WorldWideScience

Sample records for analogue microwave photonics

  1. Analogue photonic link design charts for microwave engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent J. Urick

    2015-01-01

    A set of unique design charts for intensity-modulation direct-detection microwave photonics links is presented. The charts facilitate link design and analysis, clearly demonstrating performance trade-offs in terms of standard microwave performance metrics.

  2. Analogue photonic link design charts for microwave engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Urick

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of unique design charts for intensity-modulation direct-detection microwave photonics links is presented. The charts facilitate link design and analysis, clearly demonstrating performance trade-offs in terms of standard microwave performance metrics.

  3. Present and future applications of analogue microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    will introduce present and emerging opportunities for analog photonics, among which microwave filters, arbitrary optical waveform control, THz radiation and UWB pulse generation. A panel discussion will contrast different views from company, academy and funding bodies, to identify the most promising......Photonics may be even more suited for analog than for digital signal applications. Today, microwave photonics techniques are currently used in radio-over-fibre signal transmission and other commercial applications, but recent advances are widening the scope of application to new areas. The speakers...

  4. Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    A J Seeds; Liu, C. P.; Ismail, T; Fice, M. J.; Pozzi, F.; Steed, R. J.; Rouvalis, E.; Renaud, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave photonics is the use of photonic techniques for the generation, transmission, processing and reception of signals having spectral components at microwave frequencies. This tutorial reviews the technologies used and gives applications examples.

  5. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  6. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  7. Nonlinear Integrated Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing nonlinear optical effects in a photonic chip scale has been proven useful for a number of key applications in optical communications. Microwave photonics can also benefit from the adoption of such a technology, creating a new concept of nonlinear integrated microwave photonics. Here, we discuss the potential of on-chip nonlinear processing towards the creation of robust and multifunctional microwave photonic (MWP) processors. We also highlight key recent results in the field, inclu...

  8. Nonlinear Integrated Microwave Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing nonlinear optical effects in a photonic chip scale has been proven useful for a number of key applications in optical communications. Microwave photonics can also benefit from the adoption of such a technology, creating a new concept of nonlinear integrated microwave photonics. Here, we discuss the potential of on-chip nonlinear processing towards the creation of robust and multifunctional microwave photonic (MWP) processors. We also highlight key recent results in the field, including frequency agile MWP filters and ultra-wideband signal generators.

  9. Integrated microwave photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...

  10. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  11. Recent Breakthroughs in Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Lloret Soler, Juan Antonio; Sancho Durá, Juan; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief review of recent accomplishments in the field of Microwave Photonics (MWP). Recent research across a broad range of MWP applications is summarized, including photonic generation of microwave, millimeter, and Terahertz waves; broadband optical beamforming for phased array antennas; tunable, reconfigurable, and adaptive microwave photonic filtering, as well as the application of slow and fast light effects to the implementation of tunable microwave phase shifting and true tim...

  12. Innovative Concepts in Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Capmany Francoy, José; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Mora Almerich, José; Lloret Soler, Juan Antonio; Sancho Durá, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the work carried by ITEAM researchers on novel concepts in the field of Microwave Photonics (MWP). It includes activities related to the general modelling of MWP systems, the use of novel multicore fibers and recent advances in the emergent and hot topic of integrated microwave photonics. Capmany Francoy, J.; Sales Maicas, S.; Gasulla Mestre, I.; Mora Almerich, J.; Lloret Soler, JA.; Sancho Durá, J. (2012). Innovative Concepts in Microwave Photonics. Waves...

  13. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  14. Acoustojet: acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor V

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated for the first time that an existence of acoustic analogue of photonic jet phenomenon, called acoustojet, providing for subwavelength localization of acoustic field in the shadow area of arbitrary 3D penetrable mesoscale particle, is possible.

  15. Fiber Bragg gratings for microwave photonics subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging filed in which photonic technologies are employed to enable and enhance functionalities in microwave systems which are usually very challenging to fulfill directly in the microwave domain. Various photonic devices have been used to achieve the functions. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is one of the key components in microwave photonics systems due to its unique features such as flexible spectral characteristics, low loss, light weight, compact footprint, and inherent compatibility with other fiber-optic devices. In this paper, we discuss the recent development in employing FBGs for various microwave photonics subsystems, with an emphasis on subsystems for microwave photonic signal processing and microwave arbitrary waveform generation. The limitations and potential solutions are also discussed. PMID:24104174

  16. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a re-entrant 3D lumped element type system. The tunability allows dynamical {\\it in-situ} change of media chirality and other properties via change of a single post parameter, and as a result, great flexibility in choice of bulk/edge configurations. Additionally, one way photon transport without external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the wave to a new class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing and sensing.

  17. Technologies and Applications of Microwave Photonic Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Yashchyshyn; Chizh, A.; Malyshev, S.; Modelski, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of microwave photonic antennas concepts and their applications. The experimental study of the transmitting and receiving photonic antenna are shown. The transmitting photonic antenna consists of photodiode integrated with microstrip E-shaped patch antenna, and receiving photonic antenna consists of laser diode integrated directly with the Vivaldi antenna.

  18. Q value analysis of microwave photonic filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina ZHOU; Xinliang ZHANG; Enming XU

    2009-01-01

    This paper first presents the fundamental principles of the microwave photonic filters.As an example to explain how to implement a microwave photonic filter, a specific finite impulse response (FIR) filter is illustrated.Next, the Q value of the microwave photonic filters is analyzed theoretically, and methods around how to gain high Q value are discussed.Then,divided into FIR filter, first-order infinite impulse response (IIR) filter, and multi-order IIR filter, several novel microwave photonic filters with high Q value are listed and compared.The technical difficulties to get high Q value in first-order IIR filter and multi-order IIR filter are analyzed concretely.Finally, in order to gain higher Q value, a multi-order IIR microwave photonic filter that easily extends its order is presented and discussed.

  19. Nonuniformly-spaced photonic microwave delayline filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping

    2008-03-31

    A new technique to implement a photonic microwave delay-line filter based on nonuniform tap spacing with arbitrary bandpass response is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Being different from a regular photonic microwave delay-line filter where the taps are uniformly spaced, the proposed filter in this paper has nonuniformly-spaced taps. The key feature of this technique is that a photonics microwave delay-line filter with arbitrary bandpass response can be realized with only positive taps via nonuniform tap spacing. The use of the proposed technique to implement a flat-top bandpass filter is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:18542568

  20. Microwaves photonic links components and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rumelhard, Christian; Billabert, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the electrical models for the different elements of a photonic microwave link like lasers, external modulators, optical fibers, photodiodes and phototransistors. The future trends of these components are also introduced: lasers to VCSEL, external modulators to electro-absorption modulators, glass optical fibers to plastic optical fibers, photodiodes to UTC photodiodes or phototransistors. It also describes an original methodology to evaluate the performance of a microwave photonic link, based on the developed elcetrical models, that can be easily incorporated in

  1. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ0 -7 - 10-5 for hidden photon masses between 10-14 eV and 10-7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  2. Compressive sensing with a microwave photonic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we present a novel approach to realizing photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with the technique of microwave photonic fi ltering. In the proposed system, an input spectrally sparse signal to be captured and a random sequence are modulated on an optical carrier via two Mach...

  3. Passive silicon photonic devices for microwave photonic signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayang; Peng, Jizong; Liu, Boyu; Pan, Ting; Zhou, Huanying; Mao, Junming; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Su, Yikai

    2016-08-01

    We present our recent progress on microwave signal processing (MSP) using on-chip passive silicon photonic devices, including tunable microwave notch filtering/millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation based on self-coupled micro-resonators (SCMRs), and tunable radio-frequency (RF) phase shifting implemented by a micro-disk resonator (MDR). These schemes can provide improved flexibility and performances of MSP. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  4. Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light

    OpenAIRE

    Capmany J.; Gasulla I.; Sales S.

    2011-01-01

    Slow-light techniques originally conceived for buffering high-speed digital optical signals now look set to play an important role in providing broadband phase and true time delays for microwave signals.

  5. Software-defined universal microwave photonics processor

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Capmany Francoy, José

    2015-01-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic an...

  6. Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Adam; Pant, Ravi; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Poulton, Christopher G; Fan, Shanhui; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications. PMID:23038523

  7. Microwave photonics applications of multicore fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Capmany Francoy, José

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the application of multicore fibers (MCFs) to the field of microwave photonics (MWP) has been proposed. The implementation of sampled optical delay lines for RF signals by means of heterogeneous MCFs is addressed as a generic building block and discussion is then centered on several selected applications including filtering, optical beamforming, and arbitrary waveform generation.

  8. New Applications for Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    A J Seeds; Fice, M. J.; Liu, C. P.; Ponnampalam, L.; Pozzi, F.; Renaud, C.C.; Rouvalis, E.; Steed, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A photonic technique for generating high-purity millimetre-wave or terahertz signals based on heterodyne of two phase-locked optical sources is described. Technology requirements and potential applications are discussed.

  9. Microwave photonics with Josephson junction arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zueco, David; Solano, Enrique; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an architecture for a photonic crystal in the microwave regime based on superconducting transmission lines interrupted by Josephson junctions. A study of the scattering properties of a single junction in the line shows that the junction behaves as a perfect mirror when the photon frequency matches the Josephson plasma frequency. We generalize our calculations to periodic arrangements of junctions, demonstrating that they can be used for tunable band engineering, forming what we call a quantum circuit crystal. As a relevant application, we discuss the creation of stationary entanglement between two superconducting qubits interacting through a disordered media.

  10. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples. PMID:26072824

  11. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A. [Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  12. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  13. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density

  14. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Ge; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the ...

  15. Slow light fiber systems in microwave photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenaz L.; Chin S.-H.; Berger P.; Bourderionnet J.; Sales S.; Sancho-Dura J.

    2011-01-01

    Slow light systems are particularly attractive for analog signal processing, since their inherent limitation to a delay-bandwidth product of 1 is less critical for analog systems such as those used in microwave photonics. We present here the implementation of two basic functions - phase shifting and true time delaying - fully optically controlled using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers. The combination of these two functions makes possible the implementation of true time delay...

  16. Microwave Photonics Parallel Quantum Key Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Alba Gaya, Antonio; Mora Almerich, José; Amaya Ocampo, Waldimar Alexander; Martínez García,Alfonso; García Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo Díaz-Aldagalán, David; Capmany Francoy, José

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of multiplexing techniques used in Microwave Photonics to Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems bring important advantages enabling the simultaneous and parallel delivery of multiple keys between a central station and different end-users in the context of multipoint access and metropolitan networks, or by providing higher key distribution rates in point to point links by suitably linking the parallel distributed keys. It also allows the coexistence of classical information ...

  17. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue. PMID:24104173

  18. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this arti...

  19. Recent advancement of slow light in microwave photonics applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-01-01

    A complete realization of an optically tunable true time delay, generated through the combination of a photonic RF phase shifter and a Brillouin slow light element is presented. Illustration through a dynamic microwave photonic filter is demonstrated.

  20. Discrete photon statistics from continuous microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virally, Stéphane; Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Photocount statistics are an important tool for the characterization of electromagnetic fields, especially for fields with an irrelevant phase. In the microwave domain, continuous rather than discrete measurements are the norm. Using a different approach, we recover discrete photon statistics from the cumulants of a continuous distribution of field quadrature measurements. The use of cumulants allows the separation between the signal of interest and experimental noise. Using a parametric amplifier as the first stage of the amplification chain, we extract useful data from up to the sixth cumulant of the continuous distribution of a coherent field, hence recovering up to the third moment of the discrete statistics associated with a signal with much less than one average photon.

  1. Coherent conversion between optical and microwave photons in Rydberg gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kiffner, Martin; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Jaksch, Dieter; Nunn, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information encoded in optical photons can be transmitted over long distances with very high information density, and suffers from negligible thermal noise at room temperature. On the other hand, microwave photons at cryogenic temperatures can be confined in high quality resonators and strongly coupled to solid-state qubits, providing a quantum bus to connect qubits and a route to deterministic photonic non-linearities. The coherent interconversion of microwave and optical photons has therefore recently emerged as a highly desirable capability that would enable freely-scalable networks of optically-linked qubits, or large-scale photonic information processing with multi-photon interactions mediated by microwaves. Here, we propose a route to efficient and coherent microwave-optical conversion based on frequency mixing in Rydberg atoms. The interaction requires no microfabricated components or cavities, and is tunable, broadband, and both spatially and spectrally multimode.

  2. Experimental realization of microwave photonic topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianwen

    2015-03-01

    Topological properties play a fundamental role in many physical phenomena. While topology focus on electronic systems, there has been a recent emergence of interest in exploring topological orders with photons. Recent experiments have demonstrated substantial progress towards the implementation of Hamiltonians with topological robustness, from microwave to visible frequency domains. Here, we will show the demonstration on nontrivial photonic bandgaps, as well as the topologically protected edge states. We designed and fabricated a metacrystal comprising non-resonant meta-atoms sandwiched between two metallic plates. Spin Chern number of photonic crystals is calculated based on group theory and accurately predicts topological characters of edge states in different gaps. Topologically nontrivial gaps are achieved by mode exchange at high symmetric k-points. Nontrivial bandgap was confirmed by experimentally measured transmission spectra and calculated nonzero spin Chern number. Gapless spin-filtered edge states were demonstrated experimentally by measuring Ez fields and Hz fields, as well as their phase differences. Robustness of the edge states were also observed when an obstacle is introduced near the edge.

  3. A microwave photonic generator of chaotic and noise signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Kondrashov, A. V.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2016-04-01

    The transition to chaos in a microwave photonic generator has been experimentally studied for the first time, and the generated broadband chaotic microwave signal has been analyzed. The generator represented a ring circuit with the microwave tract containing a low-pass filter and a microwave amplifier. The optical tract comprised a fiber delay line. The possibility of generating chaotic oscillations with uniform spectral power density in a 3-8 GHz range is demonstrated.

  4. Compressive sensing with a microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, we present a novel approach to realizing photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with the technique of microwave photonic filtering. In the proposed system, an input spectrally sparse signal to be captured and a random sequence are modulated on an optical carrier via two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs). Therefore, the mixing process (the signal to be captured mixing with the random sequence) is realized in the optical domain. The mixed optical signal then propagates through a length of dispersive fiber. As the double-sideband modulation in a dispersive optical link leads to a frequency-dependent power fading, low-pass filtering required in the CS is then realized. A proof-of-concept experiment for compressive sampling and recovery of a signal containing three tones at 310 MHz, 1 GHz and 2 GHz with a compression factor up to 10 is successfully demonstrated. More simulation results are also presented to recover signals within wider bandwidth and with more frequency components.

  5. Photonics for microwave systems and ultra-wideband signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, W.

    2016-08-01

    The advantages of using the broadband and low-loss distribution attributes of photonics to enhance the signal processing and sensing capabilities of microwave systems are well known. In this paper, we review the progress made in the topical areas of true-time-delay beamsteering, photonic-assisted analog-to-digital conversion, RF-photonic filtering and link performances. We also provide an outlook on the emerging field of integrated microwave photonics (MWP) that promise to reduce the cost of MWP subsystems and components, while providing significantly improved form-factors for system insertion.

  6. Phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanyi; Chen, Zhengyu; Xu, Zhiguo; Gao, Yingjie

    2015-10-01

    Microwave photonic links (MPLs) can provide many advantages over traditional coaxial and waveguide solutions due to its low loss, small size, lightweight, large bandwidth, superior stability and immunity to external interference. It has been considered in various applications such as: the transmission of radio frequency (RF) signal over optical carriers, video television transmission, radar and communication systems. Stability of phase of the microwave photonic links is a critical issue in several realistic applications. The delay line technique for phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links is measured for the first time. Using this approach, the input signal noise and power supply noise can be effectively cancelled, and it does not require phase locking. The phase noise of a microwave photonic links with a 10 GHz sinusoidal signal is experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Multiple-bipolar-tap tunable spectrum sliced microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas; Minasian, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    A spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processor structure, which is all-fiber based and features simplicity, together with the ability to realize tunability, reconfigurability, bipolar taps, and multiple-tap rf filtering, is presented. It is based on thermally controlled optical slicing filters induced into two linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings. Experimental results demonstrate the realization of versatile microwave photonic filters with frequency tunable, reconfiguration, and bipolar-tap generation capabilities. PMID:21124570

  8. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  9. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-11-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Bioactive Six-Membered Heterocycles and Their Fused Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsine Driowya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the formation of six-membered heterocyclic compounds and their fused analogues under microwave activation using modern organic transformations including cyclocondensation, cycloaddition, multicomponents and other modular reactions. The review is divided according to the main heterocycle types in order of increasing complexity, starting with heterocyclic systems containing one, two and three heteroatoms and their fused analogues. Recent microwave applications are reviewed, with special focus on the chemistry of bioactive compounds. Selected examples from the 2006 to 2015 literature are discussed.

  11. Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Siqi; Min, Shucun; He, Mengying; Gao, Dingshan; Dong, Jianji

    2015-01-01

    A simple photonic approach to the measurement of microwave signal frequency with adjustable measurement range and resolution is proposed and demonstrated. In this approach, the unknown microwave signal is converted to an optical signal with single sideband modulation. Subsequently, a notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) is implemented by employing a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator (MDR). The MPF is tunable by changing the frequency interval between the optical carrier and the MDR notch so as to obtain different amplitude responses. A fixed frequency-to-power mapping is established by obtaining an amplitude comparison function (ACF) of the microwave power ratio and the microwave frequency. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz, with measurement error of ±0.1 GHz. Different frequency measurement ranges and resolutions are also discussed.

  12. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing;

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in...

  13. Reconfigurable Photonic Microwave Filter based on Four-Wave Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Rodriguez, Borja; Palací López, Jesús; Capmany Francoy, José

    2012-01-01

    A simple technique to reshape the response of tapped delay line photonic microwave filters is demonstrated. The technique is based on the generation and control of a set of optical carriers by means of four-wave mixing. Experimental results show reconfiguration from 2 to 5 taps with uniform and apodized amplitude distributions. © 2009-2012 IEEE. Vidal Rodriguez, B.; Palací López, J.; Capmany Francoy, J. (2012). Reconfigurable Photonic Microwave Filter based on Four-Wave Mixing. IEEE Photon...

  14. Non-absorbing high-efficiency counter for itinerant microwave photons

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Bixuan; Johansson, Göran; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, G. J.; Stace, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting an itinerant microwave photon with high efficiency is an outstanding problem in microwave photonics and its applications. We present a scheme to detect an itinerant microwave photon in a transmission line via the nonlinearity provided by a transmon in a driven microwave resonator. With a single transmon we achieve 84% distinguishability between zero and one microwave photons and 90% distinguishability with two cascaded transmons by performing continuous measurements on the output fi...

  15. Dispersive Fourier Transformation for Versatile Microwave Photonics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive Fourier transformation (DFT maps the broadband spectrum of an ultrashort optical pulse into a time stretched waveform with its intensity profile mirroring the spectrum using chromatic dispersion. Owing to its capability of continuous pulse-by-pulse spectroscopic measurement and manipulation, DFT has become an emerging technique for ultrafast signal generation and processing, and high-throughput real-time measurements, where the speed of traditional optical instruments falls short. In this paper, the principle and implementation methods of DFT are first introduced and the recent development in employing DFT technique for widespread microwave photonics applications are presented, with emphasis on real-time spectroscopy, microwave arbitrary waveform generation, and microwave spectrum sensing. Finally, possible future research directions for DFT-based microwave photonics techniques are discussed as well.

  16. Photonic microwave bandpass filter with improved dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Yao, Jianping

    2008-08-01

    A technique to improve the dynamic range of a photonic microwave bandpass filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The filter is implemented based on phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) serving as frequency discriminators, with the optical carriers located at the left or right slopes of the FBGs, to generate positive or negative tap coefficients. The dynamic range of the photonic microwave bandpass filter is increased by reducing the optical-carrier-induced shot noise and relative intensity noise at the photodetector, which is realized by placing the optical carriers at the lower slopes of the FBG reflection spectra. A photonic microwave bandpass filter with an improvement in dynamic range of about 10 dB is demonstrated. PMID:18670527

  17. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Durá, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret Soler, Juan Antonio; Combrie, Sylvain; Gasulla Mestre, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany Francoy, José; Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0 5...

  18. A novel tunable cascaded IIR microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Xinliang; Xu, Enming; Yu, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-07-01

    A new tunable cascaded infinite impulse response (IIR) microwave photonic filter is presented, based on a novel configuration in which a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is inserted between two active recirculating delay line (RDL) loops. Due to wavelength conversion with cross-gain modulation (XGM) in SOA, interferences between light beams traveling different paths are canceled, ensuring a stable transmission. By employing this configuration, a cascaded IIR microwave photonic filter is firstly achieved. The free spectral range (FSR) and the Q factor are both increased significantly by adopting "vernier effect" technique in the IIR filter. The structure is also tunable by adjusting the length of one RDL loop.

  19. A Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Using a Microfiber Ring Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel tunable microwave photonic filter based on a microfiber ring resonator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A fiber ring laser based on the microfiber ring resonator is employed to generate two single-longitudinal-mode carriers, then the dispersive element introduces the delay between two modulated carriers. By adjusting the diameter of the microfiber ring resonator, the proposed microwave photonic notch filter can be continuously and widely tuned. The measured notch rejection ratio is greater than 35 dB, and there is good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical analysis. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  20. High-Q microwave resonators with a photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localisation of electromagnetic energy at a defect in a photonic crystal is similar to a well known effect employed to construct high-Q microwave resonators: In a whispering gallery (WHG-) mode resonator the high Q-factor is achieved by localisation of the electromagnetic field energy by total reflection inside a disk made of dielectric material. The topic of this work is to demonstrate, that WHG-like modes can exist in an air defect in a photonic crystal that extends over several lattice periods; and that a high-Q microwave resonator can be made, utilizing these resonant modes. In numerical simulations, the transmission properties of a photonic crystal structure with hexagonal lattice symmetry have been investigated with a transfer-matrix-method. The eigenmodes of a defect structure in a photonic crystal have been calculated with a quasi-3d finite element integration technique. Experimental results confirm the simulated transmission properties and show the existence of modes inside the band gap, when a defect is introduced in the crystal. Resonator measurements show that a microwave resonator can be operated with those defect modes. It was found out that the main losses of the resonator were caused by bad microwave properties of the used dielectric material and by metal losses on the top and bottom resonator walls. Furthermore, it turned out that the detection of the photonic crystal defect mode was difficult because of a lack of simulation possibilities and high housing mode density in the resonator. (orig.)

  1. Slow Light Devices and Their Applications to Microwaves and Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Santagiustina, M.; Eisenstein, G.; Thévenaz, Luc; Capmany, J.; Mork, J.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Rossi, A.; Sales, S; Yvind, K.; Combrié, S.; Bourderionnet, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed, highly effective technologies enabling slow light propagation as a tunable feature in photonic devices, are reviewed. Several applications in ICT are also demonstrated. Controlling the group velocity of light offers a broadband solution to a necessary functionality in microwave and millimeter wave systems: a tunable time-delay/phase-shift line. Moreover, slow light can highly enhance the nonlinearity, thus opening the way to on chip, nonlinear photonics.

  2. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter

    OpenAIRE

    Capmany, Jose; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifte based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360 degree radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  3. Broadband microwave photonic phase shifter based on polarisation rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip; Blaaberg, Søren; Chen, Yaohui; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    A broadband microwave photonic phase shifter is presented based on the polarisation properties of a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator and nonlinear polarisation rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The system can realise about 150deg phase shift in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 19 GHz....

  4. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-04-01

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360° radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt. PMID:24718185

  5. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin V. Pushpakaran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  6. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement

  7. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V., E-mail: sarincrema@gmail.com [Department of Electronics, Govt. College, Chittur, Palakkad, Kerala (India); Purushothaman, Jayakrishnan M.; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan [Centre for Research in Electromagnetics and Antennas, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-15

    The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT) behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  8. Microwave photonic comb filter with ultra-fast tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H Y; Yan, L S; Pan, Y; Pan, W; Luo, B; Zou, X H; Eggleton, B J

    2015-11-01

    A microwave comb filter with ultra-fast tunability is proposed based on the fundamental delay-line microwave photonic filter. The central frequency of the passband or stopband in such a filter can be rapidly adjusted, along with the independent tunability of the free spectral range (FSR). Experimental results show that the central frequency of the transfer function is electronically tuned with a frequency difference of half of the FSR at a speed of cognitive radio, and next-generation radar systems. PMID:26512477

  9. Compact tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter for satellite payloads

    OpenAIRE

    Yoosefi, Oraman

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) We present a novel approach for the photonic filtering of microwave signals based on a direct- synthesis technique with optical phase modulation of the microwave signal and employing two tunable laser sources and a fixed optical passband filter. Both center frequency and bandwidth of the MPF can be controlled independently ...

  10. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un Cho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  11. Photonic analogue of Zitterbewegung in binary waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2009-01-01

    An optical analogue of Zitterbewegung (ZB), i.e. of the trembling motion of Dirac electrons caused by the interference between positive and negative energy states, is proposed for spatial beam propagation in binary waveguide arrays. In this optical system ZB is simply observable as a quiver spatial oscillatory motion of the beam center of mass around its mean trajectory.

  12. Microwave pulse phase encoding using a photonic microwave delay-line filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping

    2007-12-15

    A novel technique to perform microwave pulse phase encoding using an incoherent photonic microwave delay-line filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Being different from a regular microwave delay-line filter, in which the time-delay differences are identical between any adjacent taps, the proposed filter has nonidentical time-delay differences. A phase-encoded microwave pulse with the required code pattern is generated by properly adjusting the time-delay differences. The chip number of a generated phase code is determined by the number of the filter taps, and the phase shift of each chip is determined by the corresponding time-delay difference. The proposed technique is verified by experiments. The generation of binary and quaternary phase-coded pulses is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:18087517

  13. Proposal for a coherent quantum memory for propagating microwave photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a multi-mode quantum memory for propagating microwave photons that combines a solid-state spin ensemble resonantly coupled to a frequency tunable single-mode microwave cavity. We first show that high efficiency mapping of the quantum state transported by a free photon to the spin ensemble is possible both for strong and weak coupling between the cavity mode and the spin ensemble. We also show that even in the weak coupling limit unit efficiency and faithful retrieval can be obtained through time reversal inhomogeneous dephasing based on spin echo techniques. This is possible provided that the cavity containing the spin ensemble and the transmission line are impedance matched. We finally discuss the prospects for an experimental implementation using a rare-earth doped crystal coupled to a superconducting resonator. (paper)

  14. Highly tunable microwave and millimeter wave filtering using photonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregelyi, Joe; Lu, Ping; Paquet, Stéphane; Celo, Dritan; Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2015-05-01

    The design for a photonic microwave filter tunable in both bandwidth and operating frequency is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The circuit is based on a single sideband modulator used in conjunction with two or more transmission fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) cascaded in series. It is demonstrated that the optical filtering characteristics of the FBGs are instrumental in defining the shape of the microwave filter, and the numerical modeling was used to optimize these characteristics. A multiphase-shift transmission FBG design is used to increase the dynamic range of the filter, control the filter ripple, and maximize the slope of the filter skirts. Initial measurements confirmed the design theory and demonstrated a working microwave filter with a bandwidth tunable from approximately 2 to 3.5 GHz and an 18 GHz operating frequency tuning range. Further work is required to refine the FBG manufacturing process and reduce the impact of fabrication errors.

  15. Recent implementations of fiber and integrated tunable microwave photonics filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Primerov, N.; Sales, Salvador; Thévenaz, Luc; Capmany, Jose

    2012-01-01

    We present recent implementations of microwave photonic filters using the following two technologies: InP-based MDR (microdisk resonator) on and coupled to a nanophotonic SOI waveguide and dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs) in polarization maintaining fibers (PMF). Quasi-linear and continuously tunable ~360° phase shifts have been experimentally obtained when considering radiofrequencies greater than 18 GHz using MDR. Besides, we have designed and experimentally demonstrated multi-tap MWP filt...

  16. A distributed feedback laser for a tunable microwave photonic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a novel microwave photonic filter using a distributed feedback (DFB) laser. In the proposed filter, the DFB laser is modulated directly by means of the radio-frequency signal to provide a multi-wavelength laser source (MWLS). The proposed filter can thus provide precision for adjusting the central frequency. Moreover, the calculated and experimentally measured responses correlate well with each other. The above results demonstrate that the proposed filter is highly promising for use in practical applications. (letter)

  17. Broadband all-optical microwave photonics phase detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashourian, Mohsen; Emami, Hossein; Sarkhosh, Niusha

    2013-12-15

    A microwave photonics phase detector is conceived and practically demonstrated. The phase-detector system employs a semiconductor optical amplifier as a four-wave mixer to enable phase detection over a broad frequency range. The system behavior is first mathematically modeled and then demonstrated practically. Phase measurement over a frequency range of 1-18 GHz is achieved. This phase detector is an excellent candidate for wideband applications such as frequency-agile radar. PMID:24322231

  18. Idler-free microwave photonic mixer integrated with a widely tunable and highly selective microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Li, Shangyuan; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2014-07-01

    A novel structure consisting of an idler-free microwave photonic mixer integrated with a widely tunable and highly selective microwave photonic filter is presented, which is comprised of a spectrum-sliced broadband optical source, a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM), and a spatial light amplitude and phase processor (SLAPP). By adjusting the optical phase shift in the DPMZM, the dispersion-induced mixing power fading can be eliminated. By applying a phase processor with the SLAPP, the distortion of the mixing filter brought upon by third-order dispersion is also compensated. Experiments are performed and show that the up/down-conversion signal has a clean spectrum and the mixing filter can be tuned from 12 to 20 GHz without any change to the passband shape. The out-of-band suppression ratio of the mixing filter is more than 40 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth is 140 MHz. PMID:24978780

  19. Photon filters in a microwave cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, J

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have concluded that time-dependent parameters in atom-mode interaction can be utilized to modify the quantum field in a cavity. When an atom shoots through the cavity field, it is expected to experience a trigonometric time dependence of its coupling constant. We investigate the possibilities this offers to modify the field. As a point of comparison we use the solvable Rosen-Zener model, which has parameter dependencies roughly similar to the ones expected in a real cavity. We do confirm that by repeatedly sending atoms through the cavity, we can obtain filters on the photon states. Highly non-classical states can be obtained. We find that the Rosen-Zener model is more sensitive to the detuning than the case of a trigonometric coupling.

  20. Simulation and design of the photonic crystal microwave accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have derived the global band gaps for general two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal microwave accelerating structures formed by square or triangular arrays of metal posts. A coordinate-space, finite-difference code was used to calculate the complete dispersion curves for the lattices. The fundamental and higher frequency global photonic band gaps were determined numerically. The structure formed by triangular arrays of metal posts with a missing rod at the center has advantages of higher-order-modes (HOM) suppression and main mode restriction under the condition of a/b<0.2. The relationship between the RF properties and the geometrical parameters have been studied for the 9.37 GHz photonic crystal accelerating structure. The Rs, Q, Rs/Q of the new structure may be comparable to the disk-loaded accelerating structure. (authors)

  1. Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358

  2. Microwave photonic delay line signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, John F; Singley, Joseph M; Sunderman, Christopher E; Urick, Vincent J

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a path for the design of state-of-the-art fiber-optic delay lines for signal processing. The theoretical forms for various radio-frequency system performance metrics are derived for four modulation types: X- and Z-cut Mach-Zehnder modulators, a phase modulator with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a polarization modulator with control waveplate and polarizing beam splitter. Each modulation type is considered to cover the current and future needs for ideal system designs. System gain, compression point, and third-order output intercept point are derived from the transfer matrices for each modulation type. A discussion of optical amplifier placement and fiber-effect mitigation is offered. The paper concludes by detailing two high-performance delay lines, built for unique applications, that exhibit performance levels an order of magnitude better than commercial delay lines. This paper should serve as a guide to maximizing the performance of future systems and offer a look into current and future research being done to further improve photonics technologies. PMID:26560620

  3. Microwave photonic phase shifter based on tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ou, Haiyan; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    We demonstrate a microwave photonic phase shifter based on an electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. A continuously tunable phase shift of up to 315° at a microwave frequency of 15GHz is obtained.......We demonstrate a microwave photonic phase shifter based on an electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. A continuously tunable phase shift of up to 315° at a microwave frequency of 15GHz is obtained....

  4. Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael; Yu, Xianbin

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in the CS is realized in a photonic way by using a frequency comb and a dispersive element. The frequency comb is realized by shaping an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with an on-chip micro-ring resonator, which is beneficial to the integration of photonic CS. A proof-of-concept experiment for a two-tone signal acquisition with frequencies of 350 MHz and 1.25 GHz is experimentally demonstrated with a compression factor up to 16.

  5. Microwave photonics processing controlling the speed of light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Sales, Salvador;

    2009-01-01

    We review the theory of slow and fast light effect in semiconductor waveguides and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. Recent applications as microwave photonic filters is presented. Also, in the presentation more applications like optoelect......We review the theory of slow and fast light effect in semiconductor waveguides and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. Recent applications as microwave photonic filters is presented. Also, in the presentation more applications like...... optoelectronic oscillators and arbitrary waveform generators will be described. Some work related to the noise and distortion will also be discussed...

  6. Integrated waveguide Bragg gratings for microwave photonics signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Maurizio; Cortés, Luis Romero; Li, Ming; Wang, Xu; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2013-10-21

    Integrated Microwave photonics (IMWP) signal processing using Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as an enabling technology for a number of functionalities not attainable by purely microwave solutions. In this context, integrated waveguide Bragg grating (WBG) devices constitute a particularly attractive approach thanks to their compactness and flexibility in producing arbitrarily defined amplitude and phase responses, by directly acting on coupling coefficient and perturbations of the grating profile. In this article, we review recent advances in the field of integrated WBGs applied to MWP, analyzing the advantages leveraged by an integrated realization. We provide a perspective on the exciting possibilities offered by the silicon photonics platform in the field of MWP, potentially enabling integration of highly-complex active and passive functionalities with high yield on a single chip, with a particular focus on the use of WBGs as basic building blocks for linear filtering operations. We demonstrate the versatility of WBG-based devices by proposing and experimentally demonstrating a novel, continuously-tunable, integrated true-time-delay (TTD) line based on a very simple dual phase-shifted WBG (DPS-WBG). PMID:24150355

  7. A Binary-Weighted Photonic Digital-to-Analogue Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahi, SR; Al-Raweshidy, HS; Owens, TJ

    2016-01-01

    In fifth-generation (5G) mobile networks the available bandwidth and the range of carrier frequencies will be significantly larger than in current mobile networks. To cope with the consequent increase in traffic 5G networks will be Digital Radio over Fibre (DRoF) networks for deploying cloud radio access networks (CRAN). As conventional electronic data converters in DRoF networks suffer from jitter at very high giga sampling rates while photonic data converters have better perform...

  8. Microwave photonic bandstop filter with wide tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Chengwu; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Zhilin; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2015-12-28

    A microwave photonic bandstop filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this work. The filter exhibits promising performance combination of reconfigurability, frequency tunability, and bandwidth adjustment. The phase modulation on two orthogonal polarization states produces a bandpass and a lowpass MPF, respectively. The key concept of destructive interference between the bandpass and lowpass MPF enables the reconfiguration of MPF from bandpass to bandstop. By adjusting the wavelength of two orthogonally polarized optical carriers and the bandwidth of an optical bandpass filter, the bandstop filter is tunable in terms of center frequency and bandwidth. PMID:26832021

  9. Bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Youdi; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    A bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter is proposed and numerically analyzed employing Brillouin gain spectrum narrowing and broadening. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process is used to convert the phase modulation to intensity modulation to generate filter passband. Due to the fact that the passband is formed by mapping the Brillouin gain spectrum, bandwidth reconfiguration can be implemented by changing Brillouin gain linewidth. In this paper, both bandwidth reduction and increase are included in a single system and the details of gain spectrum narrowing and broadening are demonstrated. Theoretically, nearly 60% bandwidth reduction and hundreds times of bandwidth increase are achieved as compared to the case without gain spectrum process.

  10. Microwave photonic interference mitigation filter based on semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enming; Zhang, Xinliang; Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yuan; Wang, Fei; Huang, Dexiu

    2009-11-01

    A microwave photonic interference mitigation filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The structure is based on a recirculating delay line loop comprising a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a tunable narrowband optical filter. Converted signal used as negative tap is generated through wavelength conversion employing cross-gain modulation of amplified spontaneous emission spectrum of the SOA. The converted signal circulating in the RDL loop realizes a high quality factor (Q) response after photo-detection. A bandpass response with negative coefficients combined with a broadband allpass response achieves a notch response with flat passband.

  11. Broadband RF front-end using microwave photonics filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Minghua; Liang, Yunhua; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-01-26

    We propose and demonstrate a novel RF front-end with broadened processing bandwidth, where a tunable microwave photonic filter based on optical frequency comb (OFC) is incorporated to accomplish simultaneous down-conversion and filtering. By designing additional phase shaping and time delay controlling, the frequency tunability of the system could be enhanced. More importantly, the beating interferences generated from broadband RF input could also be suppressed, which help to break the limitation on the processing bandwidth. In our experiments, a photonics RF receiver front-end for RF input with wide bandwidth of almost 20 GHz was realized using 10-GHz-space OFC, where the center frequency of the pass band signals could be tuned continuously. PMID:25835844

  12. Dynamic Microwave Photonic Filter Using Separate Carrier Tuning Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho J.; Chin S.; Sagues M.; Loayssa A.; Lloret J.; Gasulla I.; Sales S.; Thevenaz L.; Capmany J.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic reconfiguration of a microwave photonic filter by tuning its basic delay based on stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light and optical phase shift of the optical carrier is experimentally implemented. The measurements confirm that the free spectral range of the filter changes when a Brillouin pump is applied. These results demonstrate the potential of the separate carrier technique in microwave photonics applications.

  13. Microwave photonics processing controlling the speed of light in semiconductor waveguides:[invited

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Sales, Salvador; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper; Capmany, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We review the theory of slow and fast light effect in semiconductor waveguides and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. Recent applications as microwave photonic filters is presented. Also, in the presentation more applications like optoelectronic oscillators and arbitrary waveform generators will be described. Some work related to the noise and distortion will also be discussed

  14. Switchable and tunable microwave frequency multiplication based on a dual-passband microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Zhang, Shiwei; Wu, Congxian; Wu, Hao; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a novel approach to implement switchable and tunable microwave frequency multiplication has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. High order harmonics of microwave signal with external modulation technique can be selected by using a novel switchable dual-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a modified fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) and a dispersive medium. By adjusting the polarization controllers in the modified FMZI, the passbands of the MPF can switch between lower frequency, higher frequency or dual-passband states, and by changing the length of the variable optical delay line (VODL) in the modified FMZI, the central frequencies of these passbands can also be tuned. Therefore, tunable and switchable microwave signal frequency multiplication can be achieved. The experimental results show that by modulating a driving signal with frequency of 2.5 GHz, a signal with frequency of 7.5 GHz, which is three times of the driving frequency, the other one with the frequency of 15 GHz, which is six times of the driving frequency can be generated and freely switchable between two frequencies and dual frequency states by simply adjusting the polarization controllers in the modified FMZI. PMID:25969024

  15. Circuit-level simulation of transistor lasers and its application to modelling of microwave photonic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezekiel, Stavros; Christou, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Equivalent circuit models of a transistor laser are used to investigate the suitability of this relatively new device for analog microwave photonic links. The three-terminal nature of the device enables transistor-based circuit design techniques to be applied to optoelectronic transmitter design. To this end, we investigate the application of balanced microwave amplifier topologies in order to enable low-noise links to be realized with reduced intermodulation distortion and improved RF impedance matching compared to conventional microwave photonic links.

  16. Ultracompact ring resonator microwave photonic filters based on photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guansheng; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2013-02-20

    We design two microwave photonic filters (notch filter and bandpass filter) based on silicon on insulator (SOI) photonic crystal waveguides for a 60 GHz single-sideband signal radio-over-fiber (ROF) system. By perturbing the radii of the first two rows of holes adjacent to the photonic crystal waveguide, we obtained a broad negligible dispersion bandwidth and a corresponding constant low group velocity. With the slow light effect, the delay line of filters can be significantly reduced while providing the same delay time as fiber based delay lines. The simulation results show that the delay-line length of the notch filter is only about 25.9 μm, and it has a free spectral range of 130 GHz, a baseband width (BW) of 4.12 GHz, and a notch depth of 22 dB. The length of the bandpass filter is 62.4 μm, with a 19.6 dB extinction ratio and a 4.02 GHz BW, and the signal-to-noise ratio requirement of received data can be reduced by 9 dB for the 10(-7) bit-error ratio. Demonstrated microwave photonic crystal filters could be used in a future high-frequency millimeter ROF system. PMID:23434992

  17. Preface to the special issue on "Integrated Microwave Photonic Signal Processing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaña, José; Yao, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    As Guest Editors, we are pleased to introduce this special issue on "Integrated Microwave Photonic Signal Processing" published by the Elsevier journal Optics Communications. Microwave photonics is a field of growing importance from both scientific and practical application perspectives. The field of microwave photonics is devoted to the study, development and application of optics-based techniques and technologies aimed to the generation, processing, control, characterization and/or distribution of microwave signals, including signals well into the millimeter-wave frequency range. The use of photonic technologies for these microwave applications translates into a number of key advantages, such as the possibility of dealing with high-frequency, wide bandwidth signals with minimal losses and reduced electromagnetic interferences, and the potential for enhanced reconfigurability. The central purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the state of the art of generation, processing and characterization technologies for high-frequency microwave signals. It is now widely accepted that the practical success of microwave photonics at a large scale will essentially depend on the realization of high-performance microwave-photonic signal-processing engines in compact and integrated formats, preferably on a chip. Thus, the focus of the issue is on techniques implemented using integrated photonic technologies, with the goal of providing an update of the most recent advances toward realization of this vision.

  18. Interaction of Microwave Photons with Nanostructured Magnetic Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenkov, Ivan; Tyberkevych, Vasyl; Levin-Pompetzki, Luke; Bankowski, Elena; Meitzler, Thomas; Nikitov, Sergey; Slavin, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    We develop a theoretical formalism for the description of the interaction of microwave photons with a thin (compared to the photon wavelength) magnetic metasurface comprised of dipolarly interacting nanoscale magnetic elements. We derive a scattering matrix describing the processes of photon transmission and reflection at the metasurface boundary. As an example of the use of the developed formalism, we demonstrate that the introduction of a magnetic metasurface inside a microstrip electromagnetic waveguide quantitatively changes the dispersion relation of the fundamental waveguide mode, opening a nonpropagation frequency band gap in the waveguide spectrum. The frequency position and the width of the band gap are dependent on the waveguide thickness and can be controlled dynamically by switching the magnetic ground state of the metasurface. For sufficiently thin waveguides, the position of the band gap is shifted from the resonance absorption frequency of the metasurface. In such a case, the magnetic metasurface inside a waveguide works as an efficient reflector, as the energy absorption in the metasurface is small, and most of the electromagnetic energy inside the nonpropagation band gap is reflected.

  19. Reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on polarization modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enming; Pan, Shilong; Li, Peili

    2016-03-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on a polarization modulator (PolM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The PolM together with a polarization controller (PC) and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) implements two complementary intensity modulations in two separated branches. Then, optical components are inserted in the two branches to realize a bandpass filter and an allpass filter, respectively. When the two branches are combined by a second PBS, a filter with a frequency response that equals the subtraction of the frequency responses of the allpass filter and bandpass filter is achieved. By adjusting the PCs placed before the second PBS, a notch filter with a tunable notch depth or a bandpass filter can be achieved.

  20. Microwave photonic bandpass filter based on spectrumslicing and phase modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Sheng-cai; ZHANG Ai-ling

    2011-01-01

    A tunable microwave photonic bandpass filter with high mainlobe-to-sidelobe ratio (MSR) based on a phase modulator and a dispersive device is proposed. The multi-tap characteristics of the filter are realized by slicing a broadband source using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) which results in a high MSR of 25 dB, The tunability of the filter is realized by an optical variable delay line (OVDL) in one arm of the MZI, which changes the wavelength spacing of the sliced broadband source and results in a tunable free spectrum range (FSR) of the filter. The central frequency of the bandpass filter is tunable from 10.7 GHz to 27 GHz by changing the wavelength spacing from 0.145 nm to 0.054 nm.

  1. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  2. Photonic-assisted microwave signal multiplication and modulation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun; Zhou, Linjie; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Photonic generation of microwave signal is obviously attractive for many prominent advantages, such as large bandwidth, low loss, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Based on a single integrated silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and compact photonic scheme to enable frequency-multiplicated microwave signal. Using the fabricated integrated MZM, we also demonstrate the feasibility of microwave amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation based on integrated photonic approach. In proof-of-concept experiments, 2-GHz frequency-doubled microwave signal is generated using a 1-GHz driving signal. 750-MHz/1-GHz frequency-tripled/quadrupled microwave signals are obtained with a driving signal of 250 MHz. In addition, a 50-Mb/s binary amplitude coded 1-GHz microwave signal is also successfully generated.

  3. Photonic-assisted microwave signal multiplication and modulation using a silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun; Zhou, Linjie; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Photonic generation of microwave signal is obviously attractive for many prominent advantages, such as large bandwidth, low loss, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Based on a single integrated silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and compact photonic scheme to enable frequency-multiplicated microwave signal. Using the fabricated integrated MZM, we also demonstrate the feasibility of microwave amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation based on integrated photonic approach. In proof-of-concept experiments, 2-GHz frequency-doubled microwave signal is generated using a 1-GHz driving signal. 750-MHz/1-GHz frequency-tripled/quadrupled microwave signals are obtained with a driving signal of 250 MHz. In addition, a 50-Mb/s binary amplitude coded 1-GHz microwave signal is also successfully generated. PMID:26832305

  4. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi

    microwave phase shifts over a bandwidth of several tens of gigahertz are achieved. These also satisfy the basic requirements of microwave photonic systems. As an application demonstration, a tunable microwave notch filter is realized, where slow light based phase shifters provide 100% fractional tuning over......This thesis analyzes semiconductor optical amplifiers based slow and fast light effects with particular focus on the applications in microwave photonics. We conceive novel ideas and demonstrate a great enhancement of light slow down. Furthermore, by cascading several slow light stages, >360 degree...

  5. Experimental investigation of photonic microwave switching based on XGM in a SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Huan; Pan, Shilong

    2016-08-01

    The photonic microwave switching performances based on the cross gain modulation (XGM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are experimentally investigated. The influences of the key parameters of the system, such as the optical power of the pump and probe signals, the SOA bias current and the modulation depth are experimentally studied and analyzed to optimize the system performance. Important performances of the linearity, the dynamic range and the polarization sensitivity of the photonic microwave switching system are analyzed and discussed. The channel uniformities are also investigated according to the requirements of the photonic microwave switching applications.

  6. True Time Delay on tunable Microwave Photonic Filter based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho J.; Chin S.; Sagues M.; Loayssa A.; Lloret J.; Gasulla I.; Sales S.; Thevenaz L.; Capmany J.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamically reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Filter based on True Time Delay generated by Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical fibers and separate phase shift of the optical carrier has been experimentally demonstrated, resulting in a flexible tunable Free Spectral Range.

  7. Study on microwave photonic filters based on lasers and dispersive fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A general theoretical model for microwave photonic filters based on multi-wavelength light source and dispersive media is summarized and presented, and is applied to the analysis of double-laser-based microwave photonic notch filters' performance.The different influences of the double-sideband(DSB) modulation and the single-sideband(SSB) modulation are demonstrated and explained theoretically. Furthermore, the impact of different factors, such as frequency spacing, 3dB bandwidth and the spectrum amplitude mismatch on the performance of the microwave photonic notch filters are also studied. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with predictions, and could be beneficial for future optimization of microwave photonic filters.

  8. Multi-tap photonic microwave filter based on two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Cheung, KKY; Xu, X; Wong, KKY

    2009-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to implement a multi-tap photonic microwave filter. By using a two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier (OPA), the number of signal laser sources needed is only half of the number of filter taps because new frequency components idlers are generated. Moreover, the free spectral range (FSR) of the proposed filter can be changed by simply changing the wavelength spacing between the signals. In our experiment, an 8-tap photonic microwave filter has b...

  9. Microwave photonics technologies supporting high capacity and flexible wireless communications systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Tatarczak, Anna; Rommel, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques.......Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques....

  10. Fully tunable 360° microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Gasulla, Ivana; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-08-01

    A fully tunable microwave photonic phase shifter involving a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and demonstrated. 360° microwave phase shift has been achieved by tuning the carrier wavelength and the optical input power injected in an SOA while properly profiting from the dispersion feature of a conveniently designed notch filter. It is shown that the optical filter can be advantageously employed to switch between positive and negative microwave phase shifts. Numerical calculations corroborate the experimental results showing an excellent agreement.

  11. Fully programmable spectrum sliced chirped microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Peter; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Huang, Thomas X H

    2015-02-23

    A novel chirped microwave photonic filter (MPF) capable of achieving a large radio frequency (RF) group delay slope and a single passband response free from high frequency fading is presented. The design is based upon a Fourier domain optical processor (FD-OP) and a single sideband modulator. The FD-OP is utilized to generate both constant time delay to tune the filter and first order dispersion to induce the RF chirp, enabling full software control of the MPF without the need for manual adjustment. An optimized optical parameter region based on a large optical bandwidth >750 GHz and low slicing dispersion < ± 1 ps/nm is introduced, with this technique greatly improving the RF properties including the group delay slope magnitude and passband noise. Experimental results confirm that the structure simultaneously achieves a large in-band RF chirp of -4.2 ns/GHz, centre frequency invariant tuning and independent reconfiguration of the RF amplitude and phase response. Finally, a stochastic study of the device passband noise performance under tuning and reconfiguration is presented, indicating a low passband noise <-120 dB/Hz. PMID:25836442

  12. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  13. Microwave Photonic Filters for Interference Cancellation and Adaptive Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John

    Wireless communication has experienced an explosion of growth, especially in the past half- decade, due to the ubiquity of wireless devices, such as tablets, WiFi-enabled devices, and especially smartphones. Proliferation of smartphones with powerful processors and graphic chips have given an increasing amount of people the ability to access anything from anywhere. Unfortunately, this ease of access has greatly increased mobile wireless bandwidth and have begun to stress carrier networks and spectra. Wireless interference cancellation will play a big role alongside the popularity of wire- less communication. In this thesis, we will investigate optical signal processing methods for wireless interference cancellation methods. Optics provide the perfect backdrop for interference cancellation. Mobile wireless data is already aggregated and transported through fiber backhaul networks in practice. By sandwiching the signal processing stage between the receiver and the fiber backhaul, processing can easily be done locally in one location. Further, optics offers the advantages of being instantaneously broadband and size, weight, and power (SWAP). We are primarily concerned with two methods for interference cancellation, based on microwave photonic filters, in this thesis. The first application is for a co-channel situation, in which a transmitter and receiver are co-located and transmitting at the same frequency. A novel analog optical technique extended for multipath interference cancellation of broadband signals is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this thesis. The proposed architecture was able to achieve a maximum of 40 dB of cancellation over 200 MHz and 50 dB of cancellation over 10 MHz. The broadband nature of the cancellation, along with its depth, demonstrates both the precision of the optical components and the validity of the architecture. Next, we are interested in a scenario with dynamically changing interference, which requires an adaptive photonic

  14. Generation of phase-coded microwave signals using a polarization-modulator-based photonic microwave phase shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yamei; Pan, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    A scheme for the generation of phase-coded microwave signals using an electrically tunable photonic microwave phase shifter is proposed and demonstrated. The photonic phase shifter is based on a single-sideband polarization modulator (PolM), and the tuning of the phase shifter is implemented by a second PolM. By introducing an RF signal to the first PolM and an electrical coding signal to the second PolM, a phase-coded microwave signal with binary phase codes or polyphase codes is achieved. An experiment is performed. The simple and flexible operation, high coding rate, large frequency range, excellent transmission performance, and high stability of the system is confirmed. PMID:23455292

  15. Waveguide filter-based on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddei, Caterina; Nguyen, T.H. Yen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paul; Roeloffzen, Chris G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a waveguide filterbased on-chip differentiator for microwave photonic signal processing. The system principle allows the operation of arbitrary-order differentiation. The realized device is constructed using the basic building blocks of photonic integrated circuits, and fe

  16. Microwave single photon counting by using Rydberg atoms and its application for searching invisible axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high sensitivity single photon counting method using Rydberg atoms is discussed and shown to be a promissing technique for detecting microwave photons converted from cosmic axions in a strong magnetic field by the Primakov effect. This method could give much better results compared with conventional methods. (author)

  17. Engineering entangled microwave photon states through multiphoton interactions between two cavity fields and a superconducting qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Jun; Wang, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there are not only transverse but also longitudinal couplings between microwave fields and a superconducting qubit with broken inversion symmetry of the potential energy. Using multiphoton processes induced by longitudinal coupling fields and frequency matching conditions, we design a universal algorithm to produce arbitrary superpositions of two-mode photon states of microwave fields in two separated transmission line resonators, which are coupled to a superconducting qubit. Based on our algorithm, we analyze the generation of evenly-populated states and NOON states. Compared to other proposals with only single-photon process, we provide an efficient way to produce entangled microwave photon states when the interactions between superconducting qubits and microwave fields are in the strong and ultrastrong regime. PMID:27033558

  18. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip;

    2009-01-01

    different microwave or millimeter-wave frequency bands, we present several schemes to increase the achievable RF phase shift by enhancing light slow-down or speed-up. These schemes include integrating gain and absorption sections, optical filtering and the exploitation of the initial chirp effects. As a...... real application in microwave photonics, a widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter with 100% fractional tuning range is also proposed and demonstrated.......We review the theory of slow and fast light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360º RF phase shift at...

  19. Engineering entangled microwave photon states through multiphoton interactions between two cavity fields and a superconducting qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Jun; Wang, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that there are not only transverse but also longitudinal couplings between microwave fields and a superconducting qubit with broken inversion symmetry of the potential energy. Using multiphoton processes induced by longitudinal coupling fields and frequency matching conditions, we design a universal algorithm to produce arbitrary superpositions of two-mode photon states of microwave fields in two separated transmission line resonators, which are coupled to a superconducting qubit. Based on our algorithm, we analyze the generation of evenly-populated states and NOON states. Compared to other proposals with only single-photon process, we provide an efficient way to produce entangled microwave photon states when the interactions between superconducting qubits and microwave fields are in the strong and ultrastrong regime.

  20. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    We review the theory of slow and fast light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360º RF phase shift at...... real application in microwave photonics, a widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter with 100% fractional tuning range is also proposed and demonstrated....... different microwave or millimeter-wave frequency bands, we present several schemes to increase the achievable RF phase shift by enhancing light slow-down or speed-up. These schemes include integrating gain and absorption sections, optical filtering and the exploitation of the initial chirp effects. As a...

  1. Demonstration of tunable microwave photonic notch filters using slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel scheme based on slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers, to implement a microwave photonic notch filter with ~100% fractional tuning range at a microwave frequency of 30 GHz.......We introduce a novel scheme based on slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers, to implement a microwave photonic notch filter with ~100% fractional tuning range at a microwave frequency of 30 GHz....

  2. Efficient Generation of Stable Photonic Microwaves by Controlling the Limit-Cycle Oscillations of Optically Injected Semiconductor Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    AlMulla, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Photonic microwave or millimeter wave (MMW) sources that produce highly stable and broadly tunable microwave frequencies of low phase noise are anticipated for many applications ranging from broadband wireless access networks and satellite communication systems to emerging broadband photonics-based phased-array antennas and radars.The goal of this dissertation is to investigate and control the characteristics of the generated photonic microwave frequencies induced by an optically injected sem...

  3. Correlation measurements of individual microwave photons emitted from a symmetric cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozyigit, D; Lang, C; Steffen, L; Fink, J M; Eichler, C; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Leek, P J; Filipp, S; Wallraff, A [Department of Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Da Silva, M P; Blais, A, E-mail: andreas.wallraff@phys.ethz.ch [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Superconducting circuits have been successfully established as systems to prepare and investigate microwave light fields at the quantum level. In contrast to optical experiments where light is detected using photon counters, microwaves are usually measured with well developed linear amplifiers. This makes measurements of correlation functions - one of the important tools in optics - harder to achieve because they traditionally rely on photon counters and beam splitters. Here, we demonstrate a system where we can prepare on demand single microwave photons in a cavity and detect them at the two outputs of the cavity using linear amplifiers. Together with efficient data processing, this allows us to measure different observables of the cavity photons, including the first-order correlation function. Using these techniques we demonstrate cooling of a thermal background field in the cavity.

  4. Correlation measurements of individual microwave photons emitted from a symmetric cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting circuits have been successfully established as systems to prepare and investigate microwave light fields at the quantum level. In contrast to optical experiments where light is detected using photon counters, microwaves are usually measured with well developed linear amplifiers. This makes measurements of correlation functions - one of the important tools in optics - harder to achieve because they traditionally rely on photon counters and beam splitters. Here, we demonstrate a system where we can prepare on demand single microwave photons in a cavity and detect them at the two outputs of the cavity using linear amplifiers. Together with efficient data processing, this allows us to measure different observables of the cavity photons, including the first-order correlation function. Using these techniques we demonstrate cooling of a thermal background field in the cavity.

  5. Nonreciprocal conversion between microwave and optical photons in electro-optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Yu-xi

    2015-01-01

    We propose to demonstrate nonreciprocal conversion between microwave photons and optical photons in an electro-optomechanical system where a microwave mode and an optical mode are coupled indirectly via two non-degenerate mechanical modes. The nonreciprocal conversion is obtained in the broken time-reversal symmetry regime, where the conversion of photons from one frequency to the other is enhanced for constructive quantum interference while the conversion in the reversal direction is suppressed due to destructive quantum interference. It is interesting that the nonreciprocal response between the microwave and optical modes in the electro-optomechanical system appears at two different frequencies with opposite directions. The proposal can be used to realize nonreciprocal conversion between photons of any two distinctive modes with different frequencies. Moreover, the electro-optomechanical system can also be used to construct a three-port circulator for three optical modes with distinctively different frequen...

  6. Photon noise limited radiation detection with lens-antenna coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, S J C; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Endo, A; Janssen, R. M. J.; Ferrari, L; Diener, P.; Baryshev, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1–2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally, we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detector...

  7. Dressed-state engineering for continuous detection of itinerant microwave photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Kazuki; Lin, Zhirong; Inomata, Kunihiro; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme for continuous detection of itinerant microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics. In the proposed device, a superconducting qubit is coupled dispersively to two resonators: one is used to form an impedance-matched Λ system that deterministically captures incoming photons, and the other is used for continuous monitoring of the event. The present scheme enables efficient photon detection: for realistic system parameters, the detection efficiency reaches 0.9 with a bandwidth of about 10 MHz.

  8. Influence of an externally modulated photonic link on a microwave communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the influence of an externally modulated photonic link on the performance of a microwave communications system. From the analysis, we deduce limitations on the photocurrent, magnitude of the relaxation oscillation noise of the laser, third-order intercept point of the preamplifier, and other parameters in order for the photonic link to function according to the system specifications. Based on this, we outline a procedure for designing a photonic link that can be integrated in a system with minimal performance degradation.

  9. Using microwave and macroscopic samples of dielectric solids to study the photonic properties of disordered photonic bandgap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemizad, Seyed Reza; Tsitrin, Sam; Yadak, Polin; He, Yingquan; Cuneo, Daniel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Liner, Devin; Man, Weining

    2014-01-01

    Recently, disordered photonic materials have been suggested as an alternative to periodic crystals for the formation of a complete photonic bandgap (PBG). In this article we will describe the methods for constructing and characterizing macroscopic disordered photonic structures using microwaves. The microwave regime offers the most convenient experimental sample size to build and test PBG media. Easily manipulated dielectric lattice components extend flexibility in building various 2D structures on top of pre-printed plastic templates. Once built, the structures could be quickly modified with point and line defects to make freeform waveguides and filters. Testing is done using a widely available Vector Network Analyzer and pairs of microwave horn antennas. Due to the scale invariance property of electromagnetic fields, the results we obtained in the microwave region can be directly applied to infrared and optical regions. Our approach is simple but delivers exciting new insight into the nature of light and disordered matter interaction. Our representative results include the first experimental demonstration of the existence of a complete and isotropic PBG in a two-dimensional (2D) hyperuniform disordered dielectric structure. Additionally we demonstrate experimentally the ability of this novel photonic structure to guide electromagnetic waves (EM) through freeform waveguides of arbitrary shape. PMID:25285416

  10. Tunable microwave photonic filter based on a fiber ring and erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The tunable microwave photonic filter based on a fiber ring and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) was proposed. By introducing a section of erbium-doped fiber (EDF) into the fiber ring, the loss of the signal can be compensated by the EDFA gain through adjusting the pump power. This can largely increase the number of the effective sampling taps, and then improve the performance of the microwave photonic filter notably. When the pump power was set to be 42.7 mW, a microwave bandpass filter with the 3-dB bandwidth of 0.15 MHz, the Q factor up to 100 and extinction ratio up to 20 dB was achieved. By employing a tunable optical delay line in the above fiber ring, a tunable microwave photonic filter has been realized through tuning the length of the optical delay line. The proposed tunable microwave photonic filter can find great applications in microwave signal processing and ROF system.

  11. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete 'click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66±0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014±0.001 and a reset time of ∼400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing. PMID:27453153

  12. Photonic compressive sensing for analog-to-information conversion with a delay-line based microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-07-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) in the photonic domain is highly promising for analog-to-information conversion of sparse signals due to its potential capability of high input bandwidth and digitization with sub-Nyquist sampling. In this paper, we suggest that the concept of delay-line based microwave photonic filter be used in photonic CS to realize the low-pass filtering (LPF) function which is required in CS. A microwave photonic filter (MPF) with a dispersive element and fiber delay lines is applied in photonic CS to achieve better performance and flexibility. In the approach, the input radio-frequency signal and the pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) are modulated on a multi-wavelength optical carrier and propagate through a dispersive element. The modulated optical signal is split into multiple channels with tunable delay lines. The multiple wavelengths, dispersive element and multiple channels constitute a reconfigurable low-pass microwave filter. Experiment and simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and potentials of this approach.

  13. Stabilizing an optoelectronic microwave oscillator with photonic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, D.; Aveline, D.; Yu, N.; Thompson, R.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares methods of active stabilization of an optoelectronic microwave oscillator (OEO) based on insertion of a source of optical group delay into an OEO loop. The performance of an OEO stabilized with either a high- optical cavity or an atomic cell is analyzed. We show that the elements play a role of narrow-band microwave filters improving an OEO stability.

  14. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: mr20001@sina.com; Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong [Laboratory of High Power Microwave Technology, Institute of applied electronics, China academy of engineering physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE{sub 11} mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE{sub 11} mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  15. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE11 mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE11 mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup

  16. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE11 mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE11 mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  17. Slow and fast light effects and their applications to microwave photonics using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Salvador; Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the application of slow and fast light (SFL) techniques to the field of microwave photonics. Basic principles leading to the implementation of phase shifting and true time delay operations which are instrumental in this field are first considered. We then focu...... analog links. Finally, the main results obtained for several microwave photonic applications such as filtering, arbitrary waveform generation and optoelectronic scillators (OEOs)are reviewed, and other directions for future research in the field are discussed.......We provide a comprehensive review of the application of slow and fast light (SFL) techniques to the field of microwave photonics. Basic principles leading to the implementation of phase shifting and true time delay operations which are instrumental in this field are first considered. We then focus...

  18. Nonreciprocal conversion between microwave and optical photons in electro-optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-02-01

    We propose to demonstrate nonreciprocal conversion between microwave and optical photons in an electro-optomechanical system where a microwave mode and an optical mode are coupled indirectly via two nondegenerate mechanical modes. The nonreciprocal conversion is obtained in the broken time-reversal symmetry regime, where the conversion of photons from one frequency to the other is enhanced for constructive quantum interference while the conversion in the reversal direction is suppressed due to destructive quantum interference. It is interesting that the nonreciprocal response between the microwave and optical modes in the electro-optomechanical system appears at two different frequencies with opposite directions. The proposal can be used to realize nonreciprocal conversion between photons of any two distinctive modes with different frequencies. Moreover, the electro-optomechanical system can also be used to construct a three-port circulator for three optical modes with distinctively different frequencies by adding an auxiliary optical mode coupled to one of the mechanical modes.

  19. An ultrawide tunable range single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Guo, Jing; Wu, Kui; Qu, Pengfei; Qi, Huajuan; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei

    2013-02-11

    A single passband microwave photonic filter with ultrawide tunable range based on stimulated Brillouin scattering is theoretically analyzed. Combining the gain and loss spectrums, tuning range with 44GHz is obtained without crosstalk by introducing two pumps. Adding more pumps, Tuning range multiplying with the multiplication factor equaling to the total quantity of pump can be achieved, which has potential application in microwave and millimeter wave wireless communication systems. PMID:23481728

  20. Fabrication of Metarodielectric Photonic Crystals for Microwave Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinami, Yohei; Kirihara, Soshu, E-mail: y-takinami@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Smart Processing Reserch Center, Joining and Welding Reserch Institute, Osaka University (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Photonic crystals have inspired a great deal of interests as key platforms for effective control of electromagnetic wave. They can suppress incident waves at a certain frequency by Bragg diffraction and exhibit photonic band gap. Photonic band gap structures can be applied for effective and compact wave control equipments. In this investigation, metal photonic crystals were fabricated by stereolithography and heat treatment process. Furthermore, metal-dielectric crystal was created through impregnation process of dielectric media. This concept of metal-dielectric photonic crystal is expected to contribute for not only the downsizing of electromagnetic wave devices, but also thermal flow control.

  1. Fabrication of Metarodielectric Photonic Crystals for Microwave Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystals have inspired a great deal of interests as key platforms for effective control of electromagnetic wave. They can suppress incident waves at a certain frequency by Bragg diffraction and exhibit photonic band gap. Photonic band gap structures can be applied for effective and compact wave control equipments. In this investigation, metal photonic crystals were fabricated by stereolithography and heat treatment process. Furthermore, metal-dielectric crystal was created through impregnation process of dielectric media. This concept of metal-dielectric photonic crystal is expected to contribute for not only the downsizing of electromagnetic wave devices, but also thermal flow control.

  2. Optical single photons on-demand teleported from microwave cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanjeh, Sh; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a scheme for entangling the optical and microwave output modes of the respective cavities by using a micro mechanical resonator. The micro mechanical resonator, on one side, is capacitively coupled to the microwave cavity and, on the other side, it is coupled to a high-finesses optical cavity. We then show how this continuous variable entanglement can be profitably used to teleport the non-Gaussian number state |1> and the superposition (|0\\rangle +|1\\rangle )/\\sqrt 2 from the microwave cavity output mode onto an output of the optical cavity mode with fidelity much larger than the no-cloning limit.

  3. Compression of ultra-long microwave pulses using programmable microwave photonic phase filtering with > 100 complex-coefficient taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhyup; Torres-Company, Victor; Wu, Rui; Metcalf, Andrew J; Weiner, Andrew M

    2014-03-24

    Microwave photonic filters with arbitrary phase response can be achieved by merging high-repetition-rate electro-optic frequency comb technology with line-by-line pulse shaping. When arranged in an interferometric configuration, the filter features a number of programmable complex-coefficient taps equal to the number of available comb lines. In this work, we use an ultrabroadband comb generator resulting in a microwave photonic phase filter with >100 complex-coefficient taps. We demonstrate the potential of this filter by performing programmable chirp control of ultrawideband waveforms that extend over long (>10 ns) temporal apertures. This work opens new possibilities for compensating realistic linear distortion impairments on ultrabroadband wireless signals spanning over dozens of nanosecond temporal apertures. PMID:24663981

  4. Photonic microwave quadrature filter with low phase imbalance and high signal-to-noise ratio performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Chan, Erwin H W; Wang, Xudong; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-15

    A photonic microwave quadrature filter is presented. It has a very simple structure, very low phase imbalance, and high signal-to-noise ratio performance. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a photonic microwave quadrature filter with a 3 dB operating frequency range of 10.5-26.5 GHz, an amplitude and phase imbalance of less than ±0.3  dB and ±0.15°, and a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 121 dB in a 1 Hz noise bandwidth. PMID:26469589

  5. Compact optically-fed microwave true-time delay using liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui;

    2009-01-01

    Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz.......Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device based optically-fed microwave true-time delay is demonstrated. A maximum ~60° phase shift and an averaged ~7.2ps true time delay are obtained over the modulation frequency range 1GHz-19GHz....

  6. Tunable Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Based on a high-birefringence linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This filter is based on the differential group delay generated by a high-birefringence linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. This microwave photonic filter belongs to the orthogonal polarization approach, polarization maintaining structure ensures the filter free from the random optical interference problem. Its response is induced by the differential group delay (DGD) of the Hi-Bi LCFBG and it can be varied by tuning the grating through adding gradient strength to the grating. Free spectral range tuning by 9.27 GHz with more than 35 dB notch rejection is achieved.

  7. A 3 to 6 GHz microwave/photonic transceiver for phased-array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Edward; Wanuga, Stephen; Candela, Karen; Scotti, Ronald E.; MacDonald, V. W.; Gates, John V.

    1992-04-01

    The general design and operation of a microwave/photonic transceiver operating in the range 3-6 GHz are presented. The transceiver consists of drop-in submodules with optical fiber pigtails mounted on a brass carrier measuring less than 1 x 1 x 0.1 inch along with MMIC amplifiers and an alumina motherboard. Minimum 3 to 6 GHz return losses of 6 dB have been measured for both the microwave input and the microwave output of the module; the insertion loss is between 19 and 20 dB at most frequencies in the 3-6 GHz band.

  8. Fiber Sensor Systems Based on Fiber Laser and Microwave Photonic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Cai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensors, especially fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors are very attractive due to their numerous advantages over traditional sensors, such as light weight, high sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, ease of multiplexing and so on. Therefore, fiber-optic sensors have been intensively studied during the last several decades. Nowadays, with the development of novel fiber technology, more and more newly invented fiber technologies bring better and superior performance to fiber-optic sensing networks. In this paper, the applications of some advanced photonic technologies including fiber lasers and microwave photonic technologies for fiber sensing applications are reviewed. FBG interrogations based on several kinds of fiber lasers, especially the novel Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser, have been introduced; for the application of microwave photonic technology, examples of microwave photonic filtering utilized as a FBG sensing interrogator and microwave signal generation acting as a transversal loading sensor have been given. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations have been carried out. The comparison of these advanced photonic technologies for the applications of fiber sensing is carried out and important issues related to the applications have been addressed and the suitable and potential application examples have also been discussed in this paper.

  9. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a Silicon nanowire

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  10. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  11. Microwave photonics filtering technique for interrogating long weak fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador; Thévenaz, Luc; Capmany, José

    2014-01-01

    A system to interrogate photonic sensors based on long weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long weak FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several events can be detected along the FBG device with a spatial accuracy under 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a...

  12. Microwave photonics with Josephson junction arrays: Negative refraction index and entanglement through disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zueco D.; Mazo J.J.; Solano E.; Garcia-Ripoll J.J.

    2012-01-01

    We study different architectures for a photonic crystal in the microwave regime based on superconducting transmission lines interrupted by Josephson junctions, both in one and two dimensions. A study of the scattering properties of a single junction in the line shows that the junction behaves as a perfect mirror when the photon frequency matches the Josephson plasma frequency. We generalize our calculations to periodic arrangements of junctions, demonstrating that they can be used for tunable...

  13. Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xue W.; Sales S.; Mork J.; Capmany J.

    2009-01-01

    A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter at around 30 GHz is experimentally demonstrated and 100% fractional tuning over 360 range is achieved without changing the shape of the spectral response. The tuning mechanism is based on the use of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers assisted by optical filtering.

  14. Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter at around 30 GHz is experimentally demonstrated and 100% fractional tuning over 360 range is achieved without changing the shape of the spectral response. The tuning mechanism is based on the use of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor...... optical amplifiers assisted by optical filtering....

  15. Research of electro-optical modulators usage for microwave photonic filters

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Sadeev, T. S.; Talipov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the most effective way to obtain microwave-photonic filter’s coefficients, specifically implemented by electro-optical modulators. These devices are attractive to obtain desired number and sign of coefficients which results in high tunability and reconfigurability of filters. One has to decide which device will be the most appropriate in obtaining desired frequency response of the filter.

  16. A Novel Digitally Tunable Microwave-Photonic Notch Filter Using Differential Group-Delay Module

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Paul K.L.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a digitally tunable microwave-photonic notch filter based on a differential group-delay module which produces a relative delay between two orthogonal polarizations. A maximum rejection level greater than 60 dB is obtained. The tenability of the filter is achieved through real-time electronic control of the relative delay time.

  17. CRIT-Alternative narrow-passband waveguide filter for microwave photonic signal processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Hoekman, M.; Oldenbeuving, R.M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Boller, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel use of a waveguide circuit consisting of a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetrical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which realizes a narrow-passband filter in the context of microwave photonics (MWP). The filter principle is an alternative to the coupled resonator induced t

  18. A novel microwave photonic link employing cascaded ring resonators as balanced optical discriminators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Leinse, A.; Hoekman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a balanced optical discriminator for a high performance phase modulation-direct detection microwave photonic link (MPL). The discriminator is an integrated optical filter consisting of five ring resonators which are fully tunable using thermo

  19. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-01

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  20. Gaussian-shaped Optical Frequency Comb Generation for Microwave Photonic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rui; Hamidi, Ehsan; Supradeepa, V R; Song, Min Hyup; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Using only electro-optic modulators, we generate a 41-line 10-GHz Gaussian-shaped optical frequency comb. We use this comb to demonstrate apodized microwave photonic filters with greater than 43-dB sidelobe suppression without the need for a pulse shaper.

  1. Feasibility, engineering aspects and physics reach of microwave cavity experiments searching for hidden photons and axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using microwave cavities one can build a resonant ''light-shining-through-walls'' experiment to search for hidden sector photons and axion like particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. In this note we make a feasibility study of the sensitivities which can be reached using state of the art technology. (orig.)

  2. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  3. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated

  4. Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase locked loop for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langley, L.N.; Elkin, M.D.; Edege, C.;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first fully packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) microwave photonic transmitter. The transmitter is based on semiconductor lasers that are directly phase locked without the use of any other phase noise-reduction mechanisms. In this transmitter...

  5. Photon noise limited radiation detection with lens-antenna coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, S J C; Endo, A; Janssen, R M J; Ferrari, L; Diener, P; Baryshev, A M

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1...2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detectors to be 0.8+-0.2.

  6. Photon noise limited radiation detection with lens-antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1-2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally, we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detectors to be 0.8 ± 0.2.

  7. One-dimensional tunable magnetic photonic band-gap materials at microwave frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave transmission characteristics of one-dimensional magnetic photonic band-gap (MPBG) materials, in which a ferromagnetic composite layer is sandwiched by periodic dielectric layers, are studied. The magnetic photonic band gaps (MBPGs) are obtained related to the existence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in the vicinity of the band-gap frequency. We investigate the effects of period structure and the applied magnetic field on the MPBGs as well as the ferromagnetic resonance. The photonic band gaps of the TE mode shift to lower frequencies. The MPBG effect is strongly dependent on the periodic structure of the MPBG materials. While the FMR effect is dominated by the applied magnetic field

  8. Photonic-assisted microwave phase shifter using a DMZM and an optical bandpass filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wen Ting; Wang, Li Xian; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-03-10

    We propose and demonstrate a photonic-assisted wideband 360° microwave phase shifter based on a conventional dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DMZM) and an optical bandpass filter (OBPF). The two arms of the DMZM are driven by the fundamental microwave signal to be phase shifted and its frequency doubled component, respectively. The OBPF followed after the DMZM is used to remove the optical carrier and the sidebands at either side of the optical carrier. As a result, only two sidebands corresponding to the fundamental microwave signal and its frequency doubled component, respectively, are left. Moreover, the phase shift between the two sidebands can be continuously tunable by adjusting the bias voltage of the DMZM. This phase shift is mapped to the fundamental microwave signal which is recovered by beating the two sidebands in a photodetector (PD). The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. PMID:24663892

  9. Demonstration and experimental evaluation of a bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Correa-Mena, A. G.; Hernández-Nava, P.; García-Juárez, A.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, J.; Lee, Min Won

    2016-09-01

    A bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter is proposed and experimentally evaluated. Its frequency response consists of a series of microwave band-pass windows obtained by the interaction of externally modulated multimode laser diodes emitting around of 1550 nm associated to the chromatic dispersion parameter of an optical fiber, as well as the length of the optical link. Microwave band-pass windows exhibit on average a-3 dB bandwidth of 378 MHz. This electro-optical system shows an efficient configuration and good performance. Potentially, filtered microwave signals can be used as electrical carriers in optical communication systems to transmit and distribute services such as video, voice and data.

  10. Tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating an all-optical microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Chen, Fu-Shen; Zhang, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    A tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), which employs an all-optical microwave photonic filter (MPF) consisting of two laser sources (LD1 and LD2), an optical coupler (OC, 50:50), a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), and a chirped fiber Bragg grating, is proposed. Because the central frequency of the all-optical MPF can be shifted by changing the wavelength spacing between the two laser sources, the frequency tunability of the OEO can be realized by incorporating such an all-optical MPF into an optical domain dual-loop OEO without any electronic microwave filters. A detailed theoretical analysis is presented and the results are confirmed by an experiment. A microwave signal with a frequency-tuning range from 4.057 to 8.595 GHz is generated. The phase noise, the long-term stability, and the side-mode suppression performance of the generated microwave signal are also investigated.

  11. Microwave mediated synthesis of non-carboxylic analogues of ibuprofen with improved pharmacological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.V. Sujith; Balakrishna Kalluraya; Adithya Adhikari; J. Ravikumar

    2011-01-01

    A series of l,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b]-thiadiazoles were synthesized following microwave irradiation method and also by conventional method. Newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  12. All-fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow-noise microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Kwangyun Jung; Jungwon Kim

    2015-01-01

    High-impact frequency comb applications that are critically dependent on precise pulse timing (i.e., repetition rate) have recently emerged and include the synchronization of X-ray free-electron lasers, photonic analogue-to-digital conversion and photonic radar systems. These applications have used attosecond-level timing jitter of free-running mode-locked lasers on a fast time scale within ~100 μs. Maintaining attosecond-level absolute jitter over a significantly longer time scale can dramat...

  13. Distortion-free spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processor: analysis, design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas X H; Minasian, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    A new switchable microwave photonic filter based on a novel spectrum slicing technique is presented. The processor enables programmable multi-tap generation with general transfer function characteristics and offers tunability, reconfigurabiliy, and switchability. It is based on connecting a dispersion controlled spectrum slicing filter after the modulated bipolar broadband light source, which consequently generates multiple spectrum slices with bipolarity, and compensates dispersion induced RF degradation simultaneously within a single device. A detailed theoretical model for this microwave photonic filter design is presented. Experimental results are presented which verify the model, and demonstrate a 33 bipolar-tap microwave filter with significant reduction of passband attenuations at high frequencies. The RF response improvement of the new microwave photonic filter is investigated, for both an ideal linear group delay line and for the experimental fiber delay line that has second order group delay and the results show that this new structure is effective for RF filters with various free spectral range values and spectrum slice bandwidths. Finally, a switchable bipolar filter that has a square-top bandpass filter response with more than 30 dB stopband attenuation that can be switched on/off via software control is demonstrated. PMID:22565771

  14. Rigorous numerical study of strong microwave photon-magnon coupling in all-dielectric magnetic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymov, Ivan S., E-mail: ivan.maksymov@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Hutomo, Jessica; Nam, Donghee; Kostylev, Mikhail [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-21

    We demonstrate theoretically a ∼350-fold local enhancement of the intensity of the in-plane microwave magnetic field in multilayered structures made from a magneto-insulating yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer sandwiched between two non-magnetic layers with a high dielectric constant matching that of YIG. The enhancement is predicted for the excitation regime when the microwave magnetic field is induced inside the multilayer by the transducer of a stripline Broadband Ferromagnetic Resonance (BFMR) setup. By means of a rigorous numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation consistently with the Maxwell's equations, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics in the multilayer. We reveal a strong photon-magnon coupling, which manifests itself as anti-crossing of the ferromagnetic resonance magnon mode supported by the YIG layer and the electromagnetic resonance mode supported by the whole multilayered structure. The frequency of the magnon mode depends on the external static magnetic field, which in our case is applied tangentially to the multilayer in the direction perpendicular to the microwave magnetic field induced by the stripline of the BFMR setup. The frequency of the electromagnetic mode is independent of the static magnetic field. Consequently, the predicted photon-magnon coupling is sensitive to the applied magnetic field and thus can be used in magnetically tuneable metamaterials based on simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability achievable thanks to the YIG layer. We also suggest that the predicted photon-magnon coupling may find applications in microwave quantum information systems.

  15. A wideband photonic microwave phase shifter using polarization-dependent intensity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyu; Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Zheng, Jianyu; Yuan, Haiqing; Wang, Xin; Bai, Jinhua; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2015-12-01

    We present a tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on polarization-dependence of the LiNbO3 Mach-Zehender modulator (MZM). In the proposed device, an orthogonal single sideband modulation is implemented by using a MZM and an optical band-pass filter. With the polarizer to synthesize the polarization orthogonal optical carrier and sideband, the phase of the optical microwave signal output from the polarizer can be tuned from 0 to 360° by simply adjusting the polarization direction of the lights whereas the amplitude keeps constant. A full range tunable phase shifting in the frequency range of 10-35 GHz is achieved.

  16. Microwave photonic quadrature filter based on an all-optical programmable Hilbert transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas X H; Yi, Xiaoke; Minasian, Robert A

    2011-11-15

    A microwave photonic quadrature filter, new to our knowledge, based on an all-optical Hilbert transformer is presented. It is based on mapping of a Hilbert transform transfer function between the optical and electrical domains, using a programmable Fourier-domain optical processor and high-speed photodiodes. The technique enables the realization of an extremely wide operating bandwidth, tunable programmable bandwidth, and a highly precise amplitude and phase response. Experimental results demonstrate a microwave quadrature filter from 10 to 20 GHz, which achieves an amplitude imbalance of less than ±0.23 dB and a phase imbalance of less than ±0.5°. PMID:22089590

  17. Tuneable on-demand single-photon source in the microwave range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z H; de Graaf, S E; Tsai, J S; Astafiev, O V

    2016-01-01

    An on-demand single-photon source is a key element in a series of prospective quantum technologies and applications. Here we demonstrate the operation of a tuneable on-demand microwave photon source based on a fully controllable superconducting artificial atom strongly coupled to an open-ended transmission line. The atom emits a photon upon excitation by a short microwave π-pulse applied through a control line. The intrinsically limited device efficiency is estimated to be in the range 65-80% in a wide frequency range from 7.75 to 10.5 GHz continuously tuned by an external magnetic field. The actual demonstrated efficiency is also affected by the excited state preparation, which is about 90% in our experiments. The single-photon generation from the single-photon source is additionally confirmed by anti-bunching in the second-order correlation function. The source may have important applications in quantum communication, quantum information processing and sensing. PMID:27545689

  18. Highly chirped single-bandpass microwave photonic filter with reconfiguration capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bolea M.; Mora J.; Ortega B.; Capmany J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was published in OPTICS EXPRESS and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.004566. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law We propose a novel photonic structure to implement a chirped single-bandpass microwave photonic filter based on the ...

  19. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high-performance RF photonic filter. PMID:26368735

  20. Long fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using discrete-time microwave photonic filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador; Thevenaz, Luc; Capmany, José

    2013-11-18

    A novel technique for interrogating photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to detect the presence and the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several hot-spots can be detected along the FBG with a spatial accuracy under 0.5 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of less than 1 GHz. The proposed interrogation system is intrinsically robust against environmental changes. PMID:24514329

  1. Long fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using discrete-time microwave photonic filtering techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera Vilar, David; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Thevenaz, Luc; Capmany Francoy, José

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for interrogating photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to detect the presence and the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several hot-spots can be detected along the FBG with a spatial accuracy under 0.5 mm using a modulator and a photo-dete...

  2. Microwave photonics filtering technique for interrogating a very-weak fiber Bragg grating cascade sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Hervás Peralta, Javier; Barrera Vilar, David; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2014-01-01

    A system to interrogate photonic sensors based on a very weak fiber Bragg grating cascade fiber is presented and experimentally validated and dedicated to detecting the presence and location of a spot event. The distributed sensor proposed consists of a 5-m-long fiber, containing 500 9-mm-long Bragg gratings with a grating separation of 10.21 mm. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics filters. The detection of spot events along the sensor is ...

  3. Integrated microwave photonic splitter with reconfigurable amplitude, phase, and delay offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Burla, Maurizio; Taddei, Caterina; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Boller, Klaus-J; Lowery, Arthur J

    2015-12-01

    This work presents an integrated microwave photonics splitter with reconfigurable amplitude, phase, and delay offsets. The core components for this function are a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, a deinterleaver, and tunable delay lines, all implemented using photonic integrated circuits. Using a demonstrator with an optical free spectral range of 25 GHz, we show experimentally the RF splitting function over two continuous bands, i.e., 0.9-11.6 GHz and 13.4-20 GHz. This result promises a deployable solution for creating wideband, reconfigurable RF splitters in integrated forms. PMID:26625065

  4. A SOA-based high Q microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enming; Li, Lipei; Wang, Fei; Yu, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2011-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel all-optical microwave filter with high quality factor (Q). It is based on a recirculating delay line (RDL) loop in which a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is followed by a tunable narrow-band optical filter and a 1x2 10:90 optical coupler. Converted signal used as a negative tap is generated through wavelength conversion employing the cross-gain modulation (XGM) of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum of the SOA. The converted signal can circulate in the RDL loop so that the proposed filter realizes a high Q factor response after photo-detection. The 1x2 10:90 coupler is employed to extract 10% optical power from the loop as output. A frequency response with a high Q factor of 543, a rejection ratio of 40 dB is experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, J; Primerov, N; Chin, S; Antman, Y; Zadok, A; Sales, S; Thévenaz, L

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations comprising a microwave photonic filter implementation: a simple notch-type Mach-Zehnder approach with a single movable dynamic grating, a multi-tap performance based on multiple dynamic gratings and finally a stationary grating configuration based on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS). PMID:22418495

  6. Si3N4 ring resonator-based microwave photonic notch filter with an ultrahigh peak rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Roeloffzen, Chris; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple technique in microwave photonic (MWP) signal processing that allows the use of an optical filter with a shallow notch to exhibit a microwave notch filter with anomalously high rejection level. We implement this technique using a low-loss, tunable Si3N4 optical ring resonator as th

  7. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho Durá, Juan; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Primerov, N.; Chin, S; Antman, Y.; Zadok, A; Thevenaz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations co...

  8. A Cascaded Incoherent Spectrum Sliced Transversal Photonic Microwave Filters-An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Jeyachitra; Dr.R.Sukanesh

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the performance of a simple, incoherent spectrum sliced microwave photonic filter is presented. This filter structure is based on cascading of two incoherent fiber Fabry -Pérot filters as a slicing element of a broadband optical source. The filter performance is studied by measuring the overall Free Spectral Range, 3dB Bandwidth, Quality factor and Main Lobe to Sidelobe Suppression level for different modes of connecting the filter in cascadedconfiguration. Also simulation resu...

  9. A photonic microwave filter based on an asymmetric silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Campo, Ana María; Sanchis Kilders, Pablo; Brimont, Antoine Christian Jacques; Thomson, David J.; Gardes, Frédéric Y.; Reed, Graham T.; Fédéli, Jean Marc; Vidal Rodriguez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for implementing an integrable photonic microwave filter based on exploiting the asymmetry of a CMOS-compatible silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is demonstrated. The strong dependence of the modulator response with wavelength is exploited for achieving positive and negative taps and, therefore, a fully reconfigurable filter, without the complexity of previous approaches. Two filter responses with two and three taps are experimentally demonstrated, showing the proof-of-principle f...

  10. Design and realization of integrated optical frequency modulation discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C. G. H.; Timens, R.B.; Leinse, A.; Hoekman, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and the characterization of an integrated optical filter for an FM discriminator. The filter is based on optical ring resonator structures which are fully reconfigurable using thermo-optical tuning. The desired characteristic, which is a linear slope with zero in a particular region, is demonstrated. This characteristic is needed in a high performance microwave photonics link with increased spurious free dynamic range.

  11. Single passband microwave photonic filter with wideband tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Minasian, Robert

    2012-11-15

    A new and simple structure for a single passband microwave photonic filter is presented. It is based on using an electro-optical phase modulator and a tunable optical filter and only requires a single wavelength source and a single photodetector. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a single passband, flat-top radio-frequency filter response without free spectral range limitations, along with the capability of tuning the center frequency and filter bandwidth independently. PMID:23164884

  12. A novel microwave photonic link employing cascaded ring resonators as balanced optical discriminators

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C. G. H.; Leinse, A.; Hoekman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a balanced optical discriminator for a high performance phase modulation-direct detection microwave photonic link (MPL). The discriminator is an integrated optical filter consisting of five ring resonators which are fully tunable using thermo-optical tuning. The discriminator is configured to yield a desired transfer where the intensity transmission ramps linearly with the frequency. The performance of an MPL employing this discriminat...

  13. Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps are demonstrated. The combination of amplitude and phase control of the modulated signal shows great promise for applications within microwave photonics.

  14. Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps are dem...... demonstrated. The combination of amplitude and phase control of the modulated signal shows great promise for applications within microwave photonics....

  15. Integrated wideband optical frequency combs with high stability and their application in microwave photonic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Sunlong; Zhong, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Haiqing; Yu, Lijuan; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-08-01

    An integrated wideband optical frequency comb (OFC) based on a semiconductor quantum dot laser is realized with high stability. The OFC module is packaged in our lab. A circuit which is designed to provide a low-ripple current and control the temperature regards as a servo system to enhance the stability of the OFC. The frequency stability of the OFC is 2.7×10-9 (Allan Variance). The free spectral range (FSR) of the OFC is 40 GHz and the number of comb lines is up to 55. The flatness of the OFC over span of 4 nm can be limited to 0.5 dB. Negative coefficients microwave photonic filters with multiple taps are generated based on the proposed OFC. For the 10 taps microwave photonic filter, the pass-band at 8.74 GHz has a 3 dB bandwidth of 630 MHz with 16.58 dB side-lobe suppression. Compared with the published microwave photonic filters, the proposed system is more stable, of more compact structures, and of less power consumption.

  16. High-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on phase modulator incorporated Lyot filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Feng, Hanlin; Scott, Guy; Fok, Mable P

    2015-01-01

    A high-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter with ultrahigh rejection ratio is presented, which is achieved by semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based single-sideband modulation and optical spectral filtering with a phase modulator-incorporated Lyot (PM-Lyot) filter. By varying the birefringence of the phase modulator through electro-optic effect, electrically tuning of the microwave photonic notch filter is experimentally achieved at tens of gigahertz speed. The use of SOA-polarizer based single-sideband modulation scheme provides good sideband suppression over a wide frequency range, resulting in an ultrahigh rejection ratio of the microwave photonic notch filter. Stable filter spectrum with bandstop rejection ratio over 60 dB is observed over a frequency tuning range from 1.8 to 10 GHz. Compare with standard interferometric notch filter, narrower bandwidth and sharper notch profile are achieved with the unique PM-Lyot filter, resulting in better filter selectivity. Moreover, bandwidth tuning is also achieved through polarization adjustment inside the PM-Lyot filter, that the 10-dB filter bandwidth is tuned from 0.81 to 1.85 GHz. PMID:25531605

  17. Properties of microplasmas excited by microwaves for VUV photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, James E.; Urdahl, Randall; Xue, Jun; Denning, Mark; Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-12-01

    Microplasma sources typically take advantage of pd (pressure  ×  size) scaling by increasing pressure to operate at dimensions as small as tens of microns. In many applications, low pressure operation is desirable, which makes miniaturization difficult. In this paper, the characteristics of low pressure microplasma sources excited by microwave power are discussed based on results from experimental and computational studies. The intended application is production of VUV radiation for chemical analysis, and so emphasis in this study is on the production of resonant excited states of rare gases and radiation transport. The systems of interest operate at a few to 10 Torr in Ar and He/Ar mixtures with cavity dimensions of hundreds of microns to 1 mm. Power deposition is a few watts which produces fractional ionization of about 0.1%. We found that production of VUV radiation from argon microplasmas at 104.8 nm and 106.7 nm saturates as a function of power deposition due to a quasi-equilibrium that is established between the electron temperature (that is not terribly sensitive to power deposition) and the population of the Ar(4s) manifold.

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of new aryliminothiazolylidene-2-thiazolidin-4-ones and their azarhodacyanines analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Kasmi-Mir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We here report an efficient microwave-assisted protocol for the synthesis of new arylimino-thiazolylidene-2-thiazolidin-4-ones 6 and their azarhodacyanines derivatives 7 with quantitative yield from 2'-(methylthio-4'-oxo-3H,4'H-[2,5-bithiazolylidene]-3'-ium tosylates 5 and 2-arylimino-5-(thiazol-2(3H-ylidene thiazolidin-4-ones 6, respectively, using as starting material the 4-thiazoline-2-thiones 1 and 3-methyl-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one 3. The transformation of the tosylate salts 5 into their arylimino derivatives 6 has not been reported to date.

  19. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Dijk, van Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero

  20. Exploring the physics of superconducting qubits strongly coupled to microwave frequency photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallraff, Andreas [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the properties of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. In such circuits the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems allows us to probe fundamental quantum properties of light and to develop components for applications in quantum information technology. Here, I present experiments in which we have created and probed entanglement between stationary qubits and microwave photons freely propagating down a transmission line. In these experiments we use superconducting parametric amplifiers realized in our lab to detect both qubit and photon states efficiently. Using similar techniques we aim at demonstrating a deterministic scheme for teleportation of quantum states in a macroscopic system based on superconducting circuits.

  1. Demonstration of a single-photon router in the microwave regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Io-Chun; Wilson, C M; Johansson, Göran; Palomaki, Tauno; Peropadre, Borja; Delsing, Per

    2011-08-12

    We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting transmon qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons (∼6  GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number N≪1 is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 99.6% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We then use EIT to make a single-photon router, where we can control to what output port an incoming signal is delivered. The maximum on-off ratio is around 99% with a rise and fall time on the order of nanoseconds, consistent with theoretical expectations. The router can easily be extended to have multiple output ports and it can be viewed as a rudimentary quantum node, an important step towards building quantum information networks. PMID:21902392

  2. Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Arash; Preußler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Kambiz; Akbari, Mahmood; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-09-24

    A fully electrically tunable microwave photonic filter is realized by the implementation of delay lines based on frequency-time conversion. The frequency response and free spectral range (FSR) of the filter can be engineered by a simple electrical tuning of the delay lines. The method has the capability of being integrated on a silicon photonic platform. In the experiment, a 2-tap tunable microwave photonic filter with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.55 GHz, a FSR of 4.016 GHz, a FSR maximum tuning range from -354 MHz to 354 MHz and a full FSR translation range is achieved. PMID:23037423

  3. Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew; Li, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Light-sound interactions have long been exploited in various acousto-optic devices based on bulk crystalline materials. Conventionally, these devices operate in megahertz frequency range where the acoustic wavelength is much longer than the optical wavelength and a long interaction length is required to attain significant coupling. With nanoscale transducers, acoustic waves with sub-optical wavelengths can now be excited to induce strong acousto-optic coupling in nanophotonic devices. Here we demonstrate microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers co-integrated with nanophotonic resonators on piezoelectric aluminum nitride substrates. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength is achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this scheme are investigated for efficient modulation. The new acousto-optic platform can lead to novel optical devices based on nonlinear Brillouin processes and provides a direct, wideband link between optical and microwave photons for microwave photonics and quantum optomechanics. PMID:25400144

  4. Tunable microwave signal generation based on an Opto-DMD processor and a photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency-tunable microwave signal generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a digital Opto-DMD processor and four-wave mixing (FWM) in a high-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The high-nonlinear PCF is employed for the generation of the FWM to obtain stable and uniform dual-wavelength oscillation. Two different short passive sub-ring cavities in the main ring cavity serve as mode filters to make SLM lasing. The two lasing wavelengths are electronically selected by loading different gratings on the Opto-DMD processor controlled with a computer. The wavelength spacing can be smartly adjusted from 0.165 nm to 1.08 nm within a tuning accuracy of 0.055 nm. Two microwave signals at 17.23 GHz and 27.47 GHz are achieved. The stability of the microwave signal is discussed. The system has the ability to generate a 137.36-GHz photonic millimeter signal at room temperature

  5. Tunable bandpass microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Yu, Yuan; Tang, Haitao; Xu, Lu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    we propose and demonstrate a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) with ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity based on a simple signal cancellation technique. By injecting two phase modulated signals located on opposite sides of two resonant gain peaks of a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier (FP-SOA), two microwave frequency responses can be generated by the two input signals, respectively. The two frequency responses will add together within the passband but cancel each other out within the stopband, thus generating a MPF with simultaneous ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity. In the experiment the obtained MPF exhibits single passband in the range from 0 to 18 GHz and is tunable from 4 to 16 GHz by adjusting the laser wavelengths. During the tuning process the maximum stopband attenuation is 76.3 dB and the minimum 30-dB to 3-dB bandwidth shape factor is 3.5. PMID:27505828

  6. Electronically reconfigurable bandpass microwave photonic filter using a windowed optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2015-03-01

    A center frequency-tunable multi-tap bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with reconfigurable capability by electronic control. A Mach-Zehnder modulator-based optical frequency comb (OFC) is used as an optical source, and its output is optically shaped before introducing a time delay by 70 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. After an optical-to-electronic conversion, the frequency response in terms of central frequency and passband bandwidth can be electronically reconfigurable by varying either the input microwave frequency of the OFC or the waveshaper configuration without modification of the optical configuration. The experimental results show that more than a 35 dB out-of-band rejection ratio and at least a 3 GHz continuously tuning range of passband center frequency without any DC response can be successfully achieved.

  7. A Proposal and Demonstration for Photonic Generation of a Microwave Signal by Incorporating a Microring Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Jie; HUANG De-Xiu; ZHANG Xin-Liang; CAO Hui; CHEN Wei-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    A proposal for photonic generation of a microwave signal is presented by employing a dual wavelength erbiumdoped fibre ring laser.In the laser,a microring resonator is cascaded with a tunable bandpass filter to serve as a dual-wavelength selector,an unpumped polarization maintaining erbium-doped fibre is used as a saturable absorber.By replacing the microring resonator with a delay inter[erometer to verify the proposal,a wavelengthtunable dual wavelength single longitudinal mode laser is demonstrated,and a microwave signal at 10.01 GHz with a linewidth of less than 25 kHz is obtained by beating the two wavelengths at a photodetector.

  8. A Proposal and Demonstration for Photonic Generation of a Microwave Signal by Incorporating a Microring Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal for photonic generation of a microwave signal is presented by employing a dual wavelength erbium-doped fibre ring laser. In the laser, a microring resonator is cascaded with a tunable bandpass filter to serve as a dual-wavelength selector, an unpumped polarization maintaining erbium-doped fibre is used as a saturable absorber. By replacing the microring resonator with a delay interferometer to verify the proposal, a wavelength-tunable dual wavelength single longitudinal mode laser is demonstrated, and a microwave signal at 10.01 GHz with a linewidth of less than 25 kHz is obtained by beating the two wavelengths at a photodetector. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  9. Controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin-Qin; Liao Jie-Qiao; Kuang Le-Man

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to enable a controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. In this scheme we use two transmission-line resonators (TLRs) and one superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) type charge qubit, which acts as an artificial atom. It is shown that in the dispersive regime of the circuit-QED system, a controllable cross-Kerr interaction can be obtained by properly preparing the initial state of the qubit, and a large cross-phase shift between two microwave fields in the two TLRs can then be reached. Based on this cross-Kerr interaction, we show how to create a macroscopic entangled state between the two TLRs.

  10. Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously-high stopband rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel class microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter with a very narrow isolation bandwidth (10 MHz), an ultrahigh stopband rejection (> 60 dB), a wide frequency tuning (1-30 GHz), and flexible bandwidth reconfigurability (10-65 MHz). This record performance is enabled by a new concept of sidebands amplitude and phase controls using an electro-optic modulator and an optical filter. This new concept enables energy efficient operation in active MWP notch filters, and opens up the pathw...

  11. High-efficiency microwave photonic harmonic down-conversion with tunable and reconfigurable filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinxin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Li, Shangyuan; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2014-12-01

    A new optical-frequency comb-based microwave photonic harmonic down-convertor with tunable and reconfigurable filtering is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The coherent evenly spaced optical carriers offer harmonic down-conversion for ultrahigh radio frequency signals with low-frequency local oscillator, and construct a tunable and reconfigurable bandpass filter for the intermediate-frequency (IF) signal combined with dispersion. This implementation features high conversion efficiency. Experimental results show the filtered output IF signal has a clean spectrum with high quality. Measured conversion loss is 8.3 dB without extra electrical amplification. PMID:25490622

  12. Tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on sliced broadband optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Shangyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2015-09-21

    A microwave photonic filter is demonstrated with both tunable center frequency and bandwidth. This filter is switchable from all-pass, bandpass to notch filter, and the notch filter is a result of the subtraction of a bandpass filter from an all-pass filter based on a balanced photodetector. The all-pass filter is achieved based on a single wavelength radio over fiber link, and the bandpass one is acquired by using the spectrum-sliced broadband optical source. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that both the center frequency and the bandwidth of the notch filter can be widely tuned. PMID:26406636

  13. Ultra-high peak rejection notch microwave photonic filter using a single silicon microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-13

    We propose a simple scheme to realize ultra-high peak rejection notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a single silicon microring resonator (MRR). Using the combination of a conventional phase modulator (PM), a tunable bandpass filter (TBF), and a silicon MRR to manipulate the phase and amplitude of optical sidebands resulting in a signal cancellation at the RF notch filter frequency, we experimentally demonstrate a notch MPF with an ultra-high peak rejection beyond 60 dB. The frequency tunability of the proposed ultra-high peak rejection MPF is also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:26191836

  14. Dual-band bandpass tunable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-qi; Xiao, Yong-chuan; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xin-dong

    2016-07-01

    A dual-band bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Two separated tunable laser sources (TLSs) are employed to generate two passbands by implementing phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion by using SBS induced sideband amplification. The center frequencies of both passbands can be independently tuned ranging from 1 GHz to 19 GHz. High resolution with 3 dB bandwidth less than 30 MHz and large out-of-band rejection about 40 dB under 25 mW optical pump power are achieved.

  15. Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously-high stopband rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pant, Ravi; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel class microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter with a very narrow isolation bandwidth (10 MHz), an ultrahigh stopband rejection (> 60 dB), a wide frequency tuning (1-30 GHz), and flexible bandwidth reconfigurability (10-65 MHz). This record performance is enabled by a new concept of sidebands amplitude and phase controls using an electro-optic modulator and an optical filter. This new concept enables energy efficient operation in active MWP notch filters, and opens up the pathway to enable low-power nanophotonic devices as high performance RF filters.

  16. A flat microwave photonic filter based on M-Z modulatorand fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Chun-hui; PEI Li; NING Ti-gang; GUO Lan; WU Shu-qiang; ZHAO Rui-feng; RUAN Yi

    2009-01-01

    A new multiple-taps and flat microwave photonic filter, which is composed of fiber Bragg grating, M-Z modulator and erbium-doped fiber, is put forward. The flat band-pass or flat band-stop response can be realized by adjusting the coupler's factor and the reflectivity of the fiber Bragg grating or the gain of the erbium-doped fiber. The free spectral range of the filter can be tuned by controlling the length of the erbium-doped fiber. The potential and feasibility of the proposed filtering structures have been demonstrated by simulation.

  17. Microwave photonic notch filter based on a dual-Sagnac-loop structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Chan, Erwin H W; Minasian, Robert A

    2010-11-20

    A new single-wavelength, coherence-free microwave photonic notch filter is presented. The concept is based on a dual-Sagnac-loop structure that functions with a new principle in which the two loops operate with different free spectral ranges, and which generate noncommensurate taps. It has the ability to generate a narrow notch response and can operate to high frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate a notch filter with a narrow notch width, a flat passband, and high stop-band attenuation of over 40dB. PMID:21102681

  18. Multiband-UWB Signals Generation Based on Incoherent Microwave Photonic Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Mercado, Manuel; Bolea Boluda, Mario; Mora Almerich, José; Ortega Tamarit, Beatriz; Capmany Francoy, José

    2014-01-01

    “© © 20xx IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.” A structure for multiband-UWB waveforms generation is proposed using an N tap microwave photonic filter wi...

  19. Improving suppression ratio of microwave photonic filters using high-precision spectral shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Shangyuan; Liao, Jinxin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2015-05-01

    The main-to-sidelobe suppression ratio (MSSR) is significant to filters. The tap weight errors worsen the MSSR of the finite impulse response (FIR) microwave photonic filters (MPFs). The MSSR can be improved by shaping the multicarrier optical source spectra with high precision. By compensating the errors with an iteration method, the sidelobes of the amplitude response can be optimized to increase the MSSR. Such a method is simple, effective, and compatible with all FIR MPF approaches. In the experiment, optical spectra of Gaussian profiles were taken as an example, and an MSSR improvement from 50 to 63 dB was demonstrated.

  20. Silicon slow-light-based photonic mixer for microwave-frequencyconversion applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Campo, Ana Maria; Brimont, Antoine Christian Jacques; Herrera Llorente, Javier; Aamer, Mariam; Martí Sendra, Javier; Sanchis Kilders, Pablo; Thomson, D.J.; Gardes, F. Y.; G. T. Reed; Fedeli, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was published in OPTICS LETTERS and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.37.001721. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law We describe and demonstrate experimentally a method for photonic mixing of microwave signals by using a silicon elec...

  1. Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response. PMID:26368182

  2. Figures of merit for self-beating filtered microwave photonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual; Alavi, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    We present a model to compute the figures of merit of self-beating Microwave Photonic systems, a novel class of systems that work on a self-homodyne fashion by sharing the same laser source for information bearing and local oscillator tasks. General and simplified expressions are given and, as an example, we have considered their application to the design of a tunable RF MWP BS/UE front end for band selection, based on a Chebyshev Type-II optical filter. The applicability and usefulness of the model are also discussed. PMID:27137619

  3. Compact continuously tunable microwave photonic filters based on cascaded silicon microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; He, Mengying; Dong, Jianji

    2016-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic approach to achieving tunable bandpass microwave photonic filters (MPFs) based on cascaded microring resonators (CMRRs). The optical spectrum of the silicon CMRRs could offer two bandpass response to separately filter the optical carrier and one of the sidebands generated by the phase modulation. Thus we could achieve a bandpass MPF. Moreover, as the central frequencies and bandwidths of the two bandpass response can be tuned by adjusting the laser wavelength and voltages applied on one MRR, the central operating frequency or 3-dB bandwidth of the MPF can be continuously tuned in wide ranges respectively. A proof-of-concept experiment illustrates a central frequency tuning range from 19 GHz to 40 GHz, and a wide bandwidth tuning range from 5.5 GHz to 17.5 GHz.

  4. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, Semere A; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable new acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with periods as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in the new devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a novel scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  5. A novel phase noise measurement of phase modulation microwave photonic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanyi; Gao, Yingjie; Yang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    Microwave photonic links can provide many advantages over traditional coaxial due to its low loss, small size, lightweight, large bandwidth and immunity to external interference. In this paper, a novel phase noise measurement system is built, since the input signal and the power supply noise can be effectively cancelled by a two-arm configuration without the phase locking. Using this approach, the phase noise performance of the 10-GHz phase modulation photonic link has been measured for the first time, evaluated the values of -124 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset and -132 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset is obtained. Theoretical analysis on the phase noise measurement system calibration is also discussed.

  6. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadesse, Semere A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo, E-mail: moli@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  7. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored

  8. Wide-open, high-resolution microwave/millimeter-wave Doppler frequency shift estimation using photonics technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Xihua; Li, Wangzhe; Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    Today, wide-open, high-resolution Doppler frequency shift (DFS) estimation is essential for radar, microwave/millimeter-wave, and communication systems. Using photonics technology, an effective approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, providing a high-resolution and frequency-independent solution. In the approach consisting of two cascaded opto-electronic modulators, DFS between the transmitted microwave/ millimeter-wave signal and the received echo signal is mapped into a double...

  9. Deterministic control of all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency in coherently-coupled silicon photonic crystal cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaodong; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2008-01-01

    Quantum coherence in atomic systems has led to fascinating outcomes, such as laser cooling and trapping, Bose-Einstein condensates, and electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT). In EIT, the sharp cancellation of medium absorption has led to phenomena such as lasing without inversion, freezing light, and dynamic storage of light in a solid-state system. Similar to atomic systems, EIT-like effects can be observed through classical and optical means. Here we report the first experimental deterministic tuning of all-optical analogue to EIT in coherently-coupled standing-wave photonic crystal cavities. Our observations include transparency-resonance lifetimes more than three times the single loaded cavity, Fano-type lineshapes, and stepwise control of the coherent cavity-cavity interference. Our system, with wavelength-scale localization and coupled to a single waveguide, is analyzed well through the coupled-mode formalism which examines the delay in both transparency- and Fano-like lineshapes. Our observati...

  10. Stability of Continental Lithosphere based on Analogue Experiments with Microwave Induced Internal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Loic; Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Continental lithosphere is usually depicted as the upper conductive layer of the Earth. Its formation is achieved through melt depletion that generates a residue that is less dense and more viscous than the underlying convecting mantle. As it is cooled from above, continental lithosphere can develop its own convective currents and may become unstable depending on its thickness and density contrast with the mantle. But chemical differentiation due to mantle magmatism also enriches continental lithosphere in heat producing elements. According to present estimates, the Earth's mantle may have lost as much as half of its radioactive elements in favour of continental crust and this stratified redistribution of heat sources has two main effects. First, mantle convection vigor decreases and becomes increasingly sensitive to heat supply from the core. Second, localized heat production at the top surface increases the continental insulating effects and competes against lithospheric instabilities. In the present study, we focus on the later and we determine which amount of internal heating is required to keep the lithosphere stable for a given rate of cooling from the top. The physics underlying instability triggering corresponds to the problem of a two differentially heated layered system cooled from above, where the top layer is less dense and more viscous than the bottom one, representative of the lithosphere-mantle system. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this layered type of convection. Here, we present a state of the art laboratory setup to generate internal heating in controlled conditions based on microwave (MW) absorption. The volumetric heat source can be localized in space and its intensity can be varied in time. Our tank prototype has horizontal dimensions of 30 cm x 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions are imposed at

  11. Low power, chip-based stimulated Brillouin scattering microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh selectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pagani, Mattia; Pant, Ravi; Choi, Duk-Yong; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Highly selective and reconfigurable microwave filters are of great importance in radio-frequency signal processing. Microwave photonic (MWP) filters are of particular interest, as they offer flexible reconfiguration and an order of magnitude higher frequency tuning range than electronic filters. However, all MWP filters to date have been limited by trade-offs between key parameters such as tuning range, resolution, and suppression. This problem is exacerbated in the case of integrated MWP filters, blocking the path to compact, high performance filters. Here we show the first chip-based MWP band-stop filter with ultra-high suppression, high resolution in the MHz range, and 0-30 GHz frequency tuning. This record performance was achieved using an ultra-low Brillouin gain from a compact photonic chip and a novel approach of optical resonance-assisted RF signal cancellation. The results point to new ways of creating energy-efficient and reconfigurable integrated MWP signal processors for wireless communications an...

  12. Tunable coherence-free microwave photonic bandpass filter based on double cross gain modulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W

    2012-10-01

    A tunable, coherence-free, high-resolution microwave photonic bandpass filter, which is compatible to be inserted in a conventional fiber optic link, is presented. It is based on using two cross gain modulation based wavelength converters in a recursive loop. The double cross gain modulation technique solves the semiconductor optical amplifier facet reflection problem in the conventional recursive structure; hence the new microwave photonic signal processor has no coherent interference and no phase-induced intensity noise. It allows arbitrary narrow-linewidth telecommunication-type lasers to be used while enabling stable filter operation to be realized. The filter passband frequency can be tuned by using a wavelength tunable laser and a wavelength dependent time delay component. Experimental results demonstrate robust high-resolution bandpass filter operation with narrow-linewidth sources, no phase-induced intensity noise and a high signal-to-noise ratio performance. Tunable coherence-free operation of the high-resolution bandpass filter is also demonstrated. PMID:23188262

  13. Simulation of 60-GHz microwave photonic filters based on serially coupled silicon microring resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke Zhang; Xue Feng; Yidong Huang

    2012-01-01

    The microwave photonic filters (MPFs) based on serially coupled silicon microring resonators (MRRs) are theoretically analyzed for the application of 60-GHz millimeter wave wireless personal area networks.This is achieved by calculating the improvement of bit error ratio (BER).According to the simulation results,the requirement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received data can be reduced by 14 dB for the same BER with and without MPFs.The performance of the MPF with five serially coupled microring structures is better than that of the MPF with a single microring,owing to the improvement of the shape factor.%The microwave photonic filters (MPFs) based on serially coupled silicon microring resonators (MRRs) are theoretically analyzed for the application of 60-GHz millimeter wave wireless personal area networks. This is achieved by calculating the improvement of bit error ratio (BER). According to the simulation results, the requirement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received data can be reduced by 14 dB for the same BER with and without MPFs. The performance of the MPF with five serially coupled microring structures is better than that of the MPF with a single microring, owing to the improvement of the shape factor.

  14. Microwave generation with photonic frequency octupling using a DPMZM in a Sagnac loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongsheng; Wen, Aijun; Li, Ningning; Wu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huixing

    2015-09-01

    A photonic microwave signal generation scheme with frequency octupling is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on bi-directional use of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) in a Sagnac loop. The two sub-modulators in the DPMZM are driven by two low-frequency signals with a π/2 phase difference, and the dc biases of the modulator are all set at the maximum transmission points. Due to the velocity mismatch of the modulator, only the light wave along the clockwise direction is effectively modulated by the drive signals to generate an optical signal with a carrier and ±4th order sidebands, while the modulation of the light wave along the counterclockwise direction is far less effective and can be ignored. By properly adjusting the polarization of the light wave output from the Sagnac loop, the optical carrier can be significantly suppressed at a polarizer, and then an optical signal with only ±4th order sidebands is generated. In the experiment, a pure 24-GHz microwave signal without additional phase noise from the optical system is generated using a 3-GHz local oscillator signal. As no electrical or optical filter is used, the photonic frequency octupler is of good frequency tunability.

  15. All-optical tuning of a nonlinear silicon microring assisted microwave photonic filter: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yun; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-13

    We propose and demonstrate an all-optical tuning mechanism to tune the response of a microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a nonlinear silicon microring resonator (MRR). The tuning mechanism relies on the optical nonlinearities induced resonant wavelength shift in the silicon MRR, leading to the change of frequency difference between the optical carrier frequency and resonant frequency of the silicon MRR. A detailed theoretical model is established to describe the operation of the proposed all-optical tunable MPF. Two cases are studied in the experiment, i.e. the optical carrier frequency is located at the left or right side of the MRR resonant frequency. Both forward and backward pumping configurations in each case are demonstrated. Using the fabricated silicon MRR and exploiting light to control light, the central frequency of the notch MPF can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the pump light power. Moreover, the presented all-optical tuning mechanism might also facilitate interesting applications such as microwave switching and microwave modulation. PMID:26191838

  16. Generation of triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-06-16

    We report a novel approach to generating full-duty-cycle triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter (MPF) with negative coefficient. It is known that the Fourier series expansion of a triangular waveform has only odd-order harmonics. In this work, the undesired even-order harmonics are suppressed by the MPF that has a periodic transmission response. A triangular waveform at fundamental frequency can be generated by setting the bias of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at quadrature point. However, it is found that a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter has to be used after photodetection to adjust the phases of odd-order harmonics. Alternatively, a frequency doubling triangular waveform can be generated by setting the bias of the MZM at maximum or minimum transmission point. This approach is more promising because the broadband microwave phase shifter is no longer required in this case but it is more power consuming. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. PMID:24977593

  17. Novel microwave photonic fractional hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Khan, M.R.H.; Beeker, W.; Leinse, A.; Heideman, R.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonatorbased optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonator allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The performance ana

  18. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  19. Hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave to infrared wavelength regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Weining

    Recently, we have introduced a new class of hyperuniform disordered (HUD) photonic bandgap (PBG) materials enabled by a novel constrained optimization method for engineering the material's Fourier transform to be continuous, isotropic and stealthy. Their structure factor S (k) is equal to zero for small kand exhibits a broad ring of maximum values around a characteristic wave-length range. Experimentally, an isotropic complete PBG (at all angles and for all polarizations) in an alumina-based HUD structure and single-polarized PBGs for plastic-based HUD structure have been demonstrated. Using measured and simulated transmission and phase delay information through these HUD structures, we also unfolded their band structures and reconstructed the effective dispersion relations of propagating electromagnetic modes in them. The intrinsic isotropy in these disordered structures is an inherent advantage associated with the lack of crystalline order, offering unprecedented freedom for functional defect design impossible to achieve in photonic crystals. In the microwave regime, we have shown the creation of freeform waveguides, which can channel photons robustly along arbitrarily curved paths and around sharp bends, and be decorated with defects to produce sharply resonant structures useful for filtering and frequency splitting. Recent simulation and experimental results for waveguides and modulators based on submicron-scale planar hyperuniform disordered PBG structures further highlight their ability to serve as highly compact, flexible and energy-efficient platforms for photonic integrated circuits. NSF DMR-1308084, EPSRC (UK) DTG Grant KD5050, EPSRC (UK) Strategic Equipment Grant EP/M008576/1, NSF SBIR-1345168, NSF MRI-1040444.

  20. Magnetic-field tunable multichannel filter in a plasma photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Wen; Chien, Jia-Ren Chang; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2016-02-01

    The microwave magnetic-field tunable filtering properties in a multichannel filter based on use of a one-dimensional finite magnetized plasma photonic crystal (PPC) are theoretically investigated. The considered PPC has a structure of air/(AB)N/air, where A is a dielectric layer, B is a plasma layer, and N is the stack number. First, in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field, the structure can work as a multichannel filter whose channel number is equal to N-1 for N>1. Next, in the presence of an externally applied field, the filtering properties become tunable, i.e., the channel frequencies can be shifted as a function of the applied magnetic field. We find that the effect of the magnetic field will cause the channel frequencies to be blue-shifted or red-shifted depending on the orientation of the applied magnetic field. PMID:26836104

  1. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  2. Microwave photonic link with improved phase noise using a balanced detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Gu, Yiying; Tan, Wengang; Zhu, Wenwu; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-07-01

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with improved phase noise performance using a dual output Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM) and balanced detection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fundamental concept of the approach is based on the two complementary outputs of DP-MZM and the destructive combination of the photocurrent in balanced photodetector (BPD). Theoretical analysis is performed to numerical evaluate the additive phase noise performance and shows a good agreement with the experiment. Experimental results are presented for 4 GHz, 8 GHz and 12 GHz transmission link and an 11 dB improvement of phase noise performance at 10 MHz offset is achieved compared to the conventional intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) MPL.

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering gain bandwidth reduction and applications in microwave photonics and optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is one of the most dominant nonlinear effects in standard single-mode fibers and its unique spectral characteristics, especially the narrow bandwidth, enable many different applications. Most of the applications would benefit from a narrower bandwidth. Different methods for the bandwidth reduction of SBS in optical fibers are presented and discussed. A bandwidth reduction down to 17% of the natural gain can be achieved by the superposition of the gain with two losses or the utilization of a multistage system. Furthermore, applications in the field of microwave photonics and optical signal processing like high-resolution spectroscopy of communication signals, the storage of optical data packets as well as the processing of frequency combs including generation of millimeter waves and ideal sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses are presented.

  4. Hybrid Active-Passive Microwave Photonic Filter with High Quality Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid high quality factor (Q-factor) microwave photonic filter with a cascaded active filter and a passive filter is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The active infinite impulse response filter is realized by a recirculating delay line loop with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and a much narrower 3 dB bandwidth of response peaks can be achieved. A passive finite impulse response filter is realized by an unbalance Mach–Zehnder interferometer, and it is cascaded to select the desired filter frequencies and to suppress the intermediate peaks. Compared with the purely active filter scheme, the free spectrum range and the Q-factor of the hybrid structure can be doubled. Stable operation and a high Q-factor of 362 are experimentally demonstrated

  5. Correlated Cooper pair transport and microwave photon emission in the dynamical Coulomb blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkangas, Juha; Fogelström, Mikael; Marthaler, Michael; Johansson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically electromagnetic radiation emitted by inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling. We consider a dc-voltage-biased superconducting transmission line terminated by a Josephson junction. We show that the generated continuous-mode electromagnetic field can be expressed as a function of the time-dependent current across the Josephson junction. The leading-order expansion in the tunneling coupling, similar to the P (E ) theory, has previously been used to investigate the photon emission statistics in the limit of sequential (independent) Cooper-pair tunneling. By explicitly evaluating the system characteristics up to the fourth order in the tunneling coupling, we account for dynamics between consecutively tunneling Cooper pairs. Within this approach we investigate how temporal correlations in the charge transport can be seen in the first- and second-order coherences of the emitted microwave radiation.

  6. A Cascaded Incoherent Spectrum Sliced Transversal Photonic Microwave Filters-An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Jeyachitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the performance of a simple, incoherent spectrum sliced microwave photonic filter is presented. This filter structure is based on cascading of two incoherent fiber Fabry -Pérot filters as a slicing element of a broadband optical source. The filter performance is studied by measuring the overall Free Spectral Range, 3dB Bandwidth, Quality factor and Main Lobe to Sidelobe Suppression level for different modes of connecting the filter in cascadedconfiguration. Also simulation results are presented. The Characteristics of cascaded FP filters with different configurations are tabulated. The estimated performances show that this cascaded filter combination can be tuned over the frequency from 4.6GHz to 18 GHz with very good sidelobe suppression level.

  7. Microwave response and photon emission of a voltage baised Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Salha; Grimm, Alexander; Hazra, Dibyendu; Hofheinz, Max

    The readout of superconducting qubits requires amplifiers combining noise close to the quantum limit, high gain, large bandwidth, and sufficient dynamic range. Josephson parametric amplifiers using Josephson junctions in the 0-voltage state, driven by a large microwave signals, begin to perform sufficiently well in all 4 of these aspects to be of practical use, but remain difficult to optimize and use. Recent experiments with superconducting circuits consisting of a DC voltage-biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator, showed that a tunneling Cooper pair can emit one or several photons with a total energy of 2e times the applied voltage. We present microwave reflection measurements on this device indicating that amplification is possible with a simple DC voltage-biased Josephson junction. We compare these measurements with the noise power emitted by the junction and show that, for low Josephson energy, transmission and noise emission can be explained within the framework of P(E) theory of inelastic Cooper pair tunneling. Combined with a theoretical model, our results indicate that voltage-biased Josephson junctions might be useful for amplification near the quantum limit, offering simpler design and a different trade-off between gain, bandwidth and dynamic range.

  8. Analogue of Rashba pseudo-spin-orbit coupling in photonic lattices by gauge field engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Y.; Bandres, M. A.; Stützer, S.; Lumer, Y.; Rechtsman, M. C.; Szameit, A.; Segev, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present, theoretically and experimentally, the observation of the Rashba effect in photonic lattices, where the effect is brought about by an artificial gauge field, induced by the geometry of the system. In doing that, we demonstrate a particular form of coupling between pseudospin and momentum, resulting in spin-dependent shifts in the spectrum. Our system consists of two coupled, oppositely tilted waveguide arrays, where the evolution of an optical beam allows for probing the dynamics of the evolving wave packets, and the formation of spectral splitting. We show that the Rashba effect can be amplified or decreased through optical nonlinear effects, which correspond to mean-field interactions in various systems such as cold-atom lattices and exciton-polariton condensates.

  9. [INVITED] Cascade FBGs distributed sensors interrogation using microwave photonics filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia L.; Hervás, Javier; Sales, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    Systems to interrogate photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are illustrated and experimentally validated. The FBGs-based devices are used as quasi-distributed sensors and have demonstrated their ability to detect and measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The overall idea beyond this work has been borne out and demonstrated step by step starting from preliminary test that have led to the development of a very-long distributed sensor based on an array of 500 equal and weak FBGs. Firstly, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the MWP filtering technique to interrogate a 10 cm-long high reflectivity (≈99%) FBG. Then, a pair of low-reflectivity (<6%) FBGs has been employed as sensing device. The latter has laid the foundation for the development and implementation of a 5 m-long fiber optic sensor based on 500 very weak FBGs. Spot events have been detected with a good spatial accuracy of less than 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of only 500 MHz. The simple proposed schemes result cost effective, intrinsically robust against environmental changes and easy to reconfigure.

  10. Dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven by a cavity photon and microwave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Li, Xue; Shi-Deng, Zhu; Ju, Liu; Ting-Hui, Xiao; Bao-Hua, Feng; Zhi-Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven simultaneously by a cavity photon and microwave field by examining the atomic population evolution. Owing to the coupling effect of the cavity photon, periodical oscillation of the population between the two upper states and the ground state takes place, which is the well-known vacuum Rabi oscillation. Meanwhile, the population exchange between the upmost level and the middle level can occur due to the driving action of the external microwave field. The general dynamic behavior is the superposition of a fast and a slow periodical oscillation under the cooperative and competitive effect of the cavity photon and the microwave field. Numerical results demonstrate that the time evolution of the population is strongly dependent on the atom–cavity coupling coefficient g and Rabi frequency Ω e that reflects the intensity of the external microwave field. By modulating the two parameters g and Ω e, a large number of population transfer behaviors can be achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434017 and 11374357) and the National Basics Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632704).

  11. Dense wavelength division multiplexing photonic transport for radio frequency and microwave wireless services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Arthur C.; Jemison, William D.; Borlando, Javier; Wang, Jun

    2004-10-01

    The expected increase in space and terrestrial services that include two-way fixed, SATCOM, CATV and mobile wireless services require expanding the system capacity. This expansion has created an opportunity for the utilization of the demonstrated photonic transport systems in wireless networks. System demonstrations and architectural developments have been proposed for distribution of communication services over fiber. Termed Fiber Radio and Hybrid Fiber Wireless, these systems offer the potential to improve services and reduce base station costs through increased bandwidth and ease of installation. We have developed and demonstrated DWDM broadband photonic transport systems able to meet the requirements for IS-95 Personal Communications Services operating at 1.9 GHz and Broadband Wireless Internet operating over the band of 2.5 to 2.7 GHz. Each DWDM channel operates from 1 to 3 GHz transporting services up to 80 Km. Solutions are being sought for low cost transmitters to meet DWDM SATCOM system requirements include extending the transmission distance to over 100 Km with a bandwidth that exceeds multiple octaves. These new requirements put high performance demands on the optical components. We have developed high performance transmitters based on electro-absorption modulated lasers (EML) that can meet SATCOM requirements. We have shown that the EML is capable of providing the required CNR of 32 dB for satellite transmission in the band of 950 to 2150 MHz over a 100 Km distance. In addition, we are investigating a new modulation technique, Microwave Photonic Vector Modulation (MPVM), which has the potential for wideband transmission in DWDM systems.

  12. Si3N4 ring resonator-based microwave photonic notch filter with an ultrahigh peak rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Roeloffzen, Chris; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, Rene; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple technique in microwave photonic (MWP) signal processing that allows the use of an optical filter with a shallow notch to exhibit a microwave notch filter with anomalously high rejection level. We implement this technique using a low-loss, tunable Si3N4 optical ring resonator as the optical filter, and achieved an MWP notch filter with an ultra-high peak rejection > 60 dB, a tunable high resolution bandwidth of 247-840 MHz, and notch frequency tuning of 2-8 GHz. To our knowl...

  13. Spin-wave band-pass filters based on yttrium iron garnet films for tunable microwave photonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Drozdovskii, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on development of tunable band-pass microwave filters for microwave photonic generators. The filters were fabricated with the use of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films. Principle of operation of the filters was based on excitation, propagation, and reception of spin waves. In order to obtain narrow pass band, the filtering properties of excitation and reception antennas were exploited. The filters demonstrated insertion losses of 2-3 dB, bandwidth of 25-35 MHz, and tuning range of up to 1.5 GHz in the range 3-7 GHz.

  14. Tunable photonic microwave notch filter using SOA-based single-longitudinal mode, dual-wavelength laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanil; Lee, Ju Han; Lee, Sang Bae

    2009-07-20

    A novel photonic microwave notch filter with capability of frequency tuning is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based, single longitudinal mode, wavelength-spacing tunable dual-wavelength fiber laser and a dispersive fiber delay line. By using a symmetrical S-bending technique along the FBGs, the wavelength spacing of the laser can be tuned, which enables the microwave notch frequency tuning. Experimental results show that the notch rejection of more than 30 dB and the flexible tunability of notch frequency can be readily achieved in the range of 1.2 approximately 6.7 GHz. PMID:19654727

  15. Si3N4 ring resonator-based microwave photonic notch filter with an ultrahigh peak rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David; Pant, Ravi; Roeloffzen, Chris; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, Rene; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple technique in microwave photonic (MWP) signal processing that allows the use of an optical filter with a shallow notch to exhibit a microwave notch filter with anomalously high rejection level. We implement this technique using a low-loss, tunable Si3N4 optical ring resonator as the optical filter, and achieved an MWP notch filter with an ultra-high peak rejection > 60 dB, a tunable high resolution bandwidth of 247-840 MHz, and notch frequency tuning of 2-8 GHz. To our knowledge, this is a record combined peak rejection and resolution for an integrated MWP filter.

  16. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Martijn J. R; Sudharsanan Srinivasan; Davenport, Michael L; Bowers, John E.

    2015-01-01

    A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium p...

  17. Structure Determination of Cisplatin-Amino Acid Analogues by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenchen; Bao, Xun; Zhu, Yanlong; Strobehn, Stephen; Kimutai, Bett; Nei, Y.-W.; Chow, C. S.; Rodgers, M. T.; Gao, Juehan; Oomens, J.

    2015-06-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of relevant drug and chemical probe design, both experimental and theoretical studies were performed on a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, including glycine-, lysine-, and ornithine-linked cisplatin, Gplatin, Kplatin, and Oplatin, respectively. Cisplatin, the first FDA-approved platinum-based anticancer drug, has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Its pharmacological mechanism has been identified as its ability to coordinate to genomic DNA, and guanine is its major target. In previous reports, cisplatin was successfully utilized as a chemical probe to detect solvent accessible sites in ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Among the amino-acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin exhibits preference for adenine over guanine. The mechanism behind its different selectivity compared to cisplatin may relate to its potential of forming a hydrogen bond between the carboxylate group in Pt (II) complex and the 6-amino moiety of adenosine stabilizes A-Oplatin products. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis also indicates that different coordination sites of Oplatin on adenosine affect glycosidic bond stability. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on all three amino acid-linked cisplatin to characterize their structures. An extensive theoretical study has been performed on Gplatin to guide the selection of the most effective theory and basis set based on its geometric information. The results for Gplatin provide the foundation for characterization of the more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives, Oplatin and Kplatin. Structural and energetic information elucidated for these compounds, particularly Oplatin reveal the reason for its alternative selectivity compared to cisplatin.

  18. Photonic microwave amplification for radio-over-fiber links using period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2013-09-01

    For radio-over-fiber links, microwave-modulated optical carriers with high optical modulation depth are preferred because high optical modulation depth allows generation of high microwave power after photodetection, leading to high detection sensitivity, long transmission distance, and large link gain. This study investigates the period-one nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers for optical modulation depth improvement to achieve photonic microwave amplification through modulation sideband enhancement. In our scheme, only typical semiconductor lasers are required as the amplification unit. The amplification is achieved for a broad microwave range, from less than 25 GHz to more than 60 GHz, and for a wide gain range, from less than 10 dB to more than 30 dB. The microwave phase quality is mainly preserved while the microwave power is largely amplified, improving the signal-to-noise ratio up to at least 25 dB. The bit-error ratio at 1.25 Gbits/s is better than 10(-9), and a sensitivity improvement of up to at least 15 dB is feasible. PMID:23988956

  19. Verification of a plasma photonic crystal for microwaves of millimeter wavelength range using two-dimensional array of columnar microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally verified that a microplasma assembly can create a functional dielectric layer for the propagation of electromagnetic waves as a ''plasma photonic crystal.'' A two-dimensional array in a square lattice was composed of columnar plasmas of about 2 mm in diameter, and the transmitted microwaves at 70-75 GHz showed a change of energy flow direction. This result is attributed to the fact that periodical structure is composed of individual plasma columns with a different dispersion than the ambient part and the experimental frequency range lies in the vicinity of the lowest band gap of the photonic crystal calculated theoretically

  20. Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianwen; Sun, Changzheng; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Wang, Lai; Han, Yanjun; Hao, Zhibiao; Li, Hongtao; Luo, Yi; Yan, Jianchang; Wei, Tong Bo; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Junxi

    2016-08-01

    An all-optically tunable microwave photonic phase shifter is demonstrated based on an epitaxial aluminum nitride (AlN) microring with an intrinsic quality factor of 3.2×106. The microring adopts a pedestal structure, which allows overcoupling with 700 nm gap size and facilitates the fabrication process. A phase shift for broadband signals from 4 to 25 GHz is demonstrated by employing the thermo-optic effect and the separate carrier tuning technique. A phase tuning range of 0°-332° is recorded with a 3 dB radio frequency (RF) power variation and 48 mW optical power consumption. In addition, AlN exhibits intrinsic second-order optical nonlinearity. Thus, our work presents a novel platform with a low propagation loss and the capability of electro-optic modulation for applications in integrated microwave photonics. PMID:27472628

  1. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-coupled three-levelΛ-type atom in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous emission spectrum of a three-level Λ-type atom driven by a microwave field was studied. For the two transitions coupled to the same modified reservoir, we discussed the influence of photonic band gap and Rabi frequency of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. The emission spectrum is given for different locations of the upper band-edge frequency. With the transition frequencies moving from outside the band gap to inside, the number of peaks decreases in the emission spectrum and the multipeak structure of spectral line is finally replaced by a strong non-Lorentzian shape. With increase of the Rabi frequency of the microwave field, we find the spectral line changes from a multipeak structure to a two-peak structure, originating from the inhibition of spontaneous emission for the corresponding decay channel.

  2. The Influence of Optical Filtering on the Noise Performance of Microwave Photonic Phase Shifters Based on SOAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloret, Juan; Ramos, Francisco; Xue, Weiqi;

    2011-01-01

    Different optical filtering scenarios involving microwave photonic phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers are investigated numerically as well as experimentally with respect to noise performance. Investigations on the role of the modulation depth and number of elements in cascaded...... shifting stages are also carried out. Suppression of the noise level by more than 5 dB has been achieved in schemes based on band-pass optical filtering when three phase shifting stages are cascaded....

  3. Reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on parallel-cascaded microrings assisted with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on parallel-cascaded silicon microrings is proposed and demonstrated with numerical simulation. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is introduced between two adjacent microrings. Through tuning the MZI, the feedback ratios of adjacent rings can be tuned so that both the bandwidth and shape of filter response can be adjusted while the central wavelength remains constant and the sidelobes can also be remarkably suppressed. (paper)

  4. Microwave photonic filter with multiple independently tunable passbands based on a broadband optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long; Chen, Dalei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Peng; Lu, Linlin; Pu, Tao; Chen, Xiangfei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel microwave photonic filter (MPF) with multiple independently tunable passbands is proposed. A broadband optical source (BOS) is employed and split by a 1:N coupler into several branches. One branch is directed to a phase modulator which is modulated by a radio frequency signal and the other branches are delayed by optical delay lines (ODLs), respectively. All of these branches are combined by another 1:N coupler and sent to a dispersion compensation fiber which is used to introduce group delay dispersion to the optical signal. At a photodetector, each time-delayed broadband lightwave beating with the sidebands produced by the phase modulator forms a passband of the MPF. By tuning the delay of each broadband lightwave, the center frequency of the passband can be independently tuned. An MPF with two independently tunable passbands is experimentally demonstrated. The two passbands can be tuned from DC to 30 GHz with a 3-dB bandwidth of about 250 MHz. The stability and dynamic range of the MPF are also evaluated. By employing more branches delayed by ODLs, more passbands can be generated. PMID:26480071

  5. Simplified photonic-assisted digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Liu, Xinkai; Li, Peixuan; Yan, Xianglei

    2016-08-01

    A simplified photonic approach to implement digitalized microwave frequency measurement with improved coding efficiency and receiving sensitivity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed approach, an optical phase-shifted filter array and multiple optical filters with multiplied FSRs are designed to obtain digitalized results in the form of binary encoding. Thanks to the complementary outputs, an adaptive threshold decision implemented using balanced receivers is employed to perform binary encoding, instead of a fixed power ratio threshold of 0.5, leading to an improvement in the receiving sensitivity. Besides, a high coding efficiency and a fine measurement resolution are achieved with relaxed accuracy requirement on phase shifts of the optical filters. In particular, compared with the previous approaches, larger tolerances on the phase shifts of the optical phase-shifted filters are provided in the proposed approach having the same coding efficiency and resolution. Therefore, the proposed system is easy to be implemented and robust to noise. A proof-of-concept experiment is then performed. 6-bit binary digital results with a 5-bit effective number are obtained in the range from 10 GHz to 40 GHz. In addition, an integrated version of such a filter array is designed and analyzed in simulation.

  6. Resolution-improved in situ DNA hybridization detection based on microwave photonic interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Guo, Tuan; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Dandan; Ran, Yang; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-19

    In situ bio-sensing system based on microwave photonics filter (MPF) interrogation method with improved resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) is used as sensing probe for DNA hybridization detection. Different from the traditional wavelength monitoring technique, we use the frequency interrogation scheme for resolution-improved bio-sensing detection. Experimental results show that the frequency shift of MPF notch presents a linear response to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) change over the range of 1.33 to 1.38, with a SRI resolution up to 2.6 × 10(-5) RIU, which has been increased for almost two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional fundamental mode monitoring technique (~3.6 × 10(-3) RIU). Due to the high Q value (about 27), the whole process of DNA hybridization can be in situ monitored. The proposed MPF-based bio-sensing system provides a new interrogation method over the frequency domain with improved sensing resolution and rapid interrogation rate for biochemical and environmental measurement. PMID:26480367

  7. An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

    2013-07-15

    An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:23938489

  8. Linearization of microwave photonic link based on nonlinearity of distributed feedback laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zi-jian; Gu, Yi-ying; Zhu, Wen-wu; Fan, Feng; Hu, Jing-jing; Zhao, Ming-shan

    2016-02-01

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) improvement utilizing the nonlinearity of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser is proposed and demonstrated. First, the relationship between the bias current and nonlinearity of a semiconductor DFB laser is experimentally studied. On this basis, the proposed linear optimization of MPL is realized by the combination of the external intensity Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) modulation MPL and the direct modulation MPL with the nonlinear operation of the DFB laser. In the external modulation MPL, the MZM is biased at the linear point to achieve the radio frequency (RF) signal transmission. In the direct modulation MPL, the third-order intermodulation (IMD3) components are generated for enhancing the SFDR of the external modulation MPL. When the center frequency of the input RF signal is 5 GHz and the two-tone signal interval is 10 kHz, the experimental results show that IMD3 of the system is effectively suppressed by 29.3 dB and the SFDR is increased by 7.7 dB.

  9. Microwave-driven plasmas in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon micro-plasmas a few centimetres long are generated at low gas pressure (6 mbar) in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres with 100 µm core diameter, using microwave excitation (2.45 GHz) based on a surfatron, with no damage to the host structure. Electromagnetic simulations assist the design of the surfatron cavity, finding optimal conditions for discharge ignition and maintenance. The plasma characterization reveals an electron density in the range 8 × 1014–1015 cm−3 (estimated from a semi-empirical analysis of the power coupled to the plasma, along the axial-direction) and a gas temperature of 1100–1300 K at the centre of the fibre (measured by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics), thus showing an impressive ionization degree of ∼10−2 for power densities of ∼0.1 MW cm−3. The micro-plasma dynamics is investigated using a self-consistent one-dimensional (radial) fluid model, describing the charged particle and the electron energy transport, the electromagnetic excitation and the gas heating. Model results are used to confirm the diagnostics, revealing an extreme plasma confinement and a steep temperature gradient that give rise to the main operation features of this novel compact UV source. (paper)

  10. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators. PMID:24216825

  11. Microwave photonic true time delay based on cross gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    We experimentally demonstrate microwave time delays in a semiconductor optical amplifier by cross gain modulation. In the counter-propagation configuration, ~10.5ps tunable true time delay over a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz is obtained.......We experimentally demonstrate microwave time delays in a semiconductor optical amplifier by cross gain modulation. In the counter-propagation configuration, ~10.5ps tunable true time delay over a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz is obtained....

  12. Simultaneous microwave photonic and phononic band gaps in piezoelectric-piezomagnetic superlattices with three types of domains in a unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Lei, Da-Jun; Yan, Wen-Yan; Qiu, Feng; Huang, Jian-Quan; Deng, Hai-Ming; Yao, Min

    2016-04-01

    A novel phoxonic crystal using the piezoelectric (PMN-PT) and piezomagnetic (CoFe2O4) superlattices with three types of domains in a unit cell (PPSUC) is present, in which dual microwave photonic and phononic band gaps can be obtained simultaneously. Two categories of phononic band gaps, originating from both the Bragg scattering of acoustic waves in periodic structures at the Brillouin zone boundary and the electromagnetic wave-lattice vibration couplings near the Brillouin zone center, can be observed in the phononic band structures. The general characteristics of the microwave photonic band structures are similar to those of pure piezoelectric or piezomagnetic superlattices, with the major discrepancy being the appearance of nearly dispersionless branches within the microwave photonic band gaps, which show an extremely large group velocity delay. Thus, the properties may also be applied to compact acoustic-microwave devices.

  13. Optically tunable full 360° microwave photonic phase shifter using three cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, Nasrin; Zhang, Weifeng; Yao, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    A broadband optically tunable microwave phase shifter with a tunable phase shift covering the entire 360° range using three cascaded silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators (MRRs) that are optically pumped is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The phase tuning is implemented based on the thermal nonlinear effect in the MRRs. By optically pumping the MRRs, the stored light in the MRRs is absorbed due to two photon absorption (TPA) to generate free carriers, which result in free carrier absorption (FCA). The FCA effect would lead to the heating of the MRRs and cause a redshift in the phase response, which is used to implement a microwave phase shifter with a tunable phase shift. The device is designated and fabricated on an SOI platform, which is experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that by optically pumping the MRRs, a broadband microwave photonic phase shifter with a bandwidth of 7 GHz from 16 to 23 GHz with a tunable phase shift covering the entire 360° phase shift range is achieved.

  14. Second-order coherence of microwave photons emitted by a quantum point contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Fabian; Otten, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Shot noise of electrons that are transmitted with probability T through a quantum point contact (biased at a voltage V0) leads to a fluctuating current that in turn emits radiation in the microwave regime. By calculating the Fano factor F for the case where only a single channel contributes to the transport, it has been shown that the radiation produced at finite frequency ω0 close to e V0/ℏ and at low temperatures is nonclassical with sub-Poissonian statistics (F Fano factor, being a time-averaged quantity, offers only limited information about the system. Here, we calculate the second-order coherence g(2 )(τ ) for this source of radiation. We show that due to the interference of two contributions, two photon processes (leading to bunching) are completely absent at zero temperature for T =50 % . At low temperatures, we find a competition of the contribution due to Gaussian current-current fluctuations (leading to bunching) with the one due to non-Gaussian fluctuations (leading to antibunching). At slightly elevated temperatures, the non-Gaussian contribution becomes suppressed, whereas the Gaussian contributions remain largely independent of temperature. We show that the competition of the two contributions leads to a nonmonotonic behavior of the second-order coherence as a function of time. As a result, g(2 )(τ ) obtains a minimal value for times τ*≃ω0-1 . Close to this time, the second-order coherence remains below 1 at temperatures where the Fano factor is already above 1. We identify realistic experimental parameters that can be used to test the sub-Poissonian nature of the radiation.

  15. Widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Wang, Sun Long; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-12-01

    A widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) with only one optical filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fundamental principle lies in the fact that the suppressed optical carrier of the phase modulated optical signal could be recovered by the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplification effect. When phase modulated optical signals go through an optical filter with a bandpass response, the optical carrier and the upper sidebands suffer from the suppression of the optical filter because they fall in the stopband of that. In our system, the optical carrier could be recovered by the SBS operation around 38 dB. The MPF is achieved by one-to-one mapping from the optical domain to the electrical domain only when one of phase modulated sidebands lies in the bandpass of the optical filter. It shows an excellent selectivity with a 3-dB bandwidth of 170 MHz over a tuning frequency range of 9.5-32.5 GHz. The out-of-band suppression of the MPF is more than 20 dB. Moreover, the MPF shows an excellent shape factor with 10-dB bandwidth of only 520 MHz. The frequency response of the MPF could be widely tuned by changing the frequency difference between the frequency of the optical carrier and the center frequency of the bandpass of the optical filter. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out to verify the proposed approach. PMID:25606864

  16. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J.R. Heck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium phosphide platform. The experimental realization of this device in the hybrid silicon platform showed microwave isolation in the 9 dB–22 dB range. Furthermore, we present a design study on the use of these isolators inside a ring mode-locked laser cavity. Simulations show that unidirectional operation can be achieved, with a 30–50-dB suppression of the counter propagating mode, at limited driving voltages. The potentially low noise and feedback-insensitive operation of such a laser makes it a very promising candidate for use as on-chip microwave or comb generators.

  17. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-oninsulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao;

    2011-01-01

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of...... exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window...... based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level....

  18. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-oninsulator microring resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret J.; Sancho J.; Pu M.; Gasulla I.; YvindSalvador K.; Capmany S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was published in OPTICS EXPRESS and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.012402. Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonato...

  19. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled. PMID:19333263

  20. Microwave photonic filter with two independently tunable passbands based on paralleled fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers and dispersive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Wu, Congxian; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel microwave photonics filter (MPF) with two independently tunable passbands. The MPF is based on a sliced broadband optical source and a dispersive medium, and two paralleled fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers (FMZIs) have been employed as the optical spectrum slicer. A coil of single-mode fiber has been used as a dispersion medium, which introduces time delay for each tap. A stable dual-passband MPF has been obtained, and the experimental results show that each passband of the MPF can be tuned freewill by adjusting the variable optical delay line (VODL) in each of the FMZIs.

  1. Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Ross T; Bucholtz, Frank; Villarruel, Carl A

    2011-03-14

    This paper reports the demonstration of a continuously-tunable true-time delay line for microwave photonics and optical communications capable of high-resolution phase control throughout the 1-100 GHz modulation range. A fiber-coupled device is demonstrated with 75 ps of continuous delay tuning range, 3 dB optical insertion loss, and minimal RF amplitude and phase variation over the 4-18 GHz band. Measured delay ripple was less than 0.2 ps. Theoretical analysis is also presented which indicates scalability to delay tuning ranges over 1000 ps and modulation bandwidths over 10 THz. PMID:21445175

  2. Generation of surface-wave microwave microplasmas in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber based on a split-ring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Florian; Gadonna, Katell; Debord, Benoît; Delahaye, Frédéric; Amrani, Foued; Leroy, Olivier; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah

    2016-05-15

    We report on a new and highly compact scheme for the generation and sustainment of microwave-driven plasmas inside the core of an inhibited coupling Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The microwave plasma generator consists of a split-ring resonator that efficiently couples the microwave field into the gas-filled fiber. This coupling induces the concomitant generation of a microwave surface wave at the fiber core surround and a stable plasma column confined in the fiber core. The scheme allowed the generation of several centimeters long argon microplasma columns with a very low excitation power threshold. This result represents an important step toward highly compact plasma lasers or plasma-based photonic components. PMID:27176984

  3. Wideband 360 degrees microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose;

    2010-01-01

    oscillations, enhanced by optical filtering, in combination with a regeneration stage realized by four-wave mixing effects. This combination provides scalability: three hybrid stages are demonstrated but the technology allows an all-integrated device. The microwave operation frequency limitations of the......In this work we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a continuously tunable 360° microwave phase shifter spanning a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz (up to 40 GHz) by slow light effects. The proposed device exploits the phenomenon of coherent population...

  4. High-Q Optical Resonators for Laser Stabilization in Microwave Photonics Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Bouchier, Aude; Brahimi, Houda; Llopis, Olivier; Cibiel, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    High-Q optical resonators are interesting for microwave oscillators and laser stabilization. We present whispering gallery modes resonators and resonant fibre loops with measured optical quality factors higher than 10^9, and an application.

  5. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using ring resonators for on-chip microwave photonic signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a wideband photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonators allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The implemented all-pass filter p

  6. Photon-assisted Andreev transport and sub-gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, M; Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Sørensen, C B; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, P E

    multiple Andreev reflection processes we observe microwave induced satellites, shifted in voltage by multiples of hf/en, where hf is the photon energy and n is the number of quasi-particle traversals as determined by the Andreev processes. The observed behavior is the analogue of the so-called photon......We report new measurements of microwave-induced perturbations of the sub-harmonic energy gap structures in the current-voltage characteristics of superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions. Around the sub-gap bias voltages associated with the enhanced quasi-particle transfer mediated by...

  7. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2014-01-08

    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Characteristics of a Tunable Microwave Photonics Notch Filter Based on Two Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXianbin; ZHANGXianmin; CHIHao; CHENKangsheng

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the characteristic of a tunable microwave fiber-optic notch flter based on two fiber gratings. The microwave frequency response based on the refiectivities of two fiber gratings is analyzed and the optimum filter condition is obtained. The refiectivity of the first fiber grating can be tuned experimentally by adjusting the wavelength of input light. Experimental results are in agreement with the theory. The largest notch depth is more than 15dB. The free-spectral range can be tuned by altering the length of fiber between two fiber gratings.

  9. Dual-tunable multiferroic active ring filter for microwave photonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitko, V. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical model of a microwave active ring filter based on a ferrite-ferroelectric layered structure serving as a waveguide for spin-electromagnetic waves is developed. An experimental prototype of the device is fabricated and characterized. The device is implemented as an active-ring resonator with a microwave amplifier and a ferrite-ferroelectric delay line. The resonance properties of this system are studied theoretically and experimentally. The results show dual control of central frequency of the filter with magnetic and electric fields. An effective Q-factor of 50 000 and tuning by 5 MHz with an electric field are achieved at 8 GHz.

  10. Quantum Memory for Microwave Photons in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Brian; Grezes, Cécile; Bertet, Patrice; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We propose a multi-mode quantum memory protocol able to store the quantum state of the field in a microwave resonator into an ensemble of electronic spins. The stored information is protected against inhomogeneous broadening of the spin ensemble by spin-echo techniques resulting in memory times...

  11. Tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter based on spectrally sliced broad optical source and phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Liu, Xinkai

    2013-01-10

    A tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter (PMF) based on spectrally sliced broadband optical source and phase modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A broadband optical source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) are used to generate continuous optical spectral samples, which are employed to form a finite impulse response filter with a single-bandpass response with the help of a single-mode fiber. A phase modulator is then adopted to eliminate the baseband components in the filtering response. The center frequency of the PMF can be tuned by changing the free spectral range of the MZI. An experiment is performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed PMF has a single-bandpass without baseband components and a tuning range of 5-15 GHz. PMID:23314649

  12. Single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghui; Zhang, Xuping; Hu, Junhui; Xia, Lan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. In the filter, the multiwavelength Brillouin comb generated from the laser is used as the filter taps. The Brillouin comb is with the feature of quasi-Gaussian continuous distribution, which can ensure the filter realizes single-passband characteristic. The baseband response is suppressed effectively with the help of phase modulation. The single-passband filter has an out-of-band rejection of 25 dB. By adjusting the Brillouin multiwavelengh, the 3-dB bandwidth and the center frequency of the filter can be changed.

  13. A tunable dual-passband microwave photonic filter based on optical slicing and dual-path fiber delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Xue, Hao; Wu, Congxian; Huang, Chaohong; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Zhang, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this article, a dual-passband microwave photonics filter (MPF) based on spectrally sliced broadband optical source (BOS) and a dual-path fiber delay line has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Continuous optical samples are obtained when a BOS is sliced by a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI). Dual-passband frequency response has been realized by utilizing two dispersive fiber delay lines with different length and recombining two groups of delayed samples on the photodiode (PD). The proposed dual-passband MPF is stable and the central frequencies of the passbands can be tuned continuously by either changing the free spectral range of the FMZI or the length of dispersive fiber delay lines. Furthermore, multi-passband MPF with desirable passband central frequencies can be achieved by using the proposed technique, which shows good application potentials in the wireless communication and measurement systems.

  14. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao; Gasulla, Ivana; Yvind, Kresten; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-06-20

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level. PMID:21716478

  15. A monolithically integrated dual-mode laser for photonic microwave generation and all-optical clock recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-mode laser (DML) with narrow-beat-linewidth and wide-beat-tunability. Using a monolithic DFB laser subjected to amplified feedback, photonic microwave generation of up to 45 GHz is obtained with higher than 15 GHz beat frequency tunability. Thanks to the high phase correlation of the two modes and the narrow mode linewidth, a RF linewidth of lower than 50 kHz is measured. Simulations are also carried out to illustrate the dual-mode beat characteristic. Furthermore, using the DML, an all-optical clock recovery for 40  Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signals is demonstrated. Timing jitter of lower than 363 fs (integrated within a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 GHz) is obtained. (letter)

  16. Photonic generation of arbitrary waveform microwave pulse based on tunable optoelectronic oscillator and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Yu, Lan

    2016-03-01

    Photonic generation of arbitrary waveform microwave pulse with tunable carrier frequency and phase based on tunable optoelectronic oscillator (TOEO) and a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM) is proposed. Utilizing the frequency tunability of TOEO, the carrier frequency of the microwave signal can be tuned by adjusting the wavelength of the tunable laser source (TLS) and the tunable range can be as large as tens of GHz. By controlling the signals applied to DDMZM, the generation of arbitrary waveform microwave pulse with tunable phase in the range of -180° to 180° is achieved. The proposed scheme can realize the integration of frequency tuning, phase tuning, pulse modulation and radar transmitted waveform generation in the optical domain, which provides a guarantee of transmitting high-quality microwave signal in radar systems.

  17. A continuously tunable multi-tap complex-coefficient microwave photonic filter based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Hiva; Yao, Jianping

    2013-03-25

    The coupling coefficients of the cladding-mode resonances of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) are linearly increasing or decreasing in different wavelength regions. Based on the Kramers-Kronig relations, when the coupling coefficients are linearly increasing, the phase shifts are linearly increasing correspondingly. This feature is employed, for the first time, for the implementation of a multi-tap continuously tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients by using a TFBG. By locating the optical carriers of single-sideband-modulated signals at the cladding-mode resonances of the TFBG which has linearly increasing depths, linearly increasing phase shifts are introduced to the optical carriers. By beating the optical carriers with the single sidebands, the phase shifts are translated to the microwave signals, and thus complex coefficients with the required linearly increasing phase shifts are generated. The tunability of the complex coefficients is realized by optically pumping the TFBG which is written in an erbium/ytterbium (Er/Yb) co-doped fiber. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed; a three- and four-tap filter with a frequency tunable range of 150 and 120 MHz, respectively, are demonstrated. PMID:23546134

  18. Microwave photonic filter with a continuously tunable central frequency using an SOI high-Q microdisk resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing a high-Q microdisk resonator (MDR) on a single silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip, a compact microwave photonic filter (MPF) with a continuously tunable central frequency is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Assisted by the optical single side-band (OSSB) modulation, the optical frequency response of the MDR is mapped to the microwave frequency response to form an MPF with a continuously tunable central frequency and a narrow 3-dB bandwidth. In the experiment, using an MDR with a compact size of 20×20 μm2 and a high Q factor of 1.07×105, we obtain a compact MPF with a high rejection ratio of about 40 dB, a 3-dB bandwidth of about 2 GHz, and a frequency tuning range larger than 12 GHz. Our approach may allow the implementation of very compact, low-cost, low-consumption, and integrated notch MPF in a silicon chip. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Photon-assisted tunnelling with nonclassical microwaves in hybrid circuit QED systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souquet, Jean-René; Woolley, Matthew; Gabelli, Julien; Simon, Pascal; Clerk, Aashish

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments where superconducting microwave circuits have been coupled to electrons in semiconductor nanostructures, we study theoretically the interplay of non-classical light produced in a cavity with electron transport through a tunnel junction. We demonstrate that this basic light-matter interaction is naturally characterized by non-positive definite quasi-probability distributions which are intimately connected to the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function. We further demonstrate that this negative quasiprobability has unequivocal signatures on the differential conductance that should be easily detectable in state of art experiments. This thus turns the tunnel junction into a non-trivial probe of the microwave state. We also discuss the non-trivial backaction of the junction current on the cavity.

  20. Microwave photonics for space-time compression of ultrabroadband signals through multipath wireless channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfooliyan, Amir; Weiner, Andrew M

    2013-12-01

    We employed photonic radio frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generation to demonstrate space-time compression of ultrabroadband wireless signals through highly scattering multipath channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental report that explores an RF-photonic transmitter to both characterize channel dispersions in real wireless environments and generate predistorted waveforms to achieve focusing through the multipath channels. Our experiments span a three octave frequency range of 2-18 GHz, nearly an order of magnitude beyond the ~2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth reported in previous spatiotemporal focusing experiments relying on electronic waveform generators. PMID:24281479

  1. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  2. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  3. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  4. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  5. Frequency-tunable optoelectronic oscillator using a dual-mode amplified feedback laser as an electrically controlled active microwave photonic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Pan, Biwei; Chen, Haibo; Zhao, Lingjuan

    2015-09-15

    A widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a self-injection-locked monolithic dual-mode amplified feedback laser (DM-AFL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed OEO structure, the DM-AFL functions as an active tunable microwave photonic filter (MPF). By tuning the injection current applied on the amplifier section of the AFL, tunable microwave outputs ranging from 32 to 41 GHz and single sideband phase noises below -97  dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carriers were realized. PMID:26371931

  6. Third-order intermodulation distortion elimination of microwave photonics link based on integrated dual-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Jiang, Tianwei; Xie, Qian; Gu, Wanyi

    2013-11-01

    A method to realize a highly linear microwave photonics link is proposed based on the dual-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The scheme theoretically eliminates third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) completely by taking all the sidebands in the optical spectrum that cause IMD3 into consideration. Without digital linearization and other optical processors, the method utilizes simple electrical signal phase control. Microwave signals are symmetrically single sideband modulated in the two MZMs. IMD3 suppression of approximately 30 dB is experimentally demonstrated, and the spurious-free dynamic range is improved by 12 dB·Hz2/3. PMID:24177074

  7. Second-order coherence of microwave photons emitted by a quantum point contact

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, Fabian; Otten, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Shot-noise of electrons that are transmitted with probability $T$ through a quantum point contact (biased at a voltage $V_0$) leads to a fluctuating current that in turn emits radiation in the microwave regime. By calculating the Fano factor $F$ for the case where only a single channel contributes to the transport, it has been shown that the radiation produced at finite frequency $\\omega_0$ close to $e V_0/\\hbar$ and at low temperatures is nonclassical with sub-Poissonian statistics ($F

  8. Four-photon microwave laser spectroscopy of molecules in the hydration layers of biopolymers and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four-photon laser scattering spectra of bidistilled water and aqueous solutions of biopolymers (proteins and DNA), carbon nanotubes and hydrogen peroxide have been measured in the range ±10 cm-1. The spectra show rotational resonances of H2O2, ortho-H2O and para-H2O molecules. The resonance contribution of the H2O rotational spectrum to the four-photon scattering signal in the solutions of the biopolymers and hydrophobic nanoparticles is an order of magnitude larger in comparison with water, which points to free rotation of the water molecules near the surface of such particles. This effect is due to the formation of water depletion layers near hydrophobic nanoparticles, as predicted in earlier theoretical studies. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)

  9. Experimental studies of the internal Goos-Hanchen shift for self-collimated beams in two-dimensional microwave photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We study experimentally the Goos-Hanchen effect observed at the reflection of a self-collimated beam from the surface of a two-dimensional photonic crystal and describe a method for controlling the beam reflection through surface engineering. The microwave photonic crystal, fabricated from alumina rods, allows control of the output position of a reflected beam undergoing an internal Goos-Hanchen shift by changing the rod diameter at the reflection surface. The experimental data is in good agreement with the results of the finite-difference time-domain numerical calculations.

  10. Spontaneous and induced radiation by electrons/positrons in natural and photonic crystals. Volume free electron lasers (VFELs): From microwave and optical to X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous and induced radiation produced by relativistic particles passing through natural and photonic crystals has enhanced capabilities for achieving the radiation sources operating in different wavelength ranges. Use of a non-one-dimensional distributed feedback, arising through Bragg diffraction in spatially periodic systems (natural and artificial (electromagnetic, photonic) crystals), establishes the foundation for the development of volume free electron lasers/masers (VFELs/VFEMs) as well as high-energy charged particle accelerators. The analysis of basic principles of VFEL theory demonstrates the promising potential of VFELs as the basis for the development of high-power microwave and optical sources

  11. Noise floor reduction of an Er:fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Haifeng; Quinlan, Franklyn; Fortier, Tara; Diddams, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    The generation of microwaves from optical signals suffers from thermal and shot noise inherent in the photodetection process. This problem is more acute at lower pulse repetition rates where photodiode saturation limits the achievable signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate a 10-15 dB reduction in the 10 GHz phase noise floor by multiplication of the pulse repetition rate. Starting with a 250 MHz fundamentally mode-locked erbium(Er):fiber laser, we compare two different approaches to repetition rate multiplication: Fabry-Perot cavity filtering and a cascaded, unbalanced Mach-Zehnder fiber-based interferometer. These techniques reduce the phase noise floor on the 10 GHz photodetected harmonic to -158 dBc/Hz and -162 dBc/Hz, respectively, for Fourier frequencies higher than 100 kHz.

  12. Performance Enhancement of Spectrum Sliced Photonic Microwave Filter Using Parallel Fabry- Perot Filters With High Profiled Windowing for WDM-ROF Link

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Jeyachitra,; Dr.R.Sukanesh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of spectrum sliced photonic microwave filter for Radio Over Fiber link is characterized. The proposed filter utilizes parallel Fabry-Pérot filters for spectrum slicing of abroadband source. The filter performance is characterized by easuring the overall Free Spectral Range, 3db Bandwidth, Quality factor and Main Lobe to Sidelobe Suppression level for different modes of connecting the filter in parallel. Results showing that the highest tunable frequency 18.3 GH...

  13. High-directivity planar antenna using controllable photonic bandgap material at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate the capability of a controllable photonic bandgap (CPBG) material to conform the emitted radiation of a planar antenna at 12 GHz. The CPBG material is a variable conductance lattice fabricated with high-frequency PIN diodes soldered along metallic stripes on dielectric printed boards. Depending on the diode bias, the emitted radiation of the antenna can be either transmitted or totally reflected by the material. In the transmission state, the antenna radiation is spatially filtered by the CPBG material in a sharp beam perpendicular to the surface of the material. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. 微波光子滤波器的结构原理和设计方法%Structure principles and design methods of microwave photonic filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文文; 忻向军; 张琦

    2011-01-01

    This work demonstrates the filtering principle and basic structure of microwave photonic filter, and describes the design theory of the popular microwave photonic filter . Quality Factor Q is an important indicator, and its size determines the performance of filter frequency selection. this paper illustrates with fiber ring and fiber grating as different time delay unit, lists several typical high-Q microwave photonic filter structure, and analyses the principle of filter cascade;then introduces some methods of generating the negative tap filters.%本文主要研究了微波光子滤波器的滤波原理,分析了滤波器的基本结构,并针对目前的研究热点介绍微波光子滤波器的设计方法。其一项重要指标是高品质因数Q,其大小决定了滤波器的选频性能,分别以光纤环和光纤光栅作为不同的延时单元来举例,列出了几种典型高 Q 值微波光子滤波器的结构,并分析滤波器级联的原理及利用正抽头得到负抽头滤波器的方法。

  15. Four-photon microwave laser spectroscopy of aqueous solutions of biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four-photon laser radiation scattering spectra are obtained in the submillimetre range (75-95 cm-1) for deionised water, aqueous solutions of DNA and α-chymotrypsin protein. Narrow resonances are recorded whose frequencies coincide (within the resolution power of a spectrometer) with rotational frequencies in the ground electronic state and vibrational state of ortho and para isomers of H2O molecule in a gas phase and with the frequencies of the lines of H2O2 and OH- molecules. It is shown that the resonance contribution of the rotational lines of ortho isomers of H2O to the signal of four-photon scattering of native solutions of biopolymers increases by a factor of at least 8 compared to their contribution to the scattering signal in water, and becomes considerably larger than the contribution from the paraisomer lines. Denaturation of DNA after heating and cooling of the solution leads to the disappearance of such selectivity. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  16. Gigahertz single source IIR microwave photonic filter based on coherence managed multi-longitudinal-mode fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanbing; Feng, Xinhuan; Li, Feng; Wang, Xudong; Guan, Baiou; Yuan, Jinhui; Wai, P K A

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, we propose to use a multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) laser as the source of an infinite-impulse response (IIR) microwave photonic filter (MPF) to obtain GHz level free spectral range (FSR). The response function of such an IIR-MPF and the degree of coherence of the laser are discussed theoretically. The degree of coherence of the MLM laser shows a periodic structure which is significantly different to that of single mode lasers. By engineering the degree of coherence of the MLM laser, we are able to control the stability of the IIR-MPFs with different Q factors. It is found that stable IIR-MPF with GHz level FSR can be realized with an MLM laser and its stability can be enhanced if the coherence of the laser is managed. Based on the theoretical analysis, we fabricate an IIR-MPF based on an MLM erbium doped fiber laser. The impacts of the mode spacing Δν and the bandwidth to the stability are investigated experimentally. A stable IIR-MPF with an FSR of 0.59 GHz is realized and the relative fluctuation of the response curve is optimized to be less than 2%. Besides stable response, the IIR-MPF is reconfigurable by tuning the central wavelength of the laser in a range of 20 nm. PMID:25836464

  17. Shifted dispersion-induced radio-frequency fading in microwave photonic filters using a dual-input Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas X H; Minasian, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    A simple microwave photonic processor structure with single passband response, and widely tunable capability, is demonstrated. It is based on the principle of shifted dispersion-induced radio-frequency (RF) fading by using a dual-input Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (EOM) that is fed from a broadband optical source with unbalanced input fiber lengths into the upper and lower arms of the EOM, in combination with a dispersive medium. This topology consequently produces a spectral response equivalent to the curve of the dispersion-induced RF fading that is shifted from the conventional baseband location to high frequencies. Therefore, an equivalent single passband is formed without the requirement of the conventional tap coefficients. Experimental results verify the structure and demonstrate a continuously tunable microwave filter exhibiting shape invariance and a single passband. In addition, the filter response sidelobe suppression is also significantly improved by applying a Gaussian windowed profile to the broadband optical source. PMID:23546278

  18. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field. PMID:20411021

  19. Suppression of Rayleigh backscattering noise using cascaded-SOA and microwave photonic filter for 10 Gb/s loop-back WDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hanlin; Ge, Jia; Xiao, Shilin; Fok, Mable P

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we present a novel Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on central carrier suppression for 10 Gb/s loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Microwave modulated multi-subcarrier optical signal is used as downstream seeding light, while cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are used in the optical network unit (ONU) for suppressing the central carrier of the multi-subcarrier upstream signal. With central carrier suppression, interference generated by carrier RB noise at low frequency region is eliminated successfully. Transmission performance over 45 km single mode fiber (SMF) is studied experimentally, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) can be reduced to 15 dB with central carrier suppression ratio (CCSR) of 21 dB. Receiver sensitivity is further improved by 6 dB with the use of microwave photonic filter (MPF) for suppressing residual upstream microwave signal and residual carrier RB at high frequency region. PMID:24921298

  20. Tunable true-time delay of a microwave photonic signal realized by cross gain modulation in a semiconductor waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the realization of a tunable true-time delay for microwave signals by exploiting cross gain modulation among counter-propagating optical beams in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Broadband operation from ∼5 to ∼35 GHz is observed. The physical effect originates from...... magnitude of the true-time delay and the microwave bandwidth is discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Photon-Photon Interaction in a Photon Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Markus H.

    2000-01-01

    Using the effective Lagrangian for the low energy photon-photon interaction the lowest order photon self energy at finite temperature and in non-equilibrium is calculated within the real time formalism. The Debye mass, the dispersion relation, the dielectric tensor, and the velocity of light following from the photon self energy are discussed. As an application we consider the interaction of photons with the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  2. 基于单通带微波光子滤波的多倍频微波信号产生%Frequency Multiplied Microwave Signal Generation Based on Single Passband Microwave Photonic Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海玲; 潘炜; 陈吉欣; 鄢勃

    2013-01-01

    An approach to generate a microwave signal with multiplication frequency is studied and verified theoretically and experimentally. Based on big signal phase modulation and the dispersion of a single-mode fiber, the high order of microwave harmonic signal is generated. A tunable single passband microwave photonic filter is used to select a specific harmonic signal by tuning the sliced space of broadband optical source. Based on the theoretic analysis, an experimental system is established, and the harmonic signals at 10 GHz and 15 GHz are produced by applying a low-frequency signal at 5 GHz. It can be seen the 10 dB bandwidth of the signal is a few tens hertz, and the power fluctuation is 1 dB~2 dB.%理论分析和实验验证了一种多倍频微波信号的光学产生方法.基于大信号相位调制和单模光纤的色散效应产生多个多倍频谐波,通过引入一个中心频率连续可调的单通带微波光子滤波器,实现了对单个倍频微波信号的提取.调节宽带光源的谱分割间隔可实现倍频微波信号调谐输出.在理论分析的基础上搭建了实验系统,利用5 GHz低频驱动信号得到了10 GHz和15 GHz的微波信号,其10 dB线宽为几十赫兹,功率波动为1 dB~2 dB.

  3. Roll-to-roll compatible sintering of inkjet printed features by photonic and microwave exposure: from non-conductive ink to 40% bulk silver conductivity in less than 15 seconds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelaer, J.; Abbel, R.J.; Wünscher, S.; Jani, R.; Lammeren, T. van; Schubert, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of photonic and microwave flash exposure is used to sinter inkjet printed silver nanoparticles. This approach leads to conductive features on polymer substrates in short times that are compatible with roll-to-roll production. The sequential process of sintering the as-printed features

  4. Microwave Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  5. Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze-Chun; Liu, Qing; Wang, Zhu; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2011-06-20

    A tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter using a cladding-mode coupler together with optical injection locking of large wavelength detuning is demonstrated. Continuous and precise tunability of the filter is realized by physically sliding a pair of bare fibers inside the cladding-mode coupler. Signal inversion for the negative tap is achieved by optical injection locking of a single-mode semiconductor laser. To couple light into and out of the cladding-mode coupler, a pair of matching long-period fiber gratings is employed. The large bandwidth of the gratings requires injection locking of an exceptionally large wavelength detuning that has never been demonstrated before. Experimentally, injection locking with wavelength detuning as large as 27 nm was achieved, which corresponded to locking the 36-th side mode. Microwave filtering with a free-spectral range tunable from 88.6 MHz to 1.57 GHz and a notch depth larger than 35 dB was obtained. PMID:21716440

  6. Photonic generation of tunable microwave signals from a dual-wavelength distributed-Bragg-reflector highly Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photonic generation of tunable microwave signal from a dual-wavelength distributed-Bragg-reflector (DW-DBR) highly Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate fiber laser is presented. Microwave signals centered at ∼15, ∼22 and ∼25 GHz with <10 kHz linewidth were obtained. The laser cavity of the fiber laser consists of a dual-channel narrowband fiber-Bragg-grating (DC-NB-FBG), a 0.4-cm-long Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate fiber and a wideband FBG (WB-FBG). The wavelength selecting gratings are spatially separated to create partially separated resonant cavities. Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate fiber ensures that mode competition is relative weak under low pump power. The short cavity length and the DC-NB-FBG ensure that only one longitudinal mode is supported by each reflection peak. Dual-wavelength single-frequency lasing with laser linewidths of <4 kHz is achieved. (letter)

  7. High Q-factor Sapphire Whispering Gallery Mode Microwave Resonator at Single Photon Energies and milli-Kelvin Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Creedon, Daniel L; Farr, Warrick; Martinis, John M; Duty, Timothy L; Tobar, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The microwave properties of a crystalline sapphire dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator have been measured at very low excitation strength (E/hf=1) and low temperatures (T = 30 mK). The measurements were sensitive enough to observe saturation due to a highly detuned electron spin resonance, which limited the loss tangent of the material to about 2e-8 measured at 13.868 and 13.259 GHz. Small power dependent frequency shifts were also measured which correspond to an added magnetic susceptibility of order 1e-9. This work shows that quantum limited microwave resonators with Q-factors > 1e8 are possible with the implementation of a sapphire whispering gallery mode system.

  8. Novel Photonic RF Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging on recent breakthroughs in broadband photonic devices and components for RF and microwave applications, SML proposes a new type of broadband microwave...

  9. 微波光子滤波器的平坦特性分析%Flat analyzing of the microwave photonic filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁春慧; 裴丽; 宁提纲; 李晶; 安丽靖; 高嵩

    2011-01-01

    随着微波光子学的发展,微波光子滤波器的应用和研究逐步成为研究热点,在深入研究光纤光栅、马赫曾德尔调制器以及掺铒光纤的基础上,提出了一种平坦微波光子滤波器的结构,通过理论计算和仿真,在光纤耦合器耦合系数为0.5、光纤光栅反射率为0.33、掺铒光纤增益为10,以及光纤耦合器耦合系数为0.4、光纤光栅反射率为0.5、掺铒光纤增益为2时,分别实现了平坦带通和平坦带阻响应,对滤波器的平坦条件进行了深入研究,得到了只有当两部分滤波器的延时差相等才能实现平坦的必要条件,并依据此分析了影响滤波器周期的因素,提出了利用曝光光敏光纤增加光纤折射率从而增加滤波器延时的方案,从而补偿了长度控制上的精确度对该结构的限制.%With the development of the microwave photonics, the research and application of the microwave photonic filter have gradually become a hot spot. Based on the study of fiber Bragg grating (FBG), MachZehnder modulator and erbium-doped fiber (EDF), a kind of flat microwave photonic filter was put forward.When the coupler factor was 0.5, the reflectivity of the FBG was 0.33, the gain of the EDF was 10, a flat band pass response was obtained. And when the coupler factor was 0.4, the reflectivity of the FBG was 0.5,the gain of the EDF was 2, a flat band stop response was got. Through deep study of the flat condition, flat could be gained only when the delay difference of the two filters was equal. Based on it, the factor affecting on the period was analyzed and an improved method to increase the filter delay was put forward. Thus, the limit of the precision on the length control was compensated.

  10. Microwave frequency multiplication based on cascaded fiber ring microwave photonic filters%基于级联光纤环微波光子滤波器的微波倍频技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐作为; 付宏燕; 蔡志平

    2014-01-01

    为了得到高倍频的微波信号,实现获得了一种基于外调制技术与级联光纤环微波光子滤波器(FRMPF,fiber ring microwave photonic filters)的新型倍频微波信号光学产生技术.利用外调制的方法,采用大功率信号驱动马赫曾德尔调制器(MZM)得到了高阶谐波信号,再利用级联的FRMPF进行选频.理论计算与实验测试了FRMPF的滤波特性.通过调节每个FRMPF的环长,利用第1个FRMPF将基频信号与三阶谐波滤除,再通过第2个FRMPF将二阶谐波滤除,最终得到四倍频信号.研究结果表明,利用频率为2.018 3 GHz的信号驱动MZM,得到了频率为8.073 2 GHz的四倍频信号,信噪比(SNR)大于13 dB.

  11. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Fandiño, Javier Antonio; Muñoz Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    © [2013 Optical Society of America.]. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content of this paper are prohibited. A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ri...

  12. Flat-top bandpass microwave photonic filter with tunable bandwidth and center frequency based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Yu, Yuan; Cao, Tong; Tang, Haitao; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-07-15

    We propose a flat-top bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) with flexible tunability of the bandwidth and center frequency based on optical nonlinearities in a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier (FP-SOA). Phase-inverted modulation induced by cross-gain modulation (XGM) and optical spectral broadening induced by self-phase modulation (SPM) are exploited to achieve flat-top and bandwidth tuning, respectively. Wideband and continuous tuning of the center frequency is achieved by altering the bias current of the FP-SOA. Experimental results demonstrate a flat-top single-passband MPF with its center frequency tunable from 6.0 to 18.3 GHz by adjusting the bias current from 54.05 to 107.85 mA. The 3-dB bandwidth of the passband when centered at 10.0 GHz is shown to be variable from 680 to 1.43 GHz, by increasing the injected optical power from -1 to +5  dBm. During the bandwidth tuning, the amplitude ripple within the passband is maintained at less than ±0.5  dB. Excellent main to secondary sidelobe ratio exceeding 45 dB is achieved when the MPF is centered at 18.3 GHz. PMID:27420520

  13. Photon findings

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were made using a microwave generator, which sent a narrow beam, through a metallic plate with horizontal movement. At the other end a horn antenna coupled to a field-strength detector. In linear polarization double cycloids paths were found and in circular polarization spiral paths were found. These experiments suggested that the photon is composed by two particles in dynamic equilibrium. The description of this model is given later as well as its parameters.

  14. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    CERN Document Server

    Hisatomi, Ryusuke; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Toyofumi; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Usami, Koji; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single-quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a travelling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses ...

  15. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  16. Photonics-based microwave frequency measurement using a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation and an InP integrated ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-11-01

    A photonic system capable of estimating the unknown frequency of a CW microwave tone is presented. The core of the system is a complementary optical filter monolithically integrated in InP, consisting of a ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a second-order elliptic response. By simultaneously measuring the different optical powers produced by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation at the outputs of the photonic integrated circuit, an amplitude comparison function that depends on the input tone frequency is obtained. Using this technique, a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz (5-15 GHz) with a root mean square value of frequency error lower than 200 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. Moreover, simulations showing the impact of a residual optical carrier on system performance are also provided. PMID:24177082

  17. InGaAs p-i-n Photodiodes for Microwave Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Malyshev, Sergei; Chizh, A.; Andrievski, Vatslav

    2004-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical study of the surface-illuminated InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes for such microwave applications as photonic microwave generation, optical control of microwave circuits and optoelectronic mixing is presented.

  18. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasian, Robert A. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing.

  19. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing

  20. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997

  1. Infinite impulse response-based cascaded microwave photonic filters%基于无限冲激响应的微波光子级联滤波器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐恩明; 王琪; 王飞; 李培丽

    2014-01-01

    为进一步拓展微波光子滤波器的 FSR(自由谱范围)和提高滤波器的Q值,进行了 IIR(无限冲激响应)滤波器分别与FIR(有限冲激响应)滤波器和 IIR滤波器级联的研究。分析了两种级联结构的滤波特性并给出了相应的传输函数。IIR滤波器与FIR滤波器级联后的FSR与Q值是IIR滤波器的2n倍;IIR滤波器与IIR滤波器级联后的FSR是各个IIR滤波器的FSR的最小公倍数。用 Matlab软件仿真验证了两种级联结构的频率响应特性,实验验证了 IIR滤波器与 IIR滤波器的级联特性。IIR滤波器与 IIR滤波器的级联有望实现宽频率范围内的单通带滤波器。%To further expand the Free Spectrum Range (FSR)and increase theQfactor of microwave photonic filters,this paper conducts researches on an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR)filter cascaded respectively with a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter and an IIR filter.Then,it analyzes the filtering characteristics of these two cascaded structures and derives the corre-sponding transfer functions.In the former case,the FSR and the Q factor are 2n times that of the IIR filter and in the latter case,the FSR is the least common multiple of that of each IIR filter.It simulates and verifies the frequency response character-istics of the two structures using the Matlab,and experimentally verifies the cascaded characteristics of an IIR filter with an IIR filter.The cascading of an IIR with an IIR is expected to realize single-passband filtesrs in a wide frequency range.

  2. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  3. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  4. Developing Microwave Photonic Temperature Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Jamgochian, Arec; Torres-Diaz, Alejandra; Filla, James; Strouse, Gregory F; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in exploiting the temperature dependence of sapphire whispering gallery mode frequency to develop a mechanically stable, high accuracy temperature sensor. Disk-resonator-based devices have been demonstrated to measure temperature with .01 K or better accuracy in the temperature range of 273 K to 373 K. Here we have utilized automated data acquisition and processing to rapidly evaluate a mechanically-stabilized sapphire whispering gallery mode resonator based on a hollow cylinder configuration.

  5. The characteristic analysis of microwave photonic filter based on a pair of FBG%一种基于FBG对的微波光子滤波器的特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂奎营; 胡总华; 于坤; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    在深入研究微波光子滤波器理论的基础上,提出了一种基于FBG对的微波光子滤波器结构模型,对其进行了详细的理论分析,并用MATLAB仿真分析了耦合系数、FBG对的反射率、增益光纤长度和增益对系统传输特性的影响.%Based on the thorough research of the theory of the microwave photonic filter,a kind of microwave photonic filter based on a pair of FBG was put forward,the theory of it was detailed analyzed,and simulated the transmission performance with MATLAB,discussed the coefficient of coupling,the reflectivity of the pair of FBG,the length and the gain of the gain fiber make effect on the transmission characteristics of the system.

  6. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  7. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  8. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  9. 光纤光栅群时延纹波对微波光子滤波性能的影响%Influences of group delay ripples of fiber gratings on characteristics of microwave photonic filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈伟伟; 邹喜华; 何梓昂; 潘炜; 罗斌; 闫连山

    2013-01-01

    建立了一种研究光纤光栅群时延纹波(GDR)对微波光子滤波性能影响的理论模型,探讨了群时延纹波对相干光源型和非相干光源型微波光子滤波器性能的影响.基于该理论模型,分别在随机分布的GDR和实测GDR影响下,分析了微波光子滤波器幅频响应、相频响应的演变趋势.相干光源型滤波器中,GDR主要影响体现为陷波点频率的偏移,而非相干光源型滤波器中GDR则导致幅频响应形状和线性相位畸变;而在多抽头情形下,GDR导致边模抑制比下降和消光比劣化.%A theoretical model is established to investigate the influences of the group delay ripples (GDRs) of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) on the characteristics of microwave-photonic filters using a coherent light source or an incoherent light source. Based on this theoretical model, the amplitude-frequency response and phase-frequency response of the microwave-photonic filter are investigated, while random and measured GDR distributions are employed. Results are then achieved for both coherent light source based and incoherent light source based microwave filters. For the coherent light source based filters, the GDRs result in a frequency shift to the notches of amplitude-frequency response. While for the incoherent light source based filters, the distortions to the profile of amplitude-frequency response and to the linear phase are observed due to the existence of GDRs. In addition, for the multi-tap microwave filters, the side-band suppression ratio and the extinction ratio are degraded under the influence of GDRs.

  10. 一阶无限抽头响应微波光子滤波器的品质因数分析%Analysis of quality factor for one-order infinite impulse response microwave photonic filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁春慧; 裴丽; 宁提纲; 李晶; 安丽靖; 高嵩

    2011-01-01

    随着人们对宽带无线通信带宽需求的不断增加,微波光子学器件的研究成为热点之一,近几年,光学器件的发展非常迅速,基于此的微波光子滤波器的应用和研究也逐步成熟起来.在深入研究微波光子滤波器性能理论的基础上,提出了一阶无限抽头响应的微波光子滤波器(IIRMPF)模型,利用自动控制原理动态结构图的变换知识进行理论推导,得出当反馈回路中加权系数和增益系数的乘积为1时,一阶IIRMPF可以得到最大的品质因数(Q值),并通过建立基于光纤布拉格光栅(FBG)和有源光纤的IIRMPF结构进行验证.结果表明,该结构与理论推导相吻合,最后实验制作了反射率分别为99.5%和50%的FBG,得到了Q值为804的微波光子滤波器响应.%With the needs for the wide band wireless communication, researches on microwave photonic devices become one of the hot spots. Recently, the optical devices are developing fast. The application and study of microwave photonic filter(MPF) based on the optical devices are maturing gradually. In this paper, one-order infinite impulse response microwave photonic filter (IIRMPF) model was proposed based on the deep research of the MPF performance theory. When the product of weighting coefficient and gain coefficient in the feedback loop equals to 1, the biggest quality factor could be obtained in the IIRMPF based on the transform information of automation control theory dynamic structure diagram. Then,an IIRMPF structure based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and active fiber was built to verify the conclusion. The result matches the theory very well. At last, the FBG with reflectivity of 99.5% and 50% is got respectively by experiment and a high Q value of 804 is realized.

  11. 基于微波光子滤波器的归零到非归零码型转换研究%Return-to-Zero/Nonreturn-to-Zero Signal Data Format Conversion Based on Microwave Photonic Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 江阳; 周竹雅; 李恒文; 王顺艳

    2012-01-01

    From the view of signal processing in the frequency domain, a scheme-for the return-to-zero (RZ) to nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal data format conversion based on a tunable microwave photonic filter is analyzed and demonstrated. Theoretically, the spectral characteristics of RZ and NRZ baseband signals and microwave photonic filter characteristics are analyzed. It is found that RZ to NRZ data format conversion can be successfully realized by a low-pass filter on the RZ signal with strong suppressing the clock component of the RZ data. In the experimental demonstration, a 10 Gbit/s NRZ signal is successfully converted from a RZ signal by utilizing an two-tap microwave photonic filter with two different light sources and intensity modulation. Both waveform and spectrum show the signal has good quality. In addition, signals with various repetition rate can be well processed by simply adjusting some parameters of the filter. It is shown that this scheme is very simple and flexible.%从信号频域处理的角度分析并实验验证了一种基于微波光子滤波器的归零(RZ)码到非归零(NRZ)码的码型变换方案.理论上,通过对RZ和NRZ码基带信号的频谱特点以及微波光子滤波器的特性进行分析,构建一个低通滤波器并对RZ码信号进行滤波,强烈抑制RZ码信号中的时钟分量,最终实现RZ到NRZ码的码型转换.在实验中,采用一种两抽头加色散延时的微波光子滤波器对速率为10 Gbit/s的RZ码信号进行了处理,成功得到了转换后的NRZ码信号.信号波形和频谱均显示了此方案的良好性能.通过简单地调节微波光子滤波器的部分参数,可对任意速率的信号进行处理,具有很好的灵活性.

  12. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  13. Photonic Generation of Phase-Coded Microwave Signal with Large Frequency Tunability%光生频率大范围可调的相位编码微波信号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双; 钱祖平; 王荣; 蒲涛

    2013-01-01

    提出并验证了一种光生相位编码微波信号的方法,其主要原理是对编码的相干光边带进行差拍,从而得到高频率、高编码数率、低噪声的相位编码微波信号.该方法简单易行,利于集成,能适应不同的编码速率,产生的微波信号频率大范围可调,能解决电子电路方法中遇到的“电子瓶颈”问题.介绍了所提方法的原理,并进行了理论推导,在系统分析中加入了对调制器驱动信号相位噪声的分析,使得系统建模更加科学完善;实验设计制作了所需的光纤光栅带阻滤波器,产生了20 GHz和25 GHz的相位编码微波信号,实验结果与理论值几乎吻合,证明了所提方法提高脉冲压缩比的能力.%A photonic approach to generating a phase-coded microwave signal is proposed and demonstrated. The main principle is to beat the encoded coherent optical sideband to obtain high-frequency, high-coding rate, low-noise encoded microwave signals. The proposed technique, which is simple and conducive to integration, can adapt to different coding rates, generate phase-coded microwave signals with tunable frequency, and solve the bottleneck problem of traditional electronic approaches. The principle is discussed in detail. Mathematical models are developed to consider perturbation on the generated coded signal caused by the phase fluctuations of the microwave driving signal and the optical carrier. The required fiber Bragg grating notch filter is fabricated, and 20 GHz and 25 GHz phase-coded microwave signals are experimentally generated, respectively. The experimental results agree well with theoretical values, and it is proved that the proposed method improves the pulse compression capability.

  14. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk

  15. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  16. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  17. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    CERN Document Server

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinary strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as electronic diode function is provided by a nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differing by a factor of 65.

  18. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  19. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang

    2009-01-01

    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.

  20. Key technologies of microwave photonic filter based on fiber Bragg grating%采用光纤光栅研究微波光子滤波器的关键性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽; 祁春慧; 宁提纲; 高嵩; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    The ROF technology developed greatly with the gradually increase needs of wide band wireless communication, and microwave photonic devices has become one of the hot research spots. For microwave photonic filter (MPF) can process RF signal in the optical domain, it has attracted more and more attention. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) has unique characteristics of wavelength selection and dispersion, so it is one of the best choice to build the MPF. Based on the theory analysis, some typical MPF structures based on FBG were given, and the key factors affecting the performance of MPF were analyzed, including the incoherence, high quality factor, negative coefficient, tenability and reconstruction. A MPF structure based on FBG was put forward, it had the characteristics of flat response, high quality factor and negative coefficient. The theoretical model for analyzing the one order infinite taps MPF was developed, and the optimal condition for getting the high quality factor was obtained, the theoretical analysis results are in good accord with the real MPF structure simulation result based on FBG.%宽带无线通信的带宽瓶颈促进了ROF技术的发展,并使微波光子器件成为研究热点之一.微波光子滤波器(MPF)实现了在光域内直接对微波信号的处理功能,受到了众多研究者的关注.光纤光栅(FBG)具有独特的波长选择和色散特性,是构成MPF结构的最佳可选光器件之一.在理论分析MPF的基础上,结合基于FBG的MPF典型结构给出了影响MPF性能的关键因素,即非相干性、高品质因数、负系数、可调谐性和可重构性.对一阶无限抽头MPF结构进行了建模分析,并提出一种基于FBG的具有平坦、负系数和高品质因数特性的MPF,得出获得高品质因数的最佳条件,理论分析结果和基于FBG的MPF结构的实际仿真结果相吻合.

  1. 基于微环谐振器的超紧凑微波光子滤波器的设计%Design of ultra-compact microwave photonic filter based on SOI microring resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 张爱华; 杨铿; 杨丽君; 冯世娟; 王振

    2013-01-01

    设计了一个基于硅基微环的超紧凑的微波光子滤波器,用以提高硅基微波光子器件的集成密度及增大其自由光谱范围。根据波导光学的耦合模理论,推导出双环并联谐振器的光强传递函数,并通过仿真得到了微波光子滤波器的输出特性。结果表明:当微环半径为0.79μm时,谐振器中直波导宽度为0.3μm,环形波导宽度为0.25μm,滤波器的自由光谱范围为140 nm,插入损耗为0.5 dB,半峰全宽为7 nm,此滤波器的性能完全满足粗波分复用系统的要求。%The ultra-compact microwave photonic filter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator was designed to increase the integration density of microwave photonic devices and enlarge the free spectral range. According to the coupled mode theory of waveguide optics, the optical intensity transfer function of the microring resonator with parallel-coupled structure was deduced and the transmission spectrums were simulated numerically. The results show that when the radius of resonator of resonator is 0.79μm, the straight waveguide width is 0.3μm and the ring waveguide width is 0.25μm, the filter with full wave at half maximum (FWHM) of 7 nm can be achieved, which also has an exceeding free spectral rang 140 nmof and an insertion loss less of 0.5 dB. The performance of this filter can meet the requirements of coarse wavelength division multiplexing system.

  2. Photonic filtering of microwave signals in the frequency range of 0.01-20 GHz using a Fabry-Perot filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of tuning of a photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01 to 20 GHz. The presented work combines the use of a multimode optical source associated with a dispersive optical fiber to obtain the filtering effect. Tunability effect is achieved by the use of a Fabry-Perot filter that allows altering the spectral characteristics of the optical source. Experimental results are validated by means of numerical simulations. The scheme here proposed has a potential application in the field of optical telecommunications.

  3. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  4. Engineering topological materials in microwave cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brandon M; Owens, Clai; Schuster, David I; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present a scalable architecture for the exploration of interacting topological phases of photons in arrays of microwave cavities, using established techniques from cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics. A time-reversal symmetry breaking (non-reciprocal) flux is induced by coupling the microwave cavities to ferrites, allowing for the production of a variety of topological band structures including the $\\alpha=1/4$ Hofstadter model. Effective photon-photon interactions are included by coupling the cavities to superconducting qubits, and are sufficient to produce a $\

  5. A photonic transistor device based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a scheme for photonic transistors based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system, which is composed of a superconducting microwave cavity coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. Control of the propagation of photons is achieved through the interaction of microwave field (photons) and nanomechanical vibrations (phonons). By calculating the transmission spectrum of the signal field, we show that the signal field can be efficiently attenuated or amplified, depending on the power of a second ‘gating’ (pump) field. This scheme may be a promising candidate for single-photon transistors and pave the way for numerous applications in telecommunication and quantum information technologies.

  6. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  7. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  8. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  9. 基于窗函数的微波光子滤波器设计和仿真%Design and Simulation of Photonic Microwave Filter Based on Window Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭磊; 杨秀峰; 童峥嵘; 曹晔; 杨寅飞

    2012-01-01

    Various window functions are used to design photonic microwave filters (PMF). The MATLAB is employed to simulate the amplitude and frequency responses. Then the impacts of the different kinds of windows, the number and the precision of the taps on PMF are analyzed respectively. Band-pass filter tap coefficient can also be obtained by means of slightly change the window taps. Under the situation of equal Q-factor, the mainlobe-to-side-lobe ratio (MSR) of the designed PMF is increased about 36 dB by using the Chebyshev window compared with Gaussian window.%将各种窗函数应用于微波光子滤波器(PMF)的设计中,利用MATLAB对PMF的系统响应进行了仿真,分析了窗函数类型以及抽头个数、抽头系数的精度对PMF性能的影响.通过对窗函数进行简单的变形可以得到带通PMF的抽头系数.仿真结果表明:在保证Q值不变的条件下,利用切比雪夫窗函数比利用高斯窗函数所设计出来的PMF的边瓣抑制比高36 dB..

  10. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  11. Microwave quantum optics with an artificial atom in one-dimensional open space

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Io-Chun; Wilson, C. M.; Johansson, Goran; Lindkvist, Joel; Peropadre, Borja; Palomaki, Tauno; Delsing, Per

    2013-01-01

    We address recent advances in microwave quantum optics with artificial atoms in one-dimensional (1D) open space. This field relies on the fact that the coupling between a superconducting artificial atom and propagating microwave photons in a 1D open transmission line can be made strong enough to observe quantum coherent effects, without using any cavity to confine the microwave photons. We investigate the scattering properties in such a system with resonant coherent microwaves. We observe the...

  12. Microwave synthesis of CdTe quantum dots and its two-photon fluorescence imaging application%CdTe量子点的微波合成及其在双光子显微成像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜婕; 王胜江; 吴拥中; 郝霄鹏; 徐成伟; 赵显; 于晓强

    2012-01-01

    采用微波辐射加热的方法,以亚碲酸钠(Na2TeO3)作碲源,以谷胱甘肽(GSH)作稳定剂,在水相中合成出高质量的CdTe量子点。所合成量子点的发射波长从515~630nm可调,荧光量子产率(PLQYs)最高达95%。利用X射线粉末衍射(XRD)、高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)、紫外-可见吸收光谱(UV-Vis)和荧光发射光谱(PL)等技术表征产物的物相结构和光学性质。用双光子激发荧光法研究CdTe量子点的双光子吸收性质。用双光子激发荧光成像技术,以发红光的CdTe量子点作为双光子荧光探针成功标记了人肺腺癌细胞(A549)。%GSH-stabilized high-luminescent CdTe quantum do source by microwave irradiation in aqueous phase presented. 630nm and the high quantum yield reaches as high as 95 %. ray diffraction pattern (XRD), high resolution transmission tion and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The two-photon a gated using the two-photon excitation fluorescence measur (A549) were labeled using red-emitting GSH-CdTe QDs as a aging technique. ts (QDs) were prepared using Na2TeOa as the Te The emission peak of CdTe QDs ranged from 515The obtained CdTe QDs were characterized by Xelectron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-Vis absorpbsorption property of GSH-CdTe QDs was investiement. In addition, human lung carcinoma cells fluorescence probe by two-photon fluorescence imaging technique.

  13. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  14. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  15. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP...... of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...

  16. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  17. A tunable incoherent photonic microwave filter based on electro-absorption modulator%基于电吸收调制器的非相干可调谐微波光子滤波器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志虎; 王荣; 方涛; 蒲涛; 孙帼丹; 郑吉林

    2013-01-01

    A novel tunable incoherent pbotonic microwave filter based on electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is proposed in this paper.Firstly,when the EAM is modulated by a radio frequency (RF) signal,an optical single sideband is generated by filtering the lower sideband.Then an extra phase shift will be introduced to the upper sidebands of the modulated signal by simply changing the bias voltage applied on EAM.Because the chirp of EAM depends on the bias voltage applied on EAM,the extra phase shift can be introduced by the chirp.As a result,when it is detected by a photodetector (PD),a tunable phase shifter is realized.Finally,incorporating the phase shifter system with the other laser diode and delay line,a tunable two-tap incoherent photonic microwave filter with complex coefficient can be realized.The shape of the proposed filter won't be altered,and the filter can be tuned by adjusting the bias voltage.%提出一种新的基于电吸收调制器(EAM)的非相干可调谐光子滤波器.首先通过带通滤波器滤除EAM输出的一个边带,获得单边带调制;再通过调谐EAM的偏置端,使得边带所引入的相移随着偏置电压的改变而改变,这样就可以实现一个真相移(TPS)结构;然后引入另一个非相干光源和Mach-Zender调制器(MZM),利用两路信号的延时不同实现一个基本的滤波器;最后通过调谐偏置所引入的TPS实现滤波器的宽带可调谐,而滤波器的形状可以保持不变,其中滤波器的调谐范围由偏置所引入相移的变化范围来决定.

  18. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  19. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  20. PHOTON-PHOTON COLLISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic eγ scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by γγ collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function Fγ2(x,Q2) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  1. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  2. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  3. Experimental demonstration of self-collimation beaming and splitting in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Aaron F.

    2008-01-01

    I studied experimentally the beam self-collimation and splitting in two-dimensional microwave photonic crystals. Using a microwave photonic crystal fabricated from alumina rods, I present an experimental proof of principle for an earlier theoretical proposal [A. Matthews et al., Opt. Commun. 279, 313 (2007)] of a photonic crystal beam splitter based on the self-collimation effect.

  4. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Exporting Electronic Products More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  5. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, R.; Osada, A.; Tabuchi, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called the Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a traveling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses the hybrid system through the Kittel mode via Faraday and inverse Faraday effects. The conversion efficiency is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The possible schemes for improving the efficiency are also discussed.

  6. The Single-Photon Router

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Io-Chun; Wilson, C. M.; Johansson, Göran; Palomaki, Tauno; Peropadre, Borja; Delsing, Per

    2011-01-01

    We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting "transmon" qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons ($\\sim6$ GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number $N\\ll1$ is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 90% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). ...

  7. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of γγ physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive γγ reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs

  8. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et al., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention [1]. A 1990 article by V.I. Telnov describes the situation at that time [2]. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held [3]. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons—the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  9. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The lecture will cover the searches for dark matter axions based on the microwave cavity experiment of Sikivie. The topics will begin with a brief overview of halo dark matter, and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described, and practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of the lecture will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons - the "photon-as-wave" approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon quantum-limited SQUID devices), and "photon-as-particle" (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The lecture will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave ca...

  10. Archaeological analogues and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One solution retained for the management of high-level and long living radioactive wastes is the disposal in deep underground. Among the studies carried out by the Andra for the evaluation this solution, one concerns the research on metals corrosion for the development of reliable containers. Laboratory corrosion tests are in progress and are compared to the corrosion state of archaeological metal specimens of several hundred years old. Gallic or Mesopotamian remnants are some of these archaeological analogues which are analyzed using the most advanced techniques of materials science. (J.S.)

  11. Phase Noise Reduction of Narrow Linewidth Optical Fibre-Ring Based Microwave Oscillators : Modelling and Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchier, Aude; Saleh, Khaldoun; Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Llopis, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high-Q optical resonators are interesting for microwave generation. We present the theoretical and experimental optimization of resonant fibre rings in order to reduce the phase noise of narrow linewidth microwave photonics oscillators.

  12. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  13. Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon–photon translator

    OpenAIRE

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Painter, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient, and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. Applications of the phonon-photon translator to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength...

  14. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin is a naturally occurring tetradecapeptide that inhibits the secretion of many hormones. Large numbers of binding sites with high affinity for somatostatin have been reported in a variety of tumors. An octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, octreotide (Sandostatin), is currently used in the treatment of patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors to limit hormonal hyper secretion. In an effort to utilize the high specificity of octreotide for scintigraphic imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, a tyrosine derivative of octreotide was prepared and labeled with the radioactive isotope, I-123. While the early clinical results obtained with this radiopharmaceutical were encouraging, the I-123 labeling procedure proved cumbersome and variable. To circumvent these difficulties, researchers at University Hospital Rotterdam (Holland) and Sandoz Research Institute (Switzerland) developed an In-111 labeled analogue of octreotide. This radiopharmaceutical is easy to prepare and has proven to be even more effective than the I-123 derivative in the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. These radiopharmaceutical developments and clinical observations are discussed in light of their relevance to the generation of new radiolabeled peptides for the diagnosis and potential radiotherapy of cancer. (authors). 30 refs., 5 figs

  15. Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Candia, R.; Felicetti, S.; Sanz, M. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Fedorov, K.G.; Menzel, E.P. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Zhong, L.; Deppe, F.; Gross, R. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Marx, A. [Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meissner-Institut, Garching (Germany); Solano, E. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Propagating quantum microwaves have been proposed and successfully implemented to generate entanglement, thereby establishing a promising platform for the realisation of a quantum communication channel. However, the implementation of quantum teleportation with photons in the microwave regime is still absent. At the same time, recent developments in the field show that this key protocol could be feasible with current technology, which would pave the way to boost the field of microwave quantum communication. Here, we discuss the feasibility of a possible implementation of microwave quantum teleportation in a realistic scenario with losses. Furthermore, we propose how to implement quantum repeaters in the microwave regime without using photodetection, a key prerequisite to achieve long distance entanglement distribution. (orig.)

  16. Microwave-induced effects on superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of microwave radiation on superconducting tunnel junctions and on the critical currents of superconducting strips at 2.0 and 10.0 GHz. In the tunnel junctions both quantum mechanical and classical effects (photon-induced tunneling and classical rectification, respectively), were observed, but not gap enhancement. The application of microwave radiation on long, superconducting, thin-film bridges was found to increase their critical current. The microwave magnetic field was found to couple more efficiently to the superconductor. The increase in the critical current was found to be proportional to the square root of the incident power

  17. From blockade to transparency: controllable photon transmission through a circuit QED system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-xi; Xu, Xun-Wei; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    A strong photon-photon nonlinear interaction is a necessary condition for photon blockade. Moreover, this nonlinearity can also result a bistable behavior in the cavity field. We analyze the relation between detecting field and photon blockade in a superconducting circuit QED system, and show that photon blockade cannot occur when the detecting field is in the bistable regime. This photon blockade is the microwave-photonics analog of the Coulomb blockade. We further demonstrate that the photo...

  18. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Swaroop Khare,

    2012-01-01

    Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) receivers play an important ro...

  19. Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiang; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-phase-noise microwave oscillators are important to a wide range of subjects, including communications, radar and metrology. Photonic-based microwave-wave sources now provide record, close-to-carrier phase-noise performance, and compact sources using microcavities are available commercially. Photonics-based solutions address a challenging scaling problem in electronics, increasing attenuation with frequency. A second scaling challenge, however, is to maintain low phase noise...

  20. Photonic crystal slabs for optical micro electro mechanical systems (OMEMS)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Photonic crystals are materials with a periodic variation of composition in one, two or three directions. For some optical frequency intervals, they behave as homogeneous transparent materials where optical waves are allowed to travel without scattering, but these frequency intervals are intervened by photonic band gaps in which the propagation of light is forbidden. Photonic crystals are the photonic analogue to traditional crystals, where the periodic arrangement of atoms allows electrons a...

  1. Programmable photonic signal processor chip for radiofrequency applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Hoekman, M.; Boller, K-J.; Lowery, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microwave photonics, an emerging technology combining radio frequency (RF) engineering and integrated photonics, has great potential to be adopted for wideband analog processing applications. However, it has been a challenge to provide photonic integrated circuits with equal levels of fun

  2. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  3. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  4. Characteristics of Microwave Photonic Filter by Using Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm%基于模拟退火遗传算法的微波光子滤波器特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宏彬; 刘广智; 曾小平; 杨凡

    2012-01-01

    采用模拟退火遗传算法,分析了非等间距低通滤波器不同抽头下全正对称系数及含负系数的微波光子滤波器的频率响应特性,并与窗函数法进行了对比分析.仿真结果表明:全正对称系数条件下,带抽头数量越大,滤波器的优化性能越好.正负系数滤波器的对比表明.含负系数的滤波器优化性能明显改善,特别是对低通滤波器而言,系数的全正性极大地限制了光学传递函数的取值范围,影响了滤波器的性能.在同一截止频率下,模拟退火遗传算法优化性能指标略好于窗函数法.如果限制通带和阻带的截止频率,即放宽对过渡带的要求,模拟退火遗传算法性能优势更加明显.%By means of simulated annealing genetic algorithm, frequency-response characteristics of nonuniform-delay-time microwave photon filter with full/non positive coefficients are analyzed. And the window-function method is applied at the same time. Simulation results show that the more taps lead to better performance at full-positive symmetric coefficient filter. In the case of low-pass filter, full-positive coefficients limit largely factor on the span of transfer function, the characteristics improvement of non full-positive coefficients filter is obvious. At the same cutoff frequency, the optimal performance of simulated annealing genetic algorithm is slightly better than that of the window-function method. Once limiting the cut-off frequency of pass-band and stop-band, and relaxing the requirements of the transition zone, the advantages of simulated annealing genetic algorithm are much more obvious.

  5. 一种基于FBG对的微波光子滤波器的结构设计与分析%Structural design and analysis of microwave photonic filter based on A pair of FBG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪仟; 武向农

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种改进的基于FBG对的微波光子滤波器结构,该滤波器主要是通过引入线性高斯切趾光纤光栅来实现光纤延迟线的功能.在仿真软件Optisystem平台下进行了详细的结构仿真和性能分析,对不同数值的掺饵光纤放大器(EDFA)最大输出功率下得到的滤波器Q值进行了仿真、讨论和分析,研究发现当EDFA的最大输出功率改变时,滤波器的Q值也会发生相应变化,并存在最优值.仿真结果表明:提出的改进结构优于传统的基于单个FBG的滤波器结构,最大Q值从85提高到207,并且这种方案是实际可行的.%This paper presents an improved FBG - based microwave photonic filter structure, which mainly uses Gaussian Apo-dized linearly Chirped Fiber Gratings as optical delay lines to achieve the function. On the platform of the simulation software Op-tisystem , a detailed simulation and performance analysis of the structure is carried out. Study found that as the maximum output power of EDFA changes, the Q of the filter will change accordingly, and there exists an optimal value. The Q values under different values of the maximum output power of EDFA have been carefully simulated, discussed and analyzed. The simulation results confirm that the improved structure using a pair of FBG is much better than the traditional structure using one single FBG, the Q value of the filter changes from 85 to 207 and it is feasible.

  6. Design of Tunable Bandpass Photonic Microwave Filter Based on Multi-Wavelength Fiber Laser%基于多波长激光器的带通微波光子滤波器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀峰; 彭磊; 童峥嵘; 曹晔; 杨寅飞

    2012-01-01

    A tunable bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on multi-wavelength fiber laser (MWFL) which is used as the light source is proposed and demonstrated. The combination of the phase modulator and the dispersion devices convert the phase modulation to intensity modulation in the ordinary single-mode fiber, and it eliminates the low-frequency resonant peak thus a new bandpass filter is realized. By using one of the birefringent fiber loop mirror output windows for the apodization of the multi-wavelength signal, the main lobe to sidelobe suppression ratio of the MPF is raised about 11 dB. The wavelength interval of the MWFL can be adjusted by tuning the polarization controllers (PC) in it. The time delay between adjacent wavelengths is changed when the laser signal passes through the ordinary single-mode fiber because of the dispersion in it thus the central frequency of the band pass MPF is tuned within 7.66 GHz.%提出了一种基于多波长光纤激光器的可调谐的带通微波光子滤波器.它以可调谐多波长光纤激光器作为光源,将相位调制器和色散器件相结合,通过在普通单模光纤中相位调制到强度调制的转换效应消除了低频谐振峰实现了带通微波光子滤波器.利用双折射光纤环镜输出谱中的一个窗口对多波长激光信号频谱进行加窗处理,使微波光子滤波器的边瓣抑制比提高了约11 dB.通过调节多波长光纤激光器中的偏振控制器可以使输出多波长激光信号的相邻波长间隔得到调节,从而结合普通单模光纤的色散延时作用可以使微波光子滤波器的通带中心频率在7.66 GHz范围内调谐.

  7. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  8. Quantization of the superconducting energy gap in an intense microwave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A. A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally photon-assisted tunneling in Nb /AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. We perform a quantitative calibration of the microwave field inside the junction. This allows direct verification of the quantum efficiency of microwave photon detection, which corresponds to tunneling of one electron per one absorbed microwave photon. We observe that voltages of photon-assisted tunneling steps vary both with the microwave power and the tunneling current. However, this variation is not monotonous but staircaselike. The phenomenon is caused by mutual locking of positive and negative step series. A similar locking is observed with Shapiro steps. As a result, the superconducting gap assumes quantized values equal to multiples of the quarter of the photon energy. The quantization is a manifestation of nonequilibrium tuning (suppression or enhancement) of superconductivity by the microwave field.

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  10. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e+e- storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e+e- → Xe+e-, various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  11. On Self Sustained Photonic Globes

    CERN Document Server

    Eswaran, K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider a classical treatment of a very dense collection of photons forming a self-sustained globe under its own gravitational influence. We call this a "photonic globe" We show that such a dense photonic globe will have a radius closely corresponding to the Schwarzschild radius. Thus lending substance to the conjuncture that the region within the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole contains only pure radiation. As an application example, we consider the case of a very large photonic globe whose radius corresponds to the radius of the universe and containing radiation of the frequency of the microwave background (160.2 GHZ). It so turns out that such a photonic globe has an average density which closely corresponds to the observed average density of our universe.

  12. Quantum Simulation with Interacting Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We review the theoretical and experimental developments in recent research on quantum simulators with interacting photons. Enhancing optical nonlinearities so that they become appreciable on the single photon level and lead to nonclassical light fields has been a central objective in quantum optics for many years. After this has been achieved in individual micro-cavities representing an effectively zero-dimensional volume, this line of research has now shifted its focus towards engineering devices where such strong optical nonlinearities simultaneously occur in extended volumes of multiple nodes of a network. Recent technological progress in several experimental platforms now opens the possibility to employ the systems of strongly interacting photons these give rise to as quantum simulators. Here we review the recent development and current status of this research direction for theory and experiment. Addressing both, optical photons interacting with atoms and microwave photons in networks of superconducting c...

  13. Silicon Nano-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao

    This thesis deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of nano-photonic devices including ridge waveguide components, microring resonators, and photonic crystal components, and explore the potential for these devices in dierent applications ranging from optical communication to...... achieved with small power variation. A widely tunable microwave notch lter is also experimentally demonstrated at 40 GHz. Other application such as pulse repetition rate multiplication by using microring resonator is also presented. Photonic crystal components are studied. Two dierent types of photonic...... crystal structures are analyzed concerning index sensitivity, dispersion engineering, and slow-light coupling. Several photonic crystal devices such as index sensor, slow-light coupler, and all-optical tunable cavity are presented....

  14. Generation and efficient measurement of single photons from fixed frequency superconducting qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Kindel, William F.; Schroer, M. D.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate and evaluate an on-demand source of single itinerant microwave photons. Photons are generated using a highly coherent, fixed-frequency qubit-cavity system, and a protocol where the microwave control field is far detuned from the photon emission frequency. By using a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA), we perform efficient single-quadrature detection of the state emerging from the cavity. We characterize the imperfections of the photon generation and detection, including detec...

  15. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF CHROMATIC DISPERSION, DISPERSION SLOPE, DISPERSION CURVATURE ON MICROWAVE GENERATION USING TWO CASCADE MODULATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Singh; S.K. Raghuwanshi

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of harmonic generation of microwave signals after detection of a modulated optical carrier in cascaded two electro-optic modulators. Dispersion is one of the major limiting factors for microwave generation in microwave photonics. In this paper, we analyze influence of chromatic dispersion, dispersion slope, dispersion curvature on microwave generation using two cascaded MZMs and it has been found that output intensity of photodetector reduces when disper...

  17. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  18. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  19. A reversible optical to microwave quantum interface

    CERN Document Server

    Barzanjeh, Sh; Milburn, G J; Tombesi, P; Vitali, D

    2011-01-01

    Quantum technology, like many mature classical technologies, will ultimately integrate distinct modules to achieve a function that transcends the capability of any one of them. We describe a reversible quantum interface between an optical and a microwave photon using a hybrid device based on the common interaction of microwave and optical fields with a nano-mechanical resonator in a superconducting circuit, which is one of the major challenges in the field. The scheme provides a path for generating a traveling microwave field strongly entangled with an optical mode, thus bridging the gap between quantum optical and solid state implementations of quantum information. This is an effective source of (bright) two-mode squeezing with an optical idler (signal) and a microwave signal (idler) and as such enables a continuous variable teleportation protocol.

  20. Generation of Circular Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of ...

  1. Providing reference standards and metrology for the few photon-photon counting community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Andrew R.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Ireland, Jane; White, Malcolm G.

    2009-10-01

    The main drivers for developing few-photon metrological techniques are the rapidly progressing field of quantum information processing, which requires the development of high-efficiency photon-counting detectors, and the wider use of photon-counting technology in biology, medical physics and nuclear physics. This paper will focus on the provision of standards for the few photon community and the development of techniques for the characterisation of photon-counting detectors. At the high-power end, microwatts, we are developing a low-power absolute radiometer as a primary standard that will be used to provide traceability over a much broader spectral range. At the few photon-photon-counting level we are developing a conventional calibration technique, which is traceable to the primary standard through a reference trap detector. This method can be used in both analogue and photon-counting modes and provides a convenient route for providing customer calibration at few-photon levels across the optical spectrum. At the photon-counting/single-photon level we are developing a technique based on correlated photons. These are produced via parametric downconversion and can be used to measure directly the detection efficiency of photon-counting detectors. A cross-validation of the correlated photon and conventional technique is reported. Finally we discuss this work in the context of an EU project, that is aimed at establishing the route towards the re-definition of the candela, the SI unit for optical radiation.

  2. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Ge; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed...

  4. Symmetry-protected topological photonic crystal in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Fang, Chen; Fu, Liang; Johnson, Steven G.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-04-01

    Topology of electron wavefunctions was first introduced to characterize the quantum Hall states in two dimensions discovered in 1980 (ref. ). Over the past decade, it has been recognized that symmetry plays a crucial role in the classification of topological phases, leading to the broad notion of symmetry-protected topological phases. As a primary example, topological insulators are distinguished from normal insulators in the presence of time-reversal symmetry (). A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator exhibits an odd number of protected surface Dirac cones, a unique property that cannot be realized in any 2D systems. Importantly, the existence of topological insulators requires Kramers’ degeneracy in spin-orbit coupled electronic materials; this forbids any direct analogue in boson systems. In this report, we discover a 3D topological photonic crystal phase hosting a single surface Dirac cone, which is protected by a crystal symmetry--the nonsymmorphic glide reflection rather than . Such a gapless surface state is fully robust against random disorder of any type. This bosonic topological band structure is achieved by applying alternating magnetization to gap out the 3D `generalized Dirac points’ discovered in the bulk of our crystal. The Z2 bulk invariant is characterized through the evolution of Wannier centres. Our proposal--readily realizable using ferrimagnetic materials at microwave frequencies--expands the scope of 3D topological materials from fermions to bosons.

  5. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the space-time wave mechanics of single photons, a subject with an almost century long history. The Landau-Peierls photon wave function, which is related nonlocally to the electromagnetic field is first described, and thereafter the so-called energy wave function, based on the...... positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...... train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted in a...

  6. Photon Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Grindhammer, Guenter

    2001-01-01

    Large pT processes at HERA, initiated by almost real and by virtual photons, provide information on the structure of the photon. We report on the latest measurements of dijets and large pT particle production with the H1 detector. This includes a leading order determination of an effective virtual photon parton density, of the gluon density of the photon, and comparisons with models.

  7. Pendellosung effect in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Savo, S; Miletto, C; Andreone, A; Dardano, P; Moretti, L; Mocella, V

    2008-01-01

    At the exit surface of a photonic crystal, the intensity of the diffracted wave can be periodically modulated, showing a maximum in the "positive" (forward diffracted) or in the "negative" (diffracted) direction, depending on the slab thickness. This thickness dependence is a direct result of the so-called Pendellosung phenomenon, consisting of the periodic exchange inside the crystal of the energy between direct and diffracted beams. We report the experimental observation of this effect in the microwave region at about 14 GHz by irradiating 2D photonic crystal slabs of different thickness and detecting the intensity distribution of the electromagnetic field at the exit surface and inside the crystal itself.

  8. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  9. Microwave assisted template synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K J Sreeram; M Nidhin; B U Nair

    2008-12-01

    Easier, less time consuming, green processes, which yield silver nanoparticles of uniform size, shape and morphology are of interest. Various methods for synthesis, such as conventional temperature assisted process, controlled reaction at elevated temperatures, and microwave assisted process have been evaluated for the kind of silver nanoparticles synthesized. Starch has been employed as a template and reducing agent. Electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance have been employed to characterize the silver nanoparticles synthesized. Compared to conventional methods, microwave assisted synthesis was faster and provided particles with an average particle size of 12 nm. Further, the starch functions as template, preventing the aggregation of silver nanoparticles.

  10. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  11. Tunable microwave notch filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Bedoya, A.; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-01

    We show the first functional signal processing device based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire. We harness 1dB of SBS gain to create a high performance, energy efficient microwave photonic notch filter. The filter possess 48dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and is tunable within a 6 GHz bandwidth. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establish the foundation towards the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  12. q-Analogue of Wright Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a q-analogues of Wright function and its auxiliary functions as Barnes integral representations and series expansion. The relations between q-analogues of Wright function and some other functions are investigated.

  13. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  14. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.;

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  15. Extraordinary transmission technique for microwave antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, V. P.; Jayakrishnan, M. P.; Aanandan, C. K.; Mohanan, P.; Vasudevan, K.

    2016-05-01

    The extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through an array of holes in a metal plate has been a constant source of inspiration for researchers for over a decade (Ebbesen et al 1998 Nature 391 667–9). In this paper, an EOT analogue is proposed in the microwave frequency range for enhancing the radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna. It is observed that the back radiated power of the antenna is considerably reduced and the reason behind transmission enhancement is the excitation of Fabry–Pérot resonant modes on the slit loaded aperture. Computational analysis based on finite difference time domain is performed for identifying the true reason behind resonant transmission enhancement.

  16. 基于双通道马赫-曾德尔调制器调制边带滤波的微波光子移相器%Microwave Photonic Phase Shifter Based on Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator Modulation Sideband Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鑫; 王翌; 卢春燕; 金晓峰; 章献民; 池灏; 郑史烈

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于双通道马赫-曾德尔调制器(DPMZM)调制边带滤波的微波光子移相器.在双通道马赫-曾德尔调制器的结构中,在一路马赫-曾德尔干涉仪上实现抑制光载波的双边带调制输出,而在另一路马赫-曾德尔的相位调节臂上通过调节偏置电压实现光载波信号的光学移相,两路光信号经过干涉合路后由光纤布拉格光栅(FBG)滤除其中一个一阶边带,最后输入到光电探测器(PD)进行光电转换得到移相的微波信号.实验结果表明,基于DPMZM调制边带滤波的微波光子移相器具有传输特性稳定、输出幅度波动小的优点.该结构还具有相移调节响应速度快、应用频带宽以及移相范围大于360°等特点.%A novel microwave photonic phase shifter based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) modulation sideband filtering is proposed. Within the structure of DPMZM, one optical path with a Mach-Zehnder modulator is adjusted to be maintained at the state of optical-carrier-suppressed double-sideband modulation, and the other optical path is used to introduce an adjustable phase shift of the optical carrier by simply controlling the direct current (DC) bias voltage. The output of DPMZM passes through a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for filtering out one first-order sideband of the modulation. A wideband photodetector is used to convert the output of FBG to electronic microwave signal of adjustable phase shift. The experimental results show that the proposed microwave photonic phase shifter based on DPMZM modulation sideband filtering has the advantage of stable transmission characteristics with small amplitude fluctuation, fast phase tuning response, wide frequency band and a phase shift greater than 360?

  17. Photonic Lantern

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2015-01-01

    Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus, enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail.

  18. Hidden-sector photon and axion searches using photonic band gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many proposed extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) such as hidden-sector photons and axions, which are also of interest as dark matter candidates. In this paper we propose a novel experimental approach in which microwave photonic lattice structures form part of a ‘light shining through the wall’-type experiment to search for WISPs. We demonstrate the potential to match and exceed the sensitivities of conventional experiments operating in the microwave regime. (paper)

  19. Antenna-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, P.K. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]. E-mail: Peter.K.Day@jpl.nasa.gov; Leduc, H.G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Goldin, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vayonakis, T. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mazin, B.A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kumar, S. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We report on the development of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) coupled to planar antennas for millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The MKID is a relatively new type of superconducting photon detector which is applicable from millimeter-wave frequencies to X-rays. Photons are absorbed in a superconductor, producing quasiparticle excitations, which change the surface reactance (kinetic inductance) of the superconductor. The changes in kinetic inductance are monitored using microwave high-Q thin-film superconducting resonators. Because the MKID is particularly amenable to frequency-domain multiplexing, with likely detector multiplexing factors of {approx}10{sup 3} or more per cryogenic amplifier, these detectors are well suited for use in large arrays. We have fabricated MKIDs coupled to submillimeter slot-array antennas using microstrip lines and have detected power from a thermal radiation source. We discuss the potential of antenna-coupled MKID arrays for ground and space-based millimeter/submillimeter imaging.

  20. Photonic glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Fuxi

    2006-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental mechanism of photonic glasses - the linear and nonlinear optical effects in glass under intense light irradiation: phot-induced absorption, refraction, polarization, frequency, coherence and monochromaticity changes. Emphasis is placed on new developments in the structure, spectroscopy and physics of new glassy materials for photonics applications, such as optical communication, optical data storage, new lasers and new photonic components and devices. The book presents the research results of the authors in new glasses for photonics over the last decade. Sa

  1. Slow microwaves in left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Gennaro, E.; Parimi, P. V.; Lu, W. T.; Sridhar, S.; Derov, J. S.; Turchinetz, B.

    2005-07-01

    Remarkably slow propagation of microwaves in two different classes of left-handed materials (LHM’s) is reported from microwave-pulse and continuous-wave transmission measurements. Microwave dispersion in a composite LHM made of split-ring resonators and wire strips reveals group velocity vg˜c/50 , where c is the free-space light velocity. Photonic crystals (PhC’s) made of dielectric Al2O3 rods reveal vg˜c/10 . Group delay dispersion of both the composite LHM and PhC’s determined from the experiment is in complete agreement with that obtained from theory. The slow group velocities are quantitatively described by the strong dispersion observed in these materials.

  2. Wigner Function and Phase Probability Distribution of q-Analogueof Squeezed One-Photon State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Shu; MENG Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Xiang-Ping; WANG Ji-Suo; LIANG Bao-Long

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, in terms of the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators and the properties of the inverses of q-deformed annihilation and creation operators, normalizable q-analogue of the squeezed one-photon state, which is quite different from one introduced by Song and Fan [Int. 3. Theor. Phys. 41 (2002) 695], is constructed. Moreover, the Wigner function and phase probability distribution of q-analogue of the squeezed one-photon state are examined.

  3. The myth of the photon

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, T W; Marshall, Trevor W.; Santos, Emilio

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that all "single-photon" and "photon-pair" states, produced in atomic transitions, and in parametric down conversion by nonlinear optical crystals, may be represented by positive Wigner densities of the relevant sets of mode amplitudes. The light fields of all such states are represented as a real probability ensemble (not a pseudoensemble) of solutions of the unquantized Maxwell equation. The local realist analysis of light-detection events in spatially separated detectors requires a theory of detection which goes beyond the currently fashionable single-mode photon theory. It also requires us to recognize that there is a payoff between detector efficiency and signal-noise discrimination. Using such a theory, we have demonstrated that all experimental data, both in atomic cascades and in parametric down conversions, have a consistent local realist explanation based on the unquantized Maxwell field. Finally we discuss current attempts to demonstrate Schroedinger-cat-like behaviour of microwave ca...

  4. 3-D Silicon Photonic Lattices- Cornerstone of an Emerging Photonics Revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    1999-07-08

    Three-dimensional photonic lattices are engineered materials which are the photonic analogues of semiconductors. These structures were first proposed and demonstrated in the mid-to-late 1980's. However, due to fabrication difficulties, lattices active in the infrared are only just emerging. Wide ranges of structures and fabrication approaches have been investigated. The most promising approach for many potential applications is a diamond-like structure fabricated using silicon microprocessing techniques. This approach has enabled the fabrication of 3-D silicon photonic lattices active in the infrared. The structures display band gaps centered from 12{micro} down to 1.55{micro}.

  5. Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabid, F.; Roberts, John; Couny, F.; Light, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    optical waveguide guidance. For the second type of fibre, which can guide over a broad wavelength range, we examine the nature of the inhibited coupling. We describe a technique for the fabrication of photonic microcells that can accommodate vacuum pressures, and we finish by showing the latest results on...... guides via a photonic bandgap and the other guides by virtue of an inhibited coupling between core and cladding mode constituents. For the former fibre type, we explore how the bandgap is formed using a photonic analogue of the tight-binding model and how it is related to the anti-resonant reflection...

  6. Output couplers for 3D photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One crucial practical problem facing 3D photonic crystal applications is finding a way to couple electromagnetic energy efficiently into and out of a 3D photonic crystal waveguide. We investigate two approaches for solving this problem: the photonic crystal horn antenna; and the conventional waveguide to 3D photonic crystal waveguide mode coupler. We demonstrate both approaches theoretically using numerical simulations, and experimentally using prototypes operating at microwave frequencies. Both methods succeed in providing highly efficient coupling into and out of the 3D photonic crystal waveguide over a wide bandwidth, thereby demonstrating two solutions to the output coupling problem. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  7. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  8. Programmable photonic signal processor chip for radiofrequency applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Roeloffzen, C. G. H.; Hoekman, M.; Boller, K-J.; Lowery, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microwave photonics, an emerging technology combining radio frequency (RF) engineering and integrated photonics, has great potential to be adopted for wideband analog processing applications. However, it has been a challenge to provide photonic integrated circuits with equal levels of function flexibility as compared with their electronic counterparts. Here, we introduce a disruptive approach to tackle this need, which is analogous to an electronic field-programmable gate array. We...

  9. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  10. Visual analogue measurement of pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, W. I.; Lewis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two separate studies were carried out to determine if three visual analogue scales for various feelings including pain could be marked consistently by patients, without reference to previously completed scales. Sixty patients undergoing extraction of their lower third molars had measurements of acute preoperative anxiety, expected postoperative pain and postoperative perceived pain three times in quick succession. There was no significant difference between the three measurements for any of t...

  11. Processes related to photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of processes, related to photon-photon collisions, are considered: deep inelastic Compton scattering, and photon pair production. The relevant theoretical and experimental literature is reviewed

  12. New photonic devices for ultrafast pulse processing operating on the basis of the diffraction-dispersion analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space-time analogy is a well-known topic within wave optics that brings together some results from beam diffraction and pulse dispersion. On the above basis, and taking as starting point some classical concepts in Optics, several photonic devices have been proposed during the last few years with application in rapidly evolving fields such as ultrafast (femtosecond) optics or RF and microwave signal processing. In this contribution, we briefly review the above ideas with particular emphasis in the generation of trains of ultrafast pulses from periodic modulation of the phase of a CW laser source. This is the temporal analogue of Fresnel diffraction by a pure phase grating. Finally, we extend the analogy to the partially coherent case, what enables us to design an original technique for wavelength-to-time mapping of the spectrum of a temporally stationary source. Results of laboratory experiments concerning the generation of user-defined radio-frequency waveforms and filtering of microwave signals will be shown. The devices are operated with low-cost incoherent sources.

  13. Policy issues in space analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  14. Advances in microwaves 7

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.

  15. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosi, G; van Bibber, K

    2007-01-22

    This chapter will cover the search for dark matter axions based on microwave cavity experiments proposed by Pierre Sikivie. We will start with a brief overview of halo dark matter and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described as well as practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of this chapter will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons--the 'photon-as-wave' approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon to be quantum-limited SQUID devices), and 'photon-as-particle' (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The section will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave cavity experiment.

  16. A possibility to measure elastic photon--photon scattering in vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Daniel; Brodin, Gert; Marklund, Mattias; Stenflo, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Photon--photon scattering in vacuum due to the interaction with virtual electron-positron pairs is a consequence of quantum electrodynamics. A way for detecting this phenomenon has been devised based on interacting modes generated in microwave waveguides or cavities [G. Brodin, M. Marklund and L. Stenflo, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{87} 171801 (2001)]. Here we materialize these ideas, suggest a concrete cavity geometry, make quantitative estimates and propose experimental details. It is found th...

  17. A photon thermal diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an 'inelastic thermal collimator' element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9 ± 0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%). PMID:25399761

  18. Unparticle effects in photon-photon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-Fu; Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Elastic photon-photon scattering can only occur via loop diagrams in the standard model and is naturally suppressed. Unparticle can induce tree-level photon-photon scattering through the operator F_{\\mu\

  19. Optical and microwave propagation in random dielectric and metallic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genack, A. Z.; Ferrari, L. A.; Zhu, J.; Garcia, N.; Drake, J. M.

    1988-10-01

    Measurements of steady state and picosecond optical transmission through a sample composed of TiO2 microparticles embedded in polystyrene are consistent with a model of photon diffusion with a coefficient D=4.8×105 cm2/s and photon absorption time τabs=294 ps at 589 nm. Measurements of transmission of K band microwave radiation in a random sample of copper spheres in paraffin indicate that the diffusion model is not adequate at certain frequencies.

  20. Microwave excitation of spin wave beams in thin ferromagnetic films

    OpenAIRE

    Gruszecki, P.; Kasprzak, M.; Serebryannikov, A. E.; Krawczyk, M.; Śmigaj, W.

    2016-01-01

    An inherent element of research and applications in photonics is a beam of light. In magnonics, which is the magnetic counterpart of photonics, where spin waves are used instead of electromagnetic waves to transmit and process information, the lack of a beam source limits exploration. Here, we present an approach enabling generation of narrow spin wave beams in thin homogeneous nanosized ferromagnetic films by microwave current. We show that the desired beam-type behavior can be achieved with...

  1. Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating phonons in microwave Ku band

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huan; Tadesse, Semere A.; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Sideband-resolved coupling between multiple photonic nanocavities and propagating mechanical waves in microwave Ku-band is demonstrated. Coherent and strong photon-phonon interaction is manifested with optomechanically induced transparency and absorption, and phase-coherent interaction in multiple cavities. Inside an echo chamber it is shown that a phonon pulse can interact with an embedded nanocavity for multiple times. Our device provides a scalable platform to optomechanically couple phono...

  2. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Planar photonics with metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2013-03-15

    Metamaterials, or engineered materials with rationally designed, subwavelength-scale building blocks, allow us to control the behavior of physical fields in optical, microwave, radio, acoustic, heat transfer, and other applications with flexibility and performance that are unattainable with naturally available materials. In turn, metasurfaces-planar, ultrathin metamaterials-extend these capabilities even further. Optical metasurfaces offer the fascinating possibility of controlling light with surface-confined, flat components. In the planar photonics concept, it is the reduced dimensionality of the optical metasurfaces that enables new physics and, therefore, leads to functionalities and applications that are distinctly different from those achievable with bulk, multilayer metamaterials. Here, we review the progress in developing optical metasurfaces that has occurred over the past few years with an eye toward the promising future directions in the field. PMID:23493714

  4. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  5. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  6. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  7. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  8. Analogue imprecision in MLP training

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Hardware inaccuracy and imprecision are important considerations when implementing neural algorithms. This book presents a study of synaptic weight noise as a typical fault model for analogue VLSI realisations of MLP neural networks and examines the implications for learning and network performance. The aim of the book is to present a study of how including an imprecision model into a learning scheme as a"fault tolerance hint" can aid understanding of accuracy and precision requirements for a particular implementation. In addition the study shows how such a scheme can give rise to significant

  9. Photon Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H. -J.; Homann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss numerical solutions of Einstein's field equation describing static, spherically symmetric conglomerations of a photon gas. These equations imply a back reaction of the metric on the energy density of the photon gas according to Tolman's equation. The 3-fold of solutions corresponds to a class of physically different solutions which is parameterized by only two quantities, e.g. mass and surface temperature. The energy density is typically concentrated on a shell because the center c...

  10. Photonic Nanojets

    OpenAIRE

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Alan V. Sahakian; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for m...

  11. Photon correlations through Raman virtual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo E Souza, Reinaldo; Saraiva, Andre; Koiller, Belita

    In Raman inelastic scattering phonons are either absorbed or created, in what is respectively called an anti-Stokes (aS) or a Stokes (S) process. While these two processes are generally uncorrelated, it is possible that the same phonon generated by S is subsequently absorbed by aS. This two photon process is referred to as SaS. In a standard Raman process, conservation of energy forbids virtual phonons to play a role. However, in a SaS process these virtual phonons may be relevant as long as their lifetimes exceed the interval between the two scatterings. We derive the effective photon-photon interaction mediated by the phonon field. The effective hamiltonian is analogue to the one present in BCS superconductivity. The difference lies in the nature of the particles involved - since photons are bosons, there is no Fermi sea instability and no pair condensation. Still it is possible to obtain an attractive photon-photon interaction. Finally, we propose an experiment to detect the correlated photons emerging from a semiconductor. We pinpoint the material properties that might enhance this effect and discuss the possible technological applications of this idea as a correlated photon source. This work is part of the Brazilian National Institute for Science and Technology on Quantum Information. We also acknowledge partial support from the Brazilian agencies FAPERJ, CNPq and CAPES.

  12. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  13. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties of lunar soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Ji; Li Dihui; Zhang Xiaohui; Jiang Jingshan; A T Altyntsev; B I Lubyshev

    2005-12-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become attractive due to the existence of He3 and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization as nuclear fuel for power generation.Although the composition of the lunar surface soil can be determined by optical and /X-ray spectrometers, etc., the evaluation of the total reserves of He3 and ilmenite within the regolith and in the lunar interior are still not available.In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also present the results of the microwave dielectric properties of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil and,discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  14. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Swaroop Khare

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM receivers play an important role in electronic warfare. Technologies used for signal processing, include conventional direct Radio Frequency (RF techniques, digital techniques, intermediate frequency (IF techniques and photonic techniques. Direct RF techniques suffer an increased loss, high dispersion, and unwanted radiation problems in high frequencies. The systems that use traditional RF techniques can be bulky and often lack the agility required to perform advanced signal processing in rapidly changing environments. In this paper we discussed a survey of Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques. The microwaves techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper provides the major advancement in the Microwave Frequency MeasurementTechniques research; using these approaches the features and categories in the surveyed existing work.

  15. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  16. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39Ar/4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  17. Omnidirectional photonic band gap of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An omnidirectional photonic band gap (PBG) is presented in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystal (PPC). In contrast to the omnidirectional PBG coming from a zero- n-tilde gap or single negative (SNG) (permittivity- or permittivity-negative) gap, this gap originates from a Bragg gap. It has been shown that the ternary PPC, compared with the usual binary photonic crystal (PC), has a superior feature in the enhancement of the high-reflectance range (HRR) and the modulation of the omnidirectional PBG. Omnidirectional PBGs can be utilized as omnidirectional or large incident angle filters or reflectors in microwave devices

  18. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications. PMID:22559560

  19. A readout for large arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McHugh, Sean; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry (ARCONS). This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible...

  20. Storage of Multiple Coherent Microwave Excitations in an Electron Spin Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hua; George, Richard E.; Wesenberg, Janus H.; Mølmer, Klaus; Schuster, David I.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Morton, John J. L.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Strong coupling between a microwave photon and electron spins, which could enable a long-lived quantum memory element for superconducting qubits, is possible using a large ensemble of spins. This represents an inefficient use of resources unless multiple photons, or qubits, can be orthogonally...

  1. Non-Gaussian Photon Probability Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the axiom that the photon's probability distribution is a Gaussian distribution. The Airy disc empirical evidence shows that the best fit, if not exact, distribution is a modified Gamma mΓ distribution (whose parameters are α = r, βr/√(u)) in the plane orthogonal to the motion of the photon. This modified Gamma distribution is then used to reconstruct the probability distributions along the hypotenuse from the pinhole, arc from the pinhole, and a line parallel to photon motion. This reconstruction shows that the photon's probability distribution is not a Gaussian function. However, under certain conditions, the distribution can appear to be Normal, thereby accounting for the success of quantum mechanics. This modified Gamma distribution changes with the shape of objects around it and thus explains how the observer alters the observation. This property therefore places additional constraints to quantum entanglement experiments. This paper shows that photon interaction is a multi-phenomena effect consisting of the probability to interact Pi, the probabilistic function and the ability to interact Ai, the electromagnetic function. Splitting the probability function Pi from the electromagnetic function Ai enables the investigation of the photon behavior from a purely probabilistic Pi perspective. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis is proposed as a consistent method for handling the two different phenomena, the probability function Pi and the ability to interact Ai, thus redefining radiation shielding, stealth or cloaking, and invisibility as different effects of a single phenomenon Pi of the photon probability distribution. Sub wavelength photon behavior is successfully modeled as a multi-phenomena behavior. The Probabilistic Interaction Hypothesis provides a good fit to Otoshi's (1972) microwave shielding, Schurig et al.(2006) microwave cloaking, and Oulton et al.(2008) sub wavelength confinement; thereby providing a strong case that

  2. Microwave drying of radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly discusses how the microwave investigation began, what the investigators did and what the initial results indicate. Initial scoping tests using a 450 watt Sanyo microwave oven followed by experiments conducted with a 2 1/2 kilowatt microwave unit showed that resins could be dried without decomposing when temperature was kept below 2500F, and that volume reduction of at least two was possible. These tests show that microwave drying is easy and cost effective. Future plans are to put together a 30 kilowatt microwave unit which will be large enough to handle 5000 cubic feet of resin a year operating at about 60% capacity factor. Temperature measurements will be made with a probe. The unit will consist of condensers, water cooled stirrers, microwave power supply and engineering tanks which will cost anywhere from $$350,000 to $500,000

  3. Mechanically Mediated Microwave Frequency Conversion in the Quantum Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, F.; Clark, J. B.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of efficient and low-noise frequency conversion between two microwave modes, mediated by the motion of a mechanical resonator subjected to radiation pressure. We achieve coherent conversion of more than 1012 photons/s with a 95% efficiency and a 14 kHz bandwidth. With less than 10-1 photons.s-1.Hz-1 of added noise, this optomechanical frequency converter is suitable for quantum state transduction. We show the ability to operate this converter as a tunable beam splitter, with direct applications for photon routing and communication through complex quantum networks.

  4. Controlling microwave signals by means of slow and fast light effects in SOA-EA structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, Salvador; Öhman, Filip; Capmany, José;

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for the control of microwave signals in the optical domain. We propose the use of alternating amplifying and absorbing sections to implement phase control by using fast and slow light effects in semiconductors. The potential benefits from the proposed semiconductor optic...... microwave photonic filters.......We present a novel scheme for the control of microwave signals in the optical domain. We propose the use of alternating amplifying and absorbing sections to implement phase control by using fast and slow light effects in semiconductors. The potential benefits from the proposed semiconductor optical...... 10 GHz using commercially available components that were not optimized for this purpose. These results indicate a potential for several microwave photonic applications including the change of the direction of the radiation pattern of photonic phase-array antennas or the implementation of fast tunable...

  5. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  6. The chaos machine: analogue computing rediscovered (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambaum, Maarten H. P.; Harrison, R. Giles

    2011-01-01

    Analogue computers provide actual rather than virtual representations of model systems. They are powerful and engaging computing machines that are cheap and simple to build. This two-part Retronics article helps you build (and understand!) your own analogue computer to simulate the Lorenz butterfly that's become iconic for Chaos theory.

  7. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  8. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  9. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  10. Robust reconfigurable electromagnetic pathways within a photonic topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun; Jouvaud, Camille; Ni, Xiang; Mousavi, S. Hossein; Genack, Azriel Z.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of topological photonic states has revolutionized our understanding of electromagnetic propagation and scattering. Endowed with topological robustness, photonic edge modes are not reflected from structural imperfections and disordered regions. Here we demonstrate robust propagation along reconfigurable pathways defined by synthetic gauge fields within a topological photonic metacrystal. The flow of microwave radiation in helical edge modes following arbitrary contours of the synthetic gauge field between bianisotropic metacrystal domains is unimpeded. This is demonstrated in measurements of the spectrum of transmission and time delay along the topological domain walls. These results provide a framework for freely steering electromagnetic radiation within photonic structures.

  11. Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waveguide circuits in three-dimensional photonic crystals with complete photonic band gaps are simulated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, and compared with measurements on microwave scale photonic crystals. The transmission through waveguide bends critically depends on the photonic crystal architecture in the bend region. We have found experimentally and theoretically, a new waveguide bend configuration consisting of overlapping rods in the bend region, that performs better than the simple waveguide bend of terminated rods, especially in the higher frequency portion of the band. Efficient beam splitters with this junction geometry are also simulated

  12. Waveguide photonic limiters based on topologically protected resonant modes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, U; Makri, E; Vitebskiy, I; Kottos, T

    2016-01-01

    We propose a concept of chiral photonic limiters utilising topologically protected localised midgap defect states in a photonic waveguide. The chiral symmetry alleviates the effects of structural imperfections and guaranties a high level of resonant transmission for low intensity radiation. At high intensity, the light-induced absorption can suppress the localised modes, along with the resonant transmission. In this case the entire photonic structure becomes highly reflective within a broad frequency range, thus increasing dramatically the damage threshold of the limiter. Here we demonstrate experimentally the principle of operation of such photonic structures using a waveguide consisting of coupled dielectric microwave resonators.

  13. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; HongLi; CHOU; JiFan

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  14. Testing QCD in Photon-Photon Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Soldner-Rembold, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    At high energies photon-photon interactions are dominated by quantum fluctuations of the photons into fermion-antifermion pairs and into vector mesons. This is called photon structure. Electron-positron collisions at LEP are an ideal laboratory for studying photon structure and for testing QCD.

  15. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  16. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  17. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  18. Vesicle Photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  19. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  20. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors