by surgical removal of the gastrocnemius muscle. The...

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of the incretin axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and gastroinhibitory intestinal peptide constitutes >90% of all the incretin function. Augmentation of GLP-1 results in improvement of beta cell health in a glucose-dependant manner (post-prandial hyperglycemia and suppression of glucagon (fasting hyperglycemia, amongst other beneficial pleiotropic effects. Native GLP-1 has a very short plasma half-life and novel methods have been developed to augment its half life, such that its anti-hyperglycemic effects can be exploited. They can be broadly classified as exendin-based therapies (exenatide, exenatide once weekly, DPP-4-resistant analogues (lixisenatide, albiglutide, and analogues of human GLP-1 (liraglutide, taspoglutide. Currently, commercially available analogues are exenatide, exenatide once weekly, and liraglutide. This review aims to provide an overview of most GLP-1 analogues.

  3. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...

  4. Generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with insulin analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo, Luigi; Thoelke, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of generalised insulin oedema after intensification of treatment with genetically modified insulin. This is the first case of generalised oedema in response to treatment with insulin analogues in a patient not insulin naive.

  5. Structural analogues of diosgenyl saponins: synthesis and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskiw, Matthew J; Tassotto, Mary Lynn; Mok, Mac; Tokar, Stacey L; Pycko, Roxanne; Th'ng, John; Jiang, Zi-Hua

    2009-11-15

    Saponins display various biological activities including anti-tumor activity. Recently intensive research has been focused on developing saponins for tumor therapies. The diosgenyl saponin dioscin is one of the most common steroidal saponins and exhibits potent anticancer activity in several human cancer cells through apoptosis-inducing pathways. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of several diosgenyl saponin analogues containing either a 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue or an alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue with different acyl substituents on the amino group. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. Structure-activity relationship studies show that the disaccharide saponin analogues are in general less active than their corresponding monosaccharide analogues. The incorporation of an aromatic nitro functionality into these saponin analogues does not exhibit significant effect on their cytotoxic activity. PMID:19819703

  6. Analogue and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of AMICSA 2014 (organised in collaboration of ESA and CERN) is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in analogue and mixed-signal VLSI design techniques and technologies for space applications.

  7. Defining Analytical Strategies for Mars Sample Return with Analogue Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Sapers, H. M.; Francis, R.; Pontefract, A.; Tornabene, L. L.; Haltigin, T.

    2016-05-01

    The characterization of biosignatures in MSR samples will require integrated, cross-platform laboratory analyses carefully correlated and calibrated with Rover-based technologies. Analogue missions provide context for implementation and assessment.

  8. A q-Analogue of the Dirichlet L-Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Soo Kim; Jin-Woo Son

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we will treat some interesting formulae which are slightly different from Kim's results by more or less the same method in [4-9]. At first, we consider a new definition of a q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.We construct a q-analogue of the Riemann ζ-function, Hurwitz ζ-function, and Dirichlet L-series. Also, we investigate the relation between the q-analogue of generalized Bernoulli numbers and the generalized Euler numbers. As an application, we prove that the q-analogue of Bernoulli numbers occurs in the coefficients of some Stirling type series for the p-adic analytic q-log-gamma function.

  9. Practical enantiospecific syntheses of lysobisphosphatidic acid and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2006-02-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient, and practical method for the preparation of enantiomerically pure lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), bisether analogues, and phosphorothioate analogues of LBPA from solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-oleoyl glycerol with 2-cyanoethyl bis(N,N-diisopropylamino)phosphite, followed by oxidation and deprotection, generated the enantiomers of 2,2'-LBPA. The corresponding phosphorothioate analogues were obtained by oxidation with sulfur. The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of both LBPA and phosphorothioate LBPA were synthesized from (S)- and (R)-solketal, respectively. The ether analogue of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer were synthesized from the same enantiomer (S)-solketal by simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps. PMID:16438504

  10. Trustworthiness and Influence: A Reexamination in an Extended Counseling Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmeier, Rosemarie C.; Dixon, David N.

    1980-01-01

    The study demonstrated that: (1) interviewer trustworthiness can be manipulated in an analogue interview setting; and (2) interviewer trustworthiness is related to interpersonal influence in the interview setting. Findings follow a pattern of outcomes predicted by cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  11. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The word dysplasia originates from ancient Greek words dys (anomalous and plasia (formation. Skeltal dysplasia (SD is a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies characterized by abnormalities in the development of the bone and cartilage tissue. This results in mark disproportion of the long bones, the spine and fetal head relation to the trunk. Perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia leads to still birth or early neonatal death due to pulmonary hypoplasia. 30 yrs old G3P3L2 at 32 weeks presented with leaking per vaginum. Her serial scan was done as she had previous stillborn male child with short limbs. Her antenatal scan revealed short limbs from 24 weeks. From18 weeks to 24 weeks she did not underwent any sonography. She went into spontaneous labor and delivered still born male baby with clinical and radiological features suggestive of skeletal dysplasia. Skeletal dysplasia can be diagnosed on antenatal 2 D ultrasound from 14 - 16 weeks onwards. Prenatal genetic testing should be done to diagnose the genetic anomaly and patient should be referred to higher institute for this test. Even if genetic test not done even then termination of pregnancy should be considered based on ultrasound diagnosis especially with family history because of poor fetal prognosis and long term morbidity if survived. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 224-229

  12. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  13. CT findings in skeletal cystic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of skeletal cystic echinococcosis. Material and Methods: CT findings of 7 patients with pathologically confirmed skeletal cystic echinococcosis were evaluated. Results: There were 4 men and 3 women, aged 36-75 years. Hydatid cysts were located in the spine (n=2), a rib (n=3), the pelvis and a vertebra (n=1), the pelvis and the left femur (n=1). The size of the lesions varied from 1 cm to 15 cm. CT showed well defined, single or multiple cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, no daughter cysts, and no germinal membrane detachment. The cystic lesion had a honeycomb appearance in 2 cases, there was pathologic fracture in 2 cases, bone expansion in 5 cases, cortical thinning in 6 cases, cortical destruction in 6 cases, bone sclerosis in 1 case, and soft tissue extension in 6 cases. Conclusion: Preoperative differential diagnosis of skeletal cystic lesions should include cystic echinococcosis, especially in endemic areas, since this diagnosis may easily be missed unless kept in mind

  14. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of novel carbocyclic carbohydrate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Christopher William

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate analogues play an indispensible role in the study of glycan processing enzymes. These compounds have attracted attention as probes of enzyme mechanisms, as chemical tools for the elucidation of enzyme function and as potential pharmaceuticals. The development of organocatalytic aldol chemistry has fundamentally altered the way chemists approach the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues. In this thesis I highlight a novel strategy toward the synthesis of carbocyclic carbohydrate ana...

  16. Biological evaluation of a novel sorafenib analogue, t-CUPM

    OpenAIRE

    Wecksler, Aaron T.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Morisseau, Christophe; Wu, Jian; Robert H. Weiss; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series of sorafenib analogues designed to investigate the inhibition overlap between the major targets of sorafenib Raf-1 kinase and VEGF...

  17. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....

  18. Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....

  19. Analogue symmetry breaking in superallowed Fermi β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in the Fermi matrix element due to deviations from perfect analogue symmetry has been estimated in a single-particle model with both harmonic oscillator and Saxon-Woods radial wave functions. A limitation of earlier calculations, in which the ground state of the A-1 nucleus was taken as the unique parent, is removed to allow the whole spectrum of parent states to be operative. This improvement leads to slightly larger analogue symmetry breaking effects. (Auth.)

  20. Long Acting Somatostatin Analogue: Clinical Potential for Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N Fedorak

    1989-01-01

    Name somatostatin is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and has a wide variety of biological actions. Nevertheless, its short biological half-life and limited stability necessitate its use via continuous parenteral infusion and, thus, limits its therapeutic usefulness The development of long acting somatostatin analogues have lead to a re-examination of the therapeutic usefulness of somatostatin in gastrointestinal disease. Somatostatin analogues appear most beneficial tn preventing ...

  1. Purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase activity differ in rat and human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Juel

    Full Text Available P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle.Membranes purified from rat and human muscles were used in the Na,K-ATPase assay. Incubation with ADP, the stable ADP analogue MeS-ADP and UDP increased the Na+ dependent Na,K-ATPase activity in rat muscle membranes, whereas similar treatments of human muscle membranes lowered the Na,K-ATPase activity. UTP incubation resulted in unchanged Na,K-ATPase activity in humans, but pre-incubation with the antagonist suramin resulted in inhibition with UTP, suggesting that P2Y receptors are involved. The Na,K-ATPase in membranes from both rat and human could be stimulated by protein kinase A and C activation. Thus, protein kinase A and C activation can increase Na,K-ATPase activity in human muscle but not via P2Y receptor stimulation.The inhibitory effects of most purines (with the exception of UTP in human muscle membranes are probably due to mass law inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. This inhibition could be blurred in rat due to receptor mediated activation of the Na,K-ATPase. The different effects could be related to a high density of ADP sensitive P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors in rat, whereas the UTP sensitive P2Y11 could be more abundant in human. Alternatively, rat could possesses a mechanism for protein-protein interaction between P2Y receptors and the Na,K-ATPase, and this mechanism could be absent in human skeletal muscle (perhaps with the exception of the UTP sensitive P2Y11 receptor.Rat muscle is not a reliable model for purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle.

  2. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananya; Panda; Shivanand; Gamanagatti; Manisha; Jana; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient.

  3. Skeletal dysplasias: A radiographic approach and review of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Jana, Manisha; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2014-10-28

    Skeletal dysplasias are not uncommon entities and a radiologist is likely to encounter a suspected case of dysplasia in his practice. The correct and early diagnosis of dysplasia is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. While there is an exhaustive classification system on dysplasias, it is important to be familiar with the radiological features of common dysplasias. In this article, we enumerate a radiographic approach to skeletal dysplasias, describe the essential as well as differentiating features of common non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and conclude by presenting working algorithms to either definitively diagnose a particular dysplasia or suggest the most likely differential diagnoses to the referring clinician and thus direct further workup of the patient. PMID:25349664

  4. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakilam Satishkumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxytris(dimethylaminophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL, T-cell lymphoma (TCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  5. Application of natural analogues in the Yucca Mountain project - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Analogue Synthesis Report (NASR) [1] provides a compilation of information from analogues that test, corroborate, and add confidence to process models and model predictions pertinent to total system performance assessment (TSPA). The report updated previous work [2] with new literature examples and results of quantitative studies conducted by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate greater understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure of a proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Natural analogues, as used here, refer to either natural or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have occurred over long time periods (decades to millenia) and large spatial scales (up to tens of kilometers). In the past, the YMP has used analogues for testing and building confidence in conceptual and numerical process models in a number of ways. Yucca Mountain mineral alteration phases provided a self-analogue for postclosure alteration [3]. Thermodynamic parameters for silica minerals of the Wairakai, New Zealand geothermal field were added to databases used in geochemical modeling [4]. Scoping calculations of radionuclide transport using the Yucca Mountain TSPA numerical model were conducted for the Peqa Blanca site [5]. Eruption parameters from the Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, were used to verify codes that model ash plume dispersion [6]. Analogues have also been used in supplemental science and performance analyses to provide multiple lines of evidence in support of both analyses and model reports (AMRs) [7]; in screening arguments for inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEP)s in TSPAs; in the quantification of uncertainties [7]; in expert elicitations of volcanic and seismic hazards [8, 9] and in peer reviews [10]. Natural analogues may be applied

  6. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  7. Isolation and characterization of propoxyphenyl linked sildenafil and thiosildenafil analogues in health supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Low, Min-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Two new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5) which consist of one sildenafil analogue and one thiosildenafil analogue have been found in heath supplements. The structural properties of these analogues have been elucidated by NMR, high resolution MS, MS(2), UV and IR spectroscopy. The sildenafil analogue is very similar to aildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue is similar to thioaildenafil, except the ethoxy group bonded to phenyl ring is replaced by a propoxy group. Hence, the sildenafil analogue is named as propoxyphenyl aildenafil or propoxyphenyl methisosildenafil and the thiosildenafil analogue as propoxyphenyl thioaildenafil or propoxyphenyl thiomethisosildenafil. PMID:22840979

  8. Regenerating skeletal muscle in the face of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Ravi; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2014-11-01

    Skeletal muscle is a fundamental organ in the generation of force and movement, the regulation of whole-body metabolism, and the provision of resiliency. Indeed, physical medicine and rehabilitation is recognized for optimizing skeletal muscle health in the context of aging (sarcopenia) and disease (cachexia). Exercise is, and will remain, the cornerstone of therapies to improve skeletal muscle health. However, there are now a number of promising biologic and small molecule interventions currently under development to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, including myostatin inhibitors, selective androgen receptor modulators, and an activator of the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex. The opportunities for skeletal muscle-based regenerative therapies and a selection of emerging pharmacologic interventions are discussed in this review. PMID:24879554

  9. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. The project includes three sub-projects (A-C) with specific individual objectives, which collectively aim at contributing knowledge and input to the overall project aim. Three field campaigns were carried out in SPA during 2009. These campaigns focused on: (1) deployment and maintenance of AWS and GPS stations and to test the deep-look radar equipment; (2) investigating the hydrological processes and feedbacks and testing of passive seismic equipment; (3) downloading of weather station data and GPS data and winterizing the equipment. An extensive archive of real-time satellite remote sensing datasets has been obtained to be able to better constraint the surface elevation and dynamics of basal hydrological mechanisms. From this archive it has been possible to obtain Russell Glacier Cachment (RGC)-wide constraints on annual, seasonal and specific temporal snapshots of surface speed, initial lake and moulin distribution, drainage and network connections along with the temporal

  10. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel peptide MC2 analogues from Momordica charantia as potential anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baowei; Li, Xue; Zhang, Chenyu; Yan, Sijia; Wei, Wei; Wang, Xuekun; Deng, Xin; Qian, Hai; Lin, Haiyan; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-04-21

    Three series of Momordica charantia (MC)2 analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Alanine scanning focusing on the peptide MC2 indicated the importance of the residues proline (Pro)(3), serine (Ser)(6), isoleucine (Ile)(7) and Ser(10) for anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Among the first series of MC2 analogues, peptide I-4 exhibited a better anti-hyperglycaemic effect and was chosen for further modification. A further two series of conformationally constrained analogues were designed by scanning the residues Pro(3), Ser(6), Ile(7), and Ser(10) with an i - (i + 2) lactam bridge consisting of a glutamic acid-Xaa-lysine (Glu-Xaa-Lys) scaffold and a diproline fragment. By screening in normal mice and mice with diabetes mellitus, peptides II-1, II-2 and III-3 showed a significant improvement in anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-oxidative activities compared with I-4. These data suggest that II-1, II-2 and III-3 could be candidates for future treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25778708

  11. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  12. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified that...... sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  13. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins and their analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Frans J; Waring, Alan J; Sherman, Mark A; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Gordon, Larry M

    2007-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and four surfactant-associated proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). Its major function in the lung alveolus is to reduce surface tension at the air-water interface in the terminal airways by the formation of a surface-active film enriched in surfactant lipids, hence preventing cellular collapse during respiration. Surfactant therapy using bovine or porcine lung surfactant extracts, which contain only polar lipids and native SP-B and SP-C, has dramatically improved the therapeutic outcomes of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). One important goal of surfactant researchers is to replace animal-derived therapies with fully synthetic preparations based on SP-B and SP-C, produced by recombinant technology or peptide synthesis, and reconstituted with selected synthetic lipids. Here, we review recent research developments with peptide analogues of SP-B and SP-C, designed using either the known primary sequence and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the native proteins or, alternatively, the known 3D structures of closely homologous proteins. Such SP-B and SP-C mimics offer the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of the respective native proteins, and may allow the design of optimized surfactant formulations for specific pulmonary diseases (e.g., acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)). These synthetic surfactant preparations may also be a cost-saving therapeutic approach, with better quality control than may be obtained with animal-based treatments. PMID:17575474

  14. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre Lauren M; McDaneld Tara G; Spurlock Diane M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA) induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administ...

  15. Calpain-10 and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the calpain-10 gene has been linked to a three-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes in Pima Indian and some European populations. Furthermore, reduced skeletal muscle expression of calpain-10 is associated with reduced insulin mediated glucose disposal and carbohydrate oxidation. The skeletal muscle specific calpain-3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle integrity and has also been linked to insulin resistance in humans and rodents. The major aims of this thesis were to...

  16. Regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    downstream of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and energy turnover. In particular, a signaling cascade involving Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2 kinase-eEF2 is implicated. The possible functional significance of altered protein turnover in working skeletal muscle during exercise is discussed. Further work with...... available and new techniques will undoubtedly reveal the functional significance and signaling mechanisms behind changes in skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise. Key words: Exercise, skeletal muscle, protein metabolism, translation....

  17. Skeletal muscle regeneration - mechanisms, satellite cells, factors involved

    OpenAIRE

    Marš, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant of the human body's tissues and it represents a substantial percentage of body mass. Its main function is contraction, which produces force for different types of movement. It also includes the contraction of skelet al muscles that enables locomotion, joint stabilization, posture maintenance and production of body heat. Overall, skeletal muscles play an important role in the body's long-term survival and are crucial for fast and efficient response to chang...

  18. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Zant, Gary Van; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overl...

  19. Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenbao; Kong, Linghua; Zhao, Heyuan; Dong, Ronghua; Li, Jianjiang; Jia, Zhanhua; Ji, Ning; Deng, Shucai; Sun, Zhiming; Zhou, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) caused by skeletal fluorosis is rare. Only six patients had been reported in the English literature. This study reports findings from the first clinical series of this disease. This was a retrospective study of patients with thoracic OLF due to skeletal fluorosis who underwent surgical management at the authors’ hospital between 1993 and 2003. Diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made based on the epidemic history, clinical symptoms, radiographi...

  20. ORTHOGNATIC SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKELETAL CLASS III MALOCLUSION: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, AHMET YALÇIN; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Baykul, Timucin; Aydın, Asım

    2012-01-01

    In this case report a case is presented with skeletal class III malocclusion which were treated with proper planned orthognatic surgery and orthodontic treatment. Our patient was a girl with 16 years, 3 months of chronologic and Ru period of skeletal age. A concave soft tissue profile and Class III molar relation was detected in extraoral and intraoral examination. Cephalometric evaluation revealed a significant Class III skeletal discrepancy (ANBº= -6). Presurgical orthodontics involved deco...

  1. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    René eKoopman; C. Hai eLy; Ryall, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in m...

  2. Skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Zhen Yan

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Skeletal muscles of adult mammalian species, including humans,are the source of power for locomotion and other daily activities essential for survival. Loss of skeletal musclecontractile function is a major cause of falling,morbidity and mortality,especially in elderly populations [1]. More importantly,skeletal muscles collectively influence total body metabolism of glucose, fat and protein, abnormalities of which are associated with a variety of common diseases[2-3].

  3. Working around the clock: circadian rhythms and skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, XIPING; Dube, Thomas J.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of the circadian molecular clock in skeletal muscle is in the very early stages. Initial research has demonstrated the presence of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle and that skeletal muscle of a clock-compromised mouse, Clock mutant, exhibits significant disruption in normal expression of many genes required for adult muscle structure and metabolism. In light of the growing association between the molecular clock, metabolism, and metabolic disease, it will also be important to ...

  4. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  5. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  6. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  7. Na,K-ATPase regulation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle contains one of the largest and the most dynamic pools of Na,K-ATPase (NKA) in the body. Under resting conditions, NKA in skeletal muscle operates at only a fraction of maximal pumping capacity, but it can be markedly activated when demands for ion transport increase, such as during exercise or following food intake. Given the size, capacity, and dynamic range of the NKA pool in skeletal muscle, its tight regulation is essential to maintain whole body homeostasis as well as muscle function. To reconcile functional needs of systemic homeostasis with those of skeletal muscle, NKA is regulated in a coordinated manner by extrinsic stimuli, such as hormones and nerve-derived factors, as well as by local stimuli arising in skeletal muscle fibers, such as contractions and muscle energy status. These stimuli regulate NKA acutely by controlling its enzymatic activity and/or its distribution between the plasma membrane and the intracellular storage compartment. They also regulate NKA chronically by controlling NKA gene expression, thus determining total NKA content in skeletal muscle and its maximal pumping capacity. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms that underlie regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle by major extrinsic and local stimuli. Special emphasis is given to stimuli and mechanisms linking regulation of NKA and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, such as insulin and the energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase. Finally, the recently uncovered roles for glutathionylation, nitric oxide, and extracellular K(+) in the regulation of NKA in skeletal muscle are highlighted. PMID:27166285

  8. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated if cryopreservation is a viable approach for functional mitochondrial analysis. Different tissues have been studied, and conflicting results have been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate if mitochondria in human skeletal muscle maintain...... functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...... of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly (P skeletal muscle samples. Cryopreservation impaired respiration with substrates linked to Complex I more than for Complex II (P

  9. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...... the role of skeletal muscle transverse tubules as potential modulators of tissue insulin responsiveness....

  10. Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further

  11. Phosphonate analogues of carboxypeptidase A substrates are potent transition-state analogue inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J E; Kaplan, A P; Bartlett, P A

    1989-07-25

    Analogues of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of carboxypeptidase A in which the scissile peptide linkage is replaced with a phosphonate moiety (-PO2--O-) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The inhibitors terminated with either L-lactate or L-phenyllactate [designated (O) Ala and (O) Phe, respectively] in the P1' position. Transition-state analogy was shown for a series of 14 tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives containing the structure RCO-AlaP-(O)Ala [RCO-AP(O)A, AP indicates the phosphonic acid analogue of alanine] by the correlation of the Ki values for the inhibitors and the Km/kcat values for the corresponding amide substrates. This correlation supports a transition state for the enzymatic reaction that resembles the tetrahedral intermediate formed upon addition of water to the scissile carbonyl group. The inhibitors containing (O) Phe at the P1' position proved to be the most potent reversible inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A reported to date: the dissociation constants of ZAFP(O)F, ZAAP(O)F, and ZFAP(O)F are 4, 3, and 1 pM, respectively. Because of the high affinity of these inhibitors, their dissociation constants could not be determined by steady-state methods. Instead, the course of the association and dissociation processes was monitored for each inhibitor as its equilibrium with the enzyme was established in both the forward and reverse directions. A phosphonamidate analogue, ZAAPF, in which the peptide linkage is replaced with a -PO2-NH- moiety, was prepared and shown to hydrolyze rapidly at neutral pH (t1/2 = 20 min at pH 7.5). This inhibitor is bound an order of magnitude less tightly than the corresponding phosphonate, ZAAP(O)F, a result that contrasts with the 840-fold higher affinity of phosphonamidates for thermolysin [Bartlett, P. A., & Marlowe, C. K. (1987) Science 235, 569-571], a zinc peptidase with a similar arrangement of active-site catalytic residues. PMID:2790000

  12. Structure-Activity Studies of Brassinosteroids and the Search for Novel Analogues and Mimetics with Improved Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Thomas G.; Pharis, Richard P.

    2003-12-01

    A number of novel brassinosteroid analogues were synthesized and subjected to the rice leaf lamina inclination bioassay. Modified B-ring analogues included lactam, thiolactone, cyclic ether, ketone, hydroxyl, and exocyclic methylene derivatives of brassinolide. Those derivatives containing polar functional groups retained considerable bioactivity, whereas the exocyclic methylene compounds were devoid of activity. Analogues containing normal alkyl and cycloalkyl substituents at C-24 (in place of the isopropyl group of brassinolide) showed an inverse relationship between activity and chain length or ring size, respectively. The corresponding cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl derivatives were significantly more active than brassinolide and appear to be the most potent brassinosteroids reported to date. When synergized with the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), their bioactivity can be further enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The cyclopropyl derivative, when coapplied with the auxin naphthaleneacetic acid, gave a significant increase in yield of wheat in a field trial. Certain 25- and 26-hydroxy derivatives are known metabolites of brassinosteroids. All of the C-25 stereoisomers of 25-hydroxy, 26-hydroxy, and 25,26-dihydroxy derivatives of brassinolide were prepared and shown to be much less active than brassinolide. This indicates that they are likely metabolic deactivation products of the parent phytohormone. A series of methyl ethers of brassinolide was synthesized to block deactivation by glucosylation of the free hydroxyl groups. The most significant finding was that the compound where three of the four hydroxyl groups (at C-3, C-22, and C-23) had been converted to methyl ethers retained substantial bioactivity. This type of modification could, in theory, allow brassinolide or 24-epibrassinolide to resist deactivation and thus offer greater persistence in field applications. A series of nonsteroidal mimetics of brassinolide was designed and synthesized. Two of the

  13. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  14. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  15. Contemporary approaches for imaging skeletal metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ulmert; Lilja Solnes; Daniel LJ Thorek

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is a common site of cancer metastasis. Notably high incidences of bone lesions are found for breast, prostate, and renal carcinoma. Malignant bone tumors result in significant patient morbidity. Identification of these lesions is a critical step to accurately stratify patients, guide treatment course, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to therapy. Diagnosis of cancer in the skeleton typically relies on indirect bone-targeted radiotracer uptake at sites of active bone remodeling. In this manuscript, we discuss established and emerging tools and techniques for detection of bone lesions, quantification of skeletal tumor burden, and current clinical challenges.

  16. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B;

    2013-01-01

    four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition of...... exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the...

  17. Converting skeletal structures to quad dominant meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    We propose the Skeleton to Quad-dominant polygonal Mesh algorithm (SQM), which converts skeletal structures to meshes composed entirely of polar and annular regions. Both types of regions have a regular structure where all faces are quads except for a single ring of triangles at the center of each...... polar region. The algorithm produces high quality meshes which contain irregular vertices only at the poles or where several regions join. It is trivial to produce a stripe parametrization for the output meshes which also lend themselves well to polar subdivision. After an initial description of SQM, we...

  18. International Skeletal Society outreach 2013: Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, James; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Monu, Johnny

    2014-05-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the horrific events of the Rwandan genocide. Since that time, the country has made a remarkable recovery owing to good government and a great deal of aid. Health-care services are well organized, but remain short of resources and expertise. Musculoskeletal imaging (and treatment) is in its infancy. Given the huge strides that have been made in social order and stability, there is great hope for the future. It is proposed that future International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs plan to make a meaningful commitment to developing expertise in specific hospitals. PMID:24496585

  19. Perioperative period: immunological modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Chinellato, I; Caimmi, S; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Surgical stress induces complex modifications in the hemodynamic, metabolic, neuro-hormonal and immune response of the individual. The magnitude of these alterations depends on preoperative events leading to surgery, the severity of surgical trauma, and also on post-operative/post-traumatic complications (multiple hit hypothesis). As in other conditions of tissue damage, surgery trauma is followed by an immune-inflammatory response, initiated at the site of injury by the innate immune system, followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory (or immunosuppressive) response (CARS), involving mainly cells of the adaptive immune system, which predispose the host to septic complications. The up-regulated inflammatory response, together with a profound impairment of macrophage and cell-mediated immunity, appear to be the cause for patients' increased susceptibility in developing subsequent sepsis after major surgery. PMID:22014920

  20. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper;

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...... other RNA molecules show virtually no oxidation. The iron-storage disease hemochromatosis exhibits the most prominent general increase in RNA oxidation ever observed. Oxidation of RNA primarily leads to strand breaks and to oxidative base modifications. Oxidized mRNA is recognized by the ribosomes...

  1. Radiation Modification of Textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ionizing radiation to textile finishing operations has become a commercial reality. Electron accelerators are currently being used in a process which imparts durable press, stain-releasing properties to a polyester-cotton blend fabric (Deering-Milliken Co., USA). There are other textile and chemical companies which have announced laboratory or pilot plant development of radiation-textile finishing processes. During the past ten years there has also been a tremendous number of research publications on radiation initiated reactions in fibres or fibre-monomer systems. This paper first briefly reviews the principles of radiation modification of textiles. The important molecular factors controlling such processes and their interaction will be considered. These factors include the G-values for radical formation, local propagation, transfer and termination rate constants, local monomer concentration and its coefficient of diffusion within the polymer matrix, radiation dose rate, temperature, and the presence of non-reactive (e.g. solvent) species. Economic factors will also be considered. Following this there is a review;of the most pertinent recent published work in this field, including the patent literature. This survey will be broken into two parts: bulk effects and surface effects. Emphasis will be placed on durable press and stain release properties. The chemistry of durable press and its application within the field of radiation chemistry will be covered. The principles of surface chemistry will then be discussed, as they relate to important wetting phenomena in textile fibres and fabrics. Data will be presented from a series of studies which the author has been conducting on the radiation modification of surface wettability of textile materials. (author)

  2. Review of insulin and its analogues in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, Kc; Niranjan, Ms; Zaranappa, Tr; Manjuthej, Tr

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin's, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  3. On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)

  4. Dual Fluorescence in GFP Chromophore Analogues: Chemical Modulation of Charge Transfer and Proton Transfer Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Mandal, Mrinal; Das, Ananya; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan; Mandal, Prasun K

    2016-04-14

    Dual fluorescence of GFP chromophore analogues has been observed for the first time. OHIM (o-hydroxy imidazolidinone) shows only a charge transfer (CT) band, CHBDI (p-cyclicamino o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a comparable intensity CT and PT (proton transfer) band, and MHBDI (p-methoxy o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a higher intensity PT band. It could be shown that the differential optical behavior is not due to conformational variation in the solid or solution phase. Rather, control of the excited state electronic energy level and excited state acidity constant by functional group modification could be shown to be responsible for the differential optical behavior. Chemical modification-induced electronic control over the relative intensity of the charge transfer and proton transfer bands could thus be evidenced. Support from single-crystal X-ray structure, NMR, femtosecond to nanosecond fluorescence decay analysis, and TDDFT-based calculation provided important information and thus helped us understand the photophysics better. PMID:26998908

  5. Cellular Dynamics of RNA Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengqi; Pan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus Decades of research have identified over 100 types of ribonucleosides that are post-transcriptionally modified. Many modified nucleosides are conserved in bacteria, archeae and eukaryotes, while some modified nucleosides are unique to each branch of life. However, the cellular and functional dynamics of RNA modifications remains largely unexplored, mostly due to the lack of functional hypotheses and experimental methods for quantification and large scale analysis. Just as many well characterized protein and DNA modifications, many RNA modifications are not essential for life. Instead, increasingly more evidence indicates that RNA modifications can play regulatory roles in cells, especially in response to stress conditions. In this Account, we review some known examples of RNA modifications that are dynamically controlled in cells and introduce some contemporary technologies and methods that enhance the studies of cellular dynamics of RNA modifications. Examples of RNA modifications discussed in this Account include (Figure 1): (1) 4-thio uridine (s4U) which can act as a cellular sensor of near UV-light; (2) queuosine (Q) which is a potential biomarker for malignancy; (3) N6-methyl adenine (m6A) which is the prevalent modification in eukaryotic mRNAs; and (4) pseudouridine (ψ) which are inducible by nutrient deprivation. Two recent technical advances that stimulated the studies of cellular dynamics of modified ribonucleosides are also described. First, a genome-wide method combines primer extension and microarray to study N1-methyl adenine (m1A) hypomodification in human tRNA. Second, a quantitative mass spectrometric method investigates dynamic changes of a wide range of tRNA modifications under stress conditions in yeast. In addition, we discuss potential mechanisms that control dynamic regulation of RNA modifications, and hypotheses for discovering potential RNA de-modification enzymes. We conclude the Account by highlighting the need to develop new

  6. EPIGENETIC MODIFICATIONS OF SWINE GENOME

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Budimir; Gordana Kralik; Vladimir Margeta

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics is represents a new way of genome analysis, respectively gene expression that occurs without DNA sequence change. Changes that occur are epigenetic modifications and they include post-translational histone modification and DNA methylation. Chemical groups that are added on DNA molecule cause changes in DNA and create epigenome. The consequence of that is appearance of imprinted genes in genome. Genetic imprinting is epigenetic modification in which one of inherited alleles inactiv...

  7. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E;

    2012-01-01

    functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of...

  8. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  9. Radiological contribution to skeletal changes in systemic mastocytosis - urticaria pigmentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients are demonstrated suffering from systemic mastocytosis with skin and skeletal involvement. History, clinical and radiological results are reported. After a brief analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, the radiological findings on the skeletal system in systemic mastocytosis are discussed. Finally, roentgenological differential diagnosis of the osseous lesions is explained. (orig.)

  10. Radiological contribution to skeletal changes in systemic mastocytosis - urticaria pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schratter, M.; Canigiani, G.; Schoenbauer, C.; Mach, K.

    1983-11-01

    Three patients are demonstrated suffering from systemic mastocytosis with skin and skeletal involvement. History, clinical and radiological results are reported. After a brief analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, the radiological findings on the skeletal system in systemic mastocytosis are discussed. Finally, roentgenological differential diagnosis of the osseous lesions is explained.

  11. Chance findings in skeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der Skelettradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen [Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The book on chance findings in skeletal radiology covers the following issues: Part (I): Introduction - what are chance findings? Part (II); change findings under different radiological modalities: most frequent skeletal radiological change findings: scintiscanning, radiography and CT, MRT, PET and PET/CT. Part (III): case studies: skull; spinal cord; shoulder/pectoral girdle, chest; pelvis and hip joints; upper extremities; lower extremities.

  12. Insulin resistance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    are used in the attempt to resolve the mechanisms of insulin resistance. In this context, a dysfunction of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle has been suggested to play a pivotal role. It has been postulated that a decrease in the content of mitochondria in the skeletal muscle can explain the insulin...

  13. Current opportunities and challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Harmsen, Martin C; van Luyn, Marja J A; Werker, Paul M N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) of skeletal muscle and the opportunities and challenges for future clinical applicability. The endogenous progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, i.e. satellite cells, show a high pronenes

  14. Influence of age on leptin induced skeletal muscle signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Larsen, Steen; Guerra, Borja;

    2014-01-01

    Age associated fat mass accumulation could be due to dysregulation of leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. Thus, we investigated total protein expression and phosphorylation levels of the long isoform of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), and leptin signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal...... skeletal muscle of different age....

  15. Lymphosarcoma with disseminated skeletal involvement in a pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoblastic lymphosarcoma with disseminated skeletal involvement was diagnosed in a 15-week-old Golden Retriever. The skeletal disease was characterized by diffuse, irregular areas of radiolucency most evident in the diaphyseal portion of long bones and was associated with gait abnormalities and signs of pain. Necropsy also revealed involvement of the spleen, liver, kidneys, and mesenteric lymph nodes

  16. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  17. The physiological roles of Sirt1 in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Patricia S.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress, a decrease in the ability to rebuild muscle after injury and in response to exercise. In this perspective, we discuss the mechanisms regulating Sirt1 activity and expression in skeletal muscles, emphasizing their implications in muscle physiology and the impairment of muscle function with age.

  18. Surface modifications of the Sima de los Huesos fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Fernandez Jalvo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The sample of fossil human bones from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, has been analysed to trace parts of its taphonomic history. The work reported here is restricted to analysis of the skeletal elements preserved and their surface modifications. Preliminary plans of specimen distribution published 6 years ago indicate that the skeletal elements are dispersed within the cave, but more recent data are not yet available. Most of the fossils are broken, with some breakage when the bone was fresh and some when already partly mineralized, both types showing some rounding. There are few longitudinal breaks on shafts of long bones and so very few bone splinters. All skeletal elements are preserved but in unequal proportions, with elements like femora, humeri and mandibles and teeth with greater structural density being best represented. There is no evidence of weathering or of human damage such as cut marks on any of the human assemblage, but trampling damage is present on most bones. Carnivore damage is also common, with some present on more than half the sample, but it is mostly superficial, either on the surfaces of shafts and articular ends or on the edges of spiral breaks. The sizes and distribution of the carnivore pits indicate extensive canid activity, and this is interpreted as scavenging of the bones in place in the cave. Indications of tooth marks from a larger carnivore indicate the activity possibly of a large felid: the marks are too large to be produced by small canids, with the larger marks concentrated on spiral breaks on the more robust bones, and there is no evidence of bone crushing and splintering in the manner of hyaenas. The nature of the SH human assemblage is also consistent with accumulation by humans, the evidence for this being the lack of other animals, especially the lack of herbivorous animals, associated with the humans, and the high number of individuals preserved. PMID:9300342

  19. Actions of chiriquitoxin on frog skeletal muscle fibers and implications for the tetrodotoxin/saxitoxin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Kao, C Y

    1992-10-01

    Chiriquitoxin (CqTX) from the Costa Rican frog Atelopus chiriquensis differs from tetrodoxin (TTX) only in that a glycine residue replaces a methylene hydrogen of the C-11 hydroxymethyl function. On the voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fiber, in addition to blocking the sodium channel and unrelated to such an action, CqTX also slows the activation of the fast potassium current in approximately 40% of the muscle fiber population. At pH 7.25, CqTX is as potent as TTX in blocking the sodium channel, with an ED50 of 3.8 nM. Its ED50's at pH 6.50 and 8.25 are 6.8 and 2.3 nM, contrasted with 3.8 and 4.3 nM for TTX. These differences are attributable to changes in the chemical states in the glycine residue. The equipotency of CqTX with TTX at pH 7.25 is explainable by an intramolecular salt bridge between the amino and carboxyl groups of the glycine function, all other surface groups in TTX and CqTX being the same. From available information on these groups and those in saxitoxin (STX), the TTX/STX binding site is deduced to be in a pocket 9.5 A wide, 6 A high, and 5 A deep. The glycine residue of CqTX probably projects out of the entrance to this pocket. Such a view of the binding site could also account for the actions of STX analogues, including the C-11 sulfated gonyautoxins and the 21-sulfocarbamoyl analogues. In the gonyautoxins the sulfate groups are equivalently placed as the glycine in CqTX, whereas in the sulfocarbamoyl toxins the sulfate groups extend the carbamoyl side-chain, leading to steric hinderance to productive binding. PMID:1334120

  20. Synthetic Nanopores: Biological Analogues and Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew W.

    access to a virtually limitless combination of pore shapes and sizes. Exploiting this, we investigate the role of pore geometry in mediating the electrostatic and steric interactions responsible for transport on the nanoscale. Through targeted chemical modifications of our homogenous pores, we easily tailor their surface properties to investigate the role of hydrophobic effects in confined environments. Unbound by the physiological limitations of protein structures (such as sensitivity to electrolyte composition and fragility to external forces), our report concludes with the fusion of fabrication and modification considerations to design robust components for nanofluidic circuitry and nanoscopic biosensors.

  1. Myonase is localized in skeletal muscle myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shinichiro; Yamada, Makoto; Ohtani, Sachiko; Hori, Chiyo; Yokomizo, Tadahiro; Webb, Timothy; Shimokawa, Teruhiko

    2002-09-01

    A novel chymotrypsin-like proteinase termed myonase was previously purified from MDX-mouse skeletal muscle [Hori et al. (1998) J. Biochem. 123, 650-658]. Western blots and immunohistochemical analyses showed that myonase was present within myocytes of both MDX-mouse and control mouse, and subcellular fractionation showed that it was associated with myofibrils. No significant difference was observed on Western blots between the amounts of myonase in myofibrils of MDX-mouse and control mouse, but the amount of myonase recoverable as a pure protein was 5-10-fold more when MDX-mouse was the source of the skeletal muscle. Myofibrils also possessed an endogenous inhibitor of myonase, whose inhibitory activity at physiological pH (pH 7.4) depended on salt concentration, stronger inhibition being observed at a low salt concentration. Inhibition at alkaline pH (pH 9) was weak and independent of salt concentration. Myonase in myofibrils was partially released at neutral pH by a high salt concentration (>0.6 M NaCl). However, even at 4 M NaCl, more than 80% of myonase remained within the myofibrils. Under alkaline conditions, release of myonase from myofibril was more extensive. At pH 12, myonase was almost completely present in the soluble fraction. Release of myonase under these conditions coincided with the solubilization of other myofibrillar proteins. PMID:12204111

  2. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  3. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  4. Shark skeletal muscle tropomyosin is a phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Michael; Chevaldina, Tatiana; Mudalige, Wasana A K A; Jackman, Donna M; Dobbin, Alvin D; Heeley, David H

    2008-01-01

    Shark skeletal muscle tropomyosin is classified as an alpha-type isoform. The chemical structure is characterised by the absence of cysteine and the presence of a sub-stoichiometric amount of covalently bound phosphate. The protein migrates as a single component on a SDS polyacrylamide gel but is resolved into two components by chromatography and electrophoresis both in the presence of urea at mild alkaline pH. The only detectable difference between these components is the presence of phosphoserine in the tropomyosin form of greater net negative charge. Low ionic strength (pH 7) solutions of phosphorylated shark tropomyosin display significantly higher specific viscosity than unphosphorylated, consistent with the presence of a phosphorylation site within the overlap region, serine 283, as well as conservation of the positively charged amino terminal region. Similar observations were made with tropomyosin prepared from the trunk muscle of Atlantic cod. In a steady-state MgATPase assay, thin filaments (Ca2+) reconstituted with shark phosphorylated tropomyosin activate myosin to a greater extent than those composed of unphosphorylated. The difference is attributable chiefly to a change in Vmax. Skeletal muscle tropomyosin is concluded to be phosphorylated in cartilaginous fishes as well as some teleosts. PMID:18763042

  5. Control of cell volume in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Fraser, James A

    2009-02-01

    Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study of the consequences of individual factors on muscle volume difficult despite their likely importance during exercise. Recent charge-difference modelling of cell volume distinguishes three major aspects to processes underlying cell volume control: (i) determination by intracellular impermeant solute; (ii) maintenance by metabolically dependent processes directly balancing passive solute and water fluxes that would otherwise cause cell swelling under the influence of intracellular membrane-impermeant solutes; and (iii) volume regulation often involving reversible short-term transmembrane solute transport processes correcting cell volumes towards their normal baselines in response to imposed discrete perturbations. This review covers, in turn, the main predictions from such quantitative analysis and the experimental consequences of comparable alterations in extracellular pH, lactate concentration, membrane potential and extracellular tonicity. The effects of such alterations in the extracellular environment in resting amphibian muscles are then used to reproduce the intracellular changes that occur in each case in exercising muscle. The relative contributions of these various factors to the control of cell volume in resting and exercising skeletal muscle are thus described. PMID:19133959

  6. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  7. Magnetic resonance findings in skeletal muscle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of skeletal muscle tears can clearly delineate the severity of muscle injury. Although MR imaging is seldom necessary in patients with acute musle trauma, it can be helpful in deciding on clinical management. The two major MR findings in acute muscle tears are deformity of the muscle and the presence of abnormal signal reflecting hemorrhage and edema. In acute tears, methemoglobin within the extravascular blood causes high-signal areas on both T1- and T2-weighted images. With partial tears, the blood may dissect in a distinctive linear pattern along the muscle bundles and fibers. As healing begins, the muscle signal diminishes, first on the T1-weighted images and then on the T2-weighted images. When there is residual abnormal signal on images obtained more than several months after the injury, it is presumed to represent hemorrhage from recurrent tears. In patients with a questionable history of a remote injury, the clinical presentation may be that of persistent pain or a soft tissue mass. In these cases MR imaging may identify the cause of the pain and can exclude a neoplasm by proving that the mass is a hypertrophied or retracted musle. Thus, MR imaging has a limited, but occasionally important role in selected patients with skeletal muscle tears. (orig.)

  8. Skeletal fluorosis: roentgenological and histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed radiological and morphometrical studies have been reported in 100 patients of proven endemic skeletal fluorosis all of whom were symptomatic. Though the radiological features such as osteopetrosis, periosteal bone formation, osteophytosis and calcification of the interosseous membrane and ligaments remain the mainstay in the diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis, in increasing instances radiological findings have been variable and uncommon suggesting the presence of other metabolic bone disease. Morphometrical measurements of the iliac crest biopsies revealed osteoclastic resorption of the trabecular bone, increased numbers of resorption lacunae, periosteocytic osteolysis and increased osteoid covered surfaces. The calcification front had a normal distribution except in four patients with associated osteomalacia. Findings were similar in children suffering from endemic fluorosis. These studies suggest that the stabilizing effect of fluoride on bone due to the conversion of hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite produces a compensatory hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. Thus, the possibility of a beneficial effect of fluoride in osteoporosis has been challenged in the light of this parathyroid compensation

  9. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria and Aging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Declines in skeletal muscle mitochondria are thought to play a primary role in this process. Mitochondria are the major producers of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids if not rapidly quenched. Animal and human studies typically show that skeletal muscle mitochondria are altered with aging, including increased mutations in mitochondrial DNA, decreased activity of some mitochondrial enzymes, altered respiration with reduced maximal capacity at least in sedentary individuals, and reduced total mitochondrial content with increased morphological changes. However, there has been much controversy over measurements of mitochondrial energy production, which may largely be explained by differences in approach and by whether physical activity is controlled for. These changes may in turn alter mitochondrial dynamics, such as fusion and fission rates, and mitochondrially induced apoptosis, which may also lead to net muscle fiber loss and age-related sarcopenia. Fortunately, strategies such as exercise and caloric restriction that reduce oxidative damage also improve mitochondrial function. While these strategies may not completely prevent the primary effects of aging, they may help to attenuate the rate of decline.

  10. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: Weiwang_Ly@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  11. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  12. FOXO1 delays skeletal muscle regeneration and suppresses myoblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Hatazawa, Yukino; Hirose, Yuma; Ono, Yusuke; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-08-01

    Unloading stress, such as bed rest, inhibits the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. FOXO1 expression, which induces the upregulated expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p57 and Gadd45α, is known to be increased in the skeletal muscle under unloading conditions. However, there is no report addressing FOXO1-induced inhibition of myoblast proliferation. Therefore, we induced muscle injury by cardiotoxin in transgenic mice overexpressing FOXO1 in the skeletal muscle (FOXO1-Tg mice) and observed regeneration delay in skeletal muscle mass and cross-sectional area in FOXO1-Tg mice. Increased p57 and Gadd45α mRNA levels, and decreased proliferation capacity were observed in C2C12 myoblasts expressing a tamoxifen-inducible active form of FOXO1. These results suggest that decreased proliferation capacity of myoblasts by FOXO1 disrupts skeletal muscle regeneration under FOXO1-increased conditions, such as unloading. PMID:27010781

  13. Dynamics of the skeletal muscle secretome during myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy;

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative...... proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics...... of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188...

  14. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods Hyperinsul......Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... mitochondrial function and indices of insulin sensitivity. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports we found no evidence that skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration is reduced in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS compared to control subjects. Furthermore, mitochondrial content did not differ between our...... control and PCOS groups. These results question the causal relationship between reduced mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in PCOS....

  15. Gold Nanoparticles Decorated with Mannose-6-phosphate Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Combemale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the preparation of neoglycoconjugates bearing mannose-6-phosphate analogues is described by: (a synthesis of a cyclic sulfate precursor to access the carbohydrate head-group by nucleophilic displacement with an appropriate nucleophile; (b introduction of spacers on the mannose-6-phosphate analogues via Huisgen’s cycloaddition, the Julia reaction, or the thiol-ene reaction under ultrasound activation. With the resulting compounds in hand, gold nanoparticles could be functionalized with various carbohydrate derivatives (glycoconjugates and then tested for angiogenic activity. It was observed that the length and flexibility of the spacer separating the sugar analogue from the nanoparticle have little influence on the biological response. One particular nanoparticle system substantially inhibits blood vessel growth in contrast to activation by the corresponding monomeric glycoconjugate, thereby demonstrating the importance of multivalency in angiogenic activity.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PMID:27005578

  17. Controlled analogue experiments on propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a method of laboratory analogue experiments based on a geographical scaling model and a waveguide model to investigate the characteristics of the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals in the crust and the atmosphere. Some controlled experiments were done to evaluate the possible influence on the experimental results from the background electromagnetic field, geographical conditions, boundary effects, the source of electromagnetic signals (position, magnitude, and frequency), and media conductivity. The reliability and the extensibility of the above analogue experimental method were also investigated. This study indicated that such kind of analogue experimental method provided an intuitionistic way of studying the propagation of seismic electromagnetic signals, which is one of the most difficult research topics in seismo-electro- magnetism.

  18. Radiation Tests of the VELO ECS and Analogue Repeater Mezzanines

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L; Van der Gracht, A; Vollhardt, A

    2006-01-01

    The VELO front-end control system and analogue link is based on commercial components where the radiation tolerance is assured by a radiation qualification procedure. This note reports on the radiation qualification of the components required for the VELO ECS mezzanine and analogue repeater mezzanines. They are located at the VELO vacuum vessel where the expected maximal dose is 73 kRad during 10 years of operation. The qualification was done by irradiating prototype circuits at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. The ECS mezzanine prototypes were irradiated to a dose of 780 kRad and the analogue driver test channels were irradiated to a dose of 600 kRad. All devices were fully functional after the irradiation and only a small increase in current consumption was observed.

  19. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  20. Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices of 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and its Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gutch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Riot control agent, 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS and its analogues have both skin irritating and lacrymating properties. Herein, we report retention indices (RI of CS and its thirteen analogues relative to the homologues n-alkanes series. These values are determined on nonpolar BP-1 and polar BP-10 capillary column under programmed temperature and isothermal chromatographic condition. The analogues differ in substitution at ortho or para position of phenyl ring and retention indices are found to vary according to the nature of the substituent.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.319-323, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1167

  1. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    phonemes between skeletal class I and II and only in the anterior phonemes between skeletal class I and III. There were no significant differences between II and III skeletal groups. Qualitatively different modifications and compensations between skeletal classes are reported. CONCLUSION: different degree of modification in consonant phonemes articulation is shown in class II and III patients when compared to class I skeletal subjects. These differences are related to the skeletal patterns.

  2. A synthetic analogue of melittin aggregates in large oligomers.

    OpenAIRE

    John, E.; Jähnig, F

    1992-01-01

    An analogue of melittin synthesized in the group of E. T. Kaiser (DeGrado, W. F., F. J. Keźdy, and E. T. Kaiser. 1981. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103:679-681) was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy decay. In water, the analogue is completely alpha-helical and aggregates in large oligomers of about 50 monomers. In vesicle membranes, it undergoes orientational fluctuations similar to melittin. The most significant difference from melittin, therefore, is the formation of strai...

  3. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively.......This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  4. Natural analogues, paradigm for manmade repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural analogues are given by nature. They show the results of natural processes which have lasted thousands or millions of years. They provide an excellent example of what could happen in an underground site, offering in the same time the opportunity to test by observation and measurement, many of the geochemical processes that are expected to influence in a realistic and appropriate way, the predicted reliability of the radioactive waste repository over long periods of geological time. The natural analogue studies attempt to understand the multiprocessing complexity of the natural system, which contrasts with the limitations of the laboratory experiments and bring arguments to overcome the difficult time scale issue. By this the natural analogues are a useful paradigm for manmade repository for radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the implicit link in the public mind between natural analogues and manmade waste repository with an accent of the positive impact on public acceptance. It is also discussed the decisive qualities of the natural analogues concerning providing valid long term data and increasing the confidence of the public for manmade repositories. The debate is conducting in terms of sustainable development, having at base high-level principles in order to protect humans and their environment, both now and in the future, from potential hazards arising from such wastes. Safe radwaste management involves the application of technology and resources in a regulated manner so that the public, workers and the environment are protected in accordance with the accepted national and international standards. There are at least seven high-level principles which are mentioned in the paper. It is presented the general concept of the deep geological repository, very important for an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste, what is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Further are introduced natural and archaeological (manufactured) analogue

  5. Synthesis of Conformationally Locked Versions of Puromycin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Michel, Benoît Y.; Choi, Yongseok; Strazewski, Peter; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    Conformationally locked North and South versions of puromycin analogues built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane pseudosugar template were synthesized. The final assembly of the products was accomplished by the Staudinger-Vilarrasa coupling of the corresponding North (2 and 3) and South (6 and 7) 3′-azidopurine carbanucleosides with the Fmoc-protected 1-hydroxybenzotriazole ester of 4-methoxy-L-tyrosine. North azides 2 and 3 were reported earlier. The 3′-azido intermediates 6 and 7 that are necessary for the synthesis of the South puromycin analogues are described herein for the first time. PMID:18991379

  6. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  7. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  8. Concise synthesis of ether analogues of lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Falguières, Thomas; Gruenberg, Jean; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient method for the preparation of ether analogues of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer from (S)-solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-octadecenyl glyceryl ether with 2-cyanoethyl bis-N,N-diisopropylamino phosphine and subsequent deprotection generated the bisether LBPA analogues. By simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps, we obtained the (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers of 2,2'-bisether LBPA. An ELISA assay with anti-LBPA monoclonal antibodies showed that the bisether LBPAs were recognized with the same affinity as the natural 2,2'-bisoleolyl LBPA. [reaction: see text] PMID:16119911

  9. Design of a saturated analogue and digital current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project describes the development of a new analogue and digital current transducer, providing a range of new theoretical design methods for these novel devices. The main control feature is the limit cycling operation, and the novel use of the embedded sigma-delta modulator sensor structure to derive a low component count digital sensor. The research programme was initiated into the design, development and evaluation of a novel non-Hall sensing analogue and digital current transducer. These transducers are used for measurement of high currents in power systems applications. The investigation is concerned with a new design which uses a magnetic ferrite core without an air gap for current measurement. The motivation for this work was to design a new control circuit which provides a low component count, and utilises the non-linear properties of the magnetic ferrite core to transmit direct current. The use of a limit cycle control circuit was believed to be particularly suitable for the analogue and digital transducers, for two main reasons: the low component count, and the output signal is directly digital. In line with the motivations outlined above, the outcome of the research has witnessed the design, development and evaluation of a practically realisable analogue and digital current transducer. The design procedure, which is documented in this thesis, is considered to be a major contribution to the field of transducers design and development using a control systems approach. Mathematical models for both analogue and digital transducers were developed and the resulting model based predictions were found to be in good agreement with measured results. Simplification of the new model sensing device was achieved by approximating the non-linear ferrite core using FFT analysis. This is also considered to be a significant contribution. The development analogue and digital current censors employed a sampled data control systems design and utilised limit cycling

  10. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Huang; George Pak-Man Cheng; Kin Chiu; Gui-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs).Data Sources:All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect.Study Selection:The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included,but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded.Results:Technology of surface modification included plasma,ion beam,layer-by-layer self-assembly,ultraviolet radiation,and ozone.The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol),polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane,2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine,TiO2,heparin,F-heparin,titanium,titanium nitride,vinyl pyrrolidone,and inhibitors of cytokines.The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens,a more hydrophilic lens,or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface.Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments.Conclusion:The surface modification is an efficient,convenient,economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility ofIOLs.

  11. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO 2 , heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs.

  12. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  13. Amino acid uptake in the skeletal muscle measured using [11C]methylaminoisobutyrate (MEAIB) and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amino acid analogue, [11C]MeAIB, recently introduced for oncological positron emission tomography (PET) studies, is a highly selective substrate for insulin-sensitive amino acid transport system A. The aim of this study was to study the uptake kinetics of [11C]MeAIB in skeletal muscle in the fasting state and during insulin stimulation. Two dynamic PET studies were carried out in 11 healthy subjects, once in the fasting state and once during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (serum insulin 67±12 mU l-1). Graphical analysis was used to calculate the fractional [11C]MeAIB uptake rate (Ki). Amino acid uptake was estimated by multiplying Ki by the serum amino acid concentration. After tracer injection, rapid uptake in muscle tissue was detected both in the fasting state and during insulin stimulation and femoral muscles were clearly visualised in both studies. In the graphical analysis, the volume of distribution of [11C]MeAIB plotted against normalised plasma time yielded a linear curve (the slope of which = Ki). The fractional [11C]MeAIB uptake rate (Ki) in the femoral muscle regions increased from 0.0070±0.0018 min-1 (mean±SD) in the fasting state to 0.0079±0.0020 min-1 (P-1 (P-1 (P=0.0001) during hyperinsulinaemia. The calculated skeletal muscle total amino acid uptake and the uptake of the six amino acids typically using system A were similar in the fasting state and during insulin clamp (17.1±3.2 vs 17.7±3.7 μmol kg-1 min-1, NS, and 5.0±1.3 vs 5.0±1.4 μmol kg-1 min-1, NS, respectively). The uptake rates correlated with perfusion both in the fasting state and during hyperinsulinaemia (P11C]MeAIB PET appears to be a feasible method for measurement of amino acid uptake in human skeletal muscle. As a tracer that is not metabolised in the tissues, [11C]MeAIB provides simple modelling and robust data analysis and thus provides a means to investigate amino acid uptake into muscle tissue in various disease conditions known to affect protein metabolism. (orig.)

  14. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  15. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  16. Basal insulin analogues in the management of diabetes mellitus: What progress have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, David R; Matfin, Glenn; Monnier, Louis

    2014-02-01

    Insulin remains the most effective and consistent means of controlling blood glucose levels in diabetes. Since 1946, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) has been the predominant basal insulin in clinical use. However, absorption is variable due to the need for resuspension and the time-action profile (peak activity 4-6 h after subcutaneous administration) confers an increased propensity for between-meal and nocturnal hypoglycaemia. In the 1980s, recombinant DNA technology enabled modifications to the insulin molecule resulting in the soluble long-acting insulin analogues, glargine and detemir. Both exhibit a lower risk of hypoglycaemia compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn due to improved time-action profiles and reduced day-to-day glucose variability. Glargine is indicated for administration once daily and detemir once or twice daily. Degludec is the latest prolonged-acting insulin which forms long subcutaneous multi-hexamers that delay absorption. Recent phase III trials in type 1 and type 2 diabetes show that degludec was non-inferior to comparators (predominantly glargine) with a minimal although inconsistent reduction in overall hypoglycaemia and a small absolute difference in nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Newer developmental agents include LY2605541 and glargine U300. LY2605541 comprises insulin lispro combined with polyethylene glycol, thereby increasing its hydrodynamic size and retarding absorption from the subcutaneous tissue. Glargine U300 is a new formulation of glargine resulting in a flatter and more prolonged time-action profile than its predecessor. This article reviews recent advances in basal insulin analogues, including a critical appraisal of the degludec trials. PMID:24026961

  17. Patient-reported outcomes of parenteral somatostatin analogue injections in 195 patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Christian J; Karavitaki, Niki; Störmann, Sylvère; Trainer, Peter J; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Droste, Michael; Korbonits, Márta; Feldmann, Berit; Zopf, Kathrin; Sanderson, Violet Fazal; Schwicker, David; Gelbaum, Dana; Haviv, Asi; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-acting somatostatin analogues delivered parenterally are the most widely used medical treatment in acromegaly. This patient-reported outcomes survey was designed to assess the impact of chronic injections on subjects with acromegaly. Methods The survey was conducted in nine pituitary centres in Germany, UK and The Netherlands. The questionnaire was developed by endocrinologists and covered aspects of acromegaly symptoms, injection-related manifestations, emotional and daily life impact, treatment satisfaction and unmet medical needs. Results In total, 195 patients participated, of which 112 (57%) were on octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) and 83 (43%) on lanreotide (Somatuline Depot). The majority (>70%) of patients reported acromegaly symptoms despite treatment. A total of 52% of patients reported that their symptoms worsen towards the end of the dosing interval. Administration site pain lasting up to a week following injection was the most frequently reported injection-related symptom (70% of patients). Other injection site reactions included nodules (38%), swelling (28%), bruising (16%), scar tissue (8%) and inflammation (7%). Injection burden was similar between octreotide and lanreotide. Only a minority of patients received injections at home (17%) and 5% were self-injecting. Over a third of patients indicated a feeling of loss of independence due to the injections, and 16% reported repeated work loss days. Despite the physical, emotional and daily life impact of injections, patients were satisfied with their treatment, yet reported that modifications that would offer major improvement over current care would be ‘avoiding injections’ and ‘better symptom control’. Conclusion Lifelong injections of long-acting somatostatin analogues have significant burden on the functioning, well-being and daily lives of patients with acromegaly. PMID:26744896

  18. Synthesis via “click chemistry" of new triazole analogues derivatives of grandisin and veraguensin neolignans with potential trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C Bortolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of bioisosterism, new triazole analogs were designed from the molecular modification of grandisin and veraguensin neolignans   which have a furan group that is a bioisóstere of 1,2,3-triazoles ring. In order to obtain more potent compounds, with fewer side effects, and better physical and chemical characteristics in combating leishmaniasis and chagas disease, this research group synthesized, via "Click Chemistry", eight new triazole analogues of neolignans. Thus reactions 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of Huisgen were performed between terminal acetylenes and azides previously synthesized. The catalytic system CuSO4.5H2O/Ascorbate Sodium / CH2Cl2/H2O was used and, under this reaction conditions eight triazole analogues were synthesized in good yields. Trypanocidal activity test showed positive for the eight molecules.

  19. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  1. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eKoopman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in metabolism, including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia and the muscular dystrophies. Furthermore, the importance of cellular metabolism in the regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells is beginning to receive significant attention. Thus, it is clear that skeletal muscle metabolism is intricately linked to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the recent findings linking a change in metabolism to changes in skeletal muscle mass, as well as describing some of the recent studies in developmental, cancer and stem-cell biology that have identified a role for cellular metabolism in the regulation of stem cell function, a process termed ‘metabolic reprogramming’.

  2. Muscle-specific microRNAs in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Martin; Novak, Jan; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Proper muscle function constitutes a precondition for good heath and an active lifestyle during an individual's lifespan and any deviations from normal skeletal muscle development and its functions may lead to numerous health conditions including e.g. myopathies and increased mortality. It is thus not surprising that there is an increasing need for understanding skeletal muscle developmental processes and the associated molecular pathways, especially as such information could find further uses in therapy. The understanding of complex skeletal muscle developmental networks was broadened with the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) molecules. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by means of miRNA-mRNA interaction. Several miRNAs expressed exclusively in muscle have been labeled myomiRs. MyomiRs represent an integral part of skeletal muscle development, i.e. playing a significant role during skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current knowledge regarding the involvement of myomiRs in the individual phases of myogenesis and other aspects of skeletal muscle biology, along with an up-to-date list of myomiR target genes and their functions in skeletal muscle and miRNA-related therapeutic approaches and future prospects. PMID:26708096

  3. Overexpression of SMPX in adult skeletal muscle does not change skeletal muscle fiber type or size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Eftestøl

    Full Text Available Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear.

  4. Myofibre damage in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, R M; Aagaard, P; Qvortrup, K;

    2007-01-01

    humans using voluntary exercise. Untrained males (n=8, range 22-27 years) performed 210 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, voluntarily (VOL) with one leg and electrically induced (ES) with the other leg. Assessments from the skeletal muscle were obtained prior to......Disruption to proteins within the myofibre after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise is hypothesized to induce delayed onset of muscle soreness and to be associated with an activation of satellite cells. This has been shown in animal models using electrical stimulation but not in...... exercise and at 5, 24, 96 and 192 h postexercise. Muscle tenderness rose in VOL and ES after 24 h, and did not differ between groups. Maximal isometric contraction strength, rate of force development and impulse declined in the VOL leg from 4 h after exercise, but not in ES (except at 24 h). In contrast, a...

  5. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  6. AKTIVITAS PADA SKELET KRANIOFASIAL SELAMA PERIODE PERTUMBUHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lesmana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human skull is a complicated structure made up from 20 constituent bones and it is thus not surprising that the pattern of growth is complicated. The fully grown skull is not simple a larger version of the infant form. The adult skull differs not only in size but also in shape, indicating that theremust be a process of differential growth. The differential growth process must be a different activity seen in the craniofacial skelet, during the growing period and it may be divided into four components. Knowledge of craniofacial growth provides a background to the understanding of the treatment planning process and to undertake suitable interceptive treatment, to hinder the stomatognathic function problems in the future.

  7. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells.

  8. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  9. Cloverleaf skull associated with unusual skeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A male infant which cloverleaf skull and multiple other birth defects born to unrelated, healthy, young parents is presented. Radiologic findings in addition to the cloverleaf skull configuration included short, wide clavicles, winged scapulae, unusual shapes of ribs with abnormal spacing between them and with prominent costovertebral junctions, and widely separated ischia. Ulnae appeared angular with probable fusion to the midportion of the radial bones bilaterally. There was polydactyly of the hands and feet with grossly abnormal metacarpal and metatarsal bones. Skeletal maturation was normal. Computed tomography of the skull showed dilated lateral and third ventricles as well as agenesis of the corpus callosum. The mother denies any teratogenic exposure during the pregnancy. The findings in this infant do not seem to fit into any previously described syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma with skeletal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takechi,Hideo

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft part is rather common but malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone is rarely encountered clinically. Authors present five cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with skeletal involvement and discuss their clinical course, x-ray findings and histological features. This tumor has marked tendency for local recurrence and metastasis. Other bone tumors such as giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, non ossifying fibroma, osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma of bone and metastatic cancer can be excluded by several characteristic findings observed in x-rays as well as histopathological features. All information on the patient should be carefully analysed, because it is difficult to decide whether bone involvement is primary or secondary. Four out of five cases definitely originated within the bone.

  11. Radiographic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high frequency of hyperostosis in various body sites was found in 240 subjects with ''diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis'' (DISH) in the thoracic spine over an average observation period of 11 years. The onset and initial appearance of DISH in the thoracic spine were identified in 69 cases. The age at onset ranged from 40 to 65 years, and the initial sites involved were usually T9-10 and T10-11. As criteria in differentiating DISH from spondylosis deformans the hyperostoses anterior to the vertebral body itself appeared to be more important than the ''bridges'' anterior to the intervertebral spaces. Although it was difficult to differentiate the early appearance of DISH from spondylosis deformans in some cases, these long-term observations suggest that they are different entities. (author)

  12. Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated in the short head of the human biceps brachii of 16 healthy subjects (12 males and 4 females) that near infrared photon migration is anisotropic. The probability for a photon to travel along the direction of the muscle fibres is higher (∼0.4) than that of travelling along a perpendicular axis (∼0.3) while in the adipose tissue the probability is the same (∼0.33) in all directions. Considering that the muscle fibre orientation is different depending on the type of muscle considered, and that inside a given skeletal muscle the orientation may change, the present findings in part might explain the intrasubject variability observed in the physiological parameters measured by near infrared spectroscopy techniques. In other words, the observed regional differences might not only be physiological differences but also optical artefacts. (note)

  13. Dysphagia due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely, it causes dysphagia, hoarseness, dyspnea, snoring, stridor, and laryngeal edema. Herein, we present a patient with DISH causing dysphagia. A 70-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of sore throat, dysphagia, and foreign body sensation. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a leftward-protruding posterior wall in the hypopharynx. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bony mass pushing, anteriorly, on the posterior hypopharyngeal wall. Ossification included an osseous bridge involving 5 contiguous vertebral bodies. Dysphagia due to DISH was diagnosed. His symptoms were relieved by conservative therapy using anti-inflammatory drugs. However, if conservative therapy fails and symptoms are severe, surgical treatments must be considered.

  14. Analgesic therapy of skeletal metastases with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionculide therapy of bone metastases is an unspecific palliative treatment of metastatic skeletal pain especially useful in patients suffering in multiple sites. In these cases the long-term administration of increasing doses of analgesics such as opiate which have important side effects can be reduced. The aim of this therapy is pain relief and improvement of quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. This report is focusing on options, indications and contraindications of the radionuclide therapy of metastases and on used radionuclides such as Strontium-89, Yttrium-90, Rhenium-186 (188) and Samarium-153. In oncology, the analgesic therapy using boneseeking radiopharmaceuticals in combination to drug administration should gain more importance because this therapy can be administered on an outpatient basis. (orig.)

  15. Analogue fuel manipulator crane and intellectual controller for low temperature nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime structure of analogue fuel manipulator crane is described. It mainly discusses the structure of intellectual controller, operating principle, driving circuits of executive parts and control process of the analogue fuel manipulator crane

  16. Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing-Holmes Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaseviciute, E.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.; Bumeliene, S.; Lindberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    An extremely simple second order analogue electrical circuit for simulating the two-well Duffing-Holmes mathematical oscillator is described. Numerical results and analogue electrical simulations are illustrated with the snapshots of chaotic waveforms, phase portraits (Lissajous figures) and...

  17. Impact of Structural Modification on the Photophysical Response of Benzoquinoline Fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Karmakar, Rajiv; Maiti, Gourhari; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2016-05-01

    Structural influence on the photophysical behavior of two pairs of molecular systems from the biologically potent benzoquinoline family, namely, dimethyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzo[f]-quinoline-1,2-dicarboxylate, dimethyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzo[f]quinoline-1,2-dicarboxylate and their corresponding dehydrogenated analogues has been investigated exploiting experimental as well as computational techniques. The study unveils that dehydrogenation in the heterocyclic rings of the studied quinoline derivatives modifies their photophysics radically. Experimental observations imply that the photophysical behavior of the dihydro analogues is governed by the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process. However, the ICT process is restricted significantly by the dehydrogenation of the heterocyclic rings. Computational exertion leads to the proposition that the change in the electronic distribution in these molecular systems on dehydrogenation is the rationale behind the dramatic modification of their photophysics. PMID:26898642

  18. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…

  19. Brassinosteroids: Synthesis and activity of some fluoro analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, Barbora; Kohout, Ladislav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Swaczynová, Jana; Kasal, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 13 (2008), s. 3979-3984. ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : brassinosteroids * fluoro analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.898, year: 2008

  20. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  1. Design and Synthesis of Muramyl Dipeptide Cyclic Analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuoDeZHANG; GangLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new conformationalloy restricted cyclic analogue of muramyl dipeptide was designed and manually synthesized by our “Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch” method with a combination of Fmoc,ally and N-1-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclo-hexylidene) ethyl chemical protection strategy.

  2. Treatment with insulin (analogues) and breast cancer risk in diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Ter Braak, Bas; Karlstad, Øystein;

    2015-01-01

    animal, 2 in vivo human and 29 epidemiological papers were included. Insulin AspB10 showed mitogenic properties in vitro and in animal studies. Glargine was the only clinically available insulin analogue for which an increased proliferative potential was found in breast cancer cell lines. However, the...

  3. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method

  4. Photonic analogue of Zitterbewegung in binary waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2009-01-01

    An optical analogue of Zitterbewegung (ZB), i.e. of the trembling motion of Dirac electrons caused by the interference between positive and negative energy states, is proposed for spatial beam propagation in binary waveguide arrays. In this optical system ZB is simply observable as a quiver spatial oscillatory motion of the beam center of mass around its mean trajectory.

  5. New phosphorus analogues of nitrogen classics--no carbon copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudat, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    Getting heavy: The recently prepared phosphorus analogues of two old acquaintances, urea and dinitrogen tetroxide, bear some structural resemblance to their archetypes but are no carbon copies. Their syntheses and chemical properties reveal rather certain peculiarities, which back the doctrine that the electronic properties of the heavier elements in a group differ from those of the lightest congener. PMID:24718995

  6. Conformation analysis of Se and Te containing nucleoside analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Kleinpeter, E.; Pohl, Radek

    Santiago de Compostela : -, 2013. s. 221-221. [SMASH 2013. 22.9.2013-25.9.2013, Santiago de Compostela] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : low-temperature NMR * DFT * nucleoside analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxinlnu@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  8. Cyclization of nucleotide analogues as an obstacle to polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. R. Jr; Nord, L. D.; Orgel, L. E.; Robins, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclization of activated nucleotide analogues by intramolecular phosphodiester-bond formation is likely to compete very effectively with template-directed condensation except in the cases of ribo- and arabinonucleotides. This could have excluded derivatives of most sugars from growing polyribonucleotide chains and thus reduced chain-termination in prebiotic polynucleotide synthesis.

  9. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex to...... displacement of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  10. Geochemical modelling of the Broubster natural analogue site Caithness, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a modelling study carried out to improve understanding of speciation and actinide migration mechanisms operating at Broubster (UK) are described. This work is part of the CEC coordinated project Mirage - Second phase (Migration of radionuclides in the geosphere), research area Natural analogues

  11. Cognitive mechanisms and posttraumatic stress disorder: Clinical and analogue research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Engelhard; M. Kindt

    2005-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue "Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry," are driven by influential cognitive theories of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They include clinical and analogue research and address different aspects of PTSD. Two papers focus on the clarificat

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel gramicidin s analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin, A.W.; Palachanis, D.K.; Buizert, A.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of three new analogues of the cyclic cationic antimicrobial peptide Gramicidin S is described. These derivatives contain a modified turn region in which the DPhe-Pro motif has been replaced by a constrained furanoid sugar amino acid or a flexible linear aminoethoxy acetic acid moiety.

  13. Using natural analogue studies in the secondary science curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an atomic theory unit of a high school chemistry course taught in Nevada. The unit is based on the application of natural analogues to nuclear waste issues. The paper focuses on the students' reactions to the subject material

  14. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1996-01-01

    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility with the...

  15. Rubrene analogues with the aggregation-induced emission enhancement behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger; Fu, Xiaowei;

    2014-01-01

    In the light of the principle of aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE), the rubrene analogue with orange light-emitting properties is designed and synthesized by substituting the phenyl side groups of rubrene with thienyl groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on...

  16. Vitamin E analogues and immune response in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Neužil, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 463-491. ISSN 0083-6729 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : vitamin E analogues * inducers of apoptosis * immune surveillance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2007

  17. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Walmagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside, offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  18. Watson's basic analogue of Ramanujan's entry 40 and its generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Dharma P.; David R. Masson

    1993-01-01

    We generalize Watson's $ q $-analogue of Ramanujan's Entry 40 continued fraction by deriving solutions to a $ {}_{10} \\phi_9 $ series contiguous relation and applying Pincherle's theorem. Watson's result is recovered as a special terminating case, while a limit case yields a new continued fraction associated with an $ \\ephis $ series contiguous relation.

  19. Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue from Penicillium solitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Lange, Lene; Schnorr, Kirk;

    2007-01-01

    Solistatinol, a novel phenolic compactin analogue, has been isolated from Penicillium solitum using a UV-guided strategy. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by chemical degradation and c...

  20. Combinatorial Solid-Phase Synthesis of Balanol Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Lyngsø, Lars Ole

    1996-01-01

    The natural product balanol has served as a template for the design and synthesis of a combinatorial library using solid-phase chemistry. Using a retrosynthetic analysis, the structural analogues have been assembled from three relatively accessible building blocks. The solid-phase chemistry inclu...

  1. An Electric Analogue to Gravity Induced Vacuum Dominance

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that when a strong electric field is turned on as a background in a charged scalar field, the vacuum state of the scalar field becomes exponentially amplified. This is an analogue to gravity induced vacuum amplification, where the vacuum state becomes exponentially amplified for some geometries.

  2. Lysine-vasopressin analogues with glycoconjugates in position 8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcinkowska, A.; Borovičková, Lenka; Slaninová, Jiřina; Grzonka, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2006), s. 759-766. ISSN 0137-5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycoconjugates * glycopeptides * lysine -vasopressin analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  3. Compartmentalized ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J W; Thieleczek, R; Varsányi, M; Heilmeyer, L M

    1992-01-21

    Isolated skeletal muscle triads contain a compartmentalized glycolytic reaction sequence catalyzed by aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase. These enzymes express activity in the structure-associated state leading to synthesis of ATP in the triadic junction upon supply of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. ATP formation occurs transiently and appears to be kinetically compartmentalized, i.e., the synthesized ATP is not in equilibrium with the bulk ATP. The apparent rate constants of the aldolase and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphoglycerate kinase reaction are significantly increased when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is employed as substrate. The observations suggest that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is especially effectively channelled into the junctional gap. The amplitude of the ATP transient is decreasing with increasing free [Ca2+] in the range of 1 nM to 30 microM. In the presence of fluoride, the ATP transient is significantly enhanced and its declining phase is substantially retarded. This observation suggests utilization of endogenously synthesized ATP in part by structure associated protein kinases and phosphatases which is confirmed by the detection of phosphorylated triadic proteins after gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Endogenous protein kinases phosphorylate proteins of apparent Mr 450,000, 180,000, 160,000, 145,000, 135,000, 90,000, 54,000, 51,000, and 20,000, respectively. Some of these phosphorylated polypeptides are in the Mr range of known phosphoproteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle, which might give a first hint at the functional importance of the sequential glycolytic reactions compartmentalized in triads. PMID:1731894

  4. Enzymatic Modification of Polyethersulfone Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schroën

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic modification of polyethersulfone (PES membranes has been found not only feasible, but also an environmentally attractive way to vary surface properties systematically. In this paper, we summarize the effect of modification layers on protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on PES membranes and surfaces. The enzyme laccase was used to covalently bind (polyphenolic acids to the membrane, and compared to other membrane modification methods, this method is very mild and did not influence the mechanical strength negatively. Depending on the conditions used during modification, the modification layers were capable of influencing interactions with typical fouling species, such as protein, and to influence attachment of microorganisms. We also show that the modification method can be successfully applied to hollow fiber membranes; and depending on the pore size of the base membrane, proteins were partially rejected by the membrane. In conclusion, we have shown that enzymatic membrane modification is a versatile and economically attractive method that can be used to influence various interactions that normally lead to surface contamination, pore blocking, and considerable flux loss in membranes.

  5. Evaluation of the incremental cost to the National Health Service of prescribing analogue insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah E Holden; Poole, Chris D; Morgan, Christopher Ll.; Currie, Craig J

    2011-01-01

    Article summary Article focus Insulin analogues have become increasingly popular in recent years. Insulin analogues are more costly than their human insulin alternatives. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to calculate the incremental cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of prescribing analogue insulin preparations instead of their human insulin alternatives. Key messages If all dispensations for analogue insulin between 2000 and 2009 had used a human insulin alternative, the NHS w...

  6. Skeletal muscle regulatory factors with alterations in muscle mass

    OpenAIRE

    Litt Miller, Jennifer Michele

    2007-01-01

    Given that maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for overall health, functionality and quality of life, it is critical to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying the maintenance of muscle mass which likely vary as a function of muscle status (i.e. healthy or diseased). This thesis examined key skeletal muscle regulatory factors (smRF’s) that are known to affect skeletal muscle mass, including components of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK(ERK) pathways, calcineurin, the myogenic regul...

  7. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  8. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  9. How is AMPK activity regulated in skeletal muscles during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2008-01-01

    AMPK is a metabolic "master" controller activated in skeletal muscle by exercise in a time and intensity dependent manner, and has been implicated in regulating metabolic pathways in muscle during physical exercise. AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle is regulated by several systemic...... and intracellular factors and the regulation of skeletal muscle AMPK in response to exercise is the focus of this review. Specifically, the role of LKB1 and phosphatase PP2C in nucleotide-dependent activation of AMPK, and ionized calcium in CaMKK-dependent activation of AMPK in working muscle is discussed. We also...

  10. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwawka, O.K.; Schneider, Robert; Mintz, Douglas N. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Bansal, Manjula [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Lane, Joseph [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations. (orig.)

  11. Sulphamoylated 2-methoxyestradiol analogues induce apoptosis in adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Visagie

    Full Text Available 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2 is a naturally occurring estradiol metabolite which possesses antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. However, due to its limited biological accessibility, synthetic analogues have been synthesized and tested in attempt to develop drugs with improved oral bioavailability and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of three novel in silico-designed sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line and estrogen receptor-negative breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. A dose-dependent study (0.1-25 μM was conducted with an exposure time of 24 hours. Results obtained from crystal violet staining indicated that 0.5 μM of all 3 compounds reduced the number of cells to 50%. Lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to assess cytotoxicity, while the mitotracker mitochondrial assay and caspase-6 and -8 activity assays were used to investigate the possible occurrence of apoptosis. Tubulin polymerization assays were conducted to evaluate the influence of these sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. Double immunofluorescence microscopy using labeled antibodies specific to tyrosinate and detyrosinated tubulin was conducted to assess the effect of the 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. An insignificant increase in the level of lactate dehydrogenase release was observed in the compounds-treated cells. These sulphamoylated compounds caused a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation indicating apoptosis induction by means of the intrinsic pathway in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Microtubule depolymerization was observed after exposure to these three sulphamoylated analogues.

  12. System Evolution by Metalevel Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vagač

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes system evolution managed by corresponding metasystem. The metasystem builds a metamodel of base system and allows its modification. The modification is propagated back to the base system. The application model presents the example of standard graphics user interface developed with Java Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT, which is a part of the Java Foundation Classes (JFC. The main aim is to confirm the possibility of application properties monitoring using aspect-oriented programming, their abstraction in ametamodel, possibility of their alternations by metamodel modifications and consequent change in the original application model.

  13. EPIGENETIC MODIFICATIONS OF SWINE GENOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics is represents a new way of genome analysis, respectively gene expression that occurs without DNA sequence change. Changes that occur are epigenetic modifications and they include post-translational histone modification and DNA methylation. Chemical groups that are added on DNA molecule cause changes in DNA and create epigenome. The consequence of that is appearance of imprinted genes in genome. Genetic imprinting is epigenetic modification in which one of inherited alleles inactivates. Its influence can be seen on productive and reproductive traits. Discovering new imprinted genes is important because of their conservation and understanding their function.

  14. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  15. Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins in long-term users of somatostatin analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebrich, H. -B.; van den Berg, G.; Kema, I. P.; Links, T. P.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; van Beek, A. P.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; Sluiter, W. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Somatostatin analogues are administered to control hormone hypersecretion in acromegaly and carcinoid patients. Somatostatin analogues can increase fat in the stools, which can lead to loss of fat-soluble vitamins. The effect of long-term somatostatin analogue use on vitamin levels rema

  16. On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition, a...... high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....

  17. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L;

    2015-01-01

    Protein oxidation is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of biochemical pathways controlling both physiological and pathological processes. While much attention has focused on cysteine modifications in reversible redox signalling, there is increasing evidence that other protein resi...

  18. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  19. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  20. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le - Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical-orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near-normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level.