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Sample records for analogue dementia rats

  1. The effect of heart-and kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbal Medicine on the function of cholinergic M-and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Qizhong; Gong Bin; Fang Jun

    1993-01-01

    3 H-QNB and 3 H-GABA were used as radioactive ligand for M-and GABA receptors respectively. M-and GABA receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RBA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. It was found that R t of M receptor was decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and R t of GABA receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The dissociation constant (K D ) of M-receptor was decreased significantly in cerebral cortex and K D value of (GABA) receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The decreased R t of M-and GABA receptor in brain tissue of analogue dementia rats was raised by Heart- and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as hydergin

  2. The effect of heart-and kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbal Medicine on the function of cholinergic M-and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qizhong, Mo; Bin, Gong; Jun, Fang [Shanghai College of TCM, Shanghai (China); and others

    1993-05-01

    [sup 3]H-QNB and [sup 3]H-GABA were used as radioactive ligand for M-and GABA receptors respectively. M-and GABA receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RBA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. It was found that R[sub t] of M receptor was decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and R[sub t] of GABA receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The dissociation constant (K[sub D]) of M-receptor was decreased significantly in cerebral cortex and K[sub D] value of (GABA) receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The decreased R[sub t] of M-and GABA receptor in brain tissue of analogue dementia rats was raised by Heart- and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as hydergin.

  3. Novel resveratrol analogues attenuate renal ischemic injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Kuncewitch, Michael; Prince, Jose M.; Marambaud, Philippe; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a severe clinical complication with no specific treatment. Resveratrol has been shown as a promising experimental agent in renal I/R due to its effect on cellular energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Recently, we identified two biologically active resveratrol analogues (RSVAs), RSVA405 and RSVA314. We hypothesized that both RSAVs would attenuate I/R-induced renal injury. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to renal I/R through bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. RSVA405 (3 mg/kg BW), RSVA314 (3 mg/kg BW), or vehicle (10% DMSO and 33% Solutol in PBS) was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to ischemia. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after I/R for evaluation. Results Administration of RSVA405 and RSVA314 significantly reduced the serum levels of renal dysfunction and injury markers, including creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, compared to vehicle. The protective effect of RSVA405 and RSVA314 was also reflected on histologic evaluation. Both RSVAs reduced the number of apoptotic cells by more than 60% as determined by TUNEL assay, compared to vehicle. The renal ATP levels of the vehicle group was decreased to 52.4% of control, while those of the RSVA405 and RSVA314 groups were restored to 72.3% and 79.6% of control, respectively. Both RSVAs significantly reduced the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Conclusions RSVA405 and RSVA314 attenuate I/R-induced renal injury through the modulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. PMID:25214260

  4. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging. Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve ...

  5. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... continue to look for new genes that may be responsible for the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Several research projects hope to identify dementia biomarkers (measurable biological signs ...

  6. The effect of synthetic ceramide analogues on gastritis and esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hyo; Um, Seung In; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Sun Young; Dong, Je Hyun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    The effects of ceremide analogues on esophagitis and gastritis in rats were examined. Gastritis induced by indomethacin was significantly reduced after CY3325 and CY3723 treatment, whereas other analogues had no effect. The amount of malondialdehyde in gastritis was significantly reduced by CY3325 or CY 3723. CY3325 or CY 3723 decreased the glutathione levels in gastritis. The myeloperoxidase level in gastritis is increased, and its increment was decreased by CY3325 and CY3723. In reflux esophagitis, the ulceration was decreased by CY3325, CY3723. The gastric volume and acid output are reduced, whereas the pH value is increased by CY3325 or CY3723 after esophagitis. These results suggest that ceramide analogues, CY3325 and CY3723, can prevent the development of gastritis and reflux esophagitis in rats.

  7. The effects of ACTH- and vasopressin-analogues on CO2-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, H.; Riezen, H. van; Wied, D. de

    Amnesia for a one-trial step-through passive avoidance response was induced in rats by application of CO2 until respiratory arrest occurred. The ACTH-analogue ACTH4–10 alleviated the amnesia when administered 1 hr prior to the retrieval test but not when given 1 hr prior to the acquisition trial.

  8. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, J.G.M.; Koppele, J.M. te; Dijk, P.A. van; Stee, L.L.P. van; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -C(H)3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. K(s,app) varied

  9. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Therapeutic effect of Sinapic acid in aluminium chloride induced dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats

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    Souravh Bais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of sinapic acid against Aluminium chloride-induced dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD type in rat.Methods: The study was designed to induce dementia by chronic exposure of aluminium chloride at a dose of 175 mg/kg, p.o. for a period of 25 days in rats and then divided into different groups, i.e. Treatment group, negative control and two groups of sinapic acid, (at a dose of 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o., where these groups treated and observed till the 35th day of experimental trial. The behavioural, neuronal and biochemical parameters were determined during or end of experiment. Histological changes in the brain were also observed.Results: Aluminium chloride at a dose of 175 mg/kg, o.p. had significantly induced the dementia and sinapic acid, at a dose of 40 mg/kg, p.o., possessed therapeutic effect against Aluminium chloride induced-dementia of AD type in rats.Conclusions: Sinapic acid is a class of compound wide spread in plant kingdom and could be a better source of neutraceuticals in brain disorders. The compound showed an in vivo MAO-A and MAO-B inhibiting activity and their role in Alzheimer's disease type of dementia was unexplored. The article also provides information on acute toxicity of sinapic acid with no toxicological sign on brain with chronic dose of AlCl3.

  11. Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively to characterize motor system pathophysiology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia, as well to monitor the effects of certain pharmacological agents. Among the studies focusing on motor cortical excitability measures, the most consistent finding is a significant reduction of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) in AD and other forms of dementia in which the cholinergic system is affected, such as dementia with Lewy bodies. SAI evaluation may thus provide a reliable biomarker of cortical cholinergic dysfunction in dementias. Moreover, most TMS studies have demonstrated cortical hyperexcitability and asymptomatic motor cortex functional reorganization in the early stages of the disease. Integrated approaches utilizing TMS together with high-density EEG have indicated impaired cortical plasticity and functional connectivity across different neural networks in AD. Paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity has also been found to be abnormal in patients with AD. The development of novel noninvasive methods of brain stimulation, in particular repetitive TMS (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has increased the interest in neuromodulatory techniques as potential therapeutic tools for cognitive rehabilitation in AD. Preliminary studies have revealed that rTMS and tDCS can induce beneficial effects on specific cognitive functions in AD. Future studies are warranted to replicate and extend the initial findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  13. Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Radhakrishnan, Raghavakurup

    2012-09-10

    Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine), antidepressants (clomipramine, fluoxetine, imipramine, sertraline), antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone), aromatherapy, benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive stimulation, exercise, ginkgo biloba, memantine, mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, sodium valproate/valproic acid), music therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega 3 (fish oil), reminiscence therapy, and statins.

  14. Experimental study of icariin on vascular dementia in rats induced by 2-VO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-xiaXU; QinWU; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of icariin (ICA) on the learning and memory of ischemic vascular dementia (VD) model of rats,and explore the protective mechanisms. METHODS: ICA was administered to the VD model rats induced by a permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries(2-VO method) and by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I10-R 10-110 method). Morris water maze was used to examine the abilities of spatial learning and memory of VD model rats. The activity of SOD, level of

  15. Amphetamine in rat brain after intraperitoneal injection of N-alkylated analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarali, A J; Baker, G B; Coutts, R T; Pasutto, F M

    1983-01-01

    Three N-alkylated analogues of amphetamine were administered intraperitoneally to male Sprague-Dawley rats and whole brain levels of amphetamine (AM) and the N-alkyl analogue were determined one hour after injection of the N-alkylated compounds. The drugs administered were the N-2-cyanoethyl-(I) (fenproporex), the N-3-chloropropyl-(II) (mefenorex) and the N-n-propyl-(III) derivatives of AM: the first two of these are used clinically as anorexiants, and the latter has been used extensively to study aspects of metabolism of AM-like compounds. Analysis of AM, I, II and III was performed using electron-capture gas chromatography with a capillary column after reaction of compounds with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride under aqueous conditions. In a second comparative study, equimolar doses (0.05 mMole/kg) of I or AM were administered intraperitoneally to the rats and brain levels determined after one hour. Results indicate extensive N-dealkylation occurs for compounds I, II and III in the rat.

  16. Performance of the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the Tremembé Epidemiological Study, Brazil

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    Karolina G. César

    Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.

  17. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

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    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  18. THE EFFECT OF THE SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGUE OCTREOTIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN RATS

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    Paran Haim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin has an inhibitory effect on the endocrine and exocrine secretions of the gut. It may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of intestinal obstruction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of octreotide in mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats. Method: Intestinal obstruction was induced in rats by ligation of a segment of the distal ileum. Animals were treated with the somatostatin analogue octreotide (n=16, or saline (n=16. Eight rats were operated but their intestine was not ligated (n=8 serving as sham controls. Forty eight hours after the operation, the animals were operated upon again and blood samples from the femoral vein were tested for electrolytes, urea, glucose, lactic acid, amylase, ph and bicarbonate. Portal vein blood samples were also obtained and tested for lactic acid and amylase. Results: Intestinal obstruction resulted, after 48 hours, in severe dilatation of bowel loops. A significant increase in plasma levels of urea, amylase and lactic acid was observed. Plasma pH decreased. In blood samples from the portal vein, a significant increase in lactic acid was observed, indicating metabolic acidosis, probably secondary to bowel ischemia. Octreotide treatment, resulted in less acidosis, with concomitant lower urea and lactic acid levels in the plasma and especially in the portal vein. Conclusion: Octreotide treatment may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of selected cases of intestinal obstruction.

  19. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, N.; Garcia, F.; Parrilla, J.J.; Calaf, J.; Martin-Mateo, M.; Caldes, M. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F 0 ) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F 1 ) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  20. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  1. Discrepant uptake of the radiolabeled norepinephrine analogues hydroxyephedrine (HED) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischpler, Christoph [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Munich (Germany); Fukushima, Kenji; Isoda, Takuro; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Dannals, Robert F.; Wahl, Richard [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abraham, Roselle [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Higuchi, Takahiro [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wuerzburg University, CHFC/Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 11}C-Hydroxyephedrine (HED) and radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I/{sup 131}I-MIBG) are catecholamine analogue tracers for sympathetic nerve positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT) imaging. In contrast to humans, rat hearts demonstrate high nonneural catecholamine uptake-2 in addition to neural uptake-1, the contributions of which to tracer accumulation are not fully elucidated. Wistar rats were studied using the following pretreatments: uptake-1 blockade with desipramine 2 mg/kg IV, both uptake-1 and -2 blockade with phenoxybenzamine 50 mg/kg IV, or control with saline IV. HED or {sup 123}I-MIBG was injected 10 min after pretreatment, and rats were sacrificed 10 min later. Heart to blood tissue count ratio (H/B ratio) was obtained using a gamma counter. To determine regional tracer uptake, dual-tracer autoradiography was performed with HED and {sup 131}I-MIBG in Wistar rats with chronic infarction by transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion and in healthy control rats. Local tracer distributions were analyzed, and the infarcted rats' local tracer distributions were compared with histology. The H/B ratios in control hearts were 34.4 {+-} 1.7 and 25.5 {+-} 2.1 for HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG, respectively. Desipramine led to a significant decrease in HED (3.2 {+-} 0.5, p < 0.0001), while there was no change in {sup 123}I-MIBG (25.5 {+-} 6.4, p = n.s.). Phenoxybenzamine led to a significant decrease in both HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG (3.5 {+-} 0.02, 4.3 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.0001). Only HED showed a subepicardium-subendocardium gradient in healthy control hearts which is consistent with physiological innervation, while {sup 131}I-MIBG was evenly distributed throughout the myocardium. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake defect closely matched the scar area determined by histology [3.8 {+-} 2.3 % ({sup 131}I-MIBG defect) vs 4.0 {+-} 2.4 % (scar)]. However, the scar area was clearly exceeded by the HED uptake defect (9

  2. New acylated bradykinin analogues: effect on rat blood pressure and rat uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dawidowska, O.; Prahl, A.; Wierzba, T.; Nowakowski, L.; Kowalczyk, W.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 436-439 ISSN 1075-2617 Grant - others:SCSR(PL) 0160/T09/2004/26; SCSR(PL) DS8000-5-0023-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bradykinin * B2 antagonists * rat blood pressure assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  3. Effects of two newly synthesized analogues of lidocaine on rat arterial blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, N M; Al Sayed, M I; Al Zuhair, H H; Al Obaid, A R; Fatani, A J

    2001-04-01

    Two new analogues of lidocaine were synthesized at the College of Pharmacy, King Saud University: compound I (Methyl-2-[2-(N,N-diethylamino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate) and compound II (Methyl-2-[2-(piperidino) acetamido]-3-cyano-4,5-dimethylbenzoate). Their influence on the arterial blood pressure and the heart rate of urethane-anaesthetized rats was studied and compared with the actions of lidocaine. Compounds I, II and lidocaine induced significant dose-dependent decreases in the arterial blood pressure and heart rate, which usually returned to basal values within 3-5 min. There were significant differences in the potency of the three compounds in producing their effects on blood pressure and heart rate (Plidocaine and compound I, respectively. The results of this study also indicated the ineffectiveness of antagonists of autonomic, histaminergic and 5-HT receptor, and various vasodilators in blocking the actions of the three compounds on blood pressure and heart rate. Pretreatment with CaCl(2)significantly reduced the hypotension and bradycardia induced by the three compounds, suggesting the involvement of calcium channels, probably of the L type. Several possible mechanisms are postulated. In conclusion, the results direct attention to the capability of the two new compounds to decrease blood pressure and heart rate; affects that may have clinical potential. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. The Effect of Scalp Point Cluster-Needling on Learning and Memory Function and Neurotransmitter Levels in Rats with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Junli; Litscher, Gerhard; Li, Haitao; Guo, Wenhai; Liang, Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Bing; Rong, Qi; Sheng, Zemin; Gaischek, Ingrid; Litscher, Daniela; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    We observed the effect of scalp point cluster-needling treatment on learning and memory function and neurotransmitter levels in rats with vascular dementia (VD). Permanent ligation of the bilateral carotid arteries was used to create the VD rat model. A Morris water maze was used to measure the rats' learning and memory function, and the changes in neurotransmitter levels in the rats' hippocampus were analyzed. The results show that scalp point cluster-needling can increase the VD rat model's...

  5. Edaravone injection reverses learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Fen; Li, Wei; Qin, Lingzhi; Yao, Yong; Ge, Xuerong; Yu, Qingkai; Liang, Xinliang; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD. Water maze and step-down inhibitory test were used to evaluate the memory deficit. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress level. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the synaptic protein expression. It was found that treatment with edaravone for a 5-week period was able to reverse both spatial and fear-memory deficits in rats with CCH. Edaravone significantly reduced the level of oxidative stress in the brains of rats with CCH by increasing SOD activity and decreasing the content of MDA, LDH, and total reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, edaravone treatment also restored the levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampi of rats with CCH. Our data provide direct evidence supporting the neuroprotective effects of edaravone in VaD. We propose that the alleviation of oxidative stress and restoration of synaptic proteins play important roles in neuroprotection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prevention of endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by benfotiamine, a lipophilic analogue of vitamin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Subramanyam, Sumitra; Ramana, Kota V

    2009-05-01

    To study the amelioration of ocular inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats by benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of thiamine. EIU in Lewis rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by treatment with benfotiamine. The rats were killed 3 or 24 hours after LPS injection, eyes were enucleated, aqueous humor (AqH) was collected, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, and inflammatory marker levels were determined. Immunohistochemical analysis of eye sections was performed to determine the expression of inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, protein kinase C (PKC), and transcription factor NF-kappaB. Infiltrating leukocytes, protein concentrations, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly elevated in the AqH of EIU rats compared with control rats, and benfotiamine treatment suppressed these increases. Similarly increased expression of inflammatory markers iNOS and Cox-2 in ciliary body and retinal wall was also significantly inhibited by benfotiamine. The increased phosphorylation of PKC and the activation of NF-kappaB in the ciliary body and in the retinal wall of EIU rat eyes were suppressed by benfotiamine. These results suggest that benfotiamine suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory signaling leading to uveitis. Therefore, benfotiamine could be used as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ocular inflammation, especially uveitis.

  7. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  8. Electropuncture influences on learning, memory, and neuropeptide expression in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Shao; Yanqian Fu; Lihua Qiu; Bing Yan; Xinsheng Lai; Chunzhi Tang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in recent years have indicated that several neuropeptide-like substances, such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), somatostatin (SS), and β-endorphine (β-EP), are involved in the process of cerebral ischemic damage to cranial nerves.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electropuncture on back-shu points, as well as the influence on learning and memory, AVP, SS, and β-EP levels in plasma and brain were measured in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: College of Acupuncture and Massage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of TCM from December 2005 to December 2006. A total of 48 healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats of SPF-grade, 180-220 g, were provided by The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The following instruments were used: SDQ-30 Dipolar Radio-frequency Electrocoagulator (Shanghai Operation Instrument Factory), Morris Water Maze (The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Type G6805-1 Treating Equipment (Huasheng Equipment Factory, Qingdao, China).METHODS: ① Eight rats were randomly selected for the control group; the remaining 40 rats underwent 4-vascular occlusion to establish a cerebral ischemia model. Due to the death of 13 rats and 2 hemiplegies during model establishment, there was a total of 25 model rats available for testing. The model rats were divided randomly into 3 groups according to their body weight: electropuncture group (n = 9), medication group (n = 8), and VD group (n = 8). ② Electropuncture group: 25 mm needles (28 gauge) were used to electropuncture (150 Hz, continuous waves, 1.0-2.0 mA, duration of 20 minutes) the following acupoints: Baihui (GV20), Geshu (BL17), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23). The acupoints were located according to Experimental acupuncturology and were

  9. Insulin Combined with Glucose Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Aluminum Chloride-Induced Dementia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Kutty, Nampurath Gopalan; Krishnadas, Nandakumar; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention using drugs against Alzheimer disease is curative clinically. At present, there are no reports on the curative role of insulin in chronic models of dementia. We evaluated the curative role of insulin and its combination with glucose in dementia. We also investigated the impact of treatments on blood glucose to correlate with cognitive deficit. Further, we analyzed the interaction of treatments with the cholinergic system and oxidative stress in memory centers (i.e., hippocampus and frontal cortex). The antidementia activity of insulin was assessed against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced dementia in rats. Behavioral parameters (Morris water maze test) along with biochemical parameters (Hippocampus and frontal cortex) such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to correlate cognitive function with cholinergic transmission and oxidative stress. Rats administered insulin and glucose showed improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze test. The combination corrected the diminished level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and GSH in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.Combined administration of insulin and glucose to aluminum-treated rats did not inhibit the aluminum action on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. No significant changes were observed in blood glucose levels between the treatment groups.

  10. Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of mTOR and eIF4E in hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhen; Zeng, Yanjun; Wang, Xuan; Ye, Xiaobao

    2013-07-01

    Clinically, electroacupuncture is proved to be an effective therapy for vascular dementia; however, their mechanisms remain uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of electroacupuncture therapy for vascular dementia. One month after a vascular dementia animal model was established by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries, electroacupuncture treatment was given at "Baihui" (DU20), "Dazhui" (DU14), and "Shenshu" (BL23). Morris water maze was used to assess the learning and memory ability of rats. Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in hippocampus of rats. Morris water maze test showed that electroacupuncture improved the learning ability of vascular dementia rats. Western blot assay revealed that the expression level of mTOR and eIF4E in the electroacupuncture group and sham-operated group was higher than that in the vascular dementia group (P Electroacupuncture improves learning and memory ability by up-regulating expression of mTOR and eIF4E in the hippocampus of vascular dementia rats.

  11. Acupuncture Prevents the Impairment of Hippocampal LTP Through β1-AR in Vascular Dementia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling-Yong; Wang, Xue-Rui; Yang, Jing-Wen; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Cao, Yan; Ma, Si-Ming; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-02-13

    It is widely accepted that the synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss contribute to the cognitive deficits of vascular dementia (VD) patients. We have previously reported that acupuncture improved cognitive function in rats with VD. However, the mechanisms involved in acupuncture improving cognitive ability remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the pathways and molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture. We assessed the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), the most prominent cellular model of memory formation. Acupuncture enhanced LTP and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus. Inhibition of the β-adrenergic receptor (AR), but not the α-AR, was able to block the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal LTP. Furthermore, inhibition of β1-AR, not β2-AR, abolished the enhanced LTP induced by acupuncture. The expression analysis revealed a significant upregulation of β1-AR and unchanged β2-AR with acupuncture, which supported the above findings. Specifically, increased β1-ARs in the dentate gyrus were expressed on neurons exclusively. Taken together, the present data supports a beneficial role of acupuncture in synaptic plasticity challenged with VD. A likely mechanism is the increase of NE and activation of β1-AR in the hippocampus.

  12. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-De Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  13. The effect of ACTH analogues on motor behavior and visual evoked responses in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.; Wied, D. de

    1976-01-01

    Averaged visual evoked responses (VER) in cortical area 17 were recorded one hour after the administration of 7-l-phe ACTH(4-10) or 7-d-phe ACTH(4-10) to artificially ventilated rats, paralysed with gallamine. In addition, the effects of these peptides on spontaneous motor behavior were analyzed.

  14. ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AT THE WANGU ACUPOINT SUPPRESSES EXPRESSION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS WITH VASCULAR DEMENTIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanan; Sui, Rubo

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VD) is the most frequent psychiatric complication of stroke, and is often difficult to treat. Incidence rate of vascular cognition impairment is still 70% after stroke in one year (Sui R et al.2011). Stroke patients with VD suffer from a higher mortality rate and have worse functional outcomes and quality of life. However, despite the extensive literatures on this topic, there is no agreement on the causal mechanisms and effective therapy for VD. The objective of this study is to examine if electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint (GB 12), whose position is similar to the cerebellar fastigial nucleus, could reduce inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in the hippocampus were assessed and the hippocampal tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Compared with the VD group, in the electroacupuncture group, the rats' learning ability improved significantly and the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β decreased. Simultaneously, the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampal tissues decreased, with their morphology recovered to nearly normal. Electro-acupuncture at the Wangu acupoint can decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus, reduce the damage extent of nerve cells in the hippocampus, and thus provide a new neuroprotective method in VD.

  15. New bradykinin analogues acetylated on their N-terminus: Effect on rat blood pressure and rat uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labudda-Dawidowska, O.; Sobolewski, D.; Sleszyňska, M.; Derdowska, I.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Wierzba, T.; Prahl, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, Supplement (2006), s. 190 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /29./. 03.09.2006-08.09.2006, Gdansk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bradykinin * N-terminus * rat uterus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Learning, Memory and Formation System of Free Radicals in Brain Tissues of Vascular Dementia Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 唐纯志; 赖新生

    2004-01-01

    In order to observe the regulative effect of electro-acupuncture on the formation system of free radicals in the brain tissues and learning and memory in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, the Morris's water labyrinth was used for testing the learning ability and memory in VD model rats made by 4-vessel occlusion method, and the activities or contents of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Results showed that the mean escape latency in the electro-acupuncture group was markedly reduced in place test, and the times swam the place of the plate-form in the original plate-form quadrant were significantly more than those in the rest three quadrants in spatia1 probe test as compared with the model group. In the electro-acupuncture group and the nimodipine group the contents of NO and MDA and the activity of NOS were decreased, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased. It is indicated that electro-acupuncture can modulate the production and clearance of free radicals, and improve the ability of learning and memory of the VD model rats.

  17. White matter damage and glymphatic dysfunction in a model of vascular dementia in rats with no prior vascular pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingjiang; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Talan; Liu, Amy; Chen, Jieli

    2017-02-01

    We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls. MMI evokes significant dilation of perivascular spaces as well as water channel dysfunction indicated by decreased Aquaporin-4 expression around blood vessels. MMI-induced glymphatic dysfunction with delayed cerebrospinal fluid penetration into the brain parenchyma via paravascular pathways as well as delayed waste clearance from the brain. The MMI model in RB rats decreases Aquaporin-4 and induces glymphatic dysfunction which may play an important role in MMI-induced axonal/WM damage and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-Fermented Soymilk on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Associated Dementia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD. Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05. In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05, which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO production, in addition to decreased escape latency and increased target crossing (p < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that TWK10-fermented soymilk extract could improve learning and memory in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats by acting as a blood pressure-lowering and neuroprotective agent.

  19. The GLP-1 Analogue Exenatide Improves Hepatic and Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Rats: Tracer Studies in the Basal State and during Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues (e.g., exenatide increase insulin secretion in diabetes but less is known about their effects on glucose production or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Methods. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: nondiabetic (control, C; nondiabetic + exenatide (C + E; diabetic (D; diabetic + exenatide (D + E with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high fat diet. Infusion of 3-3H-glucose and U-13C-glycerol was used to measure basal rates of appearance (Ra of glucose and glycerol and gluconeogenesis from glycerol (GNG. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, glucose uptake into gastrocnemius muscles was measured with 2-deoxy-D-14C-glucose. Results. In the diabetic rats, exenatide reduced the basal Ra of glucose (P<0.01 and glycerol (P<0.01 and GNG (P<0.001. During the clamp, Ra of glucose was also reduced, whereas the rate of disappearance of glucose increased and there was increased glucose uptake into muscle (P<0.01 during the clamp. In the nondiabetic rats, exenatide had no effect. Conclusion. In addition to its known effects on insulin secretion, administration of the GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, is associated with increased inhibition of gluconeogenesis and improved glucose uptake into muscle in diabetic rats, implying improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  20. Survival of spermatogonial stem cells in the rat after split dose irradiation during LH-RH analogue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van; Daal, W.A.J. van; Beck, J.L.; Vemer, H.M.; Rolland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A rat model has been created in which a single injection of an LH-RH analogue depot preparation (Zoladex, ICI 118630) produced a temporary interruption of the pituitary-gonadal axis. This effect applied during irradiation was investigated as a possible mechanism to protect the testis from radiation damage. A local testicular irradiation dose of 6.0 Gy was given either as a single dose or as a fractionated (2 x 3.0 Gy) dose at different time intervals ranging from 8 to 72 h. Stem cell survival was measured 11 weeks after irradiation by means of the repopulation index and the number of haploid cells (spermatids) measured by flow cytometry. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone concentrations were measured to evaluate hormonal recovery. No significant differences were observed between serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and the duration of the fractionation interval. Stem cell survival was higher following fractionated irradiation in comparison with the single dose. For the 8 h interval an increase in recovery ratio was found, amounting to a factor of 5 of the single dose value. The fluctuating pattern of the recovery curves indicated changes in radiosensitivity of stem cells. The combination of hormonal inhibition of spermatogenesis and fractionated irradiation led to a decrease in the absolute numbers of stem cells. However, the stem cell recovery curves were identical to those seen without hormonal inhibition. It was concluded that hormonal pretreatment with Zoladex during split dose irradiation had no protective effect on stem cell survival. 37 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Effects of ZDY101, an active component from Zhimu, on rat dementia model produced by intracranial injection of ibotenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qixiang; Hu Yaer; Guan Hong; Xia Zongqin

    2004-01-01

    A dementia model was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid, 2μg in 0.5 μL per side, into basal ganglion. ZDY101, 3.6, 18, 90 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , was given through gastric tube to 3 groups of the model rats for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of model rats without treatment declined compared with sham-operated controls, the composite index (number of wrong response in 5 min divided by latent period) being 0.71 ± 0.30 vs 0.10 ± 0.13 respectively. The brain M receptor density also decreased as compared with sham-operated controls, being 891 ± 150 vs 1039 ± 214 fmol·mg -1 protein respectively. ZDY101 simultaneously up-regulated the brain M receptor density and improved the memory and learning ability of model rats. For the middle dose group, the M receptor density was 1028 ±145 fmol·mg -1 protein (P<0.05) and the composite index of step-through test was 0.20 ± 0.18 (P<0.01). Since there was a significant correlation between M-receptor density and result of step-through test, it is apparent that the mechanism of action of ZDY101 is quite different from that of cholinesterase inhibitor. It is highly probable that the improvement of memory was due to the up-regulation of brain M receptor density. (authors)

  2. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.

  3. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  4. Neuroprotection, learning and memory improvement of a standardized extract from Renshen Shouwu against neuronal injury and vascular dementia in rats with brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Cheng, Yufang; Luo, Zhanyuan; Guo, Haibiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Gu, Quanlin; Yang, Xu; Xu, Jiangping; Bei, Weijian; Guo, Jiao

    2015-05-13

    The Renshen Shouwu capsule (RSSW) is a patented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), that has been proven to improve memory and is widely used in China to apoplexy syndrome and memory deficits. To investigate the neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of the Renshen Shouwu standardized extract (RSSW) on ischemic brain neuronal injury and impairment of learning and memory related to Vascular Dementia (VD) induced by a focal and global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Using in vivo rat models of both focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries induced by a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and VD with transient global brain I/R neuronal injuries induced by a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, RSSW (50,100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weights) and Egb761® (80 mg kg(-1)) were administered orally for 20 days (preventively 6 days+therapeutically 14 days) in 4-VO rats, and for 7 days (3 days preventively+4 days therapeutically) in MCAO rats. Learning and memory behavioral performance was assayed using a Morris water maze test including a place navigation trial and a spatial probe trial. Brain histochemical morphology and hippocampal neuron survival was quantified using microscope assay of a puffin brain/hippocampus slice with cresyl violet staining. MCAO ischemia/reperfusion caused infarct damage in rat brain tissue. 4-VO ischemia/reperfusion caused a hippocampal neuronal lesion and learning and memory deficits in rats. Administration of RSSW (50, 100, and 200mg/kg) or EGb761 significantly reduced the size of the insulted brain hemisphere lesion and improved the neurological behavior of MCAO rats. In addition, RSSW markedly reduced an increase in the brain infarct volume from an I/R-induced MCAO and reduced the cerebral water content in a dose-dependent way. Administration of RSSW also increased the pyramidal neuronal density in the hippocampus of surviving rats after transient global brain ischemia and improved the learning and memory

  5. EFFECT OF AURICULAR ACUPUNCTURE ON THE LEARNING AND MEMORY AND bcl-2 EXPRESSION IN VASCULAR DEMENTIA RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuezhao; XIAO Maolei; SUN Guojie

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of auricular acupuncture on dysmnesia and the relationship between the memory improvement and bcl-2 protein expression in vascular dementia (VD) rats. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomized into control group, VD group, acupuncture+ VD group and pseudo-operation group, with 10 cases in each group. Rat VD model was established by using 4-vessel occlusion method. Otopoint "Nao"-point and "Shen"(MA-SC)were punctured, once daily continuously for 15 days. The rats' memory capability was tested with Y-maze method and bcl-2 expression of the brain tissues displayed by immunohistochemical method and measured using MIAS-2000 Image Analyzer. Results: Results showed that the scores of control group, VD group and acupuncture+ VD group before operation were 5.68±1.29, 6.07±1.67 and 5.86±1.74 respectively, while following auricular acupuncture treatment,the scores of the 3 groups were 5.81±1.51, 18.06±2.68 and 8.31 ± 1.85 separately, suggesting that the VD rat's learning and memory abilities in acupuncture+ VD group were raised apparently in comparison with those of VD group (P < 0.01 ). In control, VD and acupuncture+VD group, bcl-2 immuno-reaction positive neurons in CA1 area of the hippocampus were 14.31 ± 4.87, 28.67 ± 5.63 and 65.74 ± 8.19 respectively, displaying that the improvement of learning and memory abilities caused by auricular acupuncture treatment may be related to the up-regulation of bcl-2expression (an inhibitory gene of apoptosis). In comparison with control group, the loss of neurons in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA1 area of VD group was more severe, while that of acupuncture group was markedly lighter. Conclusion: Auricular acupuncture of otopoint "Nao"-point and "Shen" (MA-SC) can raise the learning and memory abilities of VD rats, which may be realized by its inhibitory effect on apoptosis and the protection action on ischemic hippocampal neurons.

  6. Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning of Rat Brain Cultures Engenders Neuroprotection Against Dementia-Inducing Neuroinflammatory Proteins: Possible Signaling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Edward J.; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-01-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol “preconditioning” phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20–30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to β-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca+2]i and proinflammatory mediators—e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor → transducer → effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in “effector” heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  7. Moderate ethanol preconditioning of rat brain cultures engenders neuroprotection against dementia-inducing neuroinflammatory proteins: possible signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert M; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-06-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol "preconditioning" phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20-30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to beta-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca(+2)](i) and proinflammatory mediators--e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor --> transducer --> effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in "effector" heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  8. In vitro cytogenetic testing of an organoselenium compound and its sulfur analogue in cultured rat bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jacob H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se is a non-metal element, occurring in varying degrees in the environment and it has been found to be a component of several enzymes. Different selenium compounds have been associated with carcinogenicity, toxicity, modification of metal toxicity and prevention of cancer. Organoselenium compounds had substantially greater bioavailability and less toxicity than that of inorganic selenium. From a chemical point of view, Se resembles sulfur (S in many of its properties, thus, Se and S may be considered to be isosteric. The ability of a synthetic organoselenium compound; cyclopenta-dienyldicarbonyl ironselenoterephthalic acid (CSe and its sulfur analogue (CS in the range of 10-8 to 10-5 M, to induce sister-chormatid exchanges (SCE and alter cell division expressed as mitotic index (MI as well as cell survival has been investigated. Methods Rat bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of CSe and CS in the range of 10-8 to 10-5 M with a total exposure time of 4, 16 or 28 h at 37°C. Fluorescence-plus-Giemsa (FPG technique was used to visualize chromosomes for SCE analysis and MI determination. Trypan blue exclusion technique was used to determine cell viability. Results At the three exposure times, cell survival progressively decreased with increasing concentration, but the effect of either chemical was not significant (ANOVA; P -5 M when either chemical was applied for 16 or 28 h. Furthermore, the mean SCE increased with longer exposure times and, in general, CSe had slightly greater effect on cell survival and caused higher frequencies of SCE than CS. The exception was the 10-8 M treatment. However, both CSe and CS failed to induce 2-fold SCE as that of the negative control and therefore they are not considered as mutagens. Conclusion Both CSe and CS in the range of 10-8 to 10-5 M could not double the SCE rate of the negative control and therefore not considered as mutagens at these experimental conditions.

  9. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  10. Changes of cerebral contents of neuropeptides in rat models of multiple ischemic dementia (MID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Guo Jingcai; Song Changyi; Wang Shejiao; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of cerebral contents of the neuropeptides somatostatin (SS), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and substance P in rat models of MID. Methods: The rat models consisted of 15 rats undergoing intracarotid injection of autogenous thrombus powder. Another group of 15 rats undergoing sham operation served as controls. Learning and memory ability in these rats was assessed with daily passive avoidance task testing for 10 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on 30d and contents of the neuropeptides in tissue homogenate from different areas of brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and corpus striatum) were measured with (RIA). Results: On the first day of passive avoidance task testing, the frequency of errors in the MID group and the control group was about the same. From the third day on, the frequency of errors in the MID group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The neuropeptides contents of all these cerebral areas in the MID group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) with the only exception of the contents of substance P in thalamus (no significant difference between the contents in the two groups). Conclusion: The impairment of learning and memory in rat models with MID was possibly related to the lowered contents of SS, AVP and substance P in the brain tissue. (authors)

  11. The effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf flavonoids on spatial learning and memory in chronic cerebral ischemia-induced vascular dementia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanjing; Liang, Lizhen; Xu, Jian; Wu, Jiali; Yan, Yongxing; Lin, Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Fengming; Wang, Qin; Ren, Qian; Gou, Zengmei; Du, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to improve cognitive function and delay the dementia progression. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoids (SSTFs) extracted from S. baicalensis Georgi on spatial learning and memory in a vascular dementia (VaD) rat model and explored its molecular mechanisms. The VaD rats were developed by permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. Seven days after recovery, the VaD rats were treated with either 50 or 100 mg/kg of SSTF for 60 days. The spatial learning and memory was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The tau hyperphosphorylation and the levels of the related protein kinases or phosphatases were examined by western blot analysis. In VaD rats, SSTF treatment at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the escape latency in training trial in MWM test. In the probe trial, SSTF treatment increased the searching time and travel distance in the target quadrant. SSTF treatment inhibited the tau phosphorylation in both cortex and hippocampus in VaD rats. Meanwhile, SSTF reduced the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in VaD rats. In contrast, SSTF treatment increased the level of the protein phosphatase 2A subunit B in VaD rats. SSTF treatment significantly improved the spatial cognition in VaD rats. Our results suggest that SSTF may alleviate tau-hyperphosphorylation-induced neurotoxicity through coordinating the activity of kinases and phosphatase after a stroke. SSTF may be developed into promising novel therapeutics for VaD. © The Author 2016. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  13. Effect of Gallic Acid on Dementia Type of Alzheimer Disease in Rats: Electrophysiological and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoob; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Valizadeh, Zohreh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of gallic acid (GA) on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and histological changes in animal model of Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ). Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats (300±20 g) were divided into 8 groups: 1) Control (Cont); 2) AD; 3) Sham; 4-7) AD+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 10 days, orally) or vehicle, 8) Cont+GA100, Aβ (1μg/μL in each site) was infused into hippocampus bilaterally. Changes of amplitude and slope of LTP induced in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were evaluated by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of perforant path (PP). Data showed that LTP amplitude and area under curve significantly impaired in AD rats (P<0.001), while significantly improved in AD rats treated with GA (P<0.05, P<0.01). Current findings suggest that GA reduces neural damage and brain amyloid neuropathology and improves cognitive function via free radicals scavenging and inhibiting oligomerization of Aβ but with no effect on healthy rats.

  14. High affinity for the rat brain sodium channel of newly discovered hydroxybenzoate saxitoxin analogues from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon; Negri, Andrew; Quilliam, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison family has been recently extended by the discovery of several analogues possessing a hydoxybenzoate moiety instead of the carbamoyl group one finds in saxitoxin, the parent molecule of this toxin family. We have investigated the potency of these new analogues on a representative isoform of the pharmacological target of these toxins, the voltage gated sodium channel. These toxins were found to have K1's in the low nanomolar range, only slightly less potent than saxitoxin. The hydroxybenzoate group may increase the lipophilicity of these toxins and improve their ability to pass through epithelia and therefore its uptake and elimination in both intoxication victims and animals that bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish toxins.

  15. Evaluation of cellular viability by quantitative autoradiographic study of myocardial uptake of a fatty acid analogue in isoproterenol-induced focal rat heart necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, T.; Luu-Duc, C.; Comet, M.; Demenge, P.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies led us to hypothesize that a fatty acid analogue, 15-p-iodophenyl-β-methyl pentadecanoic acid (IMPPA or BMIPP), which is taken up but not quickly metabolized by heart cells, would be a more suitable tracer of cellular viability that 201 Tl. Biodistribution studies of 1- 14 C-IMPPA in conscious, freely moving rats showed that the concentration ratio of radioactivity in the heart with respect to the blood was about 8 for at least 60 min after intravenous administration, permitting its use as a putative tracer in these conscious, freely moving rats. Thereafter, the myocardial uptake of 14 C-IMPPA was studied in isoproterenol-treated rats (daily treatment for 10 days in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy and necrotic foci) with respect to control ones. Comparison of myocardial localizations by quantitative autoradiography of the uptake of 201 Tl and 14 C-IMPPA with that of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining enabled comparative evaluation of nutritional blood flow, localization and uptake of 14 C-IMPPA and necrotic foci size. Distributions of 14 C-IMPPA and 201 Tl in control rats' hearts were homogenous, like TTC staining. In infarcted hearts, areas of decreased 14 C-IMPPA uptake were nearly the same (100%±5%) as those unstained by TTC. These areas were larger than those showing a decrease in thallium uptake (about 70%±5% of the total scar size). Therefore, IMPPA seems to be a more accurate and sensitive indicator of necrosis localization compared with thallium. It may be a useful agent for assessment of myocardial viability by single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. (orig.)

  16. Effects of hypoxia-ischemia and MK-801 treatment on the binding of a phencyclidine analogue in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, F.S.; McDonald, J.W. III; Bommarito, M.; Johnston, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phencyclidine analogue [ 3 H](1-[2-thienyl]cyclohexyl)piperidine ( 3 H-TCP) binds to the ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel complex. In vitro autoradiography indicates that the distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in brain closely parallels that of [ 3 H]glutamate binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. In nine 7-day-old rats, an acute focal hypoxic-ischemic insult produced by unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen acutely reduced 3 H-TCP binding ipsilateral to the ligation by 30% in the CA1, by 27% in the CA3, by 26% in the dentate gyrus, and by 17% in the striatum compared with values from the contralateral hemisphere. In 10 littermates that received 1 mg/kg of the neuroprotective noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 immediately before hypoxic exposure, the regional distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in hypoxic-ischemic brain was relatively preserved and there were no interhemispheric asymmetries in 3 H-TCP binding densities. In addition, in three unoperated rats decapitated 24 hours after MK-801 treatment, 3 H-TCP binding was reduced by 15-35%; similar bilateral suppression of 3 H-TCP binding was detected in MK-801-treated ligates. Our data indicate that 3 H-TCP autoradiography can be used to assay the efficacy of neuroprotective agents in this experimental model of perinatal stroke

  17. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...

  18. Effects of new fluorinated analogues of GABA, pregabalin bioisosters, on the ambient level and exocytotic release of [3H]GABA from rat brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T; Pozdnyakova, N; Shaitanova, E; Gerus, I; Dudarenko, M; Haufe, G; Kukhar, V

    2017-01-15

    Recently, we have shown that new fluorinated analogues of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), bioisosters of pregabalin (β-i-Bu-GABA), i.e. β-polyfluoroalkyl-GABAs (FGABAs), with substituents: β-CF 3 -β-OH (1), β-CF 3 (2); β-CF 2 CF 2 H (3), are able to increase the initial rate of [ 3 H]GABA uptake by isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes), and this effect is higher than that of pregabalin. So, synthesized FGABAs are structural but not functional analogues of GABA. Herein, we assessed the effects of synthesized FGABAs (100μM) on the ambient level and exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA in nerve terminals and compared with those of pregabalin (100μM). It was shown that FGABAs 1-3 did not influence the ambient level of [ 3 H]GABA in the synaptosomal preparations, and this parameter was also not altered by pregabalin. During blockage of GABA transporters GAT1 by specific inhibitor NO-711, FGABAs and pregabalin also did not change ambient [ 3 H]GABA in synaptosomal preparations. Exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from synaptosomes decreased in the presence of FGABAs 1-3 and pregabalin, and the effects of FGABAs 1 &3 were more significant than those of FGABAs 2 and pregabalin. FGABAs 1-3/pregabalin-induced decrease in exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from synaptosomes was not a result of changes in the potential of the plasma membrane. Therefore, new synthesized FGABAs 1 &3 were able to decrease exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from nerve terminals more effectively in comparison to pregabalin. Absence of unspecific side effects of FGABAs 1 &3 on the membrane potential makes these compounds perspective for medical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction ameliorates learning and memory defects in rats with vascular dementia by up-regulating the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Zhao-Gang; Xia, Quan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Du-Juan

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction (TQHXD) on the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway and the memory and learning capacities of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The rat VD model was established by using an improved bilateral carotid artery ligation method. The Morris water maze experiment was used to evaluate the ethology of the VD rats following treatments with TQHXD at 3.01, 6.02, and 12.04 g·kg(-1) per day for 31 days. At the end of experiment, the hippocampus were harvested and analyzed. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to measure the expression levels of calmodulin-binding protein kinase II(CaMKII), protein kinase A(PKA), cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB), and three N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B). Our results revealed that TQHXD could alleviate the loss of learning abilities and increase the memory capacity (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs the model group, respectively). The treatment with 6.02 and 12.04 g·kg(-1) of TQHXD significantly up-regulated the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway in the hippocampus. In conclusion, TQHXD showed therapeutic effects on a bilateral carotid artery ligation-induced vascular dementia model, through the up-regulation of calcium signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Disposition and metabolism of the bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S, in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in vitro in hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Yueh, Yun Lan; Sutherland, Vicki; Patel, Purvi R; Watson, Scott L; Fennell, Timothy R

    2018-05-10

    With the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from many consumer products, the potential use of alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS) and its derivatives is causing some concerns. These studies investigated the comparative in vitro hepatic clearance and metabolism of BPS and derivatives and the disposition and metabolism of BPS in rats and mice following gavage and intravenous administration. The clearance of BPS and its derivatives was slower in human hepatocytes than in rodents. In male rats following gavage administration of 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg [ 14 C]BPS the main route of excretion was via urine; the urinary excretion decreased (72 to 48%) and the fecal excretion increased (16 to 30%) with increasing dose. The disposition was similar in female rats and male and female mice following gavage administration. Radioactivity remaining in tissues at 72 h in both species and sexes was ≤2.4%. In bile duct cannulated rats 53% of a gavage dose was secreted in bile suggesting extensive enterohepatic recirculation of [ 14 C]BPS. Following an intravenous dose in rats and mice, the pattern of excretion was similar to gavage. These data suggest that the dose excreted in feces folowing gavage administration is likely the absorbed dose. Urinary metabolites included the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates with a moderate amount of parent. The pattern of in vitro hepatic metabolsim was similar to in vivo with some difference among derivatives. These data suggest that similar to other bisphenol analogues, BPS was well absorbed following oral expsosure and extensively excreted with minimal tissue retention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. In vivo pharmacological evaluations of novel olanzapine analogues in rats: a potential new avenue for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Jafari

    Full Text Available Olanzapine (Olz is one of the most effective antipsychotic drugs commonly used for treating schizophrenia. Unfortunately, Olz administration is associated with severe weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Both patients and clinicians are highly interested in the development of new antipsychotics which are as effective as atypical antipsychotics but which have a lower propensity to induce metabolic side effects. In the present study, we examined two new derivatives of Olz; OlzEt (2-ethyl-4-(4'-methylpiperazin-1'-yl-10Hbenzo[b]thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepine, and OlzHomo (2-ethyl-4-(4'-methyl-1',4'-diazepan-1'-yl-10H-benzo[b]thieno[2,3-e] [1,4]diazepine, for their tendency to induce weight gain in rats. Weight gain and metabolic changes were measured in female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were treated orally with Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo (3 or 6 mg/kg/day, or vehicle (n = 8, three times daily at eight-hour intervals for 5 weeks. Furthermore, a phencyclidine (PCP-treated rat model was used to examine the prevention of PCP-induced hyperlocomotor activity relevant for schizophrenia therapy. Male Sprague Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single dose (3 mg/kg/day of Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo, or vehicle (n = 12, for 2 weeks. Locomotor activity was recorded following a subcutaneous injection with either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg. Olz was found to induce weight gain, hyperphagia, visceral fat accumulation, and metabolic changes associated with reduced histamatergic H1 receptor density in the hypothalamus of treated rats. In contrast, OlzEt and OlzHomo presented promising antipsychotic effects, which did not induce weight gain or fat deposition in the treated animals. Behavioural analysis showed OlzEt to attenuate PCP-induced hyperactivity to a level similar to that of Olz; however, OlzHomo showed a lower propensity to inhibit these stereotyped behaviours. Our data suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of OlzHomo may be delivered at a higher dose than

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, delays onset and reduces severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian DellaValle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Recent findings indicate that metabolic disturbances are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology and influence the susceptibility to treatment, directing attention towards anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and pioglitazone. Liraglutide, a drug of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE.Methods: EAE was induced in 30 female Lewis rats that subsequently received twice-daily liraglutide (200 µg/kg s.c. or saline. Healthy controls were included (saline, n=6, liraglutide, n=7. Clinical score and weight were assessed daily by blinded observers. Animals were killed at peak disease severity (day 11 or if exceeding humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4. Protein levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, amyloid precursor protein (APP, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were determined.Results: Liraglutide treatment delayed disease onset (group clinical score significantly >0 by two days and markedly reduced disease severity (median clinical score 2 vs. 5; p=0.0003. Fourteen of 15 (93% of vehicle-treated rats reached the humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4 by day 11 compared to 5 of 15 (33% of liraglutide-treated rats (p=0.0004. Liraglutide substantially increased the mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD (p<0.01 and reduced the neurodegenerative marker APP (p=0.036 in the brain. GFAP levels were not significantly changed with drug treatment (p=0.09Conclusion: We demonstrate, for the first time, that liraglutide treatment delays onset of EAE in Lewis rats and is associated with improved protective capacity against oxidative stress. These data suggest GLP-1 receptor

  3. Caffeine consumption prevents memory impairment, neuronal damage, and adenosine A2A receptors upregulation in the hippocampus of a rat model of sporadic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Janaína; Rocha, Andreia; Nunes, Fernanda; Costa, Marcelo S; Schein, Vanessa; Kazlauckas, Vanessa; Kalinine, Eduardo; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) streptozotocin (STZ) administration induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thus considered an experimental model of sporadic AD. Since caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors modify the course of memory impairment in different amyloid-β-based experimental models of AD, we now tested the impact of caffeine on STZ-induced dementia and associated neurodegeneration in the hippocampus as well as on the expression and density of adenosine receptors. Adult male rats received a bilateral infusion of saline or STZ (3 mg/kg, icv), which triggered memory deficits after four weeks, as gauged by impaired object recognition memory. This was accompanied by a reduced NeuN immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region and an increased expression and density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), but not A1R, in the hippocampus. Caffeine consumption (1 g/L in the drinking water starting 2 weeks before the STZ challenge) prevented the STZ-induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration as well as the upregulation of A2AR. These findings provide the first demonstration that caffeine prevents sporadic dementia and implicate the control of central A2AR as its likely mechanism of action.

  4. Heme Oxygenase-1 Activity as a Correlate to Exercise-Mediated Amelioration of Cognitive Decline and Neuropathological Alterations in an Aging Rat Model of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kurucz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment. Physical exercise has long been proven to be beneficial in the disorder. The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on spatial memory, imaging, and pathological abnormalities. Particular focus has been given to the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1—an important cellular cytoprotectant in preserving mental acuity—using an aging rat model of dementia. Male and female Wistar rats were segregated into six groups—namely, (i aged sedentary (control females (ASF, n=8; (ii aged sedentary (control males (ASM, n=8; (iii aged running females (ARF, n=8; (iv aged running males (ARM, n=8; (v young control females (YCF, n=8; and (vi young control males (YCM, n=8. Rats in the ARF and ARM groups had free access to a standardized inbuilt running wheel during the 3-month evaluation period. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Test, imaging and pathological alterations were assessed using positron emission tomography (PET imaging and histopathological examinations (H&E, Congo red staining, respectively, and HO-1 enzyme activity assays were also conducted. The outcomes suggest that voluntary physical exercise mitigates impaired spatial memory and neuropathological changes exhibited by the aging sedentary group, via elevated HO-1 activity, contributing to the antioxidant capacity in the aging brain.

  5. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  6. HYS-32, a novel analogue of combretastatin A-4, enhances connexin43 expression and gap junction intercellular communication in rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Shen, Chien-Chang; Liao, Chih-Kai; Jow, Guey-Mei; Chiu, Chi-Ting; Chung, Tun-Hui; Wu, Jiahn-Chun

    2013-05-01

    HYS-32 [4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2(5H)-furanone] is a new analogue of the anti-tumor compound combretastatin A-4 containing a cis-stilbene moiety. In this study, we investigated its effects on Cx43 gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and the signaling pathway involved in rat primary astrocytes. Western blot analyses showed that HYS-32 dose- and time-dependently upregulated Cx43 expression. A confocal microscopic study and scrape-loading/dye transfer analyses demonstrated that HYS-32 (5μM) induced microtubule coiling, accumulation of Cx43 in gap junction plaques, and increased GJIC in astrocytes. The HYS-32-induced microtubule coiling and Cx43 accumulation in gap junction plaques was reversed when HYS-32 was removed. Treatment of astrocytes with cycloheximide resulted in time-dependent degradation of by co-treatment with HYS-32 by increasing the half-life of Cx43. Co-treatment with HYS-32 also prevented the LPS-induced downregulation of Cx43 and inhibition of GJIC in astrocytes. HYS-32 induced activation of PKC, ERK, and JNK, and co-treatment with the PKC inhibitor Go6976 or the ERK inhibitor PD98059, but not the JNK inhibitor SP600125, prevented the HYS-32-induced increase in Cx43 expression and GJIC. Go6976 suppressed the HYS-32-induced PKC phosphorylation and increase in phospho-ERK levels, while PD98059 did not prevent the HYS-32-induced increase in phospho-PKC levels, suggesting that PKC is an upstream effector of ERK. In conclusion, our results show that HYS-32 increases the half-life of Cx43 and enhances Cx43 expression and GJIC in astrocytes via a PKC-ERK signaling cascade. These novel biological effects of HYS-32 on astrocyte gap junctions support its potential for therapeutic use as a protective agent for the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of curcumin on short-term spatial and recognition memory, adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Taysa B; Turnes, Joelle M; Moura, Eric L R; Bonato, Jéssica M; Cóppola-Segovia, Valentín; Zanata, Silvio M; Oliveira, Rúbia M M W; Vital, Maria A B F

    2017-09-29

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with evidence of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Recent evidence also suggests that curcumin increases cognitive performance in animal models of dementia, and this effect would be related to its capacity to enhance adult neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that curcumin treatment would be able to preserve cognition by increasing neurogenesis and decreasing neuroinflammation in the model of dementia of Alzheimer's type induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in Wistar rats. The animals were injected with ICV-STZ or vehicle and curcumin treatments (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, gavage) were performed for 30days. Four weeks after surgery, STZ-lesioned animals exhibited impairments in short-term spatial memory (Object Location Test (OLT) and Y maze) and short-term recognition memory (Object Recognition Test - ORT), decreased cell proliferation and immature neurons (Ki-67- and doublecortin-positive cells, respectively) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, and increased immunoreactivity for the glial markers GFAP and Iba-1 (neuroinflammation). Curcumin treatment in the doses of 50 and 100mg/kg prevented the deficits in recognition memory in the ORT, but not in spatial memory in the OLT and Y maze. Curcumin treatment exerted only slight improvements in neuroinflammation, resulting in no improvements in hippocampal and subventricular neurogenesis. These results suggest a positive effect of curcumin in object recognition memory which was not related to hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effects of bushen jiannao recipe on the content of acetylcholine and the hippocampal ERK1 and ERK2 protein expressions of vascular dementia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hui; Li, Shao-Wei; Zheng, Qing-Lian

    2012-04-01

    To explore the effects of Bushen Jiannao Recipe (BJR) on the content of acetylcholine (Ach) and ERK1 and ERK2 protein expressions in the hippocampal CA1 region of vascular dementia (VD) rats, and to explore its possible mechanisms for treating VD. Eighty-three rats were selected. The VD model was established by permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries (2-VO). Then the modeled rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i. e., the memory deficit model group, the donepezil group, and the positive drug control groups [including high (n = 13), middle (n = 13), and low (n = 12) dose BJR group]. Besides, another 13 rats were chosen as the sham-operative group. The distilled water was given by gastrogavage to rats in the sham-operative group and the memory deficit model group (5 mL/kg). The donepezil hydrochloride suspension was given to rats in the donepezil group by gastrogavage (0.52 mg/kg). High (56 g/kg), middle (28 g/kg), and low (14 g/kg) dose of BJR were respectively given to rats in the other three groups. After 30 days of intervention, the escape latency period and platform crossing times were determined using Morris water maze experiment. The contents of Ach in the hippocampus and cortex were determined using colorimetry. The expressions of ERK1 and ERK2 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemical assay. The average escape latency of intervened rats showed an overall decreasing trend. From the third to the fifth day, the escape latency period was prolonged, the platform crossing times were reduced, the contents of Ach in the cortex and the hippocampus were lowered, the numbers of positive stained neuron of ERK1 and ERK2 in the hippocampus CA1 region were reduced, showing statistical difference when compared with the sham-operative group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the 4th day escape latency of the donepezil group and the high dose BJR group was shortened. The escape latency was shortened, and the

  9. Types of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Use Map Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Alzheimer's & Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia ...

  10. Imaging dementias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  11. Vascular dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. Neurodegenerative Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Full text: With increasing life expectancy across the world, the number of elderly people at risk of developing dementia is growing rapidly. Thus, progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia represent a growing public health concern. These diseases are characterized by a progressive loss in most of the cognitive functions. The promise, possibly in a near future, of disease-modifying therapies has made the characterization of the early stages of dementia a topic of major interest. The assessment of these early stages is a challenge for neuroimaging studies. In order to conceive prevention trials; it is of major outcome to fully understand the mechanisms of the cognitive system impairment and its evolution, with a particular reference to the symptomatic pre-dementia stage, when subjects just begin to depart from normality. In this article we review recent progress in neuroimaging, and their potentiality for increasing a diagnostic accuracy. (author)

  13. Imaging dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between release of LH and incorporation of tritiated thymidine in the anterior pituitary gland of the castrated male rat: effect of LHRH and its highly active analogue buserelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M I; Machiavelli, G A; Alonso, G E; Burdman, J A

    1986-01-01

    Castration of the adult male rat significantly (P less than 0.01) increased the concentration of LH in serum and the incorporation of (3H) thymidine into the pituitary DNA. The administration of a single dose of LHRH or its analogue buserelin stimulated the release of LH but it did not modify (3H) thymidine incorporation. When multiple doses of LHRH or buserelin were injected, there was a significant (P less than 0.01) inhibition of LH release and also the incorporation of (3H) thymidine into the DNA of the anterior pituitary gland was significantly (P less than 0.01) diminished. These observations are compatible with the idea of the close relationship between hormonal release and DNA synthesis in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

  15. Synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propyl ether, a second-generation photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3: Photoaffinity labeling of rat serum vitamin D binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Holick, M.F.; Bouillon, R.; Van Baelen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Vulnerability of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 3β-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate, a photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25-OH-D 3 ) toward standard conditions of carboxymethylationin promoted the authors to synthesize 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propyl ether (25-ANE), a hydrolytically stable photoaffinity analogue of 25-OH-D 3 , and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitro-[3,5- 3 H]phenyl)amino]propyl ether ( 3 H-25-ANE), the radiolabeled counterpart of 25-ANE competes for the 25-OH-D 3 binding site in rat serum vitamin D binding protein (rDBP). On the other hand, UV exposure of a sample of purified rat DBP (rDBP), preincubated in the dark with 3 H-25-ANE, covalently labeled the protein. However, very little covalent labeling was observed in the absence of UV light or in the presence of a large excess of 25-OH-D 3 . These results provide strong evidence for the covalent labeling of the 25-OH-D 3 binding site in rDPB by 3 H-25-ANE

  16. MR spectroscopy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Gerigk, L.; Giesel, F.; Schuster, L.; Essig, M.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. (orig.) [de

  17. Recognizing Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2018-01-01

    narratives; yet during memory testing, patients are not allowed any substitution to clearly expose cognitive shortcomings. In combining works of theorists Ian Hacking and Paul Ricoeur, we argue that the clinical identification of dementia unmakes the knowing subject, a deconstruction that threatens...

  18. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  19. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  20. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...

  1. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  2. DIRECT VISUALIZATION OF THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER IN CULTURED NEWBORN RAT MIDBRAIN NEURONS USING THE FLUORESCENT COCAINE ANALOGUE JHC 1-64

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Cha, J

    In this study we have established methods for visualization and tracking of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in cultured dopaminergic neurons in real time using a fluorescent cocaine analogue JHC 1-64 and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The initial binding experiments in HEK 293 cells stably...... 1-64 was prevented by excess concentrations of dopamine, cocaine, mazindol, or RTI-55, whereas the norepinephrine and/or serotonin transporter specific inhibitors desmethylimipramine and citalopram did not affect fluorescent labeling of the neurons. This strongly supports that JHC 1-64 specifically...

  3. Functional Neuroimaging in Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Papma (Janne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDementia refers to a clinical syndrome of cognitive deterioration and difficulty in the performance of activities of daily living. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by vascular dementia (VaD) at old age and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) at young

  4. The Effect of the Thioether-Bridged, Stabilized Angiotensin-(1–7 Analogue Cyclic Ang-(1–7 on Cardiac Remodeling and Endothelial Function in Rats with Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Durik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS by angiotensin-(1–7 (Ang-(1–7 is an attractive approach to combat the detrimental consequences of myocardial infarction (MI. However Ang-(1–7 has limited clinical potential due to its unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. We investigated effects of a stabilized, thioether-bridged analogue of Ang-(1–7 called cyclic Ang-(1–7 in rat model of myocardial infarction. Rats underwent coronary ligation or sham surgery. Two weeks thereafter infusion with 0.24 or 2.4 μg/kg/h cAng-(1–7 or saline was started for 8 weeks. Thereafter, cardiac morphometric and hemodynamic variables as wells as aortic endothelial function were measured. The average infarct size was 13.8% and was not changed by cAng-(1–7 treatment. MI increased heart weight and myocyte size, which was restored by cAng-(1–7 to sham levels. In addition, cAng-(1–7 lowered left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and improved endothelial function. The results suggest that cAng-(1–7 is a promising new agent in treatment of myocardial infarction and warrant further research.

  5. Spatial learning and the hippocampal corticosterone receptor system of old rats: effect of the ACTH4–9 analogue ORG 2766

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Rigter, H.; Veldhuis, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Old (26 months) and young (6 months) male Wistar rats were treated chronically for 2 weeks with ORG 2766 or with vehicle, delivered via subcutaneously implanted minipumps (0.5/~g peptide/0.5/~l/h). Learning of a spatial task was not impaired in the old animals, except for one measure, i.e. the

  6. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  7. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  8. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  9. KYNA analogue SZR72 modifies CFA-induced dural inflammation- regarding expression of pERK1/2 and IL-1β in the rat trigeminal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, M; Warfvinge, K; Kruse, L S; Tajti, J; Fülöp, F; Toldi, J; Vécsei, L; Edvinsson, L

    2016-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation has for decades been considered an important part of migraine pathophysiology. In the present study, we asked the question if administration of a novel kynurenic acid analogue (SZR72), precursor of an excitotoxin antagonist and anti-inflammatory substance, can modify the neurogenic inflammatory response in the trigeminal ganglion. Inflammation in the trigeminal ganglion was induced by local dural application of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA). Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase pERK1/2 and IL-1β expression in V1 region of the trigeminal ganglion were investigated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Pretreatment with one dose of SZR72 abolished the CFA-induced pERK1/2 and IL-1β activation in the trigeminal ganglion. No significant change was noted in case of repeated treatment with SZR72 as compared to a single dose. This is the first study that demonstrates that one dose of KYNA analog before application of CFA can give anti-inflammatory response in a model of trigeminal activation, opening a new line for further investigations regarding possible effects of KYNA derivates.

  10. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  11. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  12. Cognitive impairment of dementias

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, L. D.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of cognitive and emotional abilities of sufficient severity to infer with social or occupational functioning, or both. Although the causes of dementia and characteristics are not always fully understood, it is understood that it is not a natural part of aging. Definitive diagnosis of dementia is made only through the autopsy and although the diagnosis of probable or possible dementia is complex is achieved by the intervention of several ...

  13. Phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate analogues by 3-kinase and dephosphorylation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate analogues by 5-phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Peter van; Lammers, Aleida A.; Ozaki, Shoichiro; Potter, Barry V.L.; Erneux, Christophe; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1994-01-01

    A series of P-32-labeled D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P-4] analogues was enzymically prepared from the corresponding D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P-3] analogues using recombinant rat brain Ins(1,4,5)P-3 3-kinase and [gamma-P-32]ATP. Ins(1,4,5)P-3 analogues

  14. Protective effects of GLP-1 analogues exendin-4 and GLP-1(9-36) amide against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Engstrøm, Thomas; Treiman, Marek

    2007-01-01

    to exert cardiovascular effects in a number of experimental models. Here we tested exendin-4 (Exe-4), a peptide agonist at GLP-1 receptors, and GLP-1(9-36) amide, the primary endogenous metabolite of GLP-1 (both in the concentration range 0.03-3.0 nM), for their protective effects against ischemia......-reperfusion injury (IRI) in an isolated rat heart preparation. When administered, the agents were only present for the first 15 min of a 120 min reperfusion period (postconditioning protocol). Exe-4, but not GLP-1(9-36) amide, showed a strong infarct-limiting action (from 33.2% +/-2.7% to 14.5% +/-2.......2% of the ischemic area, pamide were able to augment left ventricular performance (left ventricular developed pressure and rate-pressure product) during...

  15. Tetramethylpyrazine analogue CXC195 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wei, Xinbing; Hou, Yunfeng; Liu, Xiaoqian; Li, Senpeng; Sun, Baozhu; Liu, Xinyong; Liu, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    CXC195 showed strongest protective effects among the ligustrazine derivatives in cells and prevented apoptosis induced by H2O2 injury. We recently demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by its antioxidant activity. However, whether the anti-apoptotic action of CXC195 is involved in cerebral I/R injury is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in apoptotic processes induced by cerebral I/R and the possible signaling pathways. Male Wistar rats were submitted to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h, followed by 24h reperfusion. CXC195 was injected intraperitoneally at 2h and 12h after the onset of ischemia. The number of apoptotic cells was measured by TUNEL assay, apoptosis-related protein cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β in ischemic penumbra were assayed by western blot. The results showed that administration of CXC195 at the doses of 3mg/kg and 10mg/kg significantly inhibited the apoptosis by decreasing the number of apoptotic cells, decreasing the level of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing the level of Bcl-2 in rats subjected to I/R injury. Simultaneously, CXC195 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Blockade of PI3K activity by wortmannin, dramatically abolished its anti-apoptotic effect and lowered both Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation levels. Our study firstly demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis in vivo and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...... management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease...

  17. Health Policy and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tia

    2018-02-01

    The anticipated number of persons with dementia continues to grow, and the US has insufficiently planned to provide and pay for care for this large population. A number of significant clinical trials aiming to prevent or cure dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, have not demonstrated success. Because of the lack of efficacious treatments, and the fact that brain changes associated with dementia may begin decades before symptoms, we can predict that efforts to cure or prevent dementia will not succeed in time for millions of people in the baby boomer generation. Because of the anticipated increase in people suffering with dementia in the coming years, US health policy must address major gaps in how to provide and pay for dementia care. Reliance on Medicaid and Medicare as currently structured will not sustain the necessary care, nor can families alone provide all necessary dementia care. Innovative forms of providing long-term care and paying for it are crucially needed.

  18. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  19. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  20. Neurocognitive differential diagnosis of dementing diseases: Alzheimer's Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J

    2006-11-01

    Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.

  1. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  2. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  3. Dementia: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva-Kozarova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will focus on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of dementia and related diseases. We will discuss the following subjects: 1. Systematic assessment of MR in dementia 2. MR protocol for dementia 3. Typical findings in the most common dementia syndrome Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTLD) 4. Short overview of neurodegenerative disorders which may be associated with dementia. The role of neuroimaging in dementia nowadays extends to support the diagnosis of specific neurodegenerative disorders. It is a challenge to the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Early diagnosis includes recognition of predementia conditions, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Neuroimaging may also be used to assess disease progression and is adopted in current trials investigating MCI and AD. An MR-study of a patient suspected of having dementia must be assessed in a standardized way. First of all, treatable diseases like subdural hematomas, tumors and hydrocephalus need to be excluded. Next we should look for signs of specific dementias such as: Alzheimer's disease (AD): medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and parietal atrophy. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD): (asymmetric) frontal lobe atrophy and atrophy of the temporal pole. Vascular Dementia (VaD): global atrophy, diffuse white matter lesions, lacunas and 'strategic infarcts' (infarcts in regions that are involved in cognitive function). Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): in contrast to other forms of dementia usually no specific abnormalities. So when we study the MR images we should score in a systematic way for global atrophy, focal atrophy and for vascular disease (i.e. infarcts, white matter lesions, lacunas)

  4. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  5. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  6. Depression associated with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered.

  7. Dementia in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ahmad I.; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Sulaiti, Essa M.

    2004-01-01

    Dementia is the major public health problem among the elderly in developed countries and a growing problem in the underdeveloped countries. There are no published data on dementia in any of the Arab countries. The aim of this study was to determine the different subtypes of dementia among Qataris. A retrospective and prospective ongoing hospital based study in which all medical records of the patients with diagnosis of dementia seen at the Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar, between June 1997 and June 2003, whether inpatient and outpatient were reviewed. Dementia was defined according to diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) IV criteria. Those who had dementia were evaluated by a psychologist, psychiatrist, neurologist and a geriatrician. All had brain computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or both and routine blood test. Finally, they were classified into sub-types according to the cause of dementia. One of 300 patients, 134 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, most of them were illiterate, married and non-smokers. Among those dementia sub-types were: Alzheimer disease (AD) 39 (29%), vascular dementia (VaD) 30 (22%), mixed AD and VaD 20 (15%) and Parkinson's disease with dementia due to other medical conditions. Our stidy showed that AD is more prevalent than VaD. It also showed that patients and their families seek medical help late due to to the general belief among the public that forgetfulness and other associated cognitive impairment are part of normal aging process. The emergence of new drugs and advancement in prevention of cerebrovascular diseases make early diagnosis of dementia sub-type important. A community based study to show the real prevalence and incidence of sub-types of dementia is highly indicated. These data are necessory for planning and setting up community services and health care programs for demented patients. (author)

  8. Cerebral imaging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascol, A.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.

    1989-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques undoubtedly are of value when applied to the study of dementia. This value, however, varies with the technique utilized, and one must distinguish between acquired and potential knowledge. Morphological imaging with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance detects or confirms certain causes of dementia (tumours, lacunae, hydrocephalus with normal CSF pressure), but it is still not sensitive and specific enough to be very useful in primary dementias. Functional imaging (essentially with emission tomography) has already provided interesting data in the study of degenerative dementia (correlations with neuropsychology, subtyping), but what is most promising is its possibilities in the physiopathological approach of the disease [fr

  9. Cerebral imaging and dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rascol, A.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.

    1989-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques undoubtedly are of value when applied to the study of dementia. This value, however, varies with the technique utilized, and one must distinguish between acquired and potential knowledge. Morphological imaging with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance detects or confirms certain causes of dementia (tumours, lacunae, hydrocephalus with normal CSF pressure), but it is still not sensitive and specific enough to be very useful in primary dementias. Functional imaging (essentially with emission tomography) has already provided interesting data in the study of degenerative dementia (correlations with neuropsychology, subtyping), but what is most promising is its possibilities in the physiopathological approach of the disease.

  10. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  11. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  12. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  13. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  14. Comparison of PET and proton NMR imaging in the diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Jagust, W.J.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1985-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), medical personnel remain unable to make the diagnosis noninvasively, except by exclusion. The more recently developed technique of positron emission tomography (PET) has been used with a labeled glucose analogue, ( 18 F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), to noninvasively study glucose metabolism in dementia. Specific regional alterations, particularly in the temporal-parietal cortex, have been found. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is another powerful new technology that is beginning to be applied to dementia. The authors have compared the findings in PET studies using FDG with NMR imaging in two subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia

  15. Captopril and Valsartan May Improve Cogniti ve Function Through Potentiation of the Brain Antioxidant Defense System and Attenuation of Oxidative/Nitrosative Damage in STZ - Induced Dementia in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Arjmand Abbassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous findings have shown the crucial roles of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Since RAS inhibitors may have beneficial effects on dementia and cognitive function in elderly people, the aim of present study was to examine the neuroprotective actions of captopril and valsartan on memory function and neuronal damage in experimental model of AD. Methods: Adult forty male Wistar rats (220-280g were randomly divided into 5 groups; Control, Vehicle, Alzheimer and treatment groups. AD was induced by the injections of streptozotocin (3mg/kg, bilateral intracerebroventricular at days 1&3. Treated rats received orally captopril (50mg/kg/day and valsartan (30mg/kg/day. Memory function and histological assessments were done at termination of experiment. Finally, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA and NOx contents were determined. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean value of latency in Alzheimer group (66%. Captopril and valsartan considerably decreased this value in both treatment groups (45% and 72%, respectively. In Alzheimer group the activities of brain’s SOD and CAT reduced (40% and 47%, respectively in accompany with an increase in MDA and NOx contents (49% and 50%, respectively. Captopril and valsartan significantly increased the activities of brain’s SOD and CAT concomitant reduction in MDA and NOx contents. Also, histopathological damages noticeably decreased in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that RAS inhibition by using captopril and valsartan potentiates the antioxidant defense system of brain and reduces oxidative/nitrosative stress in accompany with neuronal damage during AD.

  16. Prognosis of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vorst, IE

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this thesis, we focused on the prognosis of patients with dementia who visited a hospital (inpatient or day clinic care) in the Netherlands. So far, absolute mortality risks for dementia were lacking in the Netherlands, whereas these risks have been available for years for cancer or

  17. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  18. Antidepressants and dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressants may have neuroprotective abilities but it has newer been investigated lately whether treatment with antidepressants reduces the risk of dementia. METHOD: Linkage of registers of all prescribed antidepressants and diagnoses of dementia...... in Denmark during a period from 1995 to 2005. RESULTS: Persons who purchased antidepressants once (N=687,552) had an increased rate of dementia compared to persons unexposed to antidepressants (N=779,831). Nevertheless, the rate of dementia changed over time; thus during the initial prescription periods...... the rate increased with the number of prescriptions but continued long-term antidepressants treatment was associated with a reduction in the rate of dementia, however, not to the same level as the rate for the general population. This pattern was found for all classes of antidepressants (SSRIs, newer non...

  19. Music and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  1. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  2. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  3. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... notices changes in at least one area of cognition, such as memory or language. Daytime Sleepiness is ... the field of Lewy body dementias. Memantine Improves Attention and Episodic Memory in Mild to Moderate Lewy ...

  4. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now events There are no upcoming events. Lewy Body Digest September 2017 Lewy Digest Caregiving as a ... and research, we support those affected by Lewy body dementias, their families and caregivers. We are dedicated ...

  5. Dementia - home care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve communication skills and prevent wandering. Calming music may reduce wandering and restlessness, ease anxiety, and ... Budson AE, Solomon PR. Why diagnose and treat memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia? In: Budson AE, ...

  6. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  7. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  8. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  9. Phytosterols and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Rong; Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li

    2016-12-01

    As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia. Moreover, phytosterols mediate cell and membrane cholesterol efflux or beta amyloid (Aβ) metabolism, which have preventative and therapeutic effects on dementia. Additionally, incorporation of plant sterols in lipid rafts can effectively reduce dietary fat and alter the dietary composition of fiber, fat and cholesterol to regulate appetite and calories. Overall, the objectives of this review are to explore whether phytosterols are a potentially effective target for the prevention of dementia and to discuss a possible molecular mechanism by which phytosterols play a role in the pathogenesis of dementia via the PPARs-SIRT-1 pathway.

  10. Sexuality, aging, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek

    2012-07-01

    Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.

  11. Computertomographic studies of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmeyer, K.

    1983-01-01

    It seems to be very complicated even for the experienced neurologist and psychiatrist to correlate the clinical syndrome of dementia to different causing cerebral processes such as a primarily degenerative brain atrophy, a chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, or other rarer occurring brain diseases unless neurological signs and symptoms do indicate a focal brain lesion. Since computed tomography is able to show both focal and general changes of the brain tissue each patient presenting with a dementia clinically should be undergone such a neuroradiological investigation at least once, and if being negative even repeatedly. Computed tomography is able not only to detect unexpected treatable brain lesions as a cause of dementia for instance tumors, subdural hematomas, and communicating hydrocephalus to expect in about 6% of cases with the clinical diagnosis of dementia, but also it is able to help to make the differentialdiagnosis of the dementia of Alzheimer's and the multi-infarct-type in a high percentage. Nevertheless despite the use of computed tomography the pathogenesis of dementia even though being undoubtful clinically remains obscure in 15% of our material of 367 demented patients studied by computed tomography but presenting with a normal finding. (orig.) [de

  12. Diabetes and dementia links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jankowska

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is growing globally. It is expected to observe 253.4 million sufferers in geriatric population in 2045. In this time, also 131.5 million of people is going to have dementia and other cognitive problems. In people aged over 65 these two diseases are concomitant quite often. What are the connections in the area of etiology and treatment? Aim The purpose of this study is to present links between dementia and diabetes are depicted in professional literature. Results Diabetes and dementia are associated on many levels. These conditions have common risk factors. Diabetes may contribute to cognitive impairment in many ways, promoting development of atherosclerosis, brain vessel damage and vascular dementia. Alzheimer disease may be promoted by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. On contrary also hypoglycaemia, often met in elderly diabetic patients has negative impact on cognitive function. Dementia seriously affects treatment of diabetes. The main problems are not satisfying adherence and diabetes self-management. Conclusions Prevention of diabetes and dementia risk factors can be performed simultaneously as the are common for both diseases. Enhancing physical activity, reducing saturated fats consumption, levels of cholesterol and body mass are considered to be beneficial in the context of described conditions. Furthermore, treatment of diabetes is strongly affected by cognitive dysfunction. Management of dementive diabetics requires individualization and using long-acting drugs. It is crucial to reduce risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemias and to create wide team to take care of these patients.

  13. Novel analogues of bradykinin conformationally restricted in the C-terminal part of the molecule

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sleszynska, M.; Wierzba, T. H.; Malinowski, K.; Borovičková, Lenka; Maluch, I.; Sobolewski, D.; Lammek, B.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Prahl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2011), s. 366-372 ISSN 1075-2617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bradykinin analogues * B2 receptor antagonists * sterically restricted residue * in vivo rat blood pressure test * in vitro rat uterus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.799, year: 2011

  14. Localisation and mechanism of renal retention of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Marleen; Krenning, Eric P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Barone, Raffaella [UCL, Centre of Nuclear Medicine and Laboratory of PET, Brussels (Belgium); Visser, Theo J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and octreotate, are used for tumour scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. The kidney is the most important critical organ during such therapy owing to the reabsorption and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate in a rat model both the localisation and the mechanism of renal uptake after intravenous injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The multi-ligand megalin/cubilin receptor complex, responsible for reabsorption of many peptides and proteins in the kidney, is an interesting candidate for renal endocytosis of these peptide analogues. For localisation studies, ex vivo autoradiography and micro-autoradiography of rat kidneys were performed 1-24 h after injection of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues and compared with the renal anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern. To confirm a role of megalin in the mechanism of renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide, the effects of three inhibitory substances were explored in rats. Renal ex vivo autoradiography showed high cortical radioactivity and lower radioactivity in the outer medulla. The distribution of cortical radioactivity was inhomogeneous. Micro-autoradiography indicated that radioactivity was only retained in the proximal tubules. The anti-megalin immunohistochemical staining pattern showed a strong similarity with the renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide ex vivo autoradiograms. Biodistribution studies showed that co-injection of positively charged d-lysine reduced renal uptake to 60% of control. Sodium maleate reduced renal [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide uptake to 15% of control. Finally, cisplatin pre-treatment of rats reduced kidney uptake to 70% of control. Renal retention of [{sup 111}In-DTPA]octreotide is confined to proximal tubules in the rat kidney, in which megalin-mediated endocytosis may play an important part. (orig.)

  15. Receptor-isoform-selective insulin analogues give tissue-preferential effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Bouman, Stephan D; Sørensen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The relative expression patterns of the two IR (insulin receptor) isoforms, +/- exon 11 (IR-B/IR-A respectively), are tissue-dependent. Therefore we have developed insulin analogues with different binding affinities for the two isoforms to test whether tissue-preferential biological effects can...... be attained. In rats and mice, IR-B is the most prominent isoform in the liver (> 95%) and fat (> 90%), whereas in muscles IR-A is the dominant isoform (> 95%). As a consequence, the insulin analogue INS-A, which has a higher relative affinity for human IR-A, had a higher relative potency [compared with HI...... (human insulin)] for glycogen synthesis in rat muscle strips (26%) than for glycogen accumulation in rat hepatocytes (5%) and for lipogenesis in rat adipocytes (4%). In contrast, the INS-B analogue, which has an increased affinity for human IR-B, had higher relative potencies (compared with HI...

  16. Pharmacotherapy of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Avasthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to evaluate the existing evidence for pharmacotherapy for management of dementia. Data search strategies included electronic databases of relevant publications or cross-references. The searches were limited to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, memantine, antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and benzodiazepines. Data in the form of meta-analysis and systemic reviews for treatment in five main types of dementia (Alzheimer′s, frontotemporal, Parkinson′s, Lewy body disease, and vascular type were extracted. If a meta-analysis or systemic review was not available, then the searches included evaluation of data in the form of double-blind, randomized controlled trials or open-label studies. Various studies suggest that compared to placebo, AChEIs and memantine are associated with better outcome in all domains of Alzheimer′s disease. In addition, combination therapy of AChEIs and memantine is superior to monotherapy with AChEIs in terms of behavioral disturbances, activities of daily living, and global assessment. In patients with dementia associated with Parkinson′s disease or Lewy body dementia, use of donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine is associated with significant efficacy on the global outcome measures when compared with placebo. Compared to placebo, AChEIs, but not memantine, have also been shown to have better cognitive outcomes in patients with dementia associated with Parkinson′s disease or Lewy body dementia. Data are limited for the role of pharmacotherapy in management of frontotemporal dementia. In patients of vascular dementia, all AChEIs and memantine show some beneficial effects on cognition. Antidepressants and antipsychotics have been shown to be beneficial in management of behavioral symptoms and agitation. However, it is important to remember that there is black box warning for use of antipsychotics among patients with dementia. One of the major limitations of the research is

  17. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia (LBD) has variable presentations that include cognitive difficulties ... wake cycle alterations. Cognitive impairment in Lewy body dementia (LBD) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ...

  18. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  19. Influence of dementia on pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E

    2006-01-01

    In the next decades the number of older persons with dementia and with a painful condition will increase. This is an important conclusion since at this moment older persons with dementia and a painful condition receive less analgesic medication than older persons without dementia. One explanation

  20. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  1. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These ...

  2. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  3. [Artistic creativity and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellal, François; Musacchio, Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Artistic creativity can be defined as the ability to produce both innovative and esthetic works. Though most dementias result in a loss of instrumental functions and a deterioration in artistic production, for some established artists, dementia, most often Alzheimer's disease, changed their style and technique but preserved their creativity and prolific artistic drive. Moreover, in some cases, mainly frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and very occasionally strokes, the disease may favour the emergence of de novo artistic talent. This phenomenon has been conceptualized as a paradoxical facilitation, a disinhibition of brain areas devoted to visuospatial processing, greater freedom in a patient who becomes less bound by social conventions, enhancement of motivation and pleasure, etc. These neurological cases provide an opportunity to shed some light on the roots of artistic creation.

  4. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  6. Memantine for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Memantine (Ebixa--Lundbeck Ltd), an oral medicine, is available in the UK for treating "patients with moderately severe to severe Alzheimer's disease". It differs from other licensed dementia medicines in that it is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The company has claimed that, with memantine therapy, "improvements in activities of daily living help patients to maintain a degree of independence and be easier to care for, potentially avoiding the need for nursing home care". We assess the efficacy of memantine for dementia and discuss its place in the management of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Montessori-based dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Janet

    2006-10-01

    Montessori-based Dementia Care is an approach used in Alzheimer's care that does not involve chemical or physical restraints. This program works by giving the elder with Alzheimer/Dementia a purpose by getting them involved. When staff/families care for a confused Alzheimer/Dementia patient, who is having behaviors, the Montessori program teaches them to look at what is causing the behavior. When assessing the elder to determine what is causing the behavior, the goal is to find the answer, but the answer cannot be dementia. The goal of the program is to bring meaning to the life of an Alzheimer/Dementia elder.

  8. Aromatherapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Lene Thorgrimsen; Maayan, Nicola; Orrell, Martin; Spector, Aimee E; Buchan, Louise D; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-02-25

    Complementary therapy has received great interest within the field of dementia treatment and the use of aromatherapy and essential oils is increasing. In a growing population where the majority of patients are treated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, the efficacy of treatment is short term and accompanied by negative side effects. Utilisation of complimentary therapies in dementia care settings presents as one of few options that are attractive to practitioners and families as patients often have reduced insight and ability to verbally communicate adverse reactions. Amongst the most distressing features of dementia are the behavioural and psychological symptoms. Addressing this facet has received particular interest in aromatherapy trials, with a shift in focus from reducing cognitive dysfunction to the reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. To assess the efficacy of aromatherapy as an intervention for people with dementia. ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, was searched on 26 November 2012 and 20 January 2013 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils. All relevant randomised controlled trials were considered. A minimum length of a trial and requirements for follow-up were not included, and participants in included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any type and severity. The review considered all trials using fragrance from plants defined as aromatherapy as an intervention with people with dementia and all relevant outcomes were considered. Titles and abstracts extracted by the searches were screened for their eligibility for potential inclusion in the review. For Burns 2011, continuous outcomes were estimated as the mean difference between groups and its 95% confidence interval using a fixed-effect model. For Ballard 2002, analysis of co-variance was used for all outcomes, with the

  9. Neuroimaging in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhof, Frederik [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Radiology and Image Analysis Center (IAC); Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Dementia Research Centre; VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bastos-Leite, Antonio J. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Scheltens, Philip [VU Univ. Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology and Alzheimer Center

    2011-07-01

    Against a background of an ever-increasing number of patients, new management options, and novel imaging modalities, neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of dementia. This up-to-date, superbly illustrated book aims to provide a practical guide to the effective use of neuroimaging in the patient with cognitive decline. It sets out the key clinical and imaging features of the wide range of causes of dementia and directs the reader from clinical presentation to neuroimaging and on to an accurate diagnosis whenever possible. After an introductory chapter on the clinical background, the available ''toolbox'' of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques is reviewed in detail, including CT, MRI and advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET, and image analysis methods. The imaging findings in normal ageing are then discussed, followed by a series of chapters that carefully present and analyze the key imaging findings in patients with dementias. A structured path of analysis follows the main presenting feature: disorders associated with primary gray matter loss, with white matter changes, with brain swelling, etc. Throughout, a practical approach is adopted, geared specifically to the needs of clinicians (neurologists, radiologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians) working in the field of dementia, for whom this book should prove an invaluable resource. (orig.)

  10. Radiologic diagnostics of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2003-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly population and is getting more and more important with the ageing of the population. A radiologic structural examination with CT or MRI is meanwhile a standard procedure in the diagnostic work up of patients with dementia syndrome. Radiology enables an early diagnosis and a differential diagnosis between different causes of dementia. Because structural changes occur only late in the disease process, a more detailed structural analysis using volumetric techniques or the use of functional imaging techniques is mandatory. These days, structural imaging uses MRI which enables to detect early atrophic changes at the medial temporal lobe with focus on the amygdala hippocampal complex. These changes are also present in the normal ageing process. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, however, they are more rapid and more pronounced. The use of functional imaging methods such as perfusion MRI, diffusion MRI or fMRI allow new insights into the pathophysiologic changes of dementia. The article gives an overview of the current status of structural imaging and an outlook into the potential of functional imaging methods. Detailed results of structural and functional imaging are presented in other articles of this issue. (orig.) [de

  11. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  12. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  13. PET studies in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ( 18 F-F-DOPA) and for ( 11 C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs

  14. Music perception in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n=5) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. No specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation. PMID:27802226

  15. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  16. Frontotemporal Dementias: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Kirsten

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia is a clinical state characterized by loss of function in multiple cognitive domains. It is a costly disease in terms of both personal suffering and economic loss. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is the term now preferred over Picks disease to describe the spectrum of non-Alzheimers dementias characterized by focal atrophy of the frontal and anterior temporal regions of the brain. The prevalence of FTD is considerable, though specific figures vary among different studies. It occurs usually in an age range of 35–75 and it is more common in individuals with a positive family history of dementia. The risk factors associated with this disorder include head injury and family history of FTD. Although there is some controversy regarding the further syndromatic subdivision of the different types of FTD, the three major clinical presentations of FTD include: 1 a frontal or behavioral variant (FvFTD, 2 a temporal, aphasic variant, also called Semantic dementia (SD, and 3 a progressive aphasia (PA. These different variants differ in their clinical presentation, cognitive deficits, and affected brain regions. Patients with FTD should have a neuropsychiatric assessment, neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging studies to confirm and clarify the diagnosis. Treatment for this entity consists of behavioral and pharmacological approaches. Medications such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics, mood stabilizer and other novel treatments have been used in FTD with different rates of success. Further research should be directed at understanding and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to improve the patients' prognosis and quality of life.

  17. Music Perception in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. Taking working memory performance into account, no specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis, or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation.

  18. Influence of prostaglandin analogues on epithelial cell proliferation and xenograft growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    The influence of two prostaglandin (PG) analogues, 16,16-dimethyl PG E2 and 16,16-dimethyl PG F2 alpha and of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, on epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using a stathmokinetic technique. The epithelia examined were those of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and that of dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomas of rat colon. The influence of the two prostaglandin analogues, and of flurbiprofen, on the growth of a human colorectal tumour propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice was also assessed. The PG E2 analogue transiently inhibited xenograft growth, but was without effect on the mitotic rate in the rat tissues. The PG F2 alpha analogue was also found to inhibit xenograft growth but, unlike the PG E2 analogue, it was found to be a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation in rat colonic tumours, and an accelerator of proliferation in jejunal-crypt cells. The only statistically significant effect of flurbiprofen was to accelerate cell division in the rat colonic tumours.

  19. In vitro structure-activity relationship of Re-cyclized octreotide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoon, Shorouk F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Gallazzi, Fabio [Structural Biology Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lewis, Michael R., E-mail: lewismic@missouri.ed [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S., E-mail: jurissons@missouri.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods: Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S{sub 2}N{sub 2} and S{sub 3}N) were synthesized and cyclized with nonradioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC{sub 50} values as a measure of SSTR affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue's pharmacophore. Results: Only two of the 11 Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions: Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS{sub 3} and N{sub 2}S{sub 2} coordination forming five- and six-membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of {sup 99m}Tc-cyclized analogue 4.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  2. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  3. Complement activation in chromosome 13 dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostagno, A.; Revesz, T.; Lashley, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 13 dementias, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD), are associated with neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular amyloidosis, with striking neuropathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the structural differences among the amyloid subunits...

  4. Analogues of estradiol as potential breast tumor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Ferriera, N.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The radioiodinated analogue of estradiol, 11β-methoxy-17α-[/sup 125/I]iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/), has been shown to be a good candidate for the imaging of estrogen dependent breast tumors. Although there has been no extensive study on the sensitivity of radiotracers of this type, the authors have not observed localization of the radiotracer in metastatic lesions containing less than 20 fmole estrogen receptor/mg protein or in bone metasteses. In order to improve the sensitivity, they have examined several structural analogues of moxestrol (the parent structure for MIVE/sub 2/) for affinity to the ER isolated from immature rat uterus. The 11β-ethyl analogue (EEE/sub 2/) of ethynyl estradiol (EE/sub 2/) exhibits the highest affinity with the 11β-methyl analogue second best. Although the lipophilicity is also very high this compound should not be much more lipophilic than 16-iodoestradiol or MIVE/sub 2/ since the introduction of iodine increases the log P by greater than 1. The distribution of the tritiated derivative of EEE/sub 2/ is under study

  5. Snoezelen for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J C; Lai, C K; Chung, P M; French, H P

    2002-01-01

    Snoezelen, multi-sensory stimulation, provides sensory stimuli to stimulate the primary senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell, through the use of lighting effects, tactile surfaces, meditative music and the odour of relaxing essential oils (Pinkney 1997). The clinical application of snoezelen has been extended from the field of learning disability to dementia care over the past decade. The rationale for its use lies in providing a sensory environment that places fewer demands on intellectual abilities but capitalizes on the residual sensorimotor abilities of people with dementia (e.g. Buettner 1999, Hope 1998). Practitioners are keen to use snoezelen in dementia care, and some encouraging results have been documented in the area of promoting adaptive behaviours (e.g. Baker, Long 1992, Spaull 1998). However, the clinical application of snoezelen often varies in form, nature, principles and procedures. Such variations not only make examination of the therapeutic values of Snoezelen difficult, but also impede the clinical development of snoezelen in dementia care. A systematic review of evidence for the efficacy of snoezelen in the care of people with dementia is therefore needed to inform future clinical applications and research directions. This review aims to examine the clinical efficacy of snoezelen for older people with dementia. "Snoezelen", "multi-sensory", "dement*", "Alzheimer*", "randomized control/single control/double control" were used as keywords to search seven electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, PsyLIT). The list of trials was compared with those identified from a search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group. All RCTs in which Snoezelen or multi-sensory programmes were used as an intervention for people with dementia were included in the review. Trial data included in the review were restricted to those involving people aged over 60 years suffering from any type of dementia, except one subject

  6. Smart Homes Design for People with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Amiribesheli, Mohsen; Bouchachia, Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a user-centred approach for designing and developing smart homes for people with dementia. In contrast to most of the existing literature related to dementia, the present approach aims at tailoring the system to the specific needs of dementia using a scenario-based methodology. Scenarios are based on typical dementia symptoms which are collected from research literatures and validated by dementia caregivers. They portray the common behaviour of people with dementia. ...

  7. Frontotemporal dementia: An updated overview

    OpenAIRE

    Mohandas, E.; Rajmohan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome occurring between 45 and 65 years. The syndrome is also called frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, FTLD refers to a larger group of disorders FTD being one of its subgroups. The other subgroups of FTLD are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PFNA), and semantic dementia (SD). FTLD is characterized by atrophy of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices. FTD occurs in 5-15% of patients with dementia and it is t...

  8. Dementia communication using empathic curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Eden, John; Plant, Rachel

    Communication skills training materials in dementia care usually focus on reminiscence. This is important because talking about past events can help people with dementia to retain their sense of self. This article examines the use of an alternative set of communication skills known as empathic curiosity, which may help to promote meaningful communication in the here and now with people who are living with dementia.

  9. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  10. Dementia, Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disordered arousal leads to a confusional state with an incoherent line of thought, temporal disorientation, poor recall, visual illusions, hallucinations and disordered behavior. With the exception of dementia with Lewy bodies, which is characterized by fluctuating confusion, other disorders causing dementia persist and deteriorate over months or years, and are not characterized by fluctuations or confusional episodes, except when other medical or environmental perturbations disrupt the arousal systems of the brain (e.g. intercurrent infection, anoxia. Sometimes, their hallucinations are different, with a religious tendency, and maybe we must insist with anamnesis related to previous religious beliefs, to see if it is possible to correlate some damaged area than cause hallucinations, are reliable with our faith.

  11. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  12. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  13. Causal structure of analogue spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes

  14. Association between Frailty and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, J; Nykänen, I; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    dementia with Lewy bodies and 8 persons (1%) had some other type of dementia. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that frail persons were almost 8 times more likely to have cognitive impairment (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.0-15.0), 8 times more likely to have some kind of dementia (OR 8.0, 95% CI 4.0...... of the participants was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Clinically diagnosed dementia was assessed by specialists using diagnostic criteria. The associations between frailty and cognition were investigated using...

  15. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These connections between extralinguistic functions and language ability also emerge from the literature on cognitive reserve and bilingualism that investigates factors that delay the onset and possibly the progression of neuropsychological manifestation of dementia.

  16. Novel Bradykinin Analogues Modified in the N-Terminal Part of the Molecule with a Variety of Acyl Substituents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sleszynska, M.; Wierzba, T. H.; Malinowski, K.; Tůmová, Tereza; Lammek, B.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Prahl, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 117-124 ISSN 1573-3149 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bradykinin analogues * B-2 receptor antagonists * bulky acyl groups * in vivo rat blood pressure test * in vitro rat uterus test Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2012

  17. Insulin, cognition, and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815

  18. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  19. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  20. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-07-03

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure "Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)". Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists.

  1. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  2. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, Esteban R.; Crudo, Jose L.; Edreira, Martin M.; Castiglia, Silvia G.

    1999-01-01

    Biological and radiochemical studies have been carried out on two labelled somatostatin analogues, the peptide RC-150 and the Tyr 3 -Octreotide. Both analogues have been labelled with 99m Tc using the direct and the indirect method and MAG-3 and HYNIC as chelating agents. By the direct method RC-150 was labelled using sodium ascorbate and dithionite as reducing agents. The radiochemical purity was 70%. By the indirect method, in the case of RC-160 with MAG-3 a radiochemical purity higher than 70% was attained while a purity of 100% was reached in the case of Tyr 3 -Octreotide with HYNIC. The biological distribution of HYNIC-Tyr 3 -Octreotide has been studied in rats. (author)

  3. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  5. Labelling and evaluation of new stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues for SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavatte, K.; Terriere, D.; Jeannin, L.

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin (8-13) analogues were biologically stabilised by replacement of the peptide bond between amino acids 8 and 9 by the reduced ψ(CH 2 -NH) isostere. DTPA analogues for In-111 labelling and 2-bromo-phenyl-acetyl analogues for radioiodination, showed receptor affinities in the low nanomolar range in combination with a biological half live in human plasma up to 275 minutes. Biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats of metabolically stabilised and non-stabilised 111 In-DTPA-NT(8-13) analogues showed a major clearance from the blood through the kidneys. 125 I-labelled Neurotensin (8-13) analogues showed accumulation up to 2.2% of the injected dose per g tissue in the liver which might be an important disadvantage when diagnosis of tumours in the gut is aimed. It is strongly suggested that stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues whether labelled with In-111, I-123 and the near future with Tc-99m, may act as new potential peptidergic radiopharmaceuticals for SPET diagnosis of different NT-receptor positive tumours like non-endocrine pancreas carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma or colon adeno carcinoma. It is enticing to speculate that metabolically stabilised Neurotensin (8-13) analogues labelled with an appropriate isotope might be useful in therapy of different human cancers. (author)

  6. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  7. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Keiichi

    1994-03-01

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  8. Teaching Mands to Older Adults with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Chelsey R.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of Americans are diagnosed with dementia, and that number is only expected to rise. The diagnosis of dementia comes with impairments, especially in language. Furthermore, dementia-related functional declines appear to be moderated by environmental variables (Alzheimer's Association, "Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the…

  9. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Jongsma (Karin); S. van de Vathorst (Suzanne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity to

  10. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  11. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  12. Artistic creativity and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary A; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Artistic ability and creativity are defining characteristics of human behavior. Behavioral neurology, as a specialty, believes that even the most complex behaviors can be modeled and understood as the summation of smaller cognitive functions. Literature from individuals with specific brain lesions has helped to map out these smaller regions of cognitive abilities. More recently, models based on neurodegenerative conditions, especially from the frontotemporal dementias, have allowed for greater nuanced investigations into the various functional anatomies necessary for artistic behavior and possibly the underlying networks that promote creativity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Winter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer dementia (AD and vascular dementia (VD are the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Depression is an important co-morbid disorder in these diseases, which is often challenging to recognize. We investigated the prevalence of depression in patients with AD and VD and estimated the influence of depression on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated prevalence of depression in consecutively recruited patients with AD or VD (n= 98. Depression was diagnosed according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and scored using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The EuroQol (EQ-5D and visual analogue scale was applied to evaluate HrQoL. The severity of cognitive impairment was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting severity of depression. Results: The prevalence of depression in AD/VD was 87%. In comparison to the general population, HrQoL measured on the visual analogue scale was reduced by 54% in patients with AD/VD. In the dimension "anxiety/depression" of the EQ-5D, 81% of patients with AD/VD had moderate or severe problems. Depression showed significant association with reduced HrQoL (P<0.01. Independent predictors of more severe depression were older age, male gender, better MMSE scores and being not married. Conclusions: Depression is a prevalent psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with AD/VD, which is often under-diagnosed being masked by cognitive impairment. Depression is a predictor of reduced HrQoL in elder people with AD/VD. Therefore, they should be screened for presence of depressive symptoms and receive adequate antidepressant treatment.

  14. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  15. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate [U- 14 C]glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10 5 cells/ml) were incubated with either [ 125 I]insulin or [ 125 I]hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and 14 C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro

  16. Reminiscence therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob; O'Philbin, Laura; Farrell, Emma M; Spector, Aimee E; Orrell, Martin

    2018-03-01

    This updated Cochrane Review of reminiscence therapy (RT) for dementia was first published in 1998, and last updated in 2005. RT involves the discussion of memories and past experiences with other people using tangible prompts such as photographs or music to evoke memories and stimulate conversation. RT is implemented widely in a range of settings using a variety of formats. To assess the effects of RT on people living with dementia and their carers, taking into account differences in its implementation, including setting (care home, community) and modality (group, individual). We searched ALOIS (the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register) on 6 April 2017 using the search term 'reminiscence.' We included all randomised controlled trials of RT for dementia in which the duration of the intervention was at least four weeks (or six sessions) and that had a 'no treatment' or passive control group. Outcomes of interest were quality of life (QoL), cognition, communication, behaviour, mood and carer outcomes. Two authors (LOP and EF) independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from all sufficiently similar studies reporting on each outcome. We undertook subgroup analysis by setting (community versus care home) and by modality (individual versus group). We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. We included 22 studies involving 1972 people with dementia. Meta-analyses included data from 16 studies (1749 participants). Apart from six studies with risk of selection bias, the overall risk of bias in the studies was low.Overall, moderate quality evidence indicated RT did not have an important effect on QoL immediately after the intervention period compared with no treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12 to 0.33; I 2 = 59%; 8 studies; 1060 participants

  17. Transdermal delivery of a melanotropic peptide hormone analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.V.; Hadley, M.E.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Dorr, R.T.; Hruby, V.J.; Al-Obeidi, F.; Don, S.

    1988-01-01

    We previously reported that topical application of [Nl3 4 ,D-Phe 7 ]alpha-MSH, a superpotent analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, to mice induces a darkening of follicular melanocytes throughout the skin. We now report that the melanotropin analogue can be delivered across mouse but not rat skin in an in vitro model system. Passage of the analogue from the topically applied vehicle (polyethylene glycol) across the skin into a subcutaneous receiving vessel was demonstrated by both bioassay as well as by radioimmunoassay. The bioassay data demonstrate that percutaneous absorption of the melanotropin did not result in loss of biological activity of the peptide. The differential penetration of the peptide across rodent skin reveals that one cannot predict percutaneous absorption of a substance across the stratum corneum from studies on a single species. The present results are the first to demonstrate, by direct quantitative measurements, that a bioactive peptide can be delivered across the vertebrate integument in vitro. These studies point out the potential of a topically applied melanotropin for tanning of the skin and possibly for treatment of certain hypopigmentary disorders

  18. Natural and archaeological analogues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)

  19. Diagnosis and management of dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Dementia is an acquired syndrome of memory decline with at least one other cognitive .... functions and memory retrieval are the .... behavioural problems.5 Cost-effectiveness of ... (For words not recalled, prompt with a cue.).

  20. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  1. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poor judgment and losing the ability to recognize danger Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, ... disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Dementia, Caregiving, and Controlling Frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be calm can help you to gain cooperation. See FCA ʼ s fact sheet Caregiver’s Guide to ... cuidador para entender la conducta de los pacientes con demencia (Caregiver’s Guide to Understanding Dementia Behaviors) We ...

  3. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  4. Robotherapy with Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanoids have increasingly become the focus of attention in robotics research in recent years, especially in service and personal assistance robotics. This paper presents the application developed for humanoid robots in the therapy of dementia patients as a cognitive stimulation tool. The behaviour of the robot during the therapy sessions is visually programmed in a session script that allows music to play, physical movements (dancing, exercises, etc., speech synthesis and interaction with the human monitor. The application includes the control software on board the robot and some tools like the visual script generator or a monitor to supervise the robot behaviour during the sessions. The robot application's impact on the patient's health has been studied. Experiments with real patients have been performed in collaboration with a centre of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Initial results show a slight or mild improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms over other traditional therapy methods.

  5. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  6. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  7. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia.

  8. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  9. Trichotillomania in a dementia case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an 87-year-old male case of hair pulling associated with a white-matter vascular dementia (Binswanger's disease. Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or anticholinesterasic medication. Trichotillomania seems to be related to a form of perseveration associated with dementia. The findings in this case suggest the abnormality involving white matter in the pathogenesis of trichotillomania, may constitute a defect in connectivity in the right frontal-subcortical circuit.

  10. Trichotillomania in a dementia case

    OpenAIRE

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Lopes, Danielly Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report an 87-year-old male case of hair pulling associated with a white-matter vascular dementia (Binswanger's disease). Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or anticholinesterasic medication. Trichotillomania seems to be related to a form of perseveration associated with dementia. The findings in this case suggest the abnormality involving white matter in the pathogenesis of trichotillomania, may constitute a defect in connectivity in the right frontal-s...

  11. Dementia: sociological and philosophical constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents a challenge to the biomedical view of dementia as a disease. This view is critiqued from two perspectives: those of sociology and philosophy. Because these domains inform the creation of the medical discourse, their analysis provides an important refinement to the apprehension of the phenomenon of dementia. From the work of Foucault, and in particular his analysis of the historical origins of modern medicine, the sociological construction of dementia is considered. Following this, the philosophical question of Being is discussed, considering particularly the positions of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Lastly aspects of dementia nursing that are damaging to those relatives forced to take on the role of primary carer are isolated, in the context of Kitwood's view that it is possible to maintain personhood at the extremes of this condition. It is suggested that this critique of sociological and philosophical foundations of dementia might offer a way of approaching the dismantling of the self and revise current conceptions of dementia care for the better.

  12. The Effects of Cisplatin and Its PT(II Analogue on Oxidative Stress of Isolated Rat Heart/ Efekti Cisplatine I PT(II Analoga Cisplatine Na Oksidacioni Stres Izolovanog Srca Pacova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojic Isidora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, numerous platinum (II complexes have been successfully used in the treatment of different types of cancer. Therapeutic platinum complexes are different in terms of their structure, chemical reactivity, solubility, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The aim of our research was the evaluation of cardiotoxicity of dichloro-(ethylendiamine platinum (II in a model of isolated rat heart using the Langedorff technique. Oxidative stress was assessed by determination of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and nitric oxide levels from coronary venous effluent. All reagents were perfused at increasing concentrations from 10-8 to 10-4 M for 30 minutes. In this paper, we report that substances administered at higher doses did not induce dose-dependent effects on oxidative stress markers. The results of this research may be of great interest for future studies in this area. There are many novel platinum compounds that had previously demonstrated antitumour activity, and these types of experiments in our study can assist in the examination of their cardiotoxicity. These results could be helpful for understanding dose-dependent side effects of existing and novel platinum compounds

  13. Profile of clinically-diagnosed dementias in a neuropsychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Vascular dementia (VaD) were the predominant phenotypes seen in 62 (57.4%) and 18 (16.7%) subjects respectively. Others include mixed dementia (4 cases), frontotemporal dementia (4 cases), Lewy body dementia (3 cases), alcohol-related dementia (3 cases), PD dementia (1 case) and ...

  14. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel6]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Arg5,D-Mel6,D-Ala10++ +]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells.

  15. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel 6 ]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2) 1 ,D-Phe(pCl) 2 ,D-Pal(3) 3 ,Arg 5 ,D-Mel 6 ,D-Ala 10 ]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel 6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells

  16. The Cost of Dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, Jes; Hansen, E

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed accordin...... with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.......In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according...... to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely...

  17. The impact of MRI combined with visual rating scales on the clinical diagnosis of dementia: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, Martijn V.; Guit, Gerard L. [Spaarne Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Hafkamp, Gerrit Jan; Kalisvaart, Kees [Spaarne Gasthuis, Department of Geriatrics, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Dementia is foremost a clinical diagnosis. However, in diagnosing dementia, it is advocated to perform at least one neuroimaging study. This has two purposes: to rule out potential reversible dementia (PRD), and to help determine the dementia subtype. Our first goal was to establish if MRI combined with visual rating scales changes the clinical diagnosis. The second goal was to demonstrate if MRI contributes to a geriatrician's confidence in the diagnosis. The dementia subtype was determined prior to and after MRI. Scoring scales used were: global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensity measured according to the Fazekas scale. The confidence level of the geriatrician was determined using a visual analogue scale. One hundred and thirty-five patients were included. After MRI, the diagnosis changed in 23.7 % (CI 17.0 %-31.1 %) of patients. Change was due to vascular aetiology in 13.3 % of patients. PRD was found in 2.2 % of all patients. The confidence level in the diagnosis increased significantly after MRI (p = 0.001). MRI, combined with visual rating scales, has a significant impact on dementia subtype diagnosis and on a geriatrician's confidence in the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. The impact of MRI combined with visual rating scales on the clinical diagnosis of dementia: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, Martijn V.; Guit, Gerard L.; Hafkamp, Gerrit Jan; Kalisvaart, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is foremost a clinical diagnosis. However, in diagnosing dementia, it is advocated to perform at least one neuroimaging study. This has two purposes: to rule out potential reversible dementia (PRD), and to help determine the dementia subtype. Our first goal was to establish if MRI combined with visual rating scales changes the clinical diagnosis. The second goal was to demonstrate if MRI contributes to a geriatrician's confidence in the diagnosis. The dementia subtype was determined prior to and after MRI. Scoring scales used were: global cortical atrophy (GCA), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and white matter hyperintensity measured according to the Fazekas scale. The confidence level of the geriatrician was determined using a visual analogue scale. One hundred and thirty-five patients were included. After MRI, the diagnosis changed in 23.7 % (CI 17.0 %-31.1 %) of patients. Change was due to vascular aetiology in 13.3 % of patients. PRD was found in 2.2 % of all patients. The confidence level in the diagnosis increased significantly after MRI (p = 0.001). MRI, combined with visual rating scales, has a significant impact on dementia subtype diagnosis and on a geriatrician's confidence in the final diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  20. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell

  1. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  2. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  3. Teaching Mands to Older Adults with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Oleson, Chelsey R.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of Americans are diagnosed with dementia, and that number is only expected to rise. The diagnosis of dementia comes with impairments, especially in language. Furthermore, dementia-related functional declines appear to be moderated by environmental variables (Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association 8:131–168 2012; American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Engelman et al., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 32:107–110, 1999; Engelman ...

  4. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  5. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  6. Depression and the risk for dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of dementia; however, the nature of the association is still poorly understood. The purpose of the review was based on recent studies to discuss whether depression is a prodromal state of dementia or an independent risk factor...... for dementia, as well as to discuss how the type of depression, the type of dementia, and antidepressant treatment influence the association....

  7. Brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libus, P.; Stupalova, J.; Kuzelka, I.; Konrad, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Brain perfusion SPECT is used in differential diagnostics of dementia syndromes. First of all the aim is to distinguish vascular dementia from degenerative dementia and to differentiate dementia from delirium, psychiatric syndromes, depression and secondary dementia, which is important in relation to therapy. The purpose of our study was to detect significance of BP SPECT and include it into the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. Materials and methods: 51 women and 63 men aged 55 - 88 were evaluated in the study. The patients correspond to the general criteria of dementia diagnosis. They were sent to the examination by neurological, internal and psychiatric departments and out-patient departments. All patients were examined by 99mTc ECD SPECT using a double head camera PRISM 200 VP with LEHR collimator. The scintigraphic data were evaluated by the visual and semiquantitative analysis. Results: It was established that most patients in our group had vascular dementia, while Alzheimer's disease was second. In other groups we found out dementia at strategic infarct location, e.g. in gyrus angularis in the dominant hemisphere, frontal temporal lobe dementia and alcoholic dementia. Twenty-four patients had a normal diagnosis. Fifteen of them had a somatic reason of the delirious state and were re-classified into pseudodementia. Nine patients were not diagnostically included and the examination will repeated in four months time. Conclusion: We have found out a good applicability of brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes diagnosis in our work. The best diagnosticable and most specific were the findings in multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimer's disease and frontal temporal lobe dementia. When vascular dementia is concerned we can even distinguish dementia at strategic infarction location, e.g. in thalamus, basal frontal telencefalon, in gyrus angularis of the dominant hemisphere, etc

  8. Dementia literacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, it is predicted that there will also be a rise in the number of people with dementia. Although there is no definitive cure, early detection and access to treatment and services remains the cornerstone of management. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may lead to delayed diagnosis. A study of dementia literacy was undertaken to explore current knowledge in a metropolitan city in Australia. A vignette describing an older person with symptoms of cognitive impairment was posted out to volunteers at the local hospital. The majority of participants surveyed correctly identified that the person in the vignette was suffering from symptoms of dementia or cognitive impairment. However, there was more variation with regard to types of treatment available and appropriate help-seeking behavior. Although people are able to identify symptoms of dementia when they are presented in a scenario, the reality is often not as clear. More education to improve knowledge with regard to this increasingly common disorder is required so that appropriate interventions can be made available. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Davison, A.; Logan-Sinclair, P.; Sturt University, Dubbo, NSW; Greenough, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. First TV ad for dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-10

    Last month, viewers saw the first-ever TV advertisement about providing care for people with dementia. Screened as part of Bupa's initiative, bringing the issue of dementia care 'out of the shadows,' the ad features Ernie visiting his sister June, who has dementia, in a Bupa care home and shows the personalised care being delivered by specially trained staff.

  11. Revisiting Regression in Autism: Heller's "Dementia Infantilis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Alexander; Schelinski, Stefanie; Volkmar, Fred; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Theodor Heller first described a severe regression of adaptive function in normally developing children, something he termed dementia infantilis, over one 100 years ago. Dementia infantilis is most closely related to the modern diagnosis, childhood disintegrative disorder. We translate Heller's paper, Uber Dementia Infantilis, and discuss…

  12. Leisure activities, cognition and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Xin; Xu, Weili; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2012-03-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that leisure activities have a positive impact on cognitive function and dementia. This review aimed to systematically summarize the current evidence on this topic taking into account the limitations of the studies and biological plausibility for the underlying mechanisms linking cognition, dementia and leisure activities, with special attention on mental, physical and social activities. We included only longitudinal studies, with a follow-up time of at least 2 years, published in English from 1991 to March 2011 on leisure activities and cognition (n=29) or dementia (n=23) and provided some evidence from intervention studies on the topic. A protective effect of mental activity on cognitive function has been consistently reported in both observational and interventional studies. The association of mental activity with the risk of dementia was robust in observational studies but inconsistent in clinical trials. The protective effect of physical activity on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia has been reported in most observational studies, but has been less evident in interventional studies. Current evidence concerning the beneficial effect of other types of leisure activities on the risk of dementia is still limited and results are inconsistent. For future studies it is imperative that the assessment of leisure activities is standardized, for example, the frequency, intensity, duration and the type of activity; and also that the cognitive test batteries and the definition of cognitive decline are harmonized/standardized. Further, well designed studies with long follow-up times are necessary. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  15. The anti-inflammatory activity of dillapiole and some semisynthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise-Filho, Roberto; Pastrello, Michelli; Pereira Camerlingo, Carla Emygdio; Silva, Gisele Juni; Agostinho, Leonardo Aguiar; de Souza, Thaís; Motter Magri, Fátima Maria; Ribeiro, Roberto Rodrigues; Brandt, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Michelle Carneiro

    2011-11-01

    Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) produces an essential oil (dillapiole) with great exploitative potential and it has proven effects against traditional cultures of phytopathogens, such as fungi, bacteria and mollusks, as well as analgesic action with low levels of toxicity. This study investigated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of dillapiole. Furthermore, in order to elucidate its structure-anti-inflammatory activity relationship (SAR), semisynthetic analogues were proposed by using the molecular simplification strategy. Dillapiole and safrole were isolated and purified using column chromatography. The semisynthetic analogues were obtained by using simple organic reactions, such as catalytic reduction and isomerization. All the analogues were purified by column chromatography and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The anti-inflammatory activities of dillapiole and its analogues were studied in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Dillapiole and di-hydrodillapiole significantly (p<0.05) inhibited rat paw edema. All the other substances tested, including safrole, were less powerful inhibitors with activities inferior to that of indomethacin. These findings showed that dillapiole and di-hydrodillapiole have moderate anti-phlogistic properties, indicating that they can be used as prototypes for newer anti-inflammatory compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the benzodioxole ring is important for biological activity as well as the alkyl groups in the side chain and the methoxy groups in the aromatic ring.

  16. Spouse with schizophrenia and risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2016-12-01

    Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  18. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  19. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  20. Etiologies and risk factors for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is understood as a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment in memory impairment along with cognitive deficits in other domains. Over the years, understanding about the causes of dementias has improved. Broadly, dementias can be classified as irreversible degenerative dementias and reversible dementias. Alzheimer′s disease is the prototype of degenerative dementias and is characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (called as amyloid plaques outside the neurons and accumulation of tau protein (called tau tangles inside the neurons. Vascular dementias are characterized by cerebrovascular insults which lead to pathological brain changes that impair cognition. The pathological hallmark of Lewy body dementia is the presence of α-synuclein neuronal inclusions, also known as Lewy bodies, accompanied by neuronal loss. Frontotemporal dementias are characterized by abnormal deposits of the microtubule-associated protein tau, the trans-activation response TAR DNA-binding protein with molecular weight 43 kDa (TDP-43, and the fused in sarcoma protein. Reversible dementias are characterized by the primary illness and may not present with characteristic brain deposits as seen with many degenerative dementias.

  1. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  2. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  3. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentensperger, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  4. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  5. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  6. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  7. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. AIDS dementia complex: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies, P.

    1994-01-01

    AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a constellation of cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions frequently observed in persons with AIDS. Estimates of its prevalence vary. ADC may occur at any stage of AIDS but is usually associated with later stages of disease. Its severity varies among patients

  9. Caffeine, Diabetes, Cognition, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. This review explores the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological studies on caffeine/coffee intake and T2DM risk are reviewed. Next, the

  10. [Depression: A predictor of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deví Bastida, Josep; Puig Pomés, Núria; Jofre Font, Susanna; Fetscher Eickhoff, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that in 10-25% of cases of Alzheimer's, the most common dementia in our society, can be prevented with the elimination of some risk factors. Barnes and Yaffe found that one-third of Alzheimer's cases are attributable to depression, but in the scientific literature it is not clear if it has a real causal effect on the development of dementia. The purpose of this study is to analyse the scientific evidence on the hypothesis that depression increases the risk of developing dementia. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed on the scientific literature published up until the present day, searching articles that were published between 1990 and 2014. Ten of the studies found met the selection criteria -similar to a) size and characteristics of the sample (origin, age…), b) process of gathering data c) method of studying the relationship (within and/or between group comparison), and d) statistical analysis of the results- and the previously established quality. The value of odds ratio varied from 1.72 to 3.59, and the hazard ratio from 1,72 to 5.44. This indicates that the subjects with a history of depression have a higher risk of developing dementia than others who did not suffer depression. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Hernandez, Dena G; Nalls, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel gene...

  12. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  13. Dementia and the gender trouble?: Theorising dementia, gendered subjectivity and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Linn J

    2018-06-01

    Despite person-centred approaches increasingly focusing on looking at the person in dementia instead of the pathology, the role of gender in dementia has been little explored. This article discusses how pervasive discourses on a loss of self and dementia as abject are interwoven with a de-gendering of persons with dementia. The cultural anxiety that dementia evokes in terms of loss of bodily and cognitive control could also be linked to a failure to normatively and intelligibly express gender when living with dementia. As a way to sustain personhood for people with dementia and challenge discourses on people with dementia as 'non-people', person-centred approaches have emphasised the collaborative work of carers, relatives and persons with dementia. Often implicitly, this also involves a 're-gendering' of persons with dementia where gendered biographies and pasts are upheld and gendered embodied selfhood is maintained through, for example, dress, hair and other aspects of appearance. This re-gendering could be of great significance for people with dementia to become intelligible as persons. Still, dementia studies must further consider non-normative expressions of gender and involve feminist theorising on gender as a power asymmetry since some embodiments and selves are more likely to be sustained in dementia than others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Depression and the risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-11-01

    Depression is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of dementia; however, the nature of the association is still poorly understood. The purpose of the review was based on recent studies to discuss whether depression is a prodromal state of dementia or an independent risk factor for dementia, as well as to discuss how the type of depression, the type of dementia, and antidepressant treatment influence the association. Findings from recent studies suggest that some forms of depressive illness, for example early-onset depression before age 65 years and recurrent depression, may constitute long-term risk factors for development of dementia, whereas the onset of more recent depressive symptoms may reflect a prodromal phase of dementia. It is not clear whether specific subtypes of depression correspond to specific types of dementia. Recent studies suggest that long-term treatment with antidepressants may decrease the risk of developing some types of dementia, depending on the type of depressive disorder. This review has shown that the type of depression and dementia, as well as the effect of drug treatment, has to be considered to improve knowledge on the association between depression and dementia.

  15. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  16. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  17. Neuronal changes after chronic high blood pressure in animal models and its implication for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Flores-Gómez, Gabriel D; de Jesús Gomez-Villalobos, Ma

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia is a devastating disorder not only for the patient, but also for the family because this neurocognitive disorder breaks the patient's independence, and leads to family care of the patient with a high cost for the family. This complex disorder alters memory, learning, judgment, emotional control and social behavior and affects 4% of the elderly world population. The high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, which in most cases leads to vascular dementia. Interestingly, this neurocognitive disorder starts after long lasting hypertension, which is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow or hypoperfusion, and complete or incomplete ischemia with cortical thickness. Animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is known that dendritic complexity determines the receptive synaptic contacts, and the loss of dendritic spine and arbor stability are strongly associated with dementia in humans. This review evaluates relevant data of human and animal models that have investigated the link between long-lasting arterial hypertension and neural morphological changes in the context of vascular dementia. We examined the effect of chronic arterial hypertension and aged in vascular dementia. Neural dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens after chronic hypertension was diskussed in the animal models of hypertension. Chronic hypertension reduced the dendritic length and spine density in aged rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The accuracy of family physicians' dementia diagnoses at different stages of dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, Pim; van Marwijk, Harm W. M.; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Macneil Vroomen, Janet; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Optimising care for dementia patients and their informal carers is imperative in light of the impending dementia epidemic. An important aspect of care is accurate recognition and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of this review was to estimate family physicians' diagnostic accuracy at the

  19. The accuracy of family physicians' dementia diagnoses at different stages of dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, P.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; van der Horst, H.E.; van Charante, E.P.M.; Vroomen, J.M.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Hout, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Optimising care for dementia patients and their informal carers is imperative in light of the impending dementia epidemic. An important aspect of care is accurate recognition and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of this review was to estimate family physicians' diagnostic accuracy at the

  20. Dementia quality of life instrument - construct and concurrent validity in patients with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt-Radloff, S.; Leonhart, R.; Schutzwohl, M.; Jurjanz, L.; Reuster, T.; Gerner, A.; Marschner, K.; van Nes, F.A.; Graff, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Holthoff, V.; Hull, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed

  1. A Dementia Case Presenting with Psychotic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a progressive clinical syndrome in which affected areas of brain function may be affected, such as memory, language, abstract thinking, problem solving and attention. Psychotic symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations and delusions, which usually occur in the dementia. In this paper, a dementia case presenting with psychotic symptoms is presented. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 482-486

  2. Depression and Risk of Developing Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Amy L.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Depression is highly common throughout the life course and dementia is common in late life. The literature suggests an association between depression and dementia, and growing evidence implies that timing of depression may be important to defining the nature of the association. In particular, earlier-life depression or depressive symptoms consistently have been shown to be associated with a 2-fold or greater increase in risk of dementia. In contrast, studies of late-life depression have been ...

  3. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...

  4. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Framing Confusion: Dementia, Society, and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Jesse F

    2017-07-01

    This essay will briefly sketch historical changes in the framing of dementia since the late nineteenth century. In broad terms, this period has seen a shift from viewing dementia as a pathological variant of normal aging to viewing it as a distinct disease. Although this broad reframing of dementia was clearly positive in raising awareness and funding for research, it had some negative aspects that should be considered. Caregiving came to seem less important than research aimed at a cure, and the stigma surrounding dementia has, if anything, increased. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Internet-based screening for dementia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Sullivan, Campbell; Burrell, Larry E; Rogerson, Mark; Anderson, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA) is an online tool consisting of questions about known risk factors for dementia, a novel verbal memory test, and an informant report of cognitive decline. Its primary goal is to educate the public about dementia risk factors and encourage clinical evaluation where appropriate. In Study 1, more than 3,000 anonymous persons over age 50 completed the DRA about themselves; 1,000 people also completed proxy reports about another person. Advanced age, lower education, male sex, complaints of severe memory impairment, and histories of cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain tumor all contributed significantly to poor memory performance. A high correlation was obtained between proxy-reported decline and actual memory test performance. In Study 2, 52 persons seeking first-time evaluation at dementia clinics completed the DRA prior to their visits. Their responses (and those of their proxy informants) were compared to the results of independent evaluation by geriatric neuropsychiatrists. The 30 patients found to meet criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia differed on the DRA from the 22 patients without dementia (most other neuropsychiatric conditions). Scoring below criterion on the DRA's memory test had moderately high predictive validity for clinically diagnosed dementia. Although additional studies of larger clinical samples are needed, the DRA holds promise for wide-scale screening for dementia risk.

  7. Adult dementia: history, biopsy, pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torack, R M

    1979-05-01

    The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.

  8. Social robots in advanced dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell eValentí Soler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Testing the effect of the experimental robot-based therapeutic sessions for patients with dementia in: a controlled study of parallel groups of nursing home patients comparing the effects of therapy sessions utilizing a humanoid robot (NAO, an animal-shaped robot (PARO, or a trained dog (DOG, with conventional therapy (CONTROL on symptoms of dementia; and an experience for patients who attend a day care center, comparing symptom prevalence and severity before and after sessions utilizing NAO and PARO. Methods: In the nursing home, patients were randomly assigned by blocks, based on dementia severity, to one of the 3 therapeutic groups to compare: CONTROL, PARO and NAO (phase 1 and CONTROL, PARO and DOG (phase 2. In the day care center, all patients received therapy with NAO (phase 1 and PARO (phase 2. Therapy sessions were held 2 days/week for 3 months. Evaluation at baseline and follow-up was carried out by blind raters using: the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS, the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (sMMSE, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, the Apathy Scale for Institutionalized Patients with Dementia Nursing Home version (APADEM-NH, the Apathy Inventory (AI and the Quality of Life Scale (QUALID. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests performed by a blinded investigator. Results: In the nursing home, 101 patients (phase 1 and 110 patients (phase 2 were included. There were no significant differences at baseline. The relevant changes at follow-up were: (phase 1 patients in the robot groups showed an improvement in apathy; patients in NAO group showed a decline in cognition as measured by the MMSE scores, but not the sMMSE; the robot groups showed no significant changes between them; (phase 2 QUALID scores increased in the PARO group. In the day care center, 20 patients (phase 1 and 17 patients (phase 2 were included. The main findings were: (phase 1 imp

  9. Dementia pugilistica 1a. parte

    OpenAIRE

    OTERO SILICEO, ENRIQUE; PADILLA RUBIO, JOEL

    2004-01-01

    Sports is considered a synonym for body and mind health. However, the so called contaet sports, the main example being boxing, more or less go beyond this definition. Contemporary boxing is a spetacle, who is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. For many years, several complications and head alterations have been related to boxing involving both the face and the skull. And, because of their outcome, some of the most important alterations are neuropsychiatric such as dementia pug...

  10. Rights in mind: Thinking differently about dementia and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom; Zeilig, Hannah; Mittler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to argue for the utility of a relational model of disability, as a way of conceptualizing dementia. We explore whether dementia should be considered as a disability, and whether people with dementia might consider themselves as disabled people. We review examples of, and issues raised by, the political activism of people with dementia. We consider how language constructs dementia negatively. We discuss how the environment influences the experience of dementia. In conclusion, we show that a relational model of dementia lays the basis for a human rights approach to the condition, based on collaborative partnerships between people with dementia and people from other disability communities.

  11. Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F

    2012-11-01

    Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD.

  12. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  13. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  14. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  15. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  16. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  17. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  18. The Palmottu analogue project: overview for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.; Niini, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the activities carried out within the Palmottu analogue project in 1993. It consists of (1) an introductory part, followed by (2) a geological description of the site, and (3)an up-to-date summary of the results of the project. (orig.) (33 refs., 6 figs.)

  19. Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancheri, I.; Rudenko, B.; Vautrin, P.; Raddoul, J.; Lamfichek, N.; Kantelip, B.; Mantion, G.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphy using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (111 In-pentetreotide) is useful in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. But this radiopharmaceutical accumulates also in solid tumours or in inflammatory diseases such as granulomatosis. We present a case of 111 In-pentetreotide uptake in a tuberculous adenopathy. (author)

  20. Analogue computer display of accelerator beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, K.

    1984-01-01

    Analogue computers have been used years ago by several authors for the design of magnetic beam handling systems. At Bochum a small analogue/hybrid computer was combined with a particular analogue expansion and logic control unit for beam transport work. This apparatus was very successful in the design and setup of the beam handling system of the tandem accelerator. The center of the stripper canal was the object point for the calculations, instead of the high energy acceleration tube a drift length was inserted into the program neglecting the weak focusing action of the tube. In the course of the installation of a second injector for heavy ions it became necessary to do better calculations. A simple method was found to represent accelerating sections on the computer and a particular way to simulate thin lenses was adopted. The analogue computer system proved its usefulness in the design and in studies of the characteristics of different accelerator installations over many years. The results of the calculations are in very good agreement with real accelerator data. The apparatus is the ideal tool to demonstrate beam optics to students and accelerator operators since the effect of a change of any of the parameters is immediately visible on the oscilloscope

  1. Scintigraphy with labelled analogues of the somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duet, M.; Ajzenberg, C.; Warnet, A.; Mundler, O.

    1998-01-01

    The receptors of the somatostatin have been localized in a big number of tumors, whom a great number are neuro-endocrine tumors. However, some tumors that have not this differentiation (breast cancer, lymphomas, cerebral tumors) possess them as well. Analogues of somatostatin, labelled with isotopes having a gamma emission, allow from now their detection in vivo. (N.C.)

  2. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  3. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  4. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  5. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    people around the world. Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias affect neurocognition and associated functioning, including memory, thinking, behavior, and activities of daily living. Agitation in later stages of dementia is the most significant symptom contributing to patient distress and caregiver...

  6. Opening up the DNA methylome of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Morales, R; Esteller, M

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a complex clinical condition characterized by several cognitive impairments that interfere with patient independence in executing everyday tasks. Various neurodegenerative disorders have dementia in common among their clinical manifestations. In addition, these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, share molecular alterations at the neuropathological level. In recent years, the field of neuroepigenetics has expanded massively and it is now clear that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, are mechanisms involved in both normal and pathological brain function. Despite the persistent methodological and conceptual caveats, it has been reported that several genes fundamental to the development of neurodegenerative disorders are deregulated by aberrant methylation patterns of their promoters, and even common epigenetic signatures for some dementia-associated pathologies have been identified. Therefore, understanding the epigenetic mechanisms that are altered in dementia, especially those associated with the initial phases, will allow us not only to understand the etiopathology of dementia and its progression but also to design effective therapies to reduce this global public health problem. This review provides an in-depth summary of our current knowledge about DNA methylation in dementia, focusing exclusively on the analyses performed in human brain.

  7. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  8. Role of BRI2 in Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Campo, M.; Teunissen, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, shares clinical and pathological similarities with familial British and Danish dementias (FBD and FDD). Whereas the etiology of sporadic AD remains unclear, familial AD is linked to mutations in amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP),

  9. Dementia - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor ... Alzheimer's Association. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations ... in a Home Setting. Updated 2009. Alz.org. www.alz.org/national/ ...

  10. Designing for Quality: The Understanding Dementia MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carolyn; Kelder, Jo-Anne; Doherty, Kathleen; Phillips, Rob; McInerney, Fran; Walls, Justin; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as a vehicle for education delivery presents opportunities and challenges. In the context of the Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre (Wicking Centre), the driver to develop a MOOC was the promise of addressing the international deficit in evidence-based dementia education, as well…

  11. Pharmacological management of Alzheimer's and related dementias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current treatment approaches in dementia lie on the use of cholinergic transmission enhancers. In recent times, herbal products have become popular in dementia and other chronic diseases treatment. Objective and Design: To review currently available (locally and internationally) herbal preparation and their ...

  12. Depression and Risk of Developing Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Amy L.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Depression is highly common throughout the life course and dementia is common in late life. The literature suggests an association between depression and dementia, and growing evidence implies that timing of depression may be important to defining the nature of the association. In particular, earlier-life depression or depressive symptoms consistently have been shown to be associated with a 2-fold or greater increase in risk of dementia. In contrast, studies of late-life depression have been more conflicting but the majority support an association; yet, the nature of this association is unclear (e.g., if depression is a prodrome or consequence or risk factor for dementia). The likely biological mechanisms linking depression to dementia include vascular disease, alterations in glucocorticoid steroids and hippocampal atrophy, increased deposition of β-amyloid plaques, inflammatory changes, and deficits of nerve growth factors. Treatment strategies for depression might intervene on these pathways and in turn may alter risk for dementia. Given the projected increase of dementia in the coming decades, it is critically important that we understand whether treatment for depression alone or combined with other regimens improves cognition. In this review, we summarize and analyze current evidence for late-life and earlier-life depression and their relationship to dementia, discuss the primary underlying mechanisms and implications for treatment. PMID:21537355

  13. Genetic Characterization of Movement Disorders and Dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-27

    Ataxia; Dystonia; Parkinson's Disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Corticobasal Degeneration; Multiple System Atrophy; Alzheimer's Disease; Lewy Body Dementia; Parkinson Disease-Dementia; Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian Atrophy; Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Fatal Familial Insomnia; Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome; Krabbe's Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C; Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

  14. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  15. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  16. Vascular dementia | Connor | African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical ...

  17. What do children need to know about dementia? The perspectives of children and people with personal experience of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Goodenough, Belinda; Low, Lee-Fay; Bryden, Christine; Hutchinson, Karen; Richards, Laura

    2017-10-02

    The vision for dementia-friendly communities is challenged by limited public awareness and stigma about dementia. The study aim was to elicit stakeholder priorities for the message content of an education program to improve dementia awareness among youth; specifically, what do children need to know about dementia? A qualitative inquiry using interviews and focus groups was used. Purposive sampling achieved maximum variation in dementia experience and participant characteristics. Focus groups with Scouts in the community aged 9-12 years old (n = 22) used innovative techniques to explore children's attitudes towards people with dementia. Participants with personal experience of dementia were five people with early-stage dementia; 12 adult primary carers; four non-primary carers; and six grandchildren of a person with dementia. They were asked what is important for children to understand about dementia and what attitudes they may like an education program to confer. Content analysis was performed using NVivo10. Strong themes to emerge were that children need to know the whole truth about dementia; that individuals with dementia are "still people," that it is "not the fault" of the person with dementia; and that dementia is different and typically unpredictable for everyone. Discussions also indicated a need to educate children about ways to relate to a person with dementia, and to appreciate "positives" within a relationship. Children are our future citizens. Developing an education program for children with this message content may be fundamental to de-stigmatizing dementia and laying the foundation to dementia-friendly communities.

  18. Insights on dying, dementia and death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Sofie; Meirschaert, Alexander; Steyaert, Jan; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2018-01-01

    For our master thesis in medicine, we aimed to determine how many deaths were caused by and with dementia in 2014 and we compared our results with figures from abroad. The mortality rates of 2014 in Flanders were used to determine the amount of deaths related to dementia. These figures are collected by Vlaams Agentschap Zorg & Gezondheid (VAZG) and coded per ICD-10 classification. Of all deaths in Flanders in 2014, 6.60% were caused by dementia and 4.29% were caused by another condition, while also suffering from dementia. Data from abroad are ambiguous. While working on our thesis about "death & dementia", we questioned the reliability of mortality statistics. Possible explanations could be; the complexity of completing death certificates correctly and the challenges involved in properly constructing a chain of causes of death. The accuracy of mortality data can be improved by training and redrafting death certificates.

  19. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  1. Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    Starting off in the early 90's the field of cephalostatin analogues has continually expanded over the last 10 years. First syntheses prepared symmetric analogues like 14b (119) and 26 (65), which were subsequently desymmetrized to provide analogues like beta-hydroxy ketone 31 (19). Importantly the straightforward approach provided already compounds with mu-molar potency and the same pattern of activity as cephalostatin 1 (1) (see Chapter 2.1). Chemically more demanding, two new methods for the directed synthesis of (bissteroidal) pyrazines were devised and subsequently applied to a wide variety of differently functionalized coupling partners. These new methods allowed for the synthesis of various analogues (Chapter 2.2.; and, last but not least, for the totals synthesis of several cephalostatin natural products; Chapter 1.). Functionalization and derivatization of the 12-position was performed (Chapter 2.1 and 3) and synthetic approaches to establish the D-ring double bond were successfully investigated (Chapter 3). [figure: see text] Dealing synthetically with the spiroketal moiety, novel oxidative opening procedures on monomeric delta 14, 15-steroids were devised as well as intensive studies regarding spiroketal synthesis and spiroketal rearrangements were conducted (Chapter 3.2. and 4.). Last but not least direct chemical modification of ritterazines and cephalostatins were studied, which provided a limited number of ritterazine analogues (Chapter 4.). All these synthetic activities towards analogues are summarized in Fig. 18. During this period of time the growing number of cephalostatins and ritterazines on the one hand and of analogues on the other hand provided several SAR trends, which can guide future analogue synthesis. The combined SAR findings are displayed in Fig. 19. So far it is apparent that: Additional methoxylations or hydroxylations in the steroidal A ring core structure (1-position) are slightly decreasing activity (compare cephalostatin 1 1 to

  2. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  3. Longitudinal Association of Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Mark B; Atkins, David C; Steinman, Lesley E; Bell, Janice F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Copeland, Catherine; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2015-09-01

    Depression is an important precursor to dementia, but less is known about the role dementia plays in altering the course of depression. We examined whether depression prevalence, incidence, and severity are higher in those with dementia versus those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or normal cognition. Prospective cohort study using the longitudinal Uniform Data Set of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (2005-2013). 34 Alzheimer Disease research centers. 27,776 subjects with dementia, MCI, or normal cognition. Depression status was determined by a clinical diagnosis of depression within the prior 2 years and by a Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form score >5. Rates of depression were significantly higher in subjects with MCI and dementia compared with those with normal cognition at index visit. Controlling for demographics and common chronic conditions, logistic regression analysis revealed elevated depression in those with MCI (OR: 2.40 [95% CI: 2.25, 2.56]) or dementia (OR: 2.64 [95% CI: 2.43, 2.86]) relative to those with normal cognition. In the subjects without depression at the index visit (N = 18,842), those with MCI and dementia had higher probabilities of depression diagnosis 2 years post index visit than those with normal cognition: MCI = 21.7%, dementia = 24.7%, normal cognition = 10.5%. MCI and dementia were associated with significantly higher rates of depression in concurrent as well as prospective analyses. These findings suggest that efforts to effectively engage and treat older adults with dementia will need also to address co-occurring depression. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  5. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  6. [Visual art, creativity and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, C; Allegri, R F; Martelli, M; Taragano, F; Rinalli, P

    2005-01-01

    Visual art is an expression of neurological function and how it organizes and interprets perception. The art is predominantly in the right hemisphere, in contrast, the left side, have inhibitory effects on artistic expression. In normal subjects, inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms could interact in a complex harmony, reflecting a paradoxical functional facilitation. Brain diseases such as dementia could change this harmony and then, alter the artistic abilities. Evaluate the art expression in the degenerative diseases. Artistic abilities of 3 painters with degenerative diseases were assessment. Patient 1: A 83 - year old right handed female, diagnosis: Alzheimer's disease. Artistic description: low productivity, simplified versions of earlier and alteration of the visuospatial organization. Patient 2: A 78-year-old right handed female, diagnosis: Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA); Artistic description: oversimplified drawings which maintaining overall spatial organization, without impair artistic skills. Patient 3: A 68 year-old right handed woman, diagnosis: Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD). Artistic description: Increased artistic activity, originality, freedom, utilization of intense colours with perseverative and repetitive copying of similar paintings of her own work. Visual art in Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of visuospatial and constructive disabilities. In contrast, the conservation of this cognitive functions and left asymmetrical involved, in FTD and PPA respectively, suggest artistic preservation, independently of the language injury. The disproportionate functional prevalence of the right over the left could lead to a release of novelty - seeking in art and can contribute to emergent creativity. These observations suggest an organization for art in the brain and proposed bases for further investigations in dementias.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarsland, Dag; Andersen, Kjeld; Larsen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown.......Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown....

  8. Prevalence and etiology of dementia in a Japanese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K; Kawano, H; Hasuo, Y; Fujishima, M

    1992-06-01

    We sought to determine the type-specific prevalence of dementia and its risk factors in elderly persons from the Japanese community of Hisayama. We studied the prevalence of dementia in 887 Hisayama residents (353 men and 534 women) aged 65 years or older (screening rate, 94.6%) using various items of clinical information, neurological examination, and dementia scales. We also studied brain morphology in 50 of 59 determined to have dementia by computed tomography or autopsy during the subsequent 54-month period. Factors relevant to dementia were compared between 27 patients with vascular dementia and 789 control subjects without dementia in a retrospective fashion. The prevalence rate of dementia among Hisayama residents aged 65 or older was estimated at 6.7%, with a females to males ratio of 1:2. Among 50 cases of dementia in which brain morphology was examined, the frequency of vascular dementia was 56%; this rate was 2.2 times higher than that for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Aging, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and high hematocrit were significantly (p less than 0.05) and independently associated with the occurrence of vascular dementia. Prevalence of dementia among the Hisayama residents was relatively identical to that previously reported, but vascular dementia was more predominant. Risk factors for vascular dementia were similar to those for lacunar infarcts. Control of hypertension may be a key to reducing dementia among the Japanese population.

  9. Reversible dementia: The imitation game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Y Vishnu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD is an emergency in behavioural or cognitive neurology. Many rare neuroinfections like Neurosyphilis may be missed, if they are not thoroughly evaluated. We report a patient with subacute onset and progressive cognitive decline, extrapyramidal involvement and myoclonic jerks who was initially suspected as probable autoimmune encephalitis or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Investigations revealed positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL. On treatment with penicillin, he developed Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction and was treated symptomatically. After two weeks of penicillin, he improved significantly and except for mild short term memory recall, he is asymptomatic for last two years.

  10. Communicating with people with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McKillop

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be very difficult to communicate with people with dementia. Each case requires its own unique handling. Not every scenario is covered, as many times your own judgment is what will work, best according to the circumstances. These can change from dawn to evening and from day to day. Never assume things will be the way they were the last time you communicated. Be on your guard. Be adaptable. The article will help get you started to think of your own ways to communicate.

  11. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  12. Synthesis and bacterial metabolism of cis- and trans-2-alkyl analogues of sodium cyclamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, R A; Pearson, D A; Schmidt, V; Wesche, S B; Roxon, J J

    1983-07-01

    Sodium cyclamate is an effective artificial sweetner, which has been banned from the U.SD. market because of alleged carcinogenic properties. It appears that cyclohexylamine, liberated from cyclamate as a result of bacterial mtabolism, is the proximate carcinogen. In an effort to elucidate the extent to which analogues of cyclamate would enter into the bacterial metabolic pathway, as well as any stereochemical requirements which might exist, several 2-alkaly analogues of sodium cyclamate were prepared. It was found that trans-N-(2-methylcyclohexyl)sulfamate (trans-2a) and trans-N-(2-ethylcyclohexyl)sulfamate were hydrolyzed by freshly collected fecal suspensions from rats fed cyclamate, but not from control rats, at the same rate as cyclamate itself. trans-N-(2-Isopropylcyclohexyl)sulfamate (trans-2c) was not hydrolyzed at all. Surprisingly, two of the analogous cis compounds (cis-2a and cis-2c, respectively) were hydrolyzed by fecal suspensions from control, as well as from cyclamate-fed, rats. Moreover, cis-2a was hydrolyzed by incubating it in medium only. Thus, it is apparent that stereochemical influences on the chemical properties of these compounds are substantial. These results do not appear to point the way toward a safe, nonmetabolizable sweetening agent.

  13. Open dementia project: Empathic tools between magic and everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yanki; Hendriks, Niels; Tsang, Albert

    2017-01-01

    In Chinese society like in many cultures, persons with dementia suffer some level of stigmatisation. For this reason a dementia research/care centre in Hong Kong (China) initiated the design of the “dementia experience tool”. Its main goal is to create public understanding through inviting the general public to experience dementia. The dementia research/care centre commissioned a social design research lab team (two of the authors are part of this) to create the tool, sta...

  14. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  15. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  16. Cushing's Syndrome and Steroid Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Giampaolo; Tricò, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's Syndrome (CS) is associated with a specific spectrum of dementia-like symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, anxiety and mania, and neurocognitive alterations, like impairment of memory and concentration. This pattern of clinical complications, which significantly impair the health-related quality of life of CS patients, is sometimes referred to as "steroid dementia syndrome" (SDS). The SDS is the result of anatomical and functional anomalies in brain areas involved in the processing of emotion and cognition, which are only partially restored after the biochemical remission of the disease. Therefore, periodical neuropsychiatric evaluations are recommended in all CS patients, and a long-term follow-up is required after normalization of hypercortisolism. Recent evidences demonstrate that three classes of drugs (glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and pituitary tumor-targeted drugs), which are used for medical treatment of CS, can rapidly relief neuropsychiatric symptoms of SDS. Furthermore, several psychoactive medications have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of symptoms induced by the acute or chronic glucocosteroid administration. In this paper, a review of the current and future patents for the treatment and prevention of CS and SDS will be presented.

  17. Origins of Montessori Programming for Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the evolution of the use of Montessori educational methods as the basis for creating interventions for persons with dementia. The account of this evolution is autobiographical, as the development of Montessori Programming for Dementia (MPD) initially was through the efforts of myself and my research associates. My initial exposure to Maria Montessori's work came as a result of my involvement with my own children's education. This exposure influenced ongoing research on development of cognitive interventions for persons with dementia. A brief description of Montessori's work with children and the educational methods she developed is followed by a description of how this approach can be translated into development of activities for persons with dementia. Assessment tools to document effects of MPD were created, focusing on observational tools to measure engagement and affect during individual and group activities programming for persons with dementia. Examples of the use of MPD by researchers, staff members, and family members are given, as well as examples of how persons with dementia can provide MPD to other persons with dementia or to children. Finally, examples of MPD's dissemination internationally and future directions for research are presented.

  18. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  19. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Matsui, Hiroshige; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Kinomura, Shigeo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer)

    1990-12-01

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author).

  20. Dysfunctions associated with dementia and their treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Malak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [u]International UnderstAID project shows[/u] the role of physiotherapist in patients with dementia as divided into two branches: helping to resolve the physical problems and solving the problems related to dementia. The role of physiotherapist in dementia treatment may be divided into two branches: helping to resolve the physical problems and solving the problems related to dementia. The physical problems consider such aspects as musculoskeletal disorders, mobility dysfunction and pain. Referring to musculoskeletal problems, the interventions of physical therapists should included whole-body progressive resistance exercise training, strengthening, “range-of-motion” and stretching exercises and transfer training. Mobility disorders are associated with physical symptoms such as: rigidity, balance problem, shuffling gait. Decreased mobility can be based on unrelieved pain. These are some crucial scales which are designed to detected the pain. For instance, The Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, massage or exercises can be provide to reduce the pain in patients with dementia. Physiotherapy in dementia treatment influences not only physical functions but also the maintenance or progression of cognitive abilities of demented elderly subjects

  1. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Matsui, Hiroshige; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Kinomura, Shigeo

    1990-01-01

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  2. Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve and we propose the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia. Recent findings highlight that the use of more than one language affects the human brain in terms of anatomo-structural changes. It is noteworthy that recent evidence from different places and cultures throughout the world points to a significant delay of dementia onset in bilingual/multilingual individuals. This delay has been reported not only for Alzheimer's dementia and its prodromal mild cognitive impairment phase, but also for other dementias such as vascular and fronto-temporal dementia, and was found to be independent of literacy, education and immigrant status. Lifelong bilingualism represents a powerful cognitive reserve delaying the onset of dementia by approximately 4 years. As to the causal mechanism, because speaking more than one language heavily relies upon executive control and attention, brain systems handling these functions are more developed in bilinguals resulting in increases of gray and white matter densities that may help protect from dementia onset. These neurocognitive benefits are even more prominent when second language proficiency and exposure are kept high throughout life.

  3. Functional disability in elderly with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainã Alves Fagundes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dementia represents one of the major causes of disability and dependence in old age and can affect functional capacity in all areas of occupational performance, including basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively, leisure, social participation and others. Objectives: To characterize the functional disability level in elderly people with dementia and verify the existence of correlation between functionality and the stage or type of dementia. Method: Quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional study, with a sample of 25 caregivers of elderly with dementia. For the characterization of the participants were used structured questionnaires and to assess functional disability, the Disability Assessment Scale for Dementia - DAD was applied. Results: Greater incapacity was observed in the IADL sub item. This finding is compatible with the literature on the hierarchy in functional decline in the elderly: decline begins in IADL, while BADL remain unaffected for a longer period. There was no significant correlation between the type of dementia, age or gender and disability. It was verified through the Spearman coefficient (rho = 0.87, a significant correlation of high magnitude between functional disability and stage of dementia (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: Such findings reiterate the importance of giving priority to early detection and prevention of the functional decline, which is the manifestation of vulnerability among the elderly.

  4. Depression-dementia medius: between depression and the manifestation of dementia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-09-01

    Depression and dementia, among the most common conditions in clinical practice, sometimes coexist, sometimes succeed each other, and often confuse clinicians. In the present paper, the clinical concept of 'depression-dementia medius' (which includes pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease as exemplars) is proposed, in reference to Janet's concept of psychological tension. Because psychosomatically complex human lives are always in a state of dynamic equilibrium, it seems sensible to propose that pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease are located within a spectrum extending from depression without dementia symptoms to dementia without depression. From the Janetian viewpoint, pseudodementia is regarded as uncovered latent dementia as a result of reduced psychological tension. Dementia is more than a fixed progressive condition under this view, and is a manifestation of dynamic mental activities. Characterizing these entities through perspectives such as psychological tension may yield deep insights in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Dementia beyond 2025: Knowledge and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Alain; Gzil, Fabrice; Andrieu, Sandrine; Banerjee, Sube; Brémond, François; Buée, Luc; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Mangialasche, Francesca; Platel, Hervé; Salmon, Eric; Robert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Given that there may well be no significant advances in drug development before 2025, prevention of dementia-Alzheimer's disease through the management of vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors may be a more realistic goal than treatment. Level of education and cognitive reserve assessment in neuropsychological testing deserve attention, as well as cultural, social, and economic aspects of caregiving. Assistive technologies for dementia care remain complex. Serious games are emerging as virtual educational and pleasurable tools, designed for individual and cooperative skill building. Public policies are likely to pursue improving awareness and understanding of dementia; providing good quality early diagnosis and intervention for all; improving quality of care from diagnosis to the end of life, using clinical and economic end points; delivering dementia strategies quicker, with an impact on more people. Dementia should remain presented as a stand-alone concept, distinct from frailty or loss of autonomy. The basic science of sensory impairment and social engagement in people with dementia needs to be developed. E-learning and serious games programs may enhance public and professional education. Faced with funding shortage, new professional dynamics and economic models may emerge through coordinated, flexible research networks. Psychosocial research could be viewed as an investment in quality of care, rather than an academic achievement in a few centers of excellence. This would help provide a competitive advantage to the best operators. Stemming from care needs, a logical, systems approach to dementia care environment through organizational, architectural, and psychosocial interventions may be developed, to help reduce symptoms in people with dementia and enhance quality of life. Dementia-friendly environments, culture, and domesticity are key factors for such interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  7. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  8. Lead optimization of antimalarial propafenone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, David; Pradhan, Anupam; Iyer, Lalitha V; Parman, Toufan; Gow, Jason; Zhu, Fangyi; Furimsky, Anna; Lemoff, Andrew; Guiguemde, W Armand; Sigal, Martina; Clark, Julie A; Wilson, Emily; Tang, Liang; Connelly, Michele C; Derisi, Joseph L; Kyle, Dennis E; Mirsalis, Jon; Guy, R Kiplin

    2012-07-12

    Previously reported studies identified analogues of propafenone that had potent antimalarial activity, reduced cardiac ion channel activity, and properties that suggested the potential for clinical development for malaria. Careful examination of the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and efficacy of this series of compounds using rodent models revealed orally bioavailable compounds that are nontoxic and suppress parasitemia in vivo. Although these compounds possess potential for further preclinical development, they also carry some significant challenges.

  9. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  10. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  11. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary

  12. Prevalence of Pain in Nursing Home Residents: The Role of Dementia Stage and Dementia Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Janine; Smalbrugge, Martin; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Stek, Max L; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2017-06-01

    To study pain prevalence, pain type, and its pharmacological treatment in Dutch nursing home residents in relation to dementia subtype and dementia severity. Data were collected as part of the PAINdemiA study, an observational cross-sectional study conducted between May 2014 and December 2015. Ten nursing homes in the Netherlands. A total of 199 nursing home residents in various stages of dementia. We collected data on pain (by observation: MOBID-2 Pain Scale and by self-report scales), pain type, pain medication, dementia subtype, dementia severity (GDS), and demographic features. In the whole sample, the prevalence of pain was 43% (95% confidence interval 36%-50%) using the MOBID-2 Pain Scale. Regardless of regularly scheduled analgesics, approximately one-third of the residents with pain suffered from moderate to severe pain. Pain assessment with the MOBID-2 Pain Scale showed no difference in pain between dementia subtypes, but residents with more severe dementia experienced pain more often than those with less severe dementia (27% vs 15%). The prevalence of self-reported pain was significantly higher in residents with vascular dementia (VaD) (54%) compared with those with Alzheimer disease (18%) and other dementia subtypes (14%). Nociceptive pain was the predominant type of pain (72%) followed by mixed pain (25%). Acetaminophen was the most prescribed analgesic (80%). Most of the participating nursing home residents had no pain; however, pain was observed more often in residents with severe dementia, whereas residents in the early stages of VaD self-reported pain more often that those with other dementia subtypes. As one-third of the residents with clinically relevant pain had moderate to severe pain regardless of using pain medication, more focus should be on how pain management could use more tailored approaches and be regularly adjusted to individual needs. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by

  13. 5-Iodo-2-aminoindan, a nonneurotoxic analogue of p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.E.; Johnson, M.P.; Oberlender, R.

    1991-01-01

    A rigid analogue, 5-iodo-2-aminoindan (5-IAI), of the serotonin neurotoxic halogenated amphetamine p-iodoamphetamine (PIA) was pharmacologically evaluated for production of serotonin neurotoxicity. A comparison was also made between 5-IAI and PIA in the two-lever drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or saline from the alpha-ethyl homologue of MDMA, MBDB. PIA and 5-IAI were both behaviorally active, and fully substituted in both groups of animals, but were considerably less potent than p-chloroamphetamine (PCA). PIA had about twice the potency of PCA as an inhibitor of 3 H-5-HT uptake in rat brain cortical synaptosomes, while 5-IAI was only about 75% as potent as PCA in this assay. A single 40 mg/kg dose of PIA resulted in a 40% reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and in the number of 5-HT uptake sites in rat cortex at one week sacrifice. The same dose of 5-IAI with one week sacrifice led to about a 15% decrease in 5-HIAA levels and number of 5-HT uptake sites, but only the latter was statistically significant. In rat hippocampus, PIA gave significant decreases in all serotonin markers examined, while 5-IAI slightly but significantly decreased only 5-HT levels. Neither compound produced any change in catecholamine or catecholamine metabolite levels. The results confirm earlier reports of the selective serotonin neurotoxicity of PIA, which is less severe than that of PCA, and also demonstrate that its rigid analogue 5-IAI does not appear to cause significant serotonin deficits in the rat

  14. Social Relations at Work and Incident Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat......Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical....... Conclusions: Our data partially support that social relations at work are associated with incident dementia....

  15. Dementia and assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez D; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The number of dementia patients requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands has increased over the past five years. The issue is highly controversial. In this contribution we discuss some of the main arguments: the nature of suffering, the voluntariness of the request and the role of the physician. We argue that society has a duty to care for patients who suffer from dementia and to make their lives as good and comfortable as possible. We also argue that it can be morally acceptable for those who do not want to continue their life with dementia to choose to die. The choice can be based on good reasons.

  16. Computed tomography in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations of 7 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type were reviewed and correlated with clinical stages. The findings of CT were also compared with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There was no positive correlation between the degree of cerebral atrophy on CT and clinical stage. Cerebral atrophy seemed to be influenced by aging, ill duration, and the degree of dementia. The cerebral/cerebellar uptake ratio of RI on SPECT was significantly decreased with the progression of clinical stage. SPECT seemed to reflect the degree of dementia, irrespective of ages and ill duration. (N.K.)

  17. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-06-22

    To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin.

  18. Impaired imitation of gestures in mild dementia: comparison of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro; Okina, Tomoko; Suzuki, Norio

    2015-11-01

    To examine whether imitation of gestures provided useful information to diagnose early dementia in elderly patients. Imitation of finger and hand gestures was evaluated in patients with mild dementia; 74 patients had dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 100 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 52 with subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Significantly, more patients with DLB (32.4%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (11.5%) had an impaired ability to imitate finger gestures bilaterally. Also, significantly, more patients with DLB (36.5%) compared with patients with AD (5%) or SVaD (15.4%) had lower mean scores of both hands. In contrast, impairment of the imitation of bimanual gestures was comparable among the three patient groups (DLB 50%, AD 42%, SVaD 42.3%). Our study revealed that imitation of bimanual gestures was impaired non-specifically in about half of the patients with mild dementia, whereas imitation of finger gestures was significantly more impaired in patients with early DLB than in those with AD or SVaD. Although the sensitivity was not high, the imitation tasks may provide additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  20. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L; Epperson, C Neill

    2016-12-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions.

  1. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2016-01-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:28179815

  2. Hospital-diagnosed dementia and suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to examine the risk of suicide in persons diagnosed with dementia during a hospitalization and its relationship to mood disorders. DESIGN: Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals...... who are aged 70 or older with dementia have a threefold higher risk than persons with no dementia. The time shortly after diagnosis is associated with an elevated suicide risk. The risk among persons with dementia remains significant when controlling for mood disorders. As many as 26% of the men...... aged 50+ living in Denmark (N=2,474,767) during January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2000. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome of interest is suicide. Relative risks are calculated based on person-days spent in each stratum. RESULTS: A total of 18,648,875 person-years were observed during the 11-year study period...

  3. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.

  4. Dementia in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blöndal, H; Guomundsson, G; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1989-01-01

    in seventeen cases of whom two presented with dementia. At the last examination the majority had severe dementia and severely abnormal EEG. Anti-cystatin C positive amyloid vascular and perivascular infiltrates were found. The resulting damage to the microvasculature of the brain and secondary hemorrhages......Nineteen cases with verified Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy are presented. All of the cases had one or more cerebrovascular insults starting at the age of 20-41 years and survived from 10 days to 23 years after the first insult. Progressive dementia was a prominent clinical feature...... and infarctions were considered to be an adequate explanation for the dementia in these cases. Skin biopsies can now probably be used to demonstrate cystatin C positive amyloid deposits conclusively in the tissues of these patients....

  5. Transforming dementia care in an NHS trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer; Longden, Jane; Murphy, Jayne

    2015-02-01

    Walsall Healthcare NHS Trust was one of nine trusts selected to take part in the RCN development programme transforming dementia care in hospitals during 2013. The programme aimed to improve the experience of care for people with dementia and their carers in hospital. This article outlines a two-day training programme delivered to staff on two pilot wards with a larger cohort of adults with dementia than other wards in Manor Hospital. A range of staff were trained including nurses, clinical support workers and allied health professionals and also, in a bespoke format, housekeepers, porters and security staff. The programme has led to a noticeable cultural change and significantly improved care and management of patients with cognitive impairment and/or dementia on the two pilot wards. As a result, the training programme has been implemented more widely across the hospital.

  6. Couples with dementia: Positioning the 'we'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Nilsson, Elin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how spouses in couples with dementia position themselves in relation to each other by analysing their use of pronouns, especially the we. The study uses joint interviews with 11 couples. Based on a quantitative analysis of pronoun use, it is argued that the pronoun we is used by all the spouses; however, it is used less frequently by the spouses with dementia in comparison with healthy spouses. A qualitative analysis of the use of the pronoun we shows that the spouses position, experience and consider themselves as a couple and that they position and experience themselves as individuals in relation to the couple. One of the challenges for couples with dementia is to be able to retain a we in face of the progression of the dementia disease. By positioning themselves in various ways, the spouses establish and negotiate quite a complex and emotionally charged web of relationships. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  8. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  9. Functional network disruption in the degenerative dementias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pievani, M.; de Haan, W.; Wu, T.; Seeley, W.W.; Frisoni, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances towards understanding the molecular pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative dementias, the mechanisms linking molecular changes to neuropathology and neuropathological changes to clinical symptoms remain largely obscure. Connectivity is a distinctive feature of the brain and the

  10. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.

  11. Individual Music Therapy for Agitation in Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been...... methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. Method: In a crossover trial, 42 participants...... with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Results: Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at −6...

  12. Caregiving for Alzheimer's Disease or Other Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Caregiving for Person with Alzheimer's Disease or a related Dementia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form ...

  13. [Electroencephalography in delirium superimposed on dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemaaijer, Judith I; Wijnen, Viona J M; van Gool, W A

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing delirium superimposed on pre-existing cognitive impairment or dementia, 'delirium superimposed on dementia' (DSD), is challenging because signs of delirium might be interpreted as symptoms of pre-existing cognitive dysfunction.In this paper, we review the literature on the role of electrencephalography (EEG) in the differential diagnosis of delirium, dementia and DSD.Conventional EEG, applying twenty to thirty electrodes, taking thirty minutes registration, is not feasible in psychogeriatric patients. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to reliably detect delirium using only a limited number of EEG electrodes for a short period of time.With this, use of EEG in the detection of delirium in patients with cognitive impairment or clinically manifest dementia could be possible.

  14. Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  15. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, J.

    2015-06-15

    This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.

  16. Dural arteriovenous fistula as a treatable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enofe, Ikponmwosa; Thacker, Ike; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a chronic loss of neurocognitive function that is progressive and irreversible. Although rare, dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) could present with a rapid decline in neurocognitive function with or without Parkinson-like symptoms. DAVFs represent a potentially treatable and reversible cause of dementia. Here, we report the case of an elderly woman diagnosed with a DAVF after presenting with new-onset seizures, deteriorating neurocognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms.

  17. CAMCOG as a screening instrument for dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, A; Nielsen, H; Andersen, K

    2000-01-01

    The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) score is correlated with age and sociodemographic variables. The aim of the study was to determine an individualized CAMCOG cut-off score for dementia, taking such correlates into account.......The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) score is correlated with age and sociodemographic variables. The aim of the study was to determine an individualized CAMCOG cut-off score for dementia, taking such correlates into account....

  18. Seminar: Music Therapy in Dementia Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2009-01-01

    This seminar presents music therapy in person centered dementia care. In the first part focus is on research and documentation. How can short term music therapy document changes in symptoms of depression? Is Dementia Care Mapping a valid assessment tool for documenting group music therapy......? In the next part focus is on clinical music therapy – in group work as well as in individual work – and how the music therapist works in the interdisciplinary field....

  19. Is tube feeding futile in advanced dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial whether tube feeding in people with dementia improves nutritional status or prolongs survival. Guidelines published by several professional societies cite observational studies that have shown no benefit and conclude that tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia should be avoided. However, all studies on tube feeding in dementia have major methodological flaws that invalidate their findings. The present evidence is not sufficient to justify general guidelines. Patients with advanced dementia represent a very heterogeneous group, and evidence demonstrates that some patients with dementia benefit from tube feeding. However, presently available guidelines make a single recommendation against tube feeding for all patients. Clinicians, patients, and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines and prior commentary on this topic tend both to overestimate the strength of evidence for futility and to exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. Shared decision making requires accurate information tailored to the individual patient's particular situation, not blanket guidelines based on flawed data. Lay Summary: Many doctors believe that tube feeding does not help people with advanced dementia. Scientific studies suggest that people with dementia who have feeding tubes do not live longer or gain weight compared with those who are carefully hand fed. However, these studies are not very helpful because of flaws in design, which are discussed in this article. Guidelines from professional societies make a blanket recommendation against feeding tubes for anyone with dementia, but an individual approach that takes each person's situation into account seems more appropriate. Patients and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines on this topic tend both to underestimate the benefit and exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. PMID:27833208

  20. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jacob HG Grand¹, Sienna Caspar², Stuart WS MacDonald11Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; 2Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1 Alzheimer’s disease; 2 vascular dementias; 3 frontotemporal dementias; and 4 dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of

  1. Suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about suicide risk in people with dementia have been increasing in recent years along with a discourse about rational suicide and assisted suicide. A systematic narrative literature review of suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in persons with dementia. Most studies that have examined the spectrum of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide in dementia have methodological limitations but the overall suicide risk does not appear to be increased. When suicidal behavior does occur, common themes include the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, mainly depression; occurrence early in the dementia course with preserved insight and capacity; and an increased risk in younger people. The emerging discourse on rational and assisted suicide has been spurred by early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis and poses a number of ethical challenges for clinicians including the role of proxy decision-makers. Although dementia might not confer a significant overall risk for suicidal behavior, clinicians still need to consider the potential for suicide in vulnerable individuals particularly early in the dementia course.

  2. Neuroimaging and functional assessment in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashi, Akiro; Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-05-01

    Recent progress in diagnostic imaging techniques has greatly contributed to the elucidation of pathophysiology, as well as differential diagnosis in dementia. In particular, X-ray computed tomography (CT) offers the ability to detect morphological changes of the brain, whereby making it possible to differentiate between cerebrovascular and degenerative dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows three-dimensional visualization of gyrus atrophy, providing the ability to depict subcortical minor infarcts and white matter lesions. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has led to a dramatic progression in the search for pathophysiology of dementia. The purpose of this paper is to outline the recent findings of diagnostic imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT, MRI, PET and SPECT, focusing on those in commonly observed cerebrovascular dementia and in degenerative dementias that are projected to increase. Degenerative dementias cover Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Huntington's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. (N.K.) 90 refs.

  3. Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophia; Thomas, Alan J

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between depression and dementia is complex and still not well understood. A number of different views exist regarding how the two conditions are linked as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms at work. This narrative review examined longitudinal and cross sectional studies in the existing literature and determined the evidence supporting depression being a risk factor, a prodrome, a consequence, or an independent comorbidity in dementia. Overall there is convincing evidence to support both the notion that early life depression can act as a risk factor for later life dementia, and that later life depression can be seen as a prodrome to dementia. There is also evidence to support both conditions showing similar neurobiological changes, particularly white matter disease, either indicating shared risk factors or a shared pattern of neuronal damage. These findings highlight the need to examine if effective treatment of depressive episodes has any effect in reducing the prevalence of dementia, as well as clinicians being vigilant for late life depression indicating the incipient development of dementia, and therefore carefully following up these individuals for future cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Daniela; Winblad, Bengt; Aarsland, Dag

    2011-11-01

    Depression in people with dementia has important implications, such as reduced quality of life of patients and carers, and is associated with increased costs and reduced cognition. Here, we review recent studies of the epidemiology, course, mechanisms and treatment of depression in people with dementia. Depression is both a risk factor and a prodrome of Alzheimer's disease. Depression is a common occurrence in all types of dementias and at all disease stages, including in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Many studies have explored whether depression in MCI increased the conversion rate to dementia, but findings are inconsistent. Studies of the mechanisms are relatively few and findings inconsistent, but inflammatory, trophic and cerebrovascular factors may contribute, in addition to monoamine deficiency and severity of plaques and tangle pathology. Studies of antidepressants for depression in dementia are inconclusive, with several negative findings reported in recent large studies, suggesting that antidepressant may not confer benefit over placebo. Depression is a common risk factor, prodrome, and accompanying symptom of people with Alzheimer's dementia. The mechanisms are unknown, and there is little evidence of effective therapies.

  5. Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Maria Pöysti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.

  6. Social class, dementia and the fourth age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian Rees

    2017-02-01

    Research addressing social class and dementia has largely focused on measures of socioeconomic status as causal risk factors for dementia and in observed differences in diagnosis, treatment and care. This large body of work has produced important insights but also contains numerous problems and weaknesses. Research needs to take account of the ways in which ageing and social class have been transformed in tandem with the economic, social and cultural coordinates of late modernity. These changes have particular consequences for individual identities and social relations. With this in mind this article adopts a critical gaze on research that considers interactions between dementia and social class in three key areas: (i) epidemiological approaches to inequalities in risk (ii) the role of social class in diagnosis and treatment and (iii) class in the framing of care and access to care. Following this, the article considers studies of dementia and social class that focus on lay understandings and biographical accounts. Sociological insights in this field come from the view that dementia and social class are embedded in social relations. Thus, forms of distinction based on class relations may still play an important role in the lived experience of dementia. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Trajectories of Behavioural Disturbances Across Dementia Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linds, Alexandra B; Kirstein, Alana B; Freedman, Morris; Verhoeff, Nicolaas P L G; Wolf, Uri; Chow, Tiffany W

    2015-11-01

    To replicate a previous finding that the trajectory of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) shifts in the sixth year of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We evaluated longitudinal tracking with both the Frontal Behavioural Inventory (FBI) and NPI, comparing bvFTD against other dementias. Chart reviews over two to five years for patients with bvFTD (n=30), primary progressive aphasia (PPA, n=13) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=118) at an urban Canadian tertiary clinic specializing in dementia. Linear regressions of the longitudinal data tested predictors of annualized rates of change (ROC) in NPI and FBI total and subscales for apathy and disinhibition among dementia groups. The mode of the overall sample for the most advanced duration of illness observed was 5 years, with the median at 7 years. We did not find a crescendo-decrescendo pattern in scores although, for bvFTD and AD, high initial scores correlated with ensuing downward ROCs on the NPI and FBI. Educational level showed an influence on disinhibition ROCs. The FBI was no more revealing than the NPI for apathy and disinhibition scores in these dementias. A cognitive reserve effect on behavioural disturbance was supported but it may take longer than our 4 years of observing the clinical sample to record inflection points in the behavioural and psychiatric symptoms seen in bvFTD. The current data only imply that both apathy and disinhibition will diminish over the course of dementia.

  8. Death in life or life in death? Dementia's ontological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gaynor

    2018-01-01

    Is it possible to end one's life well with dementia? The perception of dementia as death brought into life flows from ideas about humanness embedded in medicine's Cartesian paradigm. Dementia as incurable brain disease exacerbates negativity. But the real impact of dementia is that it changes social relations: to live well with dementia requires a relational not Cartesian understanding of life. A relational ontology prioritizes social health: to live is to be held in connection. Negativity produces the disconnection that is death, with or without disease. When people with dementia are held in connection, they live a better life.

  9. Transition-state characterization: a new approach combining inhibitor analogues and variation in enzyme structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M A; Kaplan, A P; Rutter, W J; Bartlett, P A

    1992-02-04

    A new strategy of potentially broad application for probing transition-state (TS) analogy in enzymatic systems is described in this paper. The degree to which a series of phosphonate inhibitors act as TS analogues of rat carboxypeptidase A1 has been determined for the wild-type enzyme, for the R127K, R127M, and R127A mutants, and for the R127A mutant in the presence of 0.5 M guanidine hydrochloride. The impact that the mutations have on the inverse second-order rate constants (Km/kcat) for substrate hydrolysis is mirrored by the effect on the inhibition constants (Ki) for the corresponding phosphonate inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the phosphonate moiety mimics some of the electronic as well as the geometric characteristics of the TS. A similar but distinctly separate correlation is observed for tripeptide analogues in comparison to analogues of the dipeptide Cbz-Gly-Phe, reflecting an anomalous mode of binding for the latter system. The selective rate increases and corresponding enhancement in inhibitor binding observed on addition of 0.5 M guanidine hydrochloride to the R127A mutant indicate that the exogenous cation can assume the role played by Arg-127 in stabilizing the TS and in providing substrate selectivity at the P2 position.

  10. Synthesis, biological distribution and radiation dosimetry of Te-123m analogues of hexadecenoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Ice, R.D.; Mills, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis and biological distribution of four Te-123m analogues of hexadecenoic acid in rats, rabbits and dogs were described for use as possible myocardial imaging agents. The heart-to-blood ratios ranged from 0.13 for 3-telluranonadecenoic acid in rats at 5 mins to 6.25 for 18-methyl-17-tellura-9-nonadecenoic acid in dogs at 24 hrs. The biological half-life of the Te-123m labelled fatty acids ranged from 26 to 583 hrs in the hearts of the test animals. These Te-123m fatty acids were retained in the heart longer than radioiodinated fatty acids and have acceptable absorbed doses to the various target organs. (U.K.)

  11. A qualitative study of older and middle-aged adults' perception and attitudes towards dementia and dementia risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarang; Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-07-01

    To investigate perceptions of dementia and dementia risk reduction held by people without dementia. Dementia does not only affect individuals with dementia, but also has an impact on family and friends, society and healthcare professionals. Recent research has identified modifiable risk and protective factors for dementia. However, it is unclear what knowledge people without dementia have about these risk factors and their attitudes towards addressing these risk factors to achieve dementia risk reduction are not known. Qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology. A focus group study was conducted in February 2011 with 34 older adults aged between 52-90 years. The long-table approach was used to identify themes and categorize data on dementia knowledge, risk and attitudes. Participants correctly identified dementia risk factors as a group. Participants' responses about their perceived likelihood of developing dementia could be classified into three distinctive themes; fear, rational and cynical perceptions. Both fear of developing dementia and the need to improve dementia knowledge were considered major motivators towards adopting healthier lifestyle and health behaviours. Lack of knowledge on risk factors for dementia was identified as a major barrier for behavioural and lifestyle change. These findings can be used to develop effective and personalized interventions that increase motivators and reduce barriers by tailoring interventions to individual's dementia risk reduction literacy and motivations to change behaviours. Greater public-health promotion and education about risk and protective factors for dementia are also necessary to increase dementia health literacy and to reduce overall dementia prevalence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Validation of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group Diagnostic Assessment for Dementia in Arabic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the North Africa and Middle East region, the illiteracy rates among older people are high, posing a great challenge to cognitive assessment. Validated diagnostic instruments for dementia in Arabic are lacking, hampering the development of dementia research in the region. The study ...

  13. Progression to dementia in memory clinic patients without dementia: a latent profile analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, S.; Hamel, R.; Sistermans, N.; Koene, T.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Verhey, F. R. J.; Ramakers, I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the existence of discrete cognitive subtypes among memory clinic patients without dementia and test their prognostic values. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of 635 patients without dementia visiting the Alzheimer centers in Maastricht or Amsterdam, latent profile

  14. Knowledge of Dementia: Do family members understand dementia as a terminal condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sharon; McInerney, Fran; Toye, Christine; Parkinson, Camillus-Anthony; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Current research identifies advanced dementia to be the terminal phase of this progressive and incurable condition. However, there has been relatively little investigation into how family members of people with advanced dementia understand their relative's condition. In this article, we report on semi-structured interviews with 10 family members of people with advanced dementia, in a residential aged care facility. Using a qualitative, descriptive design, we explored family members' understandings of dementia, whether they were aware that it was a terminal condition, and the ways they developed their understandings. Findings revealed that the majority of family members could not recognize the terminal nature of dementia. Relying on predominantly lay understandings, they had little access to formal information and most failed to conceptualize a connection between dementia and death. Moreover, family members engaged in limited dialogue with aged care staff about such issues, despite their relatives being in an advanced stage of the disease. Findings from our study suggest that how family members understand their relative's condition requires greater attention. The development of staff/family partnerships that promote shared communication about dementia and dying may enhance family members' understandings of the dementia trajectory and the types of decisions they may be faced with during the more advanced stages of the disease.

  15. Partners in Dementia Care: A Care Coordination Intervention for Individuals with Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Katherine S.; Bass, David M.; Snow, A. Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L.; Morgan, Robert; Looman, Wendy J.; McCarthy, Catherine; Kunik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides a detailed description of a telephone-based care coordination intervention, Partners in Dementia Care (PDC), for veterans with dementia and their family caregivers. Essential features of PDC included (a) formal partnerships between Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and Alzheimer's Association Chapters; (b) a…

  16. Breast cancer imaging using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, Simone U.; Melis, Marleen; Emmering, Jasper; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Jong, Marion de

    2016-01-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are methods successfully used in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing neuroendocrine tumours. Since these techniques were first introduced, many improvements have been made. SSTR expression has also been reported on breast cancer (BC). Currently mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are the most frequent methods used for BC imaging. Since SSTR expression on BC was demonstrated, clinical studies examining the feasibility of visualizing primary BC using SSTR radioligands have been performed. However, to date SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging is not used clinically in BC patients. The aim of this review is to assess whether recent improvements made within nuclear medicine may enable SSTR-mediated imaging to play a role in BC management. For this we critically analysed results of past studies and discussed the potential of the improvements made within nuclear medicine on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging of BC. Seven databases were searched for publications on BC imaging with SSTR radioligands. The papers found were analysed by 3 individual observers to identify whether the studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria defined as studies in which nuclear imaging using radiolabelled SST analogues was performed in patients with breast lesions. Twenty-four papers were selected for this review including studies on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging in BC, neuroendocrine BC and other breast lesions. The analysed studies were heterogeneous with respect to the imaging method, imaging protocol, patient groups and the radiolabelled SST analogues used. Despite the fact that the analysed studies were heterogeneous, sensitivity for primary BC ranged from 36–100%. In a subset of the studies LN lesions were visualized, but sensitivity was lower compared to that for primary tumours. A part of the studies included benign lesions and specificity ranged from 22–100%. Furthermore, false negatives and

  17. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J; Brinkerhoff, D; Johnson, J [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T; Engstroem, J; Kukkonen, I [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland); and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  18. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I.

    2012-04-01

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  19. The Lehmer Matrix and Its Recursive Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    LU factorization of matrix A by considering det A = det U = ∏n i=1 2i−1 i2 . The nth Catalan number is given in terms of binomial coefficients by Cn...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Lehmer matrix and its recursive analogue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  20. Nuclear waste geochemistry: natural and anthropic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The geochemical evolution of nuclear waste storage is difficult to describe, due to the long time scales involved, the radioactivity confinement complexity and the un-natural radionuclides which evolution is not known. In order to carry out a long term prediction, a special approach is used, based on a combination of experiments conducted in laboratories and in situ, modelizations and comparisons with process and material analogues (natural or man-made, such as basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic glasses, plutonium, historical and archaeological artefacts)

  1. Electronic analogue simulator of radio cardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, G.; Lansiart, A.; Vernejoul, P. de; Kellershohn, C.

    1967-01-01

    The various parameters of the heart pump and of the blood circulation can be determined by radio-cardio-graphical techniques. The curves thus obtained can be more easily used in radiocardiography if the electronic analogue simulator described here is employed. The experimental and simulated radio-cardiograms are made to coincide by varying the electrical parameters of the simulator. Using simple charts it is possible to obtain directly the actual original physiological parameters from these electrical parameters. Some examples are given showing the excellent accuracy obtained in the determination of ejection indices by the simulator. (authors) [fr

  2. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  3. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter; Millord, Erik Yardin

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  4. Validation study of the prototype of a disease-specific index measure for health-related quality of life in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schölzel-Dorenbos Carla J M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Index measures for health-related quality of life (HRQoL quantify the desirability (utility of a certain health state. The commonly used generic index measure, e.g. EuroQol: EQ-5D, may underestimate relevant areas of specific diseases, resulting in lower validity. Disease-specific index measures on the other hand combine disease-specificity and quantification of perceived quality on several health domains of a certain disease into one single figure. These instruments have been developed for several diseases, but a dementia-specific HRQoL index instrument was not yet available. Facing the increasing individual and societal burden of dementia, specific HRQoL values with metric characteristics are especially useful because they will provide vital information for health outcome research and economic evaluations. Aims of the study To develop and validate the prototype of a dementia-specific HRQoL index measure: Dementia Quality of life Instrument (DQI, as the first step towards valuation of the dementia health state. Methods For development of the DQI we created a conceptual framework based on a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. To assess validity we undertook a survey under 241 dementia professionals. Measurements consisted of ranking (1–5 and rating (1–10 of 5 dementia-specific DQI domains (memory, orientation, independence, social activities and mood and simultaneously rating of 9 DQI-derived health states on a visual analogue scale (VAS. We also performed a cross-sectional study in a large sample of people with very mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers (N = 145 to assess feasibility and concurrent validity. In addition, caregivers valued 10 DQI and 10 EQ-5D + C derived health states of the patient simultaneously on the same VAS. Setting: outpatient clinics, nursing homes and patient residences. Results All

  5. Cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C; Patel, A; Oyebode, F; Wilcock, G

    1996-05-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with DSM-III-R dementia were assessed with a standardized battery which included the Geriatric Mental State Schedule, the History and Aetiology Schedule, the Secondary Dementia Schedule and the CAMCOG. Patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) all had a similar degree of cognitive impairment at the time of the baseline interview. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia each experienced a mean decline of 27 points in patients with SDLT. Patients with SDLT had a significantly greater decline of verbal fluency than both the other groups. Women were significantly more impaired than men at the time of the baseline assessment but experienced a similar decline during the year of follow-up.

  6. What do people with dementia and their carers want to know about neuroimaging for dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Hannah; Butler, Marie-Louise; Ciblis, Aurelia; Bokde, Arun L; Mullins, Paul G; McNulty, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging forms an important part of dementia diagnosis. Provision of information on neuroimaging to people with dementia and their carers may aid understanding of the pathological, physiological and psychosocial changes of the disease, and increase understanding of symptoms. This qualitative study aimed to investigate participants' knowledge of the dementia diagnosis pathway, their understanding of neuroimaging and its use in diagnosis, and to determine content requirements for a website providing neuroimaging information. Structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with carers and people with dementia. The findings demonstrate an unmet need for information on neuroimaging both before and after the examination. Carers were keen to know about neuroimaging at a practical and technical level to help avoid diagnosis denial. People with dementia requested greater information, but with a caveat to avoid overwhelming detail, and were less likely to favour an Internet resource.

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anor, Cassandra J; O'Connor, Sean; Saund, Amardeep; Tang-Wai, David F; Keren, Ron; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and are distressful to patients and caregivers. NPS are likely related to the underlying pathology. Previous studies suggest that frontal lobe lesions and vascular changes such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a significant association with specific NPS. The current study aimed to compare NPS in patients with AD, VaD, and mixed AD/VaD, and to evaluate the differences in the prevalence of NPS in relation to frontal WMH volume. In total, 180 patients with NPS and MRI data (92 probable AD, 51%; 34 probable VaD, 19%; and 54 probable mixed AD/VaD, 30%) were included in the study. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationships between NPS prevalence and diagnosis, and between NPS and frontal WMH. VaD patients had significantly more agitation (p < 0.05; 40 vs. 14%) and sleep disturbances (p < 0.05; 57 vs. 32%) than AD patients, and significantly more depression (p < 0.05; 48 vs. 20%) and aberrant motor behaviors (p < 0.05; 31 vs. 13%) than mixed AD/VaD patients. AD patients with delusions had significantly greater right frontal WMH volumes than those without (p < 0.05; delusions 1/0 = 314.8/112.6 mm3). Differences in NPS prevalence are likely related to the underlying pathology and warrant further study as they have implications for treatment. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  9. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.

  10. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  11. Andrographolide and analogues in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Tripathi, Swati; Shukla, Archana; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant traditionally used for treatment of cough and cold, fever, laryngitis, and several infectious diseases. Extracts of A. paniculata have shown versatile potency against various diseases including cancer. The active biomolecules of A. paniculata mainly are lactone and diterpene. Andrographolide and analogues have been widely used for prevention of different diseases. Andrographolides have shown potent antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. It showed potentials as chemopreventive agents by suppressing growth of cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB, PI3K/AKT and other kinase pathways and by inducing apoptosis. Andrographolide induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway in different cancer cells via expression of different anti-apoptotic protein like Bax, p53, and activated caspases. Andrographolide was successfully used as an antineoplastic drug in cancer chemotherapy. Andrographolide inhibited the growth of human breast, prostate, and hepatoma tumors. Andrographolide and analogues need to be subjected to further clinical and biomedical studies in cancer chemoprevention. Andrographolide could be potent anticancer agent when used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Statistical analogues of thermodynamic extremum principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2018-05-01

    As shown by Jaynes, the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be simply derived from the principle of maximum entropy, in which the statistical entropy S=- {k}{{B}}{\\sum }i{p}i{log}{p}i is maximised subject to constraints on the mean values of the energy E and/or number of particles N in a system of fixed volume V. The Lagrange multipliers associated with those constraints are then found to be simply related to the temperature T and chemical potential μ. Here we show that the constrained maximisation of S is equivalent to, and can therefore be replaced by, the essentially unconstrained minimisation of the obvious statistical analogues of the Helmholtz free energy F = E ‑ TS and the grand potential J = F ‑ μN. Those minimisations are more easily performed than the maximisation of S because they formally eliminate the constraints on the mean values of E and N and their associated Lagrange multipliers. This procedure significantly simplifies the derivation of the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions, and shows that the well known extremum principles for the various thermodynamic potentials possess natural statistical analogues which are equivalent to the constrained maximisation of S.

  13. Music Therapy with Ethnic Music for Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tanaka

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results revealed characteristic responses of dementia patients onto the Japanese music, and we expect our result provides an evidence for better music therapy for dementia patients with Japanese culture.

  14. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS...... surgery, using a neuropsychological test battery. The time of (first) occurrence of dementia after surgery was assessed using the National Patient Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. Recorded dementia diagnoses (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia......, frontotemporal dementia, or dementia without specification. The risk of dementia according to POCD was assessed in the Cox regression models. RESULTS: /st>A total of 686 patients with a median age of 67 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 61-74] yr were followed for a median of 11.1 (IQR 5.2-12.6) yr. Only 32 patients...

  15. Complement C4 phenotypes in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Goetz, J.; Pronk, J. C.; Hauptmann, G.

    1988-01-01

    Complement C4 phenotype distribution was studied in 64 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. In contrast to reported findings we failed to find a significant association between C4B2 gene frequency and Alzheimer's dementia

  16. Evidence-based interven- tions for dementia in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    This patient is suffering from dementia, which is a ... Common symptoms of dementia: • difficulty with .... activities, help patients to rid themselves of ... Avoid changes in daily routine.6. In addition ... Referral to a physiotherapist for an appropriate ...

  17. Validity of dementia diagnoses in the danish hospital registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, T.K.T.; Andersen, B.B.; Phung, T.K.T.

    2007-01-01

    .24-0.48). Conclusion: The validity of dementia syndrome in the Danish hospital registers was high and allows for epidemiological studies about dementia. Alzheimer's disease, although underregistered, also had a good validity once the diagnosis was registered. In general, other ICD-10 dementia subtypes in the registers......Background:The validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish nationwide hospital registers was evaluated to determine the value of these registers in epidemiological research about dementia. Methods: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from 4,682 patients registered for the first time...... with a dementia diagnosis in the last 6 months of 2003. The patients' medical journals were reviewed to evaluate if they fulfilled ICD-10 and/or DSM-IV criteria for dementia and specific dementia subtypes. The patients who were still alive in 2006 were invited to an interview. Results: One hundred and ninety...

  18. The Determinants of Quality of Life of Nursing Home Residents with Young-Onset Dementia and the Differences between Dementia Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Britt; Bakker, C.; Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Jeannette C L; Zwijsen, Sandra A; Smalbrugge, Martin; Verhey, Frans R. J.; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopnnans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Aims: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other)

  19. Functional neuroimaging of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruimin

    2001-01-01

    Dementing illnesses comprise Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, Multi-infarct dementia (MID) and other neurological disorders. These diseases have different clinical characters respectively. Neuropsychological examinations can help to diagnose and differential diagnose dementias. The development of neuroimaging dementias is more and more rapid. 18 F-FDG PET method shows neo-cortical hypometabolism occurring in the biparietal-temporal lobes and left-right asymmetry of AD patients in the early stage. It can also differential diagnose Ad from other dementias

  20. Care pathways for dementia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsi K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kritika Samsi, Jill ManthorpeSocial Care Workforce Research Unit, King’s College London, London, UKAbstract: Uncertainty appears to typify the experience of living with dementia. With an uncertain illness trajectory and unpredictable levels of deterioration and stability in symptoms, people with a diagnosis of dementia may live with uncertainty and anxiety and find it hard to make plans or decisions for their future. People with memory problems and caregivers seeking a diagnosis of dementia may also potentially find themselves navigating a labyrinth-like maze of services, practitioners, assessments, and memory tests, with limited understanding of test scores and little information about what support is available. In this context of uncertainty, the apparent clarity and certainty of a “dementia care pathway” may be attractive. However, the term “dementia care pathway” has multiple and overlapping meanings, which can potentially give rise to further confusion if these are ill-defined or a false consensus is presumed. This review distinguishes four meanings: 1 a mechanism for the management and containment of uncertainty and confusion, useful for the professional as well as the person with dementia; 2 a manual for sequencing care activities; 3 a guide to consumers, indicating eligibility for care activities, or a guide to self-management for dementia dyads, indicating the appropriateness of care activities; and 4 a manual for “walking with” the person. Examples of these approaches are presented from UK dementia services with illustrations of existing care pathways and associated time points, specifically focusing on: 1 early symptom identification and first service encounters, 2 assessment process, 3 diagnostic disclosure, 4 postdiagnostic support, and 5 appropriate interventions. We review the evidence around these themes, as well as discuss service pathways and referral routes used by some services in England and internationally. We

  1. Awareness of financial skills in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wielingen, L E; Tuokko, H A; Cramer, K; Mateer, C A; Hultsch, D F

    2004-07-01

    The present study examined the relations among levels of cognitive functioning, executive dysfunction, and awareness of financial management capabilities among a sample of 42 community-dwelling persons with dementia. Financial tasks on the Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS) were dichotomized as simple or complex based on Piaget's operational levels of childhood cognitive development. Severity of global cognitive impairment and executive dysfunction were significantly related to awareness of financial abilities as measured by informant-participant discrepancy scores on the MAFS. For persons with mild and moderate/severe dementia, and persons with and without executive dysfunction, proportions of awareness within simple and complex financial task categories were tabulated. Significantly less awareness of financial abilities occurred on complex compared with simple tasks. Individuals with mild dementia were significantly less aware of abilities on complex items, whereas persons with moderate/severe dementia were less aware of abilities, regardless of task complexity. Similar patterns of awareness were observed for individuals with and without executive dysfunction. These findings support literature suggesting that deficits associated with dementia first occur for complex cognitive tasks involving inductive reasoning or decision-making in novel situations, and identify where loss of function in the financial domain may first be expected. Copyright Taylor & Francis Ltd

  2. Systematic review of recent dementia practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Jennifer; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M

    2015-01-01

    dementia is a highly prevalent acquired cognitive disorder that interferes with activities of daily living, relationships and quality of life. Recognition and effective management strategies are necessary to provide comprehensive care for these patients and their families. High-quality clinical practice guidelines can improve the quality and consistency of care in all aspects of dementia diagnosis and management by clarifying interventions supported by sound evidence and by alerting clinicians to interventions without proven benefit. we aimed to offer a synthesis of existing practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dementia, based upon moderate-to-high quality dementia guidelines. we performed a systematic search in EMBASE and MEDLINE as well as the grey literature for guidelines produced between 2008 and 2013. thirty-nine retrieved practice guidelines were included for quality appraisal by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) tool, performed by two independent reviewers. From the 12 moderate-to-high quality guidelines included, specific practice recommendations for the diagnosis and/or management of any aspect of dementia were extracted for comparison based upon the level of evidence and strength of recommendation. there was a general agreement between guidelines for many practice recommendations. However, direct comparisons between guidelines were challenging due to variations in grading schemes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Costs of dementia in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmerová, Iva; Hort, Jakub; Rusina, Robert; Wimo, Anders; Šteffl, Michal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of dementia in the Czech Republic. One hundred and nineteen patient-caregiver dyads participated in our multicenter observational cost-of-illness study. The modified Resource Utilization in Dementia Questionnaire was used as the main tool to collect data from patients and caregivers. Medical specialists provided additional data from medical records. The average costs of dementia were calculated and patients were then divided by the level of cognitive impairment. A generalized linear model was used to determine if differences were present for selected cost variables. The mean (standard deviation) for direct cost per a patient in a month was estimated to be €243.0 (138.0), €1727.1 (1075.6) for the indirect cost, and €1970.0 (1090.3) for the total cost of dementia in the Czech Republic. All of the costs increased as dementia severity increased. Both the indirect and total costs significantly (p Republic. Both total and indirect care costs increased significantly the cognition declined.

  4. Dementia and functional cerebral imaging a reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinling, M.; Lecouffe, P.; Pham, T.; Charpentier, P.; Delebvre, L.; Lavenu, I.; Pasquier, F.; Charpentier, P.; Duhamel, A.

    2000-01-01

    New concepts which concerned especially the nosologic classification of dementia as for example Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) incite to revalue the main characteristics of the regional cerebral blood flow measurements studied by SPECT in several forms of dementia. SPECT analysis with 99m-Technetium HMPAO (555 MBq) was performed to 20 patients with probable DLB, 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 patients with Fronto-Temporal dementia (FTD). Ten pairs of regions of interest were analysed. Tracer uptake was expressed as a cortico-cerebellar activity ratio. Statistical analysis of index of fixation was performed using an univariate analysis of variance, and a selection of significative ROIs was performed using two cut-off values (80 and 82.5 %). In the FTD group, a decrease of HMPAO uptake in frontal cortical regions of interest (internal, lateral and posterior) was observed. In the DLB group the decrease of HMPAO uptake was widespread and concerned all the cortical regions of interest except the posterior frontal and occipital regions. Finally in the AD group there was a limited temporal and parietal hypoperfusion more marked on the left side without frontal hypoperfusion. This last result was obtained whatever the cognitive impairment. Consequently it seems that the frontal hypoperfusion previously reported in AD groups was induced by the fact that patients with DLB were also included because the diagnosis was not established. In conclusion we estimate that SPECT studies could be used more often in clinical research especially for a classification approach of dementia. (authors)

  5. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  6. Trajectories of cognitive decline in different types of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.L.; van Harten, A.C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Koedam, E.L.G.E.; Bouwman, F.H.; Sistermans, N.; Reuling, I.E.W.; Prins, N.D.; Lemstra, A.W.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To investigate trajectories of cognitive decline in patients with different types of dementia compared to controls in a longitudinal study. Method. In 199 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 10 with vascular dementia (VaD), 26 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 20 with behavioural

  7. Association of diabetes mellitus and dementia : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, A; Stolk, RP; Hofman, A; vanHarskamp, F; Grobbee, DE; Breteler, MMB

    1996-01-01

    Dementia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are highly prevalent disorders in the elderly. Diabetes has repeatedly been reported to affect cognition, but its relation with dementia is uncertain. We therefore studied the association between diabetes and dementia in the Rotterdam

  8. Expanding Expectations for Narrative Styles in the Context of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendouzi, Jackie; Davis, Boyd H.; Maclagan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This article uses discourse analyses to examine the narrative styles produced by 2 women with a diagnosis of dementia. Because of constrained cognitive resources, people with dementia (PWD) often use alternative strategies to weave their stories into conversations. People with dementia have difficulty in initiating and maintaining a canonical…

  9. Depression in dementia: development and testing of a nursing guideline.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, R.

    2009-01-01

    Guideline for pleasure in dementia care Depression in nursing home residents with dementia can be decreased by the introduction of a nursing guideline. This is the main conclusion of the PhD thesis on depression in dementia that was presented by researcher Renate Verkaik on April 20th at the

  10. The cost of dementia in Denmark: the Odense Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg Andersen, C; Søgaard, J; Hansen, E; Kragh-Sørensen, A; Hastrup, L; Andersen, J; Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of dementia, the cost of care for 245 demented elderly and 490 controls matched by age and gender was estimated. Dementia of Alzheimer's type was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The annual cost of medical care, domestic care, home help, nursing home and special equipment for nondemented patients was DKK 22,000 per person while the cost for very mildly, mildly, moderately and severely demented patients was DKK 49,000, DKK 93,000, DKK 138,000 and DKK 206,000, respectively. Except for very mild dementia the cost did not differ between elderly who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia. The net cost of dementia is the difference in cost between those with dementia and the matched controls and amounts on average to DKK 77,000 per person per year. However, priority setting cannot be based on the cost of dementia per se, but only on the cost of a specific dementia intervention compared to its health benefit.

  11. Advanced MR Neuroimaging in Early Stage Presenile Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.E. Steketee (Rebecca)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractDementia is a syndrome affecting cognitive functions and behavior, with an overwhelming impact on both patients and caregivers. An estimated number of 35.6 million patients suffers from dementia, with a subset affected before the age of 65 years, i.e. presenile dementia. Establishing

  12. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  13. Glaciation and geosphere evolution - Greenland Analogue Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Vorauer, A.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Jensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The deep geological repository concept for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel involves the containment and isolation of used nuclear fuel in a suitable geological formation. A key objective of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) geoscience technical research program is to advance the understanding of geosphere stability and its resilience to perturbations over time frames of relevance to a deep geological repository. Glaciation has been identified as the most probable and intense perturbation relevant to a deep geological repository associated with long-term climate change in northern latitudes. Given that the North American continent has been re-glaciated nine times over the past million years, it is strongly expected that a deep geological repository within a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation in Canada will be subject to glaciation events associated with long-term climate change. As such, NWMO's geoscience research program has placed particular emphasis on investigations of the response of the geosphere to glaciations. As surface conditions change from present day conditions to periglacial, followed by ice-sheet cover of variable thickness and rapid glacial retreat, transient geochemical, hydraulic, mechanical and temperature conditions will be simultaneously imposed on groundwater systems. NWMO research activities related to glaciation events and their impacts on groundwater system evolution are being undertaken using a multi-disciplinary approach aimed at collecting multiple lines of evidence. These investigations include assessment of the: Impact of an ice sheet on groundwater composition at repository depth using the Greenland Ice Sheet as an analogue to future glaciations in North America; Expected physical and temporal surface boundary conditions related to potential future glaciation events by estimating the magnitude and time rate of change of ice sheet thickness, ground surface temperature and

  14. Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT): study protocol for a predictive algorithm assessing dementia risk in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Stacey; Hsu, Amy; Mojaverian, Nassim; Taljaard, Monica; Huyer, Gregory; Manuel, Douglas G; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modellin...

  15. Prediction of dementia by hippocampal shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... with dementia during a 9 year follow-up period, was selected from a large population based cohort study. 47 Age and gender matched subjects who stayed cognitively intact were selected from the same cohort study as a control group. The hippocampi were automatically segmented and all segmentations were inspected...... and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation experiments...

  16. Dementia prevalence and care in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D; Reed, David

    2014-04-01

    Assisted living residences have become prominent sites of long-term residential care for older adults with dementia. Estimates derived from national data indicate that seven out of ten residents in these residences have some form of cognitive impairment, with 29 percent having mild impairment, 23 percent moderate impairment, and 19 percent severe impairment. More than one-third of residents display behavioral symptoms, and of these, 57 percent have a medication prescribed for their symptoms. Only a minority of cognitively impaired residents reside in a dementia special care unit, where admission and discharge policies are more supportive of their needs. Policy-relevant recommendations from our study include the need to examine the use of psychotropic medications and cultures related to prescribing, better train assisted living staff to handle medications and provide nonpharmacological treatments, use best practices in caring for people with dementia, and promote consumer education regarding policies and practices in assisted living.

  17. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.

  18. Optimising nutrition for older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Delwyn

    This article explores interventions that can be undertaken to establish and maintain adequate nutritional intake in older people with dementia. This is often a problem, particularly in the later stages of the disease. A literature review was conducted, which identified 12 articles for inclusion. Most of these articles described interventions to maintain adequate nutritional intake in older adults with dementia. Although no standardised intervention was reported, some approaches did appear to be more successful than others. Further research is required on how nurses and nursing assistants can help older people with dementia to maintain adequate nutrition. Staff need more time and training to improve nutritional intake in this group of patients. In addition, enhanced vigilance with respect to eating difficulties and food consumption is necessary.

  19. [Clinical Neuropsychology of Dementia with Lewy Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD. Imitation of finger gestures is impaired more frequently in DLB than in other mild dementia, and provides additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Pareidolia, which lies between hallucination and visual misperception, is found frequently in DLB, but its mechanism is still under investigation.

  20. Emergence of artistic talent in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Cummings, J; Mishkin, F; Boone, K; Prince, F; Ponton, M; Cotman, C

    1998-10-01

    To describe the clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging features of five patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) who acquired new artistic skills in the setting of dementia. Creativity in the setting of dementia has recently been reported. We describe five patients who became visual artists in the setting of FTD. Sixty-nine FTD patients were interviewed regarding visual abilities. Five became artists in the early stages of FTD. Their history, artistic process, neuropsychology, and anatomy are described. On SPECT or pathology, four of the five patients had the temporal variant of FTD in which anterior temporal lobes are involved but the dorsolateral frontal cortex is spared. Visual skills were spared but language and social skills were devastated. Loss of function in the anterior temporal lobes may lead to the "facilitation" of artistic skills. Patients with the temporal lobe variant of FTD offer a window into creativity.

  1. New SPECT and PET dementia tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Chalon, S.; Emond, P.; Vercouillie, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Vergote, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Pappata, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are techniques to study in vivo neurotransmitter systems, neuro inflammation and amyloid deposits in normal human brain and in dementia. These methods used to explore the integrity of dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic systems in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementias allowed to understand how the neurotransmission was modified in these disorders. Progress in the understanding of pathophysiological and clinical signs of dementia requires an evolution of the radioligands used to carry out an increasingly early and differential diagnosis in addition to monitoring the progression of disease and the effects of therapies. New emerging radiotracers for neuro inflammation or amyloid deposits are essential. In this article, new SPECT and PET tracers are presented. (authors)

  2. Capgras' syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Andrew G; Verghese, Joe

    2002-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Capgras' syndrome, or the delusion of doubles, in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies. The patient believed that several similar-looking impostors had replaced his wife of over 50 years. Uncharacteristically, he adopted a friendly attitude with these impostors. This unusual convivial reaction to the impostors may result from differential involvement of the dual visual pathways processing facial recognition and emotional responses to faces. The delusion resolved spontaneously, coincident with worsening of the dementia. In a retrospective chart review of 18 autopsy-confirmed cases of dementia with Lewy bodies, delusions were reported in 5 subjects (27.8%), of whom 1 had misidentification delusions much like Capgras' syndrome.

  3. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Development of a dementia assessment quality database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, P.; Jørgensen, Kasper; Korner, A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased focus on the quality of health care requires tools and information to address and improve quality. One tool to evaluate and report the quality of clinical health services is quality indicators based on a clinical database. METHOD: The Capital Region of Denmark runs a quality...... database for dementia evaluation in the secondary health system. One volume and seven process quality indicators on dementia evaluations are monitored. Indicators include frequency of demented patients, percentage of patients evaluated within three months, whether the work-up included blood tests, Mini...... for the data analyses. RESULTS: The database was constructed in 2005 and covers 30% of the Danish population. Data from all consecutive cases evaluated for dementia in the secondary health system in the Capital Region of Denmark are entered. The database has shown that the basic diagnostic work-up programme...

  5. Assistive technology for memory support in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Wenborn, Jennifer; Pastink, Channah; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Orrell, Martin

    2017-06-11

    The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT). By using AT in this review we refer to electronic assistive devices. A range of AT devices has been developed to support people with dementia and their carers to manage their daily activities and to enhance safety, for example electronic pill boxes, picture phones, or mobile tracking devices. Many are commercially available. However, the usefulness and user-friendliness of these devices are often poorly evaluated. Although reviews of (electronic) memory aids do exist, a systematic review of studies focusing on the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia is lacking. Such a review would guide people with dementia and their informal and professional carers in selecting appropriate AT devices. Primary objectiveTo assess the efficacy of AT for memory support in people with dementia in terms of daily performance of personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), level of dependency, and admission to long-term care. Secondary objectiveTo assess the impact of AT on: users (autonomy, usefulness and user-friendliness, adoption of AT); cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms; need for informal and formal care; perceived quality of life; informal carer burden, self-esteem and feelings of competence; formal carer work satisfaction, workload and feelings of competence; and adverse events. We searched ALOIS, the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), on 10 November 2016. ALOIS is

  6. Prevention of Dementia: Focus on Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to summarize current knowledge on the possible advantages of lifestyle interventions, with particular attention to physical fitness, cognitive activity, leisure and social activity as well as nutrition. There is a large amount of published papers providing partial evidence and asserting the need for immediate, appropriate preventive lifestyle measures against dementia and AD development. Nevertheless, there are currently great difficulties in drafting effective guidelines in this field. This depends mainly upon lack of randomized controlled trials assessing benefits versus risks of particular lifestyle interventions strategies. However, due to the rapid increase of dementia burden, lifestyle factors and their amelioration should be already made part of decision making in light of their health-maintaining effects while awaiting for results of well-designed large prospective cohort studies in dementia.

  7. Hypocalcemic action of the several types of salicylic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Nishishita, K; Sakai, H; Tatsumi, M; Yamamoto, K

    1989-02-01

    The present study was performed to see the structure-activity relationships on the aspirin-induced hypocalcemia. Several kinds of salicylic acid (SA) analogues administered orally with a stomach tube. In general, the drugs were suspended in the 2% CMC solution. At the scheduled times after the treatment, 60 microliters of the blood was collected to determine the level of calcium. Aspirin, sodium salt of o-hydroxybenzoic acid (Na-salicylate), sodium salt of m- and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), PAS sodium dihydrate (PAS-Na), salicylamide (SAM) and 2% CMC control were used. Hypocalcemia was induced by aspirin and Na-salicylate but not by m- and p-HBA-Na. In addition, DHBA and PAS caused hypocalcemia when they were administered intravenously but not orally. These results suggest that the carboxyl group must be adjacent to the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring to induce this type of hypocalcemia and that the SA structure would be able to induce hypocalcemia, even in the presence of the additional third substituent on the same ring. On the comparison between aspirin-DL lysine (water soluble aspirin) and SA-DL lysine, SA-DL lysine, which is not an inhibitor of PG synthetase, was more effective on the hypocalcemic action than ASP-DL lysine. The phenomenon was observed at the stage especially immediately after intravenous injection, when the acetyl group may be more responsible to acetylate the PG synthetase in the aspirin-DL lysine group. The present results seems to be consistent with the previous hypothesis that PGs are not involved in the process of aspirin-induced hypocalcemia in the rat.

  8. Somatostatin analogues labelled with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E.; Crudo, J.; Edreira, M.; Viaggi, M.; De Castiglia, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the biological and radiochemical behaviour of two somatostatin analogues, the RC-160 and Tyr3Octreotide(TOC) peptides when labelling with 99m Tc by two methods: direct and indirect using S-benzoyl- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) as chelating agents. RC-160 was labelled with 125I (30% labelling yield) in order to examine its receptor specificity and to study the biodistribution in normal animals. A total binding of 30% and a non specific binding lower than 10% was obtained. On the other hand, the RC-160 was labelled with 99m Tc by a direct method (70% labelling yield), using sodium ascorbate and dithionite in order to reduce the peptide and 99m Tc, respectively. The synthesis of RC-160 with S-benzoyl MAG-3 and TOC with HYNIC, for labelling with 99m Tc are also described. The conjugates were prepared on a small scale and labelled with the radionuclide using tricine as co-ligands for HYNIC conjugates. Chromatographic studies were performed using HPLC system and radiochemical purities higher than 75% and 95% were obtained respectively. Biodistributions studies in normal Wistar rats were performed and results were correlated with chromatographic and protein binding properties. Lower lipophilicity of the labelled conjugates resulted in a higher renal excretion. HYNIC-TOC complex showed promising results when labelling with 99m Tc using tricine as co-ligand although higher stability should be found for ternary co-ligands compared to tricine. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  10. Reflective analogue optical link operating issues

    CERN Document Server

    Batten, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    The proposed readout of analogue data from CMS tracker will use an optical fibre link. The choice of transmitter/receiver technology, however, has been the subject of intense research and development by the RD23 collaboration. One solution uses passive devices, multi-quantum well modulators, at the detector front end, and continuous wave driving lasers at the readout back end. This system has been tested at Imperial College. We report on the following: problems of noise associated with multimoded behaviour of a degraded laser; measurements of laser wavelength dependence on both drive current and temperature; and modulator reflectance dependence on laser wavelength. We extrapolate the findings to system issues, highlighting the degree of temperature control required of the driving laser.

  11. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1984-06-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  13. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues.

  15. Experience of Dementia-related Anxiety in Middle-aged Female Caregivers for Family Members with Dementia: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The study provides the essential structure of the experience on dementia-related anxiety that caregivers of a family member with dementia have. The findings could help healthcare providers and researchers have better understanding of dementia-related anxiety and give more attention to the caregivers to relieve their anxiety.

  16. Dementia care mapping to support staff in the care of people with intellectual disability and dementia: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Feija; Dijkstra, Geke; Fokkens, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen; Finnema, Evelyn

    2018-01-01

    Background: The number of people with intellectual disability and dementia in-creases; this combination causes behavioural changes. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) supports staff in dementia care in nursing homes and may be useful in intel-lectual disability-care. This qualitative study examines the

  17. Dementia quality of life instrument--construct and concurrent validity in patients with mild to moderate dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt-Radloff, S.; Leonhart, R.; Schutzwohl, M.; Jurjanz, L.; Reuster, T.; Gerner, A.; Marschner, K.; Nes, F. van; Graff, M.J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Holthoff, V.; Hull, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. METHODS: Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed

  18. Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...

  19. Uncertainties and credibility building of safety analyses. Natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laciok, A.

    2001-07-01

    The substance of natural analogues and their studies is defined as a complementary method to laboratory and in-situ experiments and modelling. The role of natural analogues in the processes of development of repositories is defined, mainly in performance assessment of repository system and communication with public. The criteria for identification of natural analogues which should be evaluated in the phase of initiation of new studies are specified. Review part of this report is divided to study of natural analogues and study of anthropogenic and industrial analogues. The main natural analogue studies performed in various countries, in different geological setting, with various aims are characterized. New results acquired in recently finished studies are included: Palmottu (2nd phase of project financed by European Commission), Oklo (results of research financed also by European Commission), Maqarin (3rd phase) and other information obtained from last meetings and workshops of NAWG. In view of the fact that programmes of development of deep repositories in Czech and Slovak Republics are interconnected, the natural analogues studies carried out in the Czech republic are incorporated in separate chapter - study of uranium accumulation in Tertiary clays at Ruprechtov site and study of degradation of natural glasses. In final part the areas of natural analogue studies as an integral part of development of deep geological repository are proposed along with characterization of broader context and aspects of realization of these studies (international cooperation, preparation and evaluation of procedures, communication with public). (author)

  20. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  1. Magnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Bustamante, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of a planet around the closest star to our Sun, Proxima Centauri, represents a quantum leap in the testability of exoplanetary models. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we aim at predicting the planetary radius and the magnetic properties (dynamo lifetime and magnetic dipole moment) of Proxima b analogues (solid planets with masses of ∼ 1 - 3M⊕ , rotation periods of several days and habitable conditions). For this purpose we build a grid of planetary models with a wide range of compositions and masses. For each point in the grid we run the planetary evolution model developed in Zuluaga et al. (2013). Our model assumes small orbital eccentricity, negligible tidal heating and earth-like radiogenic mantle elements abundances. We devise a statistical methodology to estimate the posterior distribution of the desired planetary properties assuming simple lprior distributions for the orbital inclination and bulk composition. Our model predicts that Proxima b would have a mass 1.3 ≤Mp ≤ 2.3M⊕ and a radius Rp =1.4-0.2+0.3R⊕ . In our simulations, most Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last for ≥4 Gyr (the estimated age of the host star). If alive, the dynamo of Proxima b have a dipole moment ℳdip >0.32÷2.9×2.3ℳdip , ⊕ . These results are not restricted to Proxima b but they also apply to earth-like planets having similar observed properties.

  2. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity.

  3. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses

  4. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  5. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  6. Natural analogues in Posiva's Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Seppaelae, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety Case is a broader concept than Performance Assessment that allows better the use of natural analogues and observations from nature to understand the behaviour of the system and the processes at the site. Natural analogues are mostly use to add confidence to the safety of geological disposal with respect to: Design (depth and multi-barrier system), Materials (long-term durability), and Processes (understanding the long-term behaviour/evolution of the system). Ice ages and erosion: largest boulders released and transported by ice during the most recent ice age are well below 20 m. 25 glacial cycles would be necessary to erode in this fashion 500 m of bedrock. During the last million years only about 8-9 glacial cycles are known to have occurred. Geosphere stability: Minor possibility of damaging earthquakes due to the geological position of the Olkiluoto site in the Fennoscandian Shield. Magnitudes of earthquakes historically and over the last 40 years have been less than 3 in the area next to Olkiluoto. Stability, U, and flow rates at Olkiluoto: Shallow ground-waters: Assuming a discharge flow rate (DFR) of about 200000 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 3.7 μg/L. At depth 375 m: Assuming a discharge flow rate of about 1680 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 0.21 μg/L. At depth 475 m: Discharge flow rate of about 730 m"3/km"2/year, the average concentration of U in gw was 0.04 μg/L

  7. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  8. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  9. Pain management in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Wilco P; Pieper, Marjoleine J C; van Dalen-Kok, Annelore H; de Waal, Margot W M; Husebo, Bettina S; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Kunz, Miriam; Scherder, Erik J A; Corbett, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 35 million people with dementia across the world, of whom 50% experience regular pain. Despite this, current assessment and treatment of pain in this patient group are inadequate. In addition to the discomfort and distress caused by pain, it is frequently the underlying cause of behavioral symptoms, which can lead to inappropriate treatment with antipsychotic medications. Pain also contributes to further complications in treatment and care. This review explores four key perspectives of pain management in dementia and makes recommendations for practice and research. The first perspective discussed is the considerable uncertainty within the literature on the impact of dementia neuropathology on pain perception and processing in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, where white matter lesions and brain atrophy appear to influence the neurobiology of pain. The second perspective considers the assessment of pain in dementia. This is challenging, particularly because of the limited capacity of self-report by these individuals, which means that assessment relies in large part on observational methods. A number of tools are available but the psychometric quality and clinical utility of these are uncertain. The evidence for efficient treatment (the third perspective) with analgesics is also limited, with few statistically well-powered trials. The most promising evidence supports the use of stepped treatment approaches, and indicates the benefit of pain and behavioral interventions on both these important symptoms. The fourth perspective debates further difficulties in pain management due to the lack of sufficient training and education for health care professionals at all levels, where evidence-based guidance is urgently needed. To address the current inadequate management of pain in dementia, a comprehensive approach is needed. This would include an accurate, validated assessment tool that is sensitive to different types of pain and therapeutic

  10. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [ 11 C]MP4A and [ 11 C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [ 123 I]5IA SPECT for the α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [ 123 I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  11. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  12. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K

    2004-01-01

    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  13. Phonological learning in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Bott, Samantha; Ehsan, Sheeba; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2011-04-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) have anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy that gives rise to a highly selective deterioration of semantic knowledge. Despite pronounced anomia and poor comprehension of words and pictures, SD patients have well-formed, fluent speech and normal digit span. Given the intimate connection between phonological STM and word learning revealed by both neuropsychological and developmental studies, SD patients might be expected to show good acquisition of new phonological forms, even though their ability to map these onto meanings is impaired. In contradiction of these predictions, a limited amount of previous research has found poor learning of new phonological forms in SD. In a series of experiments, we examined whether SD patient, GE, could learn novel phonological sequences and, if so, under which circumstances. GE showed normal benefits of phonological knowledge in STM (i.e., normal phonotactic frequency and phonological similarity effects) but reduced support from semantic memory (i.e., poor immediate serial recall for semantically degraded words, characterised by frequent item errors). Next, we demonstrated normal learning of serial order information for repeated lists of single-digit number words using the Hebb paradigm: these items were well-understood allowing them to be repeated without frequent item errors. In contrast, patient GE showed little learning of nonsense syllable sequences using the same Hebb paradigm. Detailed analysis revealed that both GE and the controls showed a tendency to learn their own errors as opposed to the target items. Finally, we showed normal learning of phonological sequences for GE when he was prevented from repeating his errors. These findings confirm that the ATL atrophy in SD disrupts phonological processing for semantically degraded words but leaves the phonological architecture intact. Consequently, when item errors are minimised, phonological STM can support the acquisition of new phoneme

  14. Molecular neuroimaging in degenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Bonilla, J F; Carril Carril, J M

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the limitations of structural imaging, brain perfusion and metabolism using SPECT and PET have provided relevant information for the study of cognitive decline. The introduction of the radiotracers for cerebral amyloid imaging has changed the diagnostic strategy regarding Alzheimer's disease, which is currently considered to be a "continuum." According to this new paradigm, the increasing amyloid load would be associated to the preclinical phase and mild cognitive impairment. It has been possible to observe "in vivo" images using 11C-PIB and PET scans. The characteristics of the 11C-PIB image include specific high brain cortical area retention in the positive cases with typical distribution pattern and no retention in the negative cases. This, in combination with 18F-FDG PET, is the basis of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. At present, its prognostic value is being evaluated in longitudinal studies. 11C-PIB-PET has become the reference radiotracer to evaluate the presence of cerebral amyloid. However, its availability is limited due to the need for a nearby cyclotron. Therefore, 18F labeled radiotracers are being introduced. Our experience in the last two years with 11C-PIB, first in the research phase and then as being clinically applied, has shown the utility of the technique in the clinical field, either alone or in combination with FDG. Thus, amyloid image is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of dementia and it is a potentially useful method for early diagnosis and evaluation of future treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Mentalising music in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura E; Blezat, Alice; Nicholas, Jennifer; Omar, Rohani; Golden, Hannah L; Mahoney, Colin J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable recent interest, the biological basis and clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) pose unresolved problems. Mentalising (the cognitive capacity to interpret the behaviour of oneself and others in terms of mental states) is impaired as a prominent feature of bvFTD, consistent with involvement of brain regions including ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobes. Here, we investigated mentalising ability in a cohort of patients with bvFTD using a novel modality: music. We constructed a novel neuropsychological battery requiring attribution of affective mental or non-mental associations to musical stimuli. Mentalising performance of patients with bvFTD (n = 20) was assessed in relation to matched healthy control subjects (n = 20); patients also had a comprehensive assessment of behaviour and general neuropsychological functions. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance on the experimental tasks were investigated using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients showed impaired ability to attribute mental states but not non-mental characteristics to music, and this deficit correlated with performance on a standard test of social inference and with carer ratings of patients' empathic capacity, but not with other potentially relevant measures of general neuropsychological function. Mentalising performance in the bvFTD group was associated with grey matter changes in anterior temporal lobe and ventro-medial PFC. These findings suggest that music can represent surrogate mental states and the ability to construct such mental representations is impaired in bvFTD, with potential implications for our understanding of the biology of bvFTD and human social cognition more broadly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Research progress of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua GU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006

  17. Depression and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanović, Osman; Hudić, Josip; Zukić, Sanela; Kapidžić, Almasa; Zonić, Lejla; Vidović, Mirjana

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing not only motor dysfunction but also cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic and sensory disturbances. Depression is the most common psychiatric disturbance identified in patients with PD and has been shown to be more common in PD than in other chronic and disabling disorders, occurring in approximately 40% of PD patients. However, the prevalence and clinical features associated with depression in PD remain controversial. Dementia is increasingly recognized as a symptom associated with idiopathic PD, and is found in up to 40% of all patients suffering from that condition. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive and dementia symptoms in PD patients. The study included 35 consecutive patients with PD, 13 (37.4%) male and 22 (62.6%) female (mean age 62.9 ± 11.0, range 36-85 years), mean duration of disease 4.7 ± 2.9 (range 1-10) years, hospitalized during one year at Clinical Department of Neurology, Tuzla University Clinical Center, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for assessment of cognitive deterioration and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression. Computerized tomography was performed in all patients. According to BDI scale, depressive symptoms were present in all 35 PD patients: minimal in 4 (11.4%), low in 7 (20%), moderate in 8 (22.8%), severe in 9 (25.4%) and extreme in 7 (20%) patients. On MMSE scale, 9 (25.4%) patients were free from cognitive deterioration and 26 (74.6%) patients had moderate to severe deterioration, but 21 (60%) patients (7 (33.33%) male and 14 (66.66%) female) had symptoms of dementia (MMSE score ≤ 23). Using MMSE scale, 8 (22.8%) patients were free from dementia and 27 (77.2%) patients had some cognitive deterioration. Very mild symptoms of dementia were found in 6 (25.9%) and overt features of dementia in 21 (74.1%) PD patients. So, out of 35 PD study patients, 21 (60%) (7 (33.3%) male and 14

  18. Preserved musical semantic memory in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2011-02-01

    To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Case study. Academic medical center. A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music.

  19. Affective and Engagement Issues in the Conception and Assessment of a Robot-Assisted Psychomotor Therapy for Persons with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Rouaix

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in robot-assisted therapies (RAT for dementia care has grown steadily in recent years. However, RAT using humanoid robots is still a novel practice for which the adhesion mechanisms, indications and benefits remain unclear. Also, little is known about how the robot's behavioral and affective style might promote engagement of persons with dementia (PwD in RAT. The present study sought to investigate the use of a humanoid robot in a psychomotor therapy for PwD. We examined the robot's potential to engage participants in the intervention and its effect on their emotional state. A brief psychomotor therapy program involving the robot as the therapist's assistant was created. For this purpose, a corpus of social and physical behaviors for the robot and a “control software” for customizing the program and operating the robot were also designed. Particular attention was given to components of the RAT that could promote participant's engagement (robot's interaction style, personalization of contents. In the pilot assessment of the intervention nine PwD (7 women and 2 men, M age = 86 y/o hospitalized in a geriatrics unit participated in four individual therapy sessions: one classic therapy (CT session (patient- therapist and three RAT sessions (patient-therapist-robot. Outcome criteria for the evaluation of the intervention included: participant's engagement, emotional state and well-being; satisfaction of the intervention, appreciation of the robot, and empathy-related behaviors in human-robot interaction (HRI. Results showed a high constructive engagement in both CT and RAT sessions. More positive emotional responses in participants were observed in RAT compared to CT. RAT sessions were better appreciated than CT sessions. The use of a social robot as a mediating tool appeared to promote the involvement of PwD in the therapeutic intervention increasing their immediate wellbeing and satisfaction.

  20. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c its relation with human ageing; and d the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  1. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  2. The importance of music for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    with dementia and explore the meaning of music in their lives.Method: Separate focus groups and interviews with (1) care home residents with dementia and their families, (2) day hospital clients with dementia, (3) care home staff, and (4) music therapists, were conducted. The findings of the thematic analysis......, the importance of relationship-building through music making were particularly highlighted as valuable. The psychosocial model of music in dementia was developed. The model revealed the importance of music to support the personal psychology of people with dementia and the social psychology of the care home...

  3. Rethinking Psychosis in Dementia: An Analysis of Antecedents and Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Cohen, Rinat

    2017-08-01

    An in-depth analysis of qualitative data regarding antecedents, consequences, and descriptions of delusions of persons with dementia (PwD) provided by family caregivers is presented. Three broad classifications of reasons given behind types of delusions are included, namely environmental factors, personal factors, and dementia, with dementia being the most prominent factor. We observed an overlap between known cognitive symptoms of dementia and the characteristics of the reported "delusions" in dementia. It therefore appears that what is often classified as a delusion of a seemingly psychotic nature is in fact the PwD's disorientation combined with an attempt to fill in gaps caused by cognitive deficiencies.

  4. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  5. Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) Conversion Techniques: An Overview

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The basic ideas behind modern Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) conversion methods will be introduced: a general view of the importance of these devices will be given, along with the digital representation of time-varying, real-world analogue signals. Some CERN applications will be outlined. The variety of conversion methods, their limitations, error sources and measurement methods will form the major part of this presentation. A review of the technological progress in this field over the last 30 years will be presented, concluding with the present 'state of the art' and a quick look at what is just around the corner. This Technical Training Seminar is in the framework of the FEED-2002 Lecture Series, and it is a prerequisite to attending to any of the FEED-2002 Terms. FEED-2002 is a two-term course that will review the techniques dealing with closed loop systems, focussing on time-invariant linear systems. (free attendance, no registration required) More information on the FEED-2002 ...

  6. Moringa oleifera Mitigates Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Age-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchada Sutalangka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s are still required.

  7. Awareness of dementia by family carers of nursing home residents dying with dementia: a post-death study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Yolanda W H; Albers, Gwenda; Deliens, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van den Block, Lieve

    2015-01-01

    High-quality palliative care for people with dementia should be patient-centered, family-focused, and include well-informed and shared decision-making, as affirmed in a recent white paper on dementia from the European Association for Palliative Care. To describe how often family carers of nursing home residents who died with dementia are aware that their relative has dementia, and study resident, family carer, and care characteristics associated with awareness. Post-death study using random cluster sampling. Structured questionnaires were completed by family carers, nursing staff, and general practitioners of deceased nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium (2010). Of 190 residents who died with dementia, 53.2% of family carers responded. In 28% of cases, family carers indicated they were unaware their relative had dementia. Awareness by family carers was related to more advanced stages of dementia 1 month before death (odds ratio = 5.4), with 48% of family carers being unaware when dementia was mild and 20% unaware when dementia was advanced. The longer the onset of dementia after admission to a nursing home, the less likely family carers were aware (odds ratio = 0.94). Family carers are often unaware that their relative has dementia, that is, in one-fourth of cases of dementia and one-fifth of advanced dementia, posing considerable challenges for optimal care provision and end-of-life decision-making. Considering that family carers of residents who develop dementia later after admission to a nursing home are less likely to be aware, there is room for improving communication strategies toward family carers of nursing home residents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The neurologist facing pain in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro González, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Ageing, a common background in dementia, is usually associated with painful disorders. Nevertheless, the use of analgesics is limited due to poor communication. On the other hand, dementia lesions are placed in the nociceptive pathways. For this reason, the painful experience becomes different and distinctive for every lesional type. The lateral nociceptive pathway (lateral thalamic nuclei and primary parietal cortex), which is in charge of the primary pain perception, is preserved in dementia. Thereafter, the shear painful perception, including pain intensity and threshold, remains unmodified. Distinctly, the medial pain pathways are affected by dementia lesions. In this pathway are included: the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the pons (locus ceruleus:LC), the mesencephalon (periaacueductal grey substance: PGS), the hypothalamus (paraventricular nuclei, mamilary tuberculum) and different areas of the parietal (primary, secondary, operculum), temporal (amigdala, hypoccampus) and frontal (anterior cingular: ACC). As a consequence, the features of pain executed by these areas will be compromised: the cognitive assessment, the mood and emotion inherent to pain, the pain memory or the autonomic responses are modified in dementia. Specifically, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) there is a reduction in the anticipatory and avoidance responses and also a flattening of the autonomic responses. These are essentially secondary to the degenerative changes in the medial temporal (pain memory) and ACC (cognitive and mood aspects) areas. In vascular dementias, there is a cortico-subcortical deafferentation secondary to the white matter lesions. The consequence is the presence of hyperpathy and hyperalgesia. In the frontotemporal dementias, there is a reduction in pain expressivity. It is linked to the lesions in the orbitofrontal and anterior temporal areas, which are responsible of the emotional aspects of pain. In Parkinson's disease, painful conditions are a common characteristic

  9. A Diagnostic Model for Dementia in Clinical Practice-Case Methodology Assisting Dementia Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet

    2015-04-02

    Dementia diagnosis is important for many different reasons. Firstly, to separate dementia, or major neurocognitive disorder, from MCI (mild cognitive impairment), mild neurocognitive disorder. Secondly, to define the specific underlying brain disorder to aid treatment, prognosis and decisions regarding care needs and assistance. The diagnostic method of dementias is a puzzle of different data pieces to be fitted together in the best possible way to reach a clinical diagnosis. Using a modified case methodology concept, risk factors affecting cognitive reserve and symptoms constituting the basis of the brain damage hypothesis, can be visualized, balanced and reflected against test results as well as structural and biochemical markers. The model's origin is the case method initially described in Harvard business school, here modified to serve dementia diagnostics.

  10. Living better with dementia: strengths-based social work practice and dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Justine

    2015-01-01

    This article first argues that quality of life is possible despite the onset of dementia in late life. It also demonstrates how core concepts of social work practice, such as family systems theory, the strengths perspective, and use of self, can be applied to practice with dementia-affected persons. In addition, it provides practical suggestions for supporting care partners in nurturing "we-ness", focusing on what remains rather than was is lost, and remaining authentic. When strengths-based social work practice is integrated into dementia care protocols, wellbeing can increase. As a result, the more than 40 million persons worldwide who are affected by dementia do not have to resign themselves to the despair, devastation and inevitable demise of quality of life that dominate perception of the illness.

  11. Methodological challenges in designing dementia prevention trials - The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A.; Kivipelto, Miia

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing

  12. New antagonists of LHRH. II. Inhibition and potentiation of LHRH by closely related analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Schally, A V

    1988-12-01

    Modifications of the previously described LHRH antagonists, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and the corresponding D-Hci6 analogue, have been made to alter the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal acetyl-tripeptide portion. Substitution of D-Trp3 with the less hydrophobic D-Pal(3) had only marginal effects on the antagonistic activities and receptor binding potencies of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogues, but it appeared to further improve the toxicity lowering effect of D-Cit/D-Hci6 substitution. Antagonists containing D-Pal(3)3 and D-Cit/D-Hci6 residues, i.e. [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-75) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Hci6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-88), were completely free of the toxic effects, such as cyanosis and respiratory depression leading to death, which have been observed in rats with the D-Trp3, D-Arg6 antagonist and related antagonists. Replacement of the N-acetyl group with the hydrophilic carbamoyl group caused a slight decrease in antagonistic activities, particularly in vitro. Introduction of urethane type acyl group such as methoxycarbonyl (Moc) or t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) led to analogues that showed LHRH-potentiating effect. The increase in potency induced by these analogues, e.g. [Moc-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and [Boc-D-Phe1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH, was 170-260% and persisted for more than 2 h when studied in a superfused rat pituitary system.

  13. Dementia and the Deaf community: knowledge and service access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John; Young, Alys

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns culturally Deaf people in the United Kingdom who use British Sign Language (BSL). Its objective was to explore how Deaf people's knowledge about dementia and access to services is mediated by their minoritised cultural-linguistic status. Twenty-six members of the Deaf community participated in one of three Deaf-led focus groups in BSL corresponding with the sample of: Deaf people over the age of 60 without dementia; Deaf people aged 18-60 working professional roles unconnected with dementia services; ordinary members of the Deaf community aged 18-60. Data were subjected to a thematic content analysis. Participants' concerns about their poor levels of knowledge and understanding of dementia were augmented by their awareness that without sustained social contact in BSL opportunities for earlier recognition of dementia would be lost. Although primary care services were identified as the first port of call for dementia-related concerns, there was widespread mistrust of their effectiveness because of failures in communication and cultural competence. Confirmed diagnosis of dementia was not viewed as a gateway to services and support because Deaf organisations, dementia-related organisations and mainstream adult services were perceived to be ill-equipped to respond to the needs of Deaf people with dementia. Locating problems of late diagnosis within the Deaf community's poor awareness and knowledge of dementia fails to recognise the structural barriers Deaf people face in timely access to services and accurate recognition of dementia-related changes.

  14. Online Education Improves Dementia Knowledge: Evidence From an International Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Dementia education disseminated through massive open online courses (MOOCs) has the potential to improve knowledge and care provision among health professionals and lay people. The potential learning effects of a dementia MOOC were assessed using a reliable and valid measure with international volunteers ( N = 3,649) who completed the measure before and after online education. Evaluation of learning effects suggests that the MOOC significantly increased dementia knowledge by at least 17% across six cohorts. Knowledge was improved by the MOOC in three ways: it significantly improved overall understanding of dementia for diverse cohorts; it reduced knowledge disparity within occupational and lay cohorts; and it reduced knowledge disparity across occupational and lay cohorts. The capacity of a dementia MOOC to significantly improve knowledge and reach a wide audience may lead to population-level improvements in understanding about dementia. This may foster improvements in treatment and quality of care for people with dementia.

  15. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...

  16. Validity of dementia diagnoses in the danish hospital registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, T.K.T.; Andersen, B.B.; Phung, T.K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Background:The validity of dementia diagnoses in the Danish nationwide hospital registers was evaluated to determine the value of these registers in epidemiological research about dementia. Methods: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from 4,682 patients registered for the first time...... with a dementia diagnosis in the last 6 months of 2003. The patients' medical journals were reviewed to evaluate if they fulfilled ICD-10 and/or DSM-IV criteria for dementia and specific dementia subtypes. The patients who were still alive in 2006 were invited to an interview. Results: One hundred and ninety......-seven journals were available for review and 51 patients were interviewed. A registered diagnosis of dementia was found to be correct in 169 (85.8%) cases. Regarding dementia subtypes, the degree of agreement between the registers and the results of the validating process was low with a kappa of 0.36 (95% CI 0...

  17. Dementia and Hospital Readmission Rates: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pickens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although community-dwelling persons with dementia have an increased risk of hospital readmission, no systematic review has examined the contribution of dementia to readmissions. Summary: We examined articles in English, with no restrictions on publication dates, from Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Keywords used were dementia, Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, elderly, frontotemporal dementia, executive function, brain atrophy, frontal lobe atrophy, cognitive impairment, readmission, readmit, rehospitalization, patient discharge, and return visit. Of 404 abstracts identified, 77 articles were retrieved; 12 were included. Four of 5 cohort studies showed significantly increased readmission rates in patients with dementia. On average the absolute increase above the comparison groups was from 3 to 13%. Dementia was not associated with readmission in 7 included case-control studies. Key Message: Findings suggest a small increased risk of hospital readmission in individuals with dementia. More study is needed.

  18. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the develo...

  19. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; McCurley, Jessica; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Fick, Donna M.; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Lee, Patricia; Jackson, James C.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Trabucchi, Marco; Schnelle, John; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wesley E.; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium commonly occurs in patients with dementia. Though several tools for detecting delirium exist, it is unclear which are valid in patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Objectives Identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia Design We performed a systematic review of studies of delirium tools, which explicitly included patients with dementia. Setting In-hospital patients Participants Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. Measurements PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in English published between January 1960 and January 2012. Results Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of the total of 1569 patients, 401 had dementia, and 50 had delirium superimposed on dementia. Six delirium tools were evaluated. One studyusing the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 85% patients with dementia showed a high specificity (96–100%) and moderate sensitivity (77%).Two intensive care unit studies that used the CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) ICU reported 100% sensitivity and specificity for delirium among 23 dementia patients. One study using electroencephalography reported a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 91% among a population with 100% prevalence of dementia. No studies examined potential effects of dementia severity or subtype upon diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions The evidence base on tools for detection of delirium superimposed on dementia is limited, although some existing tools show promise. Further studies of existing or refined tools with larger samples and more detailed characterization of dementia are now required to address the identification of delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:23039270

  20. Senile dementia of the Binswanger type: a vascular form of dementia in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly have demonstrated the common occurrence of deep white-matter lesions in the aging brain. These radiologic lesions (leukoaraiosis) may represent an early marker of dementia. At autopsy, an ischemic periventricular leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) has been found in most cases. The clinical spectrum of Binswanger's disease appears to range from asymptomatic radiologic lesions to dementia with focal deficits, frontal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait difficulties, and urinary incontinence. The name senile dementia of the Binswanger type (SDBT) is proposed for this poorly recognized, vascular form of subcortical dementia. The SDBT probably results from cortical disconnections most likely caused by hypoperfusion. In contrast, multi-infarct dementia is correlated with multiple large and small strokes that cause a loss of over 50 to 100 mL of brain volume. The periventricular white matter is a watershed area irrigated by long, penetrating medullary arteries. Risk factors for SDBT are small-artery diseases, such as hypertension and amyloid angiopathy, impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the elderly, and periventricular hypoperfusion due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and hypotension. The SDBT may be a potentially preventable and treatable form of dementia

  1. Predictors of dementia caregiver depressive symptoms in a population: the Cache County dementia progression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Kathleen W; Fauth, Elizabeth B; Norton, Maria C; Pfister, Roxane; Corcoran, Chris D; Rabins, Peter V; Lyketsos, Constantine; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256). Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287-P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia. These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing.

  2. Occult CSF flow disturbance of patients with Alzheimer type dementia and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Yasuko; Funaki, Chiaki

    1994-01-01

    We report results of Iotrolan CT-cisternography on 41 demented patients (13 males and 28 females) to find 'occult normal pressure hydrocephalus'. These patients were suspected to have CSF flow disturbance from clinical symptoms and simple brain CT scan findings. Their average age, duration of dementia, and score of Hasegawa's dementia scale (HDS) were 76.2 years, 5.9 years, 9.5/32.5,respectively. Before performing CT-cisternography, clinical diagnosis for their dementia were vascular dementia in 18 patients. Alzheimer type dementia in 12, suspect of NPH in 5, and other diagnoses in 6. From the results of cisternography, we found 13 patients with CSF flow disturbance (contrast material remained in the ventricle more than 48 hours after injection), and 17 patients with normal CSF flow. The former showed lower scores of HDS, higher urinary incontinence scores and smaller areas of the interhemispheric fissure on CT scan than the latter. But the former showed no significant difference from the latter in the average age, duration of dementia and width of the ventricles. (author)

  3. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  4. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  5. Forget Me Not: Dementia in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Kwak, Jung; Ko, Eunjeong; Morrissey, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    The number of older adults with dementia in U.S. prisons is rapidly rising. Yet, the vast majority of this marginalized subgroup of the aging population is left neglected behind bars without access to adequate medical and mental health care services. We assert that proactive, interdisciplinary collaborative efforts to improve practice, policy, and…

  6. Dementia and assisted suicide and euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beaufort, Inez D.; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The number of dementia patients requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands has increased over the past five years. The issue is highly controversial. In this contribution we discuss some of the main arguments: the nature of suffering, the voluntariness of the request and the role of the physician. We

  7. Genetics Home Reference: dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including playing complex roles in thought (cognition), motivation, behavior, and control of movement. Over time, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons increasingly impairs intellectual and motor function and the regulation of emotions, resulting in the signs and symptoms of dementia ...

  8. A comprehensive approach to reablement in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulos, Christopher J; Bayer, Antony; Beaupre, Lauren; Clare, Linda; Poulos, Roslyn G; Wang, Rosalie H; Zuidema, Sytse; McGilton, Katherine S

    As society grapples with an aging population and increasing prevalence of disability, "reablement" as a means of maximizing functional ability in older people is emerging as a potential strategy to help promote independence. Reablement offers an approach to mitigate the impact of dementia on

  9. Computed tomography in presenile, senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, N [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1981-05-01

    The author investigated the relations of brain atrophy demonstrated by computerized tomography, dementia and electroencephalogram (EEG) in presenile and senile diseases. The result revealed that the correlation of brain atrophy, when demonstrated on the basis of ventricular ratio, is more definite and higher with dementia than that when demonstrated on the ventricular width. It was also revealed that in the control group, the ventricle gets enlarged due to aging, but no such tendency was observed in the patient group. In the case of septugenarians, no significant difference was observed between the two, and the ventricular-brain ratio or the criteria of brain atrophy is 8 -- 9% in patients in their forties to fifties; 12% for those in their sixties, and more than 15% among those in their seventies. In the relation of the brain atrophy to EEG, it was revealed that EEG is closely related to dementia than is the ventricular ratio. Upon following the progress of patients with Alzheimer, it was found that dementia and brain atrophy do not progress parallel to each other, but in stages.

  10. Promote the health of dementia caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) will become increasingly important as governments across the world cut health care funding. The vast majority of the care for people with AD is and will be carried out by informal caregivers, in other words, their spouses, children, and friends,

  11. Computed tomography in presenile, senile dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Norimitsu

    1981-01-01

    The author investigated the relations of brain atrophy demonstrated by computerized tomography, dementia and electroencephalogram (EEG) in presenile and senile diseases. The result revealed that the correlation of brain atrophy, when demonstrated on the basis of ventricular ratio, is more definite and higher with dementia than that when demonstrated on the ventricular width. It was also revealed that in the control group, the ventricle gets enlarged due to aging, but no such tendency was observed in the patient group. In the case of septugenarians, no significant difference was observed between the two, and the ventricular-brain ratio or the criteria of brain atrophy is 8 -- 9% in patients in their forties to fifties; 12% for those in their sixties, and more than 15% among those in their seventies. In the relation of the brain atrophy to EEG, it was revealed that EEG is closely related to dementia than is the ventricular ratio. Upon following the progress of patients with Alzheimer, it was found that dementia and brain atrophy do not progress parallel to each other, but in stages. (author)

  12. Pain management in patients with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Pieper, M.J.C.; van Dalen-Kok, A.H.; de Waal, M.W.M.; Husebo, B.S.; Lautenbacher, S.; Kunz, M.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Corbett, A.

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 35 million people with dementia across the world, of whom 50% experience regular pain. Despite this, current assessment and treatment of pain in this patient group are inadequate. In addition to the discomfort and distress caused by pain, it is frequently the underlying cause

  13. Old and dangerous: Prison and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Di Fiorino, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in many countries. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of detention of persons suffering from dementia. Medline searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters and books published until August 2016. Search terms included dementia, elderly, prison and criminal. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. As results, there is a lack of data about elderly with dementia in prisons. Given the rise in the average age, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the number of older prisoners is growing. Moreover, some elderly are imprisoned with a concomitant cognitive impairment or psychiatric disorder while others will develop such diseases once incarcerated. At the present time, legal and social systems seem unprepared to handle the phenomenon of dementia in prison. As proposal, health assessments for older first time offenders should become a practice inside the correctional facilities and include an evaluation for specific health issues, such as psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Rate of Forgetting in Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined patients (N=14) with mild Alzheimer's dementia (DAT), patients with major depression (N=10), and normal control subjects (N=14), for rate of forgetting. Suggests that some form of deficient consolidation contributes to memory loss in DAT but not in depression. Implicates the disruption of different psychobiological mechanisms in these…

  15. Auditory conflict and congruence in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hardy, Christopher J D; Russell, Lucy L; Brotherhood, Emilie V; Dick, Katrina M; Marshall, Charles R; Mummery, Catherine J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 19) and semantic dementia (SD; n = 10) relative to healthy older individuals (n = 20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory congruity processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy controls, both the bvFTD and SD groups had impaired semantic and emotional congruity processing (after taking auditory control task performance into account) and reduced affective integration of sounds into scenes. Grey matter correlates of auditory semantic congruity processing were identified in distributed regions encompassing prefrontal, parieto-temporal and insular areas and correlates of auditory emotional congruity in partly overlapping temporal, insular and striatal regions. Our findings suggest that decoding of auditory signal relatedness may probe a generic cognitive mechanism and neural architecture underpinning frontotemporal dementia syndromes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, famili...

  17. Anesthesia for the patient with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    With a growing aging population, more patients suffering from dementia are expected to undergo surgery, thus being exposed to either general or regional anesthesia. This calls for specific attention ranging from the legal aspects of obtaining informed consent in demented patients to deciding...

  18. Nonliteral language in Alzheimer dementia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Wild, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The use of nonliteral language in clinical assessment, especially testing the patients' ability to interpret proverbs, has a long tradition in psychiatry. However, its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in dementias is not yet clear. The aim of this review article is to examine the current evidence on nonliteral/figurative language (proverb, metaphor, metonymy, idiom, irony, sarcasm) comprehension in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. A comprehensive literature search identified 25 studies (16 proverb, 3 metaphor, 0 metonymy, 5 idiom, 3 sarcasm) on nonliteral language comprehension in dementia. Studies predominantly indicate a deficit. Most studies investigated Alzheimer's dementia. Applied correctly, nonliteral language is a worthwhile diagnostic tool to evaluate language and abstract thinking in dementias. During assessment, familiarity testing (e.g., by asking "are you familiar with the proverb XY") is obligatory. Still, future research is needed in several areas: evidence on decline of nonliteral language over the course of the illness is limited. So far, almost no studies delineated proverb comprehension in high risk populations such as patients with mild cognitive impairment. Currently, there is a lack of studies addressing performance in direct comparison to relevant differential diagnosis like older-age depression, delirium, brain lesion, or other psychiatric conditions.

  19. Use of analogues to build technologists' confidence: NAnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of analogues to radioactive waste management stems from the long timescales that have to be considered. Periods up to a million or more years into the future need to be considered and these are beyond experimental investigation and human experience. Within the last years the term 'Natural Analogue' has got a much wider meaning and includes man-made analogues as well. The role of natural analogues in the safety case depends amongst others on the time scale to be covered. Therefore, it is useful to classify them by the time period addressed in the study. Here it is referred to: industrial analogues which started earliest 150 years ago, archaeological analogues, which cover time frames between the past 10 000 and 150 years, and geological analogues, which usually cover time frames of more than 10 000 years and in most cases more than million years. The current interest in analogues in different countries is reflected by several recent review projects with emphasis on the application of natural analogue study results in performance assessment. The most recent international review was performed within the 5. EURATOM Framework of the EC by the NAnet project, a network on the review of natural analogue studies with emphasis on the application of analogues in long-term safety assessment and communication. The overall aim of the NAnet project was to review the past and present use and understanding of natural analogues, and to make recommendations for their future use. The project covered 'traditional' natural analogue studies, such as large-scale investigations of radionuclide transport around uranium ore bodies, and process or mechanistic analogue studies such as those examining natural glass and bentonite clay stability. To complete the picture, a restricted range of other studies of natural systems which employ a similar philosophy to analogues was also included in the scope. These included studies which have examined radionuclide transport and retardation

  20. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese