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Sample records for analogous normal ovarian

  1. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

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    Matsuzaki, Satoshi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and σΛ, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, γ and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between fΔμs in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of

  2. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the

  3. Gonadotropins Activate Oncogenic Pathways to Enhance Proliferation in Normal Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelium

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    Joanna E. Burdette

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy affecting American women. The gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, have been implicated as growth factors in ovarian cancer. In the present study, pathways activated by FSH and LH in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE grown in their microenvironment were investigated. Gonadotropins increased proliferation in both three-dimensional (3D ovarian organ culture and in a two-dimensional (2D normal mouse cell line. A mouse cancer pathway qPCR array using mRNA collected from 3D organ cultures identified Akt as a transcriptionally upregulated target following stimulation with FSH, LH and the combination of FSH and LH. Activation of additional pathways, such as Birc5, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdkn2a identified in the 3D organ cultures, were validated by western blot using the 2D cell line. Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors blocked gonadotropin-induced cell proliferation in 3D organ and 2D cell culture. OSE isolated from 3D organ cultures stimulated with LH or hydrogen peroxide initiated growth in soft agar. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated colonies were further enhanced when supplemented with FSH. LH colony formation and FSH promotion were blocked by Akt and EGFR inhibitors. These data suggest that the gonadotropins stimulate some of the same proliferative pathways in normal OSE that are activated in ovarian cancers.

  4. Differential expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1 in normal ovary and serous ovarian tumors

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    Penumatsa Krishna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We showed there are specific ALDH1 autoantibodies in ovarian autoimmune disease and ovarian cancer, suggesting a role for ALDH1 in ovarian pathology. However, there is little information on the ovarian expression of ALDH1. Therefore, we compared ALDH1 expression in normal ovary and benign and malignant ovarian tumors to determine if ALDH1 expression is altered in ovarian cancer. Since there is also recent interest in ALDH1 as a cancer stem cell (CSC marker, we assessed co-expression of ALDH1 with CSC markers in order to determine if ALDH1 is a potential CSC marker in ovarian cancer. Methods mRNA and protein expression were compared in normal human ovary and serous ovarian tumors using quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase PCR, Western blot (WB and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC. ALDH1 enzyme activity was confirmed in primary ovarian cells by flow cytometry (FC using ALDEFLUOR assay. Results ALDH1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced (p Conclusions Total ALDH1 expression is significantly reduced in malignant ovarian tumors while it is relatively unchanged in benign tumors compared to normal ovary. Thus, ALDH1 expression in the ovary does not appear to be similar to breast, lung or colon cancer suggesting possible functional differences in these cancers. Significance These observations suggest that reduced ALDH1 expression is associated with malignant transformation in ovarian cancer and provides a basis for further study of the mechanism of ALDH1 in this process.

  5. Gene expression signature of normal cell-of-origin predicts ovarian tumor outcomes.

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    Melissa A Merritt

    Full Text Available The potential role of the cell-of-origin in determining the tumor phenotype has been raised, but not adequately examined. We hypothesized that distinct cells-of-origin may play a role in determining ovarian tumor phenotype and outcome. Here we describe a new cell culture medium for in vitro culture of paired normal human ovarian (OV and fallopian tube (FT epithelial cells from donors without cancer. While these cells have been cultured individually for short periods of time, to our knowledge this is the first long-term culture of both cell types from the same donors. Through analysis of the gene expression profiles of the cultured OV/FT cells we identified a normal cell-of-origin gene signature that classified primary ovarian cancers into OV-like and FT-like subgroups; this classification correlated with significant differences in clinical outcomes. The identification of a prognostically significant gene expression signature derived solely from normal untransformed cells is consistent with the hypothesis that the normal cell-of-origin may be a source of ovarian tumor heterogeneity and the associated differences in tumor outcome.

  6. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

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    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women. PMID:25509968

  7. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

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    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  8. Normal Ovarian Structure and Function with Normal Glucose Tolerance in Girls with Early Treatment of Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

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    Fleischman, Amy; Paltiel, Harriet; Chow, Jeanne; Ringelheim, Julie; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinism have both been suggested as etiologic factors behind functional ovarian hyperandrogenism or polycystic ovary syndrome. Females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia provide a clinical model to evaluate the contribution of pre- and post-natal hyperandrogenism on ovarian structure and function.

  9. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of ovarian normal, benign, and malignant tissues: a pilot study

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    Kamath, Sudha D.; Ray, Satadru; Mahato, Krishna K.

    2011-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectra of normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues are recorded using 325-nm pulsed laser excitation in vitro. A total of 102 (34 normal, 38 benign, and 30 malignant) spectra are obtained from 22 samples belonging to normal, benign, and malignant subjects. Applying multi-algorithm approach, comprised of methods such as, principal component analysis (PCA) based k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) analysis, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis, classification of the data has been carried out. For PCA, first the calibration set is formed by pooling 45 spectra, 15 belonging to each of pathologically certified normal, benign, and malignant samples. PCA is then performed on the data matrix, comprised of the six spectral features extracted from each of 45 calibration samples, and three principal components (PCs) containing maximum diagnostic information are selected. The scores of the selected PCs are used to train the k-NN, ANN, and SVM classifiers. The ANN used is a classical multilayer feed forward network with back propagation algorithm for its training. For k-NN, the Euclidean distance based algorithm is used and for SVM, one-versus-rest multiclass kernel-radial basis function is used. The performance evaluation of the classification results are obtained by calculating statistical parameters like specificity and sensitivity. ANN and k-NN techniques showed identical performance with specificity and sensitivity values of 100 and 86.76%, whereas SVM had these values at 100 and 80.18%, respectively. In order to determine the relative diagnostic performance of the techniques, receiver operating characteristics analysis is also performed.

  10. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of p-cresol and its deuterated analogs

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    Takeuchi, Hideo; Watanabe, Noriko; Harada, Issei

    I.r. and Raman spectra of p-cresol and its seven deuterated analogs were investigated in dilute solutions of hydrophobic solvents. Assignments of the observed i.r. and Raman bands were made on the basis of isotopic frequency shifts, Raman polarization properties, i.r. intensifies and normal coordinate calculations. The calculated normal frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental ones: the average error below 1700 cm -1 is 3.8 cm -1 for 164 in-plane vibrations and 3.3 cm -1 for 59 out-of-plane vibrations. The calculated vibrational modes may be useful in analysing the vibrational spectra of tyrosine. It is suggested that several doublets due to Fermi resonance and a trio of Raman bands in the 1260-1160 cm -1 region are potential probes for the micro-environments of tyrosine side chains in proteins.

  11. Experimental therapy of ovarian cancer with synthetic makaluvamine analog: in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of action.

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    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the biological effects of novel marine alkaloid analog 7-(4-fluorobenzylamino-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H-one (FBA-TPQ on human ovarian cancer cells for its anti-tumor potential and the underlying mechanisms as a novel chemotherapeutic agent. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3, and Immortalized non-tumorigenic human Ovarian Surface Epithelial cells (IOSE-144, were exposed to FBA-TPQ for initial cytotoxicity evaluation (via MTS assay kit, Promega. The detailed in-vitro (cell level and in-vivo (animal model studies on the antitumor effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of the compounds were then performed. FBA-TPQ exerted potent cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer A2780 and OVCAR-3 cells as an effective inhibitor of cell growth and proliferation, while exerting lesser effects on non-tumorigenic IOSE-144 cells. Further study in the more sensitive OVCAR-3 cell line showed that it could potently induce cell apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC assay, G2/M cell cycle arrest (PI staining analysis and also dose-dependently inhibit OVCAR-3 xenograft tumors' growth on female athymic nude mice (BALB/c, nu/nu. Mechanistic studies (both in vitro and in vivo revealed that FBA-TPQ might exert its activity through Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS-associated activation of the death receptor, p53-MDM2, and PI3K-Akt pathways in OVCAR-3 cells, which is in accordance with in vitro microarray (Human genome microarrays, Agilent data analysis (GEO accession number: GSE25317. In conclusion, FBA-TPQ exhibits significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells, with minimal toxicity to non-tumorigenic human IOSE-144 cells, indicating that it may be a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

  12. Ovarian dysgerminoma with normal serum tumour markers presenting in a child with precocious puberty

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    Naglaa M Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old female child was presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Her assessment revealed a firm large lower abdominal mass with evidence of precocious puberty with bilaterally symmetrically enlarged breast (Tanner stage B4-P1-A1. Abdominal imaging showed a well-defined soft midline pelvi-abdominal single mass measuring 7.0 × 12.6 × 11.7 cms with no ascites. Serum tumour markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG and luteinizing hormone/follicular stimulating hormone (LH/FSH were all normal. At operation, there was a huge abdominal tumour weighing 558 grams, localized to the right ovary sparing the left ovary, uterus, lymph nodes and other abdominal organs. Unilateral right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed ovarian dysgerminoma with intact capsule; FIGO Ia. Immunohistochemical stainings were positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP, CD 117(c-kit and calretinin focally but was negative for cancer antigen-125 (CA-125, B-hCG, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Being fitting in the low risk classification, the wait and see protocol was selected with strict follow-up with pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon. Along the duration of 2 years follow up, there was no more vaginal bleeding with dramatic reduction of the breast size and no recurrence.

  13. Ovarian antral follicle subclasses and anti-mullerian hormone during normal reproductive aging

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    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Johannsen, T H;

    2013-01-01

    included. Interventions: There were no interventions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration, antral follicle count (AFC), antral follicle size categories (small: 2-4 mm; intermediate: 5-7 mm; and large: 8-10 mm), and ovarian volume were measured. RESULTS: Serum AMH level...

  14. Changes in serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels may predict damage to residual normal ovarian tissue after laparoscopic surgery for women with ovarian endometrioma.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Michio; Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Hiraki, Koichi; Inoue, Tsuneo; Fujishita, Akira; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    We measured serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels before and after surgery in women undergoing unilateral and monolocular cystectomy for benign ovarian diseases. Comparing to control benign cysts, we found a significant decline in serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels with consequent depletion of follicles in tissue specimens after surgery for women with ovarian endometrioma.

  15. Unusual C7- versus Normal 5'-O-Dimethoxytritylation of 6-Arylpyrrolocytidine Analogs.

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    Suchý, Mojmír; Ettles, Christie; Wisner, James A; Matarazzo, Augusto; Hudson, Robert H E

    2016-09-16

    Fluorescent deoxynucleosides possessing the modified bases 6-(2-benzo[b]furyl)- and 6-(2-furyl)pyrrolocytosine (BFpC and FpC) have been synthesized along with the quencher nucleosides possessing 6-{4-[(4-dimethylamino)azo]phenyl}pyrrolocytosine (DABCYLpC) and 6-(p-nitrophenyl)pyrrolocytosine (p-NO2-PhpC) nucleobase analogs. Standard treatment of BFpC, FpC, DABCYLpC, and p-NO2-PhpC with dimethoxytrityl chloride (DMT-Cl) led to the unusual substitution on the C7 of the pyrrolocytosine skeleton. The desired 5'-O-DMT-protected nucleoside analogs were synthesized from suitably protected 5'-O-DMT cytidines. Subsequent phosphitylation smoothly afforded BFpC-, FpC-, DABCYLpC-, and p-NO2-PhpC-derived monomers suitable for standard oligonucleotide synthesis. PMID:27529362

  16. Ovarian dysgerminoma and synchronic contralateral tubal pregnancy followed by normal intra-uterine gestation: a case report

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    Montesinos Lourdes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report that the coincidence of ovarian tumor and pregnancy poses significant challenges that are more pronounced if the pregnancy is ectopic. Case presentation Here, we report a rare and interesting case of a 24-year-old nulliparous Spanish woman who experienced the coincidental occurrence of left tubal pregnancy and dysgerminoma in the right ovary. The corpus luteum settled in the right ovary. A right adnexectomy and left linear salpingostomy were performed. Remarkably, our patient became pregnant spontaneously after surgery. The pregnancy occurred prior to starting chemotherapy, and the intra-uterine pregnancy was carried to term; later, she also had another normal pregnancy. Our patient has done well without chemotherapy. Conclusions Our report on the challenges of diagnosis and treatment faced in this case can help clinicians better understand and manage these pathologies. We have not found any similar cases in the literature.

  17. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Calcium Levels between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Normal Women

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    Ashraf Moini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance syndrome as the component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the main aim of this study was to compare serum level of 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] between PCOS patients and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to compare 25(OHD level between117 normal and 125 untreated PCOS cases at our clinic in Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The obtained levels of 25(OHD were classified as follows: lower than 25 nmol/ml as severe deficiency, between 25-49.9 nmol/ml as deficiency, 50-74.9 nmol/ml as insufficiency, and above 75 nmol/ml asnormal. In addition, endocrine and metabolic variables were evaluated. Results: Among PCOS patients, our findings shows 3(2.4% normal, 7(5.6% with insufficiency, 33(26.4% with deficiency and 82(65.6% with severe deficiency, whereas in normal participants, 5(4.3% normal, 4(3.4% with insufficiency, 28(23.9% with deficiency and 80(68.4% with severe deficiency. Comparison of 25(OHD level between two main groups showed no significant differences (p= 0.65. Also, the calcium and 25(OHD levels had no significant differences in patients with overweight (p=0.22 and insulin resistance (p=0.64. But we also found a relationship between 25(OHD level and metabolic syndrome (p=0.01. Furthermore, there was a correlation between 25(OHD and body mass index (BMI in control group (p=0.01, while the C-reactive protein (CRP level was predominantly higher in PCOS group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Although the difference of 25(OHD level between PCOS and healthy women is not significant, the high prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency is a real alarm for public health care system and may influence our results.

  18. Are Lean and Normal Weight Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome at Risk of Preeclampsia?

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    Bibi Shahnaz Aali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined whether pregnant women with preeclampsia have an increased rateof pre-pregnancy polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study also evaluated whether theassociation, if any, was a result of preeclampsia and its relationship to PCOS or dependent uponconcurrent obesity.Materials and Methods: In this study, 75 preeclampsia cases and 225 normotensive pregnantcontrols, matched for age and gravidity, were enrolled. A confirmation of pre-pregnancy PCOSwas ascertained by recording medical history, along with a physical examination directed for signsand symptoms of PCOS, an ultrasound report of polycystic ovaries and laboratory tests whichconfirmed hyperandrogenism prior to pregnancy. Body mass index (BMI was calculated for eachpatient. Participants were classified into two categories: lean/normal and obese according to a BMI<25 or greater than 25.1, respectively. Chi-square, Student t test, Fisher-exact and Mann-Whitneytests were used to assess the differences between the groups in addition to the relationship betweenpreeclampsia and PCOS. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.Results: Age, gravidity and parity were not significantly different between cases and controls.However, a significant difference was found in gestational age and BMI between the groups.Additionally, preeclamptic patients more frequently suffered from pre-pregnancy PCOS thancontrols and a significant relationship was found between preeclampsia and previous PCOS, evenamongst lean/normal weight patients.Conclusion: This study provides convincing evidence that a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of PCOScould predispose the patient to preeclampsia, regardless of a concomitant obesity risk factor.

  19. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

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    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  20. Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

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    Bhavna N Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, characterized by ovulatory infertility and hyperandrogenism, is associated with metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Almost 70% PCOS women have abnormal serum lipid levels (dyslipidemia and 50% of these women are obese. Several classes of pharmacological agents have been used to manage dyslipidemia. However, studies have shown adverse effects associated with these drugs. In the light of alternate therapy, many medicinal herbs have been reported to show hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic potential. Aloe barbadensis Mill. or Aloe vera is reported as one such herb. This study was to evaluate the lipid correcting effect of Aloe vera gel (AVG in a PCOS rat model. Materials and Methods: PCOS was induced in Charles Foster female rats by oral administration of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole (0.5 mg/kg body weight, 21 days. All rats were hyperglycemic and 90% rats also showed elevated plasma triglycerides, elevated LDL cholesterol levels, and lowered plasma HDL cholesterol levels indicative of a dyslipidemic profile. PCOS positive rats with an aberrant lipid profile were selected for treatment. An AVG formulation (1 ml (10 mg/day, 30 days was administered orally. Results and Conclusion: AVG treated PCOS rats exhibited significant reduction in plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL cholesterol. The gel treatment also caused reversion of abnormal estrous cyclicity, glucose intolerance, and lipid metabolizing enzyme activities, bringing them to normal. In conclusion, AVG has phyto components with anti-hyperlipidemic effects and it has shown efficacy in management of not only PCOS but also the associated metabolic complication : dyslipidemia.

  1. MicroRNA-17 promotes normal ovarian cancer cells to cancer stem cells development via suppression of the LKB1-p53-p21/WAF1 pathway.

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    Liu, Te; Qin, Wenxing; Hou, Lengchen; Huang, Yongyi

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism underlying the development of human ovarian cancer is poorly understood. The liver kinase protein, LKB1, is hypothesized to play a pivotal role in tumor cell proliferation and invasion capacity through regulation of p53 and p21/WAF1 expression. Previous studies suggest LKB1 may, in turn, be regulated by microRNA-17. Here, we examined the role of miR-17 in the expression of LKB1 and the downstream effects on proliferation and invasion capacity of normal ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) and ovarian stem cells. In this study, both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LKB1, p53, and p21 decreased in OCCs following transfection with a miR-17 expression plasmid. MiR-17 expression affected cell cycle regulation and stimulated the proliferation and invasion capacity of OCCs in vitro. ChIP assays indicated that the binding efficiency of p53 to the p21/WAF1 gene promoter was much lower in miR-17 transfected OCCs than in OCCs transfected with a mutated miR-17. Co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting showed significantly lower levels of p53 and p53 Ser15-pho in the miR-17 transfected OCCs as compared to the mutant miR-17 transfected OCCs. Xenograft experiments confirmed that suppression of tumor growth in vivo occurred in the absence of functional miR-17. These findings suggest that mature miR-17 expression may have an important role in the pathogenesis of human ovarian tumors through its interference with the LKB1-p53-p21/WAF1 pathway expression by epigenetic modification. These findings are of potential importance in the identification of novel therapeutic targets in human ovarian cancer.

  2. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham;

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  3. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration is not a predictive factor in IVF outcomes before the first cycle of GnRH agonist administration in women with normal ovarian reserve.

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    Michał Kunicki

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentration and the models incorporating it could help clinicians to predict IVF outcomes in women with normal ovarian reserve undergoing their first long protocol.We performed a retrospective analysis of 459 women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for the first time in a long GnRH agonist protocol.Embryo transfer was performed in 407 women (88.7%. The fertilisation rate was 78.6%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44.8% per started cycle and 50.6% per embryo transfer. Our univariate model revealed that the best predictors of clinical pregnancy were the number of mature oocytes, the number of embryos transferred and the number of good quality embryos, account for the clinical parameters that reflect ovarian reserve the best being AMH level and AFC. DHEAS did not predict clinical pregnancy (OR 1.001, 95% CI, 0.999-1.004. After adjusting for the number of embryos transferred and class of embryos in a multivariate model, the best predictors were age (OR 0.918, 95% CI, 0.867-0.972 and AFC (OR 1.022, 95% CI, 0.992-1.053. Serum DHEAS levels were positively correlated with AFC (r = 0.098, P<0.039 and testosterone levels (r = 0.371, P<0.001, as well as the number of mature oocytes (r = 0.109, P<0.019; serum DHEAS levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.220, P<0.001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, (r = -0.116, P<0.015 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, (r = -0.193, P<0.001.DHEAS concentration (in addition to the known factors of ovarian reserve does not predict clinical pregnancy in women with normal ovarian reserve who are undergoing ICSI.

  4. Comparative evaluation of sonographic ovarian morphology of Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome versus those of normal women

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    Sanjeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study ovarian morphology by ultrasound in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to establish cut-off values of these parameters in Indian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 consecutive women diagnosed PCOS and 77 apparently healthy women were enrolled. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was carried out to assess ovarian volume, stromal echogenecity, follicle number and size. Cut-off values of the above ovarian parameters with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of 79.49% and specificity of 90.67% was achieved with a cut-off of 8 mL as ovarian volume. A cut-off value of 9 follicles to distinguish between PCOS and control women yielded a sensitivity of 82.35% and specificity of 92.0% while as a follicular size of 5 mm yielded sensitivity and specificity of 74.67% and 78.15% respectively. With all the three parameters sensitivity was 87.39% and specificity 87.84% with 92.04% PPV and 81.25% NPV. Conclusion: Using two or three sonographic criteria in combination improves sensitivity and helps diagnose additional patients with PCOS. Our results are at variance with the established cut-off values highlighting the fact that American Society for Reproductive Medicine consensus cut-off values are not reproducible in Indian context.

  5. Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Bhavna N.; Maharjan, Radha H.; Laxmipriya P Nampoothiri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovulatory infertility and hyperandrogenism, is associated with metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Almost 70% PCOS women have abnormal serum lipid levels (dyslipidemia) and 50% of these women are obese. Several classes of pharmacological agents have been used to manage dyslipidemia. However, studies have shown adverse effects associated with these drugs. In the light of a...

  6. Protection by antioxidants against toxicity and apoptosis induced by the sulphur mustard analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in Jurkat T cells and normal human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Suhua; Espinoza, Luis A; Liao, Hongling; Boulares, A Hamid; Smulson, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of sulphur mustard was investigated by examining the biochemical effects of the analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in both human Jurkat cells as well as normal human lymphocytes.Exposure of both types of cells to CEES resulted in a marked decrease in the intracellular concentration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and CEES-induced cell death was potentiated by L-buthionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis.CEES increased the endogenous produ...

  7. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  8. The prognostic value of pretreatment CA-125 levels and CA-125 normalization in ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a two-academic-institute study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huimin; Sha, Guisha; Xiao, Meizhu; Gao, Huiqiao; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the clinical implications of pretreatment carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) levels and CA-125 normalization in patients with ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), and it provides useful information for the improvement of monitoring strategies for this lethal disease. Methods The medical records of patients with ovarian CCC who had undergone primary staging surgery or cytoreductive surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. A range of clinico-pathological parameters were collected and examined. Results A total of 375 women were included in the analysis. FIGO stage (p < 0.001) was identified as the only significant prognostic factor for relapse. Residual tumor and advanced stage (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) were identified as independent adverse factors for survival. The potential risk factors associated with elevated pretreatment CA-125 levels included advanced-stage disease, positive residual tumors and negative endometriosis (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). Pretreatment CA-125 levels were not associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) (p = 0.060 and p = 0.176, respectively). CA-125 normalization after chemotherapy exhibited a positive linear correlation with advanced stage (r = 0.97, p = 0.001) and residual tumor (r = 0.81, p = 0.027) and a negative relationship with 5-year RFS (r = −0.97, p = 0.002) and 5-year OS (r = −0.97, p= 0.001). Patients with CA-125 levels that normalized before cycle 2 of chemotherapy had a similar prognosis as patients whose CA-125 levels normalized prior to chemotherapy (RFS: p = 0.327; OS: p = 0.654). By contrast, patients with CA-125 levels that normalized after cycle 2 of chemotherapy or never normalized were significantly more likely to experience disease progression. Conclusions Pretreatment CA-125 levels are not very useful for predicting clinical outcome. CA-125 levels following treatment are a valid

  9. Comparisons of GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist protocol in supposed normal ovarian responders undergoing IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-song Xiao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist in supposed normal ovarian responders undergoing IVF. METHODS: Data from 6 databases were retrieved for this study. The RCTs of GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist use during IVF-EF therapy for patients with supposed normal ovarian response were included. A meta-analysis was performed with Revman 5.1software. RESULTS: Twenty-three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The number of stimulation days (mean difference (MD: -0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.04∼-0.27, Gn amount (MD: -2.92, 95% CI: -5.0∼-0.85, E2 values on the day of HCG (MD: -330.39, 95% CI: -510.51∼-150.26, Number of oocytes retrieved (MD: -1.33, 95% CI: -2.02∼-0.64, clinical pregnancy rate (odds ratio (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.0, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS incidence (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42∼0.82 were significantly lower in GnRH antagonist protocol than GnRH agonist protocol. However, the endometrial thickness on the day of HCG (MD: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.23∼0.14, the ongoing pregnancy rate (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.74∼1.03, live birth rate (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.64∼1.24, miscarriage rate (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.85∼1.61, and cycle cancellation rate (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.90∼1.37 did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: During IVF treatment for patients with supposed normal responses, the incidence of OHSS were significantly lower, whereas the ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were similar in the GnRH antagonist compared with the standard long GnRH agonist protocols.

  10. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  11. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of an ovarian cyst relies on its nature, and accurate preoperative discrimination of benign and malignant cysts is therefore of crucial importance. This study was undertaken to review the literature concerning the preoperative diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts....... METHODS: Articles concerning ovarian cysts from a medline literature search during the period 1985-2003 were included in addition to articles found as references in the initial publications. RESULTS: Different methods for discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian cysts are discussed....... The diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...

  12. The effects of pre-existing discontinuities on the surface expression of normal faults: Insights from wet-clay analog modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Seno, Silvio; Valensise, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    We use wet-clay analog models to investigate how pre-existing discontinuities (i.e. structures inherited from previous tectonic phases) affect the evolution of a normal fault at the Earth's surface. To this end we first perform a series of three reference experiments driven by a 45° dipping master fault unaffected by pre-existing discontinuities to generate a mechanically isotropic learning set of models. We then replicate the experiment six times introducing a 60°-dipping precut in the clay cake, each time with a different attitude and orientation with respect to an initially-blind, 45°-dipping, master normal fault. In all experiments the precut intersects the vertical projection of the master fault halfway between the center and the right-hand lateral tip. All other conditions are identical for all seven models. By comparing the results obtained from the mechanically isotropic experiments with results from experiments with precuts we find that the surface evolution of the normal fault varies depending on the precut orientation. In most cases the parameters of newly-forming faults are strongly influenced. The largest influence is exerted by synthetic and antithetic discontinuities trending respectively at 30° and 45° from the strike of the master fault, whereas a synthetic discontinuity at 60° and an antithetic discontinuity at 30° show moderate influence. Little influence is exerted by a synthetic discontinuity at 45° and an antithetic discontinuity at 60° from the strike of the master fault. We provide a ranking chart to assess fault-to-discontinuity interactions with respect to essential surface fault descriptors, such as segmentation, vertical-displacement profile, maximum displacement, and length, often used as proxies to infer fault properties at depth. Considering a single descriptor, the amount of deviation induced by different precuts varies from case to case in a rather unpredictable fashion. Multiple observables should be taken into

  13. Case of ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up during very early period of unnoticed pregnancy followed by ongoing normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazuki; Horikawa, Michiharu; Negishi, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of unnoticed pregnancy that was maintained during low estrogen and progesterone circumstances, that showed menses-like bleeding, and was then discovered after ovarian hyperstimulation during the next period. The patient was 39 years old and primigravid. She underwent intrauterine insemination, followed by luteal support with human chorionic gonadotrophin and progestin; however, she experienced menstruation-like bleeding 15 days later. As low estradiol and progesterone levels were confirmed on the 2nd day of bleeding, ovarian hyperstimulation of short protocol for in vitro fertilization was commenced. Although 13 mature follicles were observed, only six oocytes were retrieved and one developed into a blastocyst. Four days after oocyte pick-up, a gestational sac was seen in utero. The fetus is currently growing uneventfully. This case suggests that pregnancy can be maintained during ovarian hyperstimulation, even if menstruation-like bleeding is shown in low-progesterone circumstances. PMID:26869522

  14. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Howard J Cooke; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced...

  15. Identification of candidate epigenetic biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Jansen, Rachel A.; Fabbri, Enrica; Potter, Dustin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Chan, Michael W. Y.; Liu, Joseph C.; Crijns, Anne P. G.; Brown, Robert; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Van Der Zee, Ate G. J.; Cohn, David E.; Yan, Pearlly S.; Huang, Tim H. -M.; Lin, Huey-Jen L.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks the most lethal among gynecologic neoplasms in women. To develop potential biomarkers for diagnosis, we have identified five novel genes (CYP39A1, GTF2A1, FOXD4L4, EBP, and HAAO) that are hypermethylated in ovarian tumors, compared with the non-malignant normal ovarian surface e

  16. 促性腺激素释放激素类似物对耐药卵巢癌细胞血管形成的抑制作用%Inhibitory effects of GnRH analog on vascularization of resistant ovarian cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉杰; 焦婷婷; 王丹; 惠宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH )类似物曲普瑞林( triptorelin )联合顺铂( cDDP)对卵巢癌顺铂耐药细胞血管生成的抑制效果,并探讨其作用机制。方法:体外筛建卵巢癌OVCAR-3细胞系的顺铂耐药模型OVCAR-3/cDDP,并建立其裸鼠皮下荷瘤模型。实验分为对照组( NS组)、曲普瑞林组、顺铂组、曲普瑞林+顺铂组。采用实时定量PCR( real-time PCR)和Western blot法分别检测VEGF mRNA和蛋白表达。采用鸡胚尿囊膜实验( CAM)检测用药后对荷瘤组织血管生成的影响。结果:曲普瑞林+顺铂组的VEGF mRNA和蛋白表达显著低于曲普瑞林组、顺铂组及NS组( P<0.05)。鸡胚尿囊膜实验结果显示,曲普瑞林和顺铂单独用药均能抑制耐药荷瘤组织的血管形成,抑制率分别为20.76%和16.66%;两药联合作用后抑制作用更显著,抑制率达36.50%。结论:GnRH类似物曲普瑞林联合顺铂可明显抑制顺铂耐药卵巢癌细胞的血管生成,其机制可能与下调VEGF表达有关。%Objective:To study the inhibitory effect of Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone ( GnRH) analog triptorelin on vascularization of cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and to discuss the related mechanism. Methods:Cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3/CDDP was established in vitro. OVCAR-3/CDDP-transplanted tumor models were established in mice. The present study was divided into 4 groups:normal saline( NS) con-trol group,triptorelin group,cisplatin group,and triptorelin+cisplatin group. Vascular endothelial growth factor( VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR technique and protein was further examined by Western blot analysis. Vascularization of tumor tissues was observed by chicken chorioallantoic membrane ( CAM) assay. Results:The VEGF mRNA expression in trip-torelin+cisplatin group was significantly lower than that in the triptorelin group,cisplatin group and NS group(P<0. 05) respectively

  17. Preservation of ovarian function by ovarian transposition performed before pelvic irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaud, E; Ramirez, M; Brauner, R; Flamant, F; Zucker, J M; Fékété, C; Rappaport, R

    1992-12-01

    Ovarian transposition in adults has been shown to protect ovarian function in about 60% of cases by reducing ovarian exposure to less than 4 to 7 Gy. We therefore evaluated the effect of ovarian transposition during childhood or adolescence. Eighteen girls had ovarian transposition performed at a mean (+/- SEM) age of 9.4 +/- 1.2 years (range, 1.2 to 16 years). Twelve were prepubertal and six had menstruated at the time of ovarian transposition. The initial abnormalities were Hodgkin disease (5 cases), iliac Ewing sarcoma (3), medulloblastoma (2), ovarian seminoma (1), and vaginal or uterine tumor (7). The irradiation was external in 11 cases and local by vaginal curietherapy in 7 cases. Fifteen girls received chemotherapy. The ovarian transposition was bilateral in 15 patients and unilateral in 3 cases; in the latter the other ovary had been destroyed by the tumor or by abdominal irradiation. Ovaries were placed just below the iliac crest (15 cases) or posterolateral to the uterus (3); thus, the calculated ovarian radiation dose was up to 9.5 Gy. At the time of evaluation (8.6 +/- 0.9 years after ovarian transposition), 16 girls had menstruated and 2 remained amenorrheic because of major lesions of the vagina and uterus caused by the vaginal curietherapy. Basal plasma gonadotropin values were normal. Ovulation was documented in seven cases. Two pregnancies occurred. Complications of ovarian transposition were present in four patients: intestinal occlusion, dyspareunia, functional ovarian cysts, and pelvic adhesions with tubal obstruction. We conclude that ovarian transposition, performed before abdominopelvic irradiation during childhood, can preserve ovarian function. Longer follow-up is required to assess the risk of ovarian dystrophy because of vascular lesions or chemotherapy. PMID:1447649

  18. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  19. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Eleonora; Bansal, Ruchi

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  20. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; Bansal, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  1. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  2. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health/premature-ovarian-failure/DS00843 International Premature Ovarian Failure Association: www.ipofa.org ... to further patient education on hormone related issues. Network Sponsors The Hormone ...

  3. PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal

  4. Primary ovarian insufficiency in classic galactosemia: role of FSH dysfunction and timing of the lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Cynthia S.; Land, Jolande A.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Bierau, Jörgen; Paul P C A Menheere; Robben, Simon G. F.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela

    2012-01-01

    FSH inactivity due to secondary hypoglycosylation has been suggested as a potential mechanism for primary ovarian insufficiency in classic galactosemia. To investigate the role of FSH and to gain insight in the timing of the damage, ovarian stimulation tests were performed and data on ovarian imaging collected. Fifteen patients with primary ovarian insufficiency underwent ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. Only one patient showed a normal increase in estradiol level, all the others had a...

  5. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John;

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  6. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  7. Improved selection of cortical ovarian strips for autotransplantation of ovarian tissue using full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Peters, Inge T. A.; Eggermont, Jeroen; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Trimbos, J. Baptist; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Bosse, Tjalling; Dijkstra, Jouke; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2016-02-01

    Premature ovarian failure is a major concern in women of reproductive age who undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment. Autotransplantation of frozen-thawed cortical ovarian tissue allows the immediate start of cancer treatment, but risks reintroduction of cancer. Current tumor detection methods compromise the ovarian tissue's viability and can therefore only be used to exclude the presence of metastases in the cortical ovarian strips that are not transplanted. A non-invasive method is needed that can be used to exclude metastases in the actual ovarian autografts without affecting the tissue's viability. In this study we applied FFOCT - a non-fixative technique that uses white light interferometry to make highresolution images (1μm isotropic) of fresh tissue - to study healthy and malignant ovarian tissue. We created an image atlas of healthy ovarian tissues from premenopausal patients and ovarian tissues with breast cancer metastases. To get the best possible match between hematoxylin-and-eosin stained slides and FFOCT images formalinfixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were deparaffinized and FFOCT images were acquired within a few minutes. FFOCT images were compared with histology images. All normal structures such as follicles in all phases, inclusion cysts, blood vessels, corpora lutea, and corpora albicantia were clearly recognizable. Ovarian metastases could be well distinguished from normal ovarian tissue. FFOCT is a promising technique in the field of fertility preservation: metastases can be detected and additionally cortical ovarian strips can be selected on the basis of high follicle density.

  8. MASSIVE OVARIAN EDEMA – CASE REPORT OF A RARE PSEUDOTUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive ovarian edema is a very rare disease characterized by a tumor like enlargement of the ovary. The presenting symptoms are non - specific and often the condition is mistaken for an ovarian neoplasm. A 28 year old nulligravid a lady , presented with chronic pain abdomen and irregular menses to our gynecological outpatient department. Ultrasound was suspicious of an ovarian neoplasm , but all biochemical parameters , including ovarian tumor markers were within normal limits. Considering the young age of the patient , laparotomy was done , and the mass excised. On histopathologi cal examination the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema was made. We present this case , not only because if its rarity , but also to stress on the fact that massive ovarian edema should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral ovarian masses especially in young patients to avoid aggressive treatment as compromising fertility and hormonal function is always an issue

  9. Differential display identifies overexpression of the USP36 gene, encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme, in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Li, Lisa M. Olson, Zhengyan Zhang, Lina Li, Miri Bidder, Loan Nguyen, John Pfeifer, Janet S. Rader

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To find potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets, we used differential display technique to identify genes that are over or under expressed in human ovarian cancer. Methods. Genes were initially identified by differential display between two human ovarian surface epithelium cultures and two ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and Caov-3. Genes were validated by relative quantitative RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization. Results. Twenty-eight non-redundant sequences were expressed differentially in the normal ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer cell lines. Seven of the 28 sequences showed differential expression between normal ovary and ovarian cancer tissue by RT-PCR. USP36 was over-expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues by RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed two transcripts for USP36 in ovarian tissue. The major transcript was more specific for ovarian cancer and was detected by RT-PCR in 9/9 ovarian cancer tissues, 3/3 cancerous ascites, 5/14 (36% sera from patients with ovarian cancer, and 0/7 sera from women without ovarian cancer. Conclusion. USP36 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovary and its transcripts were identified in ascites and serum of ovarian cancer patients.

  10. Tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections in video, analog and digital photographic on-screen reproduction: a preliminary step to exact virtual 3D modelling, exemplified in the normal midface and cleft-lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Constantin A; Weichert, Frank; Geis, Philipp; Wernstedt, Katrin; Wilde, Anja; Fritsch, Helga; Wagner, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses tissue-plastinated vs. celloidin-embedded large serial sections, their inherent artefacts and aptitude with common video, analog or digital photographic on-screen reproduction. Subsequent virtual 3D microanatomical reconstruction will increase our knowledge of normal and pathological microanatomy for cleft-lip-palate (clp) reconstructive surgery. Of 18 fetal (six clp, 12 control) specimens, six randomized specimens (two clp) were BiodurE12-plastinated, sawn, burnished 90 µm thick transversely (five) or frontally (one), stained with azureII/methylene blue, and counterstained with basic-fuchsin (TP-AMF). Twelve remaining specimens (four clp) were celloidin-embedded, microtome-sectioned 75 µm thick transversely (ten) or frontally (two), and stained with haematoxylin–eosin (CE-HE). Computed-planimetry gauged artefacts, structure differentiation was compared with light microscopy on video, analog and digital photography. Total artefact was 0.9% (TP-AMF) and 2.1% (CE-HE); TP-AMF showed higher colour contrast, gamut and luminance, and CE-HE more red contrast, saturation and hue (P < 0.4). All (100%) structures of interest were light microscopically discerned, 83% on video, 76% on analog photography and 98% in digital photography. Computed image analysis assessed the greatest colour contrast, gamut, luminance and saturation on video; the most detailed, colour-balanced and sharpest images were obatined with digital photography (P < 0.02). TP-AMF retained spatial oversight, covered the entire area of interest and should be combined in different specimens with CE-HE which enables more refined muscle fibre reproduction. Digital photography is preferred for on-screen analysis. PMID:16050904

  11. Telomerase Activity in Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, Christopher M.; Hirte, Hal W.; Bacchetti, Silvia; Harley, Calvin B.

    1994-04-01

    Telomeres fulfill the dual function of protecting eukaryotic chromosomes from illegitimate recombination and degradation and may aid in chromosome attachment to the nuclear membrane. We have previously shown that telomerase, the enzyme which synthesizes telomeric DNA, is not detected in normal somatic cells and that telomeres shorten with replicative age. In cells immortalized in vitro, activation of telomerase apparently stabilizes telomere length, preventing a critical destabilization of chromosomes, and cell proliferation continues even when telomeres are short. In vivo, telomeres of most tumors are shorter than telomeres of control tissues, suggesting an analogous role for the enzyme. To assess the relevance of telomerase and telomere stability in the development and progression of tumors, we have measured enzyme activity and telomere length in metastatic cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We report that extremely short telomeres are maintained in these cells and that tumor cells, but not isogenic nonmalignant cells, express telomerase. Our findings suggest that progression of malignancy is ultimately dependent upon activation of telomerase and that telomerase inhibitors may be effective antitumor drugs.

  12. Primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Michel; Devroey, Paul; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is a subclass of ovarian dysfunction in which the cause is within the ovary. In most cases, an unknown mechanism leads to premature exhaustion of the resting pool of primordial follicles. Primary ovarian insufficiency might also result from genetic defects, chemotherapy

  13. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  14. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  15. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  16. Electron microscopy, tissue culture,and immunology of ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachim, H L; Dorsett, B H; Sabbath, M; Barber, H R

    1975-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the major histologic types of ovarian carcinoma was investigated as part of a multilateral study of this tumor. The nuclear and nucleolar changes in size, shape, and structure correlated well with the degree of malignancy and tumor grading. Cytoplasmic organelles and intercellular junctions were abundant and fairly well differentiated even in ovarian carcinomas of higher grade and stage. Active processes of synthesis and secretion taking place in most of these tumors were suggested by the presence of a richly granulated endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae, and numerous secretory granules. Seventy-eight different ovarian carcinomas of all histologic types were cultured in vitro for periods of up to 300 days, and their morphology in light and electron microscopy was compared to that of the original tumors. The cultures displayed a consistent pattern of growth which led to the conclusion that ovarian cancer cells in vitro preserve their salient features and are representative of the tumors of origin. Heterologous antisera raised with pooled extracts of various types of ovarian carcinomas reacted specifically in immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence tests only with ovarian carcinomas and not with normal ovaries, benigh ovarian tumors, and nonovarian malignant neoplasms, indicating the presence of a cross-reacting specific antigen for ovarian carcinomas. In other studies, autologous antibodies were isolated from antigen-antibody complexes recovered from peritoneal effusions of patients with ovarian carcinomas. These antibodies displayed a high degree of specificity against ovarian carcinoma cells when tested in immunofluorescence assays.

  17. Study of the Gene Expression Profile of Human Ovarian Carcinoma by a Gene Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenhua Xu; Hanzhou Mou; Chihong Zhu; Lijuan Qian; Zhengyan Yang; Ye Ying; Xianglin Liu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the difference in gene expression between human ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian tissues, and screen the novel associated genes by cDNA microarrays.METHODS Total RNA from 10 cases of ovarian cancer and from normal ovarian tissues were extracted by a single step method. The cDNA was retro-transcribed from an equal quantity of mRNA derived from the 10 cases of ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian tissues, followed by labeling the cDNA strands with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescence as probes. The mixed probes were hybridized with BiostarH 8464 dot human somatic cell genes.Fluorescence signals were assessed by a ScanArray 4000 laser scanner and the images analyzed by Gene Pix Pro 3.0 software with a digital computer.RESULTS By applying the cDNA microarray we found a total of 185 genes for which expression levels differed more than 5 times comparing human ovarian carcinoma with normal ovarian epithelium. Among these genes 86 were up-regulated >5 times and 99 were down regulated <0.2.CONCLUSION The cDNA microarray technique is effective in screening the differential gene expression between human ovarian cancers and normal ovarian epithelium. It is suggested that these genes identified are related to the genesis and development of ovarian carcinoma.

  18. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Parvin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG have been synthesizedand their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell lineexamined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Twoanalogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem tobe the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.

  19. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E; Aiello, Katherine A; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq, PABPC5

  20. Tensor GSVD of patient- and platform-matched tumor and normal DNA copy-number profiles uncovers chromosome arm-wide patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent alterations encoding for cell transformation and predicting ovarian cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival

  1. Tensor GSVD of Patient- and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive Platform-Consistent Alterations Encoding for Cell Transformation and Predicting Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq

  2. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  3. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Suzie E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  4. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran; Catherine Genestie

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinomas represents the first step in the development of targeted therapies in the near future.

  5. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  6. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  7. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Pothuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  8. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  9. mRNA EXPRESSION OF PTEN AND VEGF GENES IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 赵雨杰; 郑华川; 杨雪飞; 汪桂兰; 辛彦

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mRNA expression of PTEN and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes in ovarian cancer. Methods:We examined mRNA expression of PTEN and VEGF165 in normal ovary (n=5), ovarian cyst (n=5), ovarian borderline tumor (n=9), epithelial ovarian cancer (n=60) and ovarian cancer cell line (CAOV-3) by RT-PCR. Their expressions were compared with clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer. The relationship between their expressions was concerned in all ovarian samples as well. Results:mRNA expression level of PTEN gene was significantly lower in ovarian borderline tumor or ovarian cancer than that in normal ovary or ovarian cyst(P<0.05). It was negatively correlated with clinicopathological staging(P<0.05),whereas positively with histological differentiation (P<0.05). mRNA expression level of PTEN gene was significantly lower in ovarian endometrioid cancer than ovarian serous or mucinous cancer(P<0.05). mRNA expression level of VEGF165 gene was significantly higher in ovarian cancer than that in normal ovary or ovarian cyst(P<0.05). It was positively correlated with clinicopathological staging(P<0.05), whereas negatively with histological differentiation (P<0.05). mRNA expression level of VEGF165 gene was significantly higher in ovarian serous cancer than in other ovarian epithelial cancers (P<0.05). mRNA expression of VEGF165 gene was inversely correlated with mRNA expression level of PTEN gene. Conclusion:Down-regulated expression of PTEN and up-regulated expression of VEGF were considered as two important events in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer and could be used as molecular markers to indicate the pathobiological behaviors of ovarian cancer. Decreased PTEN expression and increased VEGF expression were closely associated with tumorigenesis and pathobiological behaviors of ovarian endometrioid and serous cancer respectively. Reduced expression of PTEN gene might be involved in carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancer by

  10. Application of ovarian transposition during hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭毅; 沈文静; 姜艳明; 刘伟; 李秀芬

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal position and method for ovarian transposition and its benefits and indications.Methods We performed ovarian transposition in 34 patients from August 1989 to December 2000. Twelve patients were diagnosed with stage Ⅰb to Ⅱa cervical cancer, 4 had stage Ⅰa endometrial carcinoma, 12 had stage Ⅲ to Ⅳ endometriosis, 4 had myoma of uterus, 1 had dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and 1 had an ovarian granulosa cell tumor. Surgery went as follows: the ovary was dissociated by clamp, the skin was incised and a tunnel was made, then the ovary was translocated to the subcutaneous site. In the cases of benign lesions, the ovarian vessel pedicel went in through the abdominal cavity, but in malignant tumors, it went out through the peritoneum. Results In both cases (benign lesions or malignant tumors), the short-term and long-term endocrine function of the translocated ovary remained normal. Furthermore, patients could supervise their translocated ovary themselves.Conclusions Subcutaneous ovary transposition might prevent not only implantation of gastrointestinal cancer but also the extension of pelvic carcinoma to the ovary. Because of the shallow transposition and the incision scar, it is easy for patients to supervise themselves. Moreover, the site of the ovary is easy to locate for ultrasound examinations. Thus, it can obtain the goal of early prevention for cancer. Subcutaneous ovarian transposition with skin incision is the optimal selection and suitable for all patients with various gynecologic diseases in which ovary removal is not necessary.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists cotreatment during chemotherapy in borderline ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-lan; WANG Yan; LI Xiao-ping; WANG Chao-hua; WANG Yue; CUI Heng; WANG Jian-liu

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently,conservative surgery is acceptable in young patients with borderline ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer.The preservation of these patients' future fertility has been the focus of recent interest.This study aimed to observe the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) cotreatment during chemotherapy in borderline ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer patients.Methods Sixteen patients who were treated with fertility preservation surgery for borderline ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer and then administered GnRHa during chemotherapy in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2006 to July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.This group was compared with a control group of 16 women who were treated concurrently with similar chemotherapy (n=5) without GnRHa or were historical controls (n=11).The disease recurrence,the menstruation status and reproductive outcome were followed up and compared between the two groups.Results There were no significant differences between both groups regarding age,body weight,height,marriage status,classification of the tumors,stage of the disease,as were the cumulative doses of each chemotherapeutic agent.One (1/16) patient in the study group while 2 (2/16) patients in the control group relapsed 2 years after conclusion of the primary treatment (P >0.05).All of the 16 women in the study group compared with 11 of the 16 patients in the control group resumed normal menses 6 months after the termination of the treatment (P <0.05).There were 4 spontaneous pregnancies in the study group while 2 in the control group,all of the neonates were healthy.Conclusions GnRHa administration before and during chemotherapy in borderline ovarian tumor and ovarian cancer patients who had undergone fertility preservation operation may bring up higher rates of spontaneous resumption of menses and a better pregnancy rate.Long-term follow up and large scale clinical studies are required.

  12. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  13. Dihydroartemisinin is an inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang JIAO; Chun-min GE; Qing-hui MENG; Jian-ping CAO; Jian TONG; Sai-jun FAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anticancer activity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a deriva-tive of antimalaria drug artemisinin in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods: Cell growth was determined by the MTT viability assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were evaluated by a DNA fragmentation gel electro-phoresis, flow cytometry assay, and TUNEL assay; protein and mRNA expression were analyzed by Western blotting and RT-PCR assay. Results: Artemisinin and its derivatives, including artesunate, arteether, artemether, arteannuin, and DHA, exhibit anticancer growth activities in human ovarian cancer cells. Among them, DHA is the most effective in inhibiting cell growth. Ovarian cancer cell lines are more sensitive (5-10-fold) to DHA treatment compared to normal ovarian cell lines. DHA at micromolar dose levels exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cyto-toxicity in ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, DHA induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by a decrease of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 and an increase of Bax and Bad. Conclusion: The promising results show for the first time that DHA inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells. The selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth, apoptosis induction, and G2 arrest provide in vitro evidence for further studies of DHA as a possible anticancer drug in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer.

  14. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  15. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  16. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  17. EFFECTS OF MUTATION AND EXPRESSION OF PTEN GENE mRNA ON TUMORIGENESIS AND PROGRESSION OF EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 郑华川; 杨雪飞; 孙丽梅; 辛彦

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mutation and expression of tumor suppressor gene-PTEN mRNA and explore their roles in tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian cancer. Methods Mutated exon 5 of PTEN gene was examined in normal ovary (n = 5), ovarian cyst (n =5), ovarian borderline tumor (n=9), epithelial ovarian cancer (n=60), and ovarian cancer cell line (n= 1)by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). mRNA expression of PTEN gene was evaluated in corresponding tissues and cell line by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The mutation and mRNA expression of PTEN gene were compared with clinicopathological features of ovarian cancer. Results Mutated exon 5 of PTEN gene was detected only in 5 (7.1%) cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. mRNA expression level of PTEN gene in ovarian borderline tumor or ovarian cancer was lower than that in normal ovary or ovarian cyst (P < 0.05). The level of PTEN gene mRNA expression was negatively correlated with clinicopathological staging of ovarian cancer, whereas positively correlated with histological differentiation (P < 0.05). mRNA expression level of PTEN gene in ovarian endometrioid cancer was significantly lower than that in ovarian serous or mucinous cancer (P < 0.05). Conclusions Mutation of PTEN gene occurs in ovarian cancer. Down-regulated expression of PTEN is probably an important molecular event in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer. Abnormal expression of PTEN gene is involved in progression of ovarian cancer. Reduced expression of PTEN gene is closely associated with tumorigenesis and pathobiological behaviors of ovarian endometrioid cancer.

  18. Ovarian reserve tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review.

  19. Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic stem cells undergo mutagenic transformation into cancer initiating cells. The serous subtype of ovarian adenocarcinoma in humans has been hypothesized to arise from at least two possible classes of progenitor cells: the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE and/or an as yet undefined class of progenitor cells residing in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Methods Comparative gene expression profiling analyses were carried out on OSE removed from the surface of normal human ovaries and ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPI isolated by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM from human serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinomas. The results of the gene expression analyses were randomly confirmed in paraffin embedded tissues from ovarian adenocarcinoma of serous subtype and non-neoplastic ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using gene ontology, molecular pathway, and gene set enrichment analysis algorithms. Results Consistent with multipotent capacity, genes in pathways previously associated with adult stem cell maintenance are highly expressed in ovarian surface epithelia and are not expressed or expressed at very low levels in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Among the over 2000 genes that are significantly differentially expressed, a number of pathways and novel pathway interactions are identified that may contribute to ovarian adenocarcinoma development. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as the origin of ovarian adenocarcinoma. While our findings do not rule out the possibility that ovarian cancers may also arise from other sources, they are inconsistent with claims that ovarian surface epithelia cannot serve as the origin of ovarian cancer initiating cells.

  20. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  1. Analysis of ovarian tumor pathology by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra Ranjana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. In recent years, infrared (IR spectroscopy has gained attention as a simple and inexpensive method for the biomedical study of several diseases. In the present study infrared spectra of normal and malignant ovarian tissues were recorded in the 650 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region. Methods Post surgical tissue samples were taken from the normal and tumor sections of the tissue. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR data on twelve cases of ovarian cancer with different grades of malignancy from patients of different age groups were analyzed. Results Significant spectral differences between the normal and the ovarian cancerous tissues were observed. In particular changes in frequency and intensity in the spectral region of protein, nucleic acid and lipid vibrational modes were observed. It was evident that the sample-to-sample or patient-to-patient variations were small and the spectral differences between normal and diseased tissues were reproducible. Conclusion The measured spectroscopic features, which are the spectroscopic fingerprints of the tissues, provided the important differentiating information about the malignant and normal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate the possible use of infrared spectroscopy in differentiating normal and malignant ovarian tissues.

  2. Isolated Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis from Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old female with past medical history of stage IIIc serous ovarian cancer after cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy came to clinic for regular follow-up visit. Physical examination was completely normal except for an isolated left axillary lymph node enlargement. Patient's abdominal sonogram and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis did not show any other new metastasis. Surgical excisional biopsy of the lymph node was performed and pathology revealed features of metastatic serous ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Sonographic Quantification of Ovarian Volumes in an adult Nigeria population

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nzotta Christian; Ugwu Anthony Chukwuka; Mr. Eze Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the normal values of ovarian volumes in this locality. A convenience sample of 141 apparently and gynecologically healthy and non pregnant females was studied using transabdominal sonography. The length, width and anteroposterior dimensions of both the right and left ovaries were measured. Volumes of the ovaries were determined using the prolate ellipsoid formula. The mean ovarian volumes were found to be a 9.5cm3 and 10.cm3 for the right and left ovari...

  4. Ovarian stem cells: From basic to clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The field of reproductive biology has undergone significantdevelopments in the last decade. The notion thatthere is a fixed reserve pool of oocytes before birth wasestablished by Zuckerman in 1951. However, in 2004,an article published in nature challenged this centraldogma of mammalian reproductive biology. Tilly's groupreported the existence of ovarian germline stem cells(GSCs) in postnatal ovaries of mice and suggested thatthe bone marrow could be an extragonadal source ofovarian GSCs. These findings were strongly criticized;however, several independent groups have sincesuccessfully isolated and characterized ovarian GSCsin postnatal mice. The ovarian GSCs are located in theovarian surface epithelium and express markers ofundifferentiated GSCs. When transplanted into mouseovaries, mouse ovarian GSCs could differentiate andproduce embryos and offspring. Similarly, in a recentstudy, ovarian GSCs were found to be present in theovaries of women of reproductive age. Conversely,there is increasing evidence that stem cells responsiblefor maintaining a healthy state in normal tissue maybe a source of some cancers, including ovarian cancer.Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been found in manytissues, including ovaries. Some researchers havesuggested that ovarian cancer may be a result of thetransformation and dysfunction of ovarian GSCs withself-renewal properties. Drug resistant and metastasisgeneratingCSCs are responsible for many importantproblems affecting ovarian cancer patients. Therefore,the identification of CSCs will provide opportunitiesfor the development of new therapeutic strategies fortreatments for infertility and ovarian cancer. In thisarticle, we summarize the current understanding ofovarian GSCs in adult mammals, and we also discusswhether there is a relationship between GSCs and CSCs.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An inset shows cancer cells in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer ...

  6. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is influenced by hormonal contraception. This study quantified the effect of hormonal contraception on both endocrine and sonographic ovarian reserve markers in 228 users and 504 non-users of hormonal contraception. On day...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...... 2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... with ovarian cancer in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  8. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  9. Epidemiology of ovarian malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The epidemiology and presentation of ovarian tumours has remained unchanged since last 3 decades. Nulliparity is not as significant a factor in the aetiology of ovarian malignancy however contraception leading to anovulatory cycles (OC pills may have a protective role. Infertility can be suggested as a risk factor but the treatment for infertility and its role in oncogenesis remains controversial. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 186-193

  10. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  11. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran; Catherine Genestie

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular bas...

  12. The science behind 25 years of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklon, Nick S; Stouffer, Richard L; Giudice, Linda C; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2006-04-01

    To allow selection of embryos for transfer after in vitro fertilization, ovarian stimulation is usually carried out with exogenous gonadotropins. To compensate for changes induced by stimulation, GnRH analog cotreatment, oral contraceptive pretreatment, late follicular phase human chorionic gonadotropin, and luteal phase progesterone supplementation are usually added. These approaches render ovarian stimulation complex and costly. The stimulation of multiple follicular development disrupts the physiology of follicular development, with consequences for the oocyte, embryo, and endometrium. In recent years, recombinant gonadotropin preparations have become available, and novel stimulation protocols with less detrimental effects have been developed. In this article, the scientific background to current approaches to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization is reviewed. After a brief discussion of the relevant aspect of ovarian physiology, the development, application, and consequences of ovarian stimulation strategies are reviewed in detail.

  13. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, 125I-[Tyr11]-somatostatin-14, 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28, or 125I-[Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l [nanomolar]), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands

  14. Disturbed growth and selection of the human ovarian follicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Pache

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe first objective of this stody was to review some aspects of current knowledge of ovarian function in normal menstrual cycles. A discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the normal ovary can be found in chapter 2. The second objective was to provide new information about the dynami

  15. Sonographic Quantification of Ovarian Volumes in an adult Nigeria population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nzotta Christian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the normal values of ovarian volumes in this locality. A convenience sample of 141 apparently and gynecologically healthy and non pregnant females was studied using transabdominal sonography. The length, width and anteroposterior dimensions of both the right and left ovaries were measured. Volumes of the ovaries were determined using the prolate ellipsoid formula. The mean ovarian volumes were found to be a 9.5cm3 and 10.cm3 for the right and left ovaries respectively. A mean ovarian volume (Right and left was 9.9cm3. A mean (right and left range of 5.3cm3 to 13.9cm3 was also established. Significant correlations were noted between ovarian volumes and age (r=0.93, p<0.05 and between ovarian volumes and body weight (r=0.73, p<0.05. This study has established a nomogram for ovarian sizes in this locality which would offer a valid method of evaluating ovarian volumes in clinical practice.

  16. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  17. Investigation of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP-18), lactoferrin and CD163 as potential biomarkers for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ratana; Lappas, Martha; Riley, Clyde;

    2013-01-01

    plasma concentrations of three putative ovarian cancer biomarkers: human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP-18); lactoferrin; and CD163 in normal healthy women and women with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this case-control cohort study, ovarian tissue and blood samples were obtained from 164 women (73...

  18. THE GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF HIGHLY METASTATIC HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELL LINE BY GENE CHIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂泉; 许沈华; 牟瀚舟; 朱赤红; 羊正炎; 高永良; 楼洪坤; 刘祥麟; 杨文; 程勇

    2001-01-01

    To study the gene expression of high metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell line (HO-8910PM) and to screen for novel metastasis- associated genes by cDNA microarray. Methods: The cDNA was retro-transcribed from equal quantity mRNA derived from tissues of highly metastatic ovarian carcinoma cell line and normal ovarian, and was labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescence as probes. The mixed probes were hybridized with BioDoor 4096 double dot human whole gene chip. The chip was scanned by scanArray 3000 laser scanner. The acquired image was analyzed by ImaGene 3.0 software. Results: By applying the cDNA microarray we found: A total of 323 genes whose expression level were 3 times higher or lower in HO-8910PM cell than normal ovarian epithelium cell were screened out, with 71 higher and 252 lower respectively. Among these 10 were new genes. 67 genes showed expression difference bigger than 6 times between HO-8910PM cell and normal ovarian epithelium cell, among these genes 12 were higher, 55 lower, and two new genes were found. Conclusion: cDNA microarray technique is effective in screening the differentially expressed genes between human ovarian cancer cell line (HO-8910PM) and normal ovarian epithelium cell. Using the cDNA microarray to analyze of human ovarian cancer cell line gene expression profile difference will help the gene diagnosis, treatment and protection.

  19. MiR-197 induces Taxol resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by regulating NLK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dongling; Wang, Dong; Li, Rong; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Li; Long, Xingtao; Zhou, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic approach for the therapy of advanced ovarian cancer, but 5-year survival rate remains low due to the development of drug resistance. Increasing evidence has documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act important roles in drug resistance in a variety types of cancer. However, the roles of miRNA in regulating Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer and the detailed mechanism are less reported. We used Taqman probe stem loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-197 in normal ovarian cells, ovarian cancer cells, and Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and found that miR-197 was significantly increased in Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Enforced expression of miR-197 can promote Taxol resistance, cell proliferation, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Meanwhile, repression of miR-197 in ovarian cancer cells can sensitize its response to Taxol and also induced attenuated cell proliferation and invasion ability. Furthermore, investigation of the detailed mechanism showed that the promotion of miR-197 on drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells was partially mediated by downregulating NLK, a negative regulator of WNT signaling pathway. Taken together, our work first demonstrated that miR-197 can confer drug resistance to Taxol, by regulating tumor suppressor, NLK expression in ovarian cancer cells.

  20. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  1. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  2. Retropancreatic Ovarian Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Soumyo Ranjan; Dasgupta, Prosenjit; Das, Subhobroto; Halder, Sandip; Panda, Nilanjan

    2016-06-01

    Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas are rare lesions (less than 50 reported) characterized by presence of ovary like stroma of unknown origin. However, germinal component of ovary has never been found in them. The pancreas occasionally gives rise to mucinous cystadenomas, but they are always intrapancreatic. We report a unique case of a rare retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas with presence of ovarian follicles in a 45-year-old lady who presented with an abdominal mass. This was successfully excised. Though retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas are rare, presence of ovarian follicle (germ cell) in them has never been reported before. PMID:27358520

  3. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  4. Insulin analogs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSciacca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, insulin analogs are used in millions of diabetic patients. Insulin analogs have been developed to achieve more physiological insulin replacement in terms of time course of the effect. Modifications in the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the analogs in respect to human insulin. However, these changes can also modify the molecular and biological effects of the analogs. The rapid-acting insulin analogs, lispro, aspart and glulisine, have a rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir have a protracted duration of action and a relatively smooth serum concentration profile. Insulin and its analogs may function as growth factors and therefore have a theoretical potential to promote tumor proliferation. A major question is whether analogs have an increased mitogenic activity in respect to insulin. These ligands can promote cell proliferation through many mechanisms like the prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R, prevalent activation of the ERK rather than the AKT intracellular post-receptor pathways. Studies on in vitro models indicate that short-acting analogs elicit molecular and biological effects that are similar to those of insulin. In contrast, long-acting analogs behave differently. Although not all data are homogeneous, both glargine and detemir have been found to have a decreased binding to IR but an increased binding to IGF-1R, a prevalent activation of the ERK pathway, and an increased mitogenic effect in respect to insulin. Recent retrospective epidemiological clinical studies have suggested that treatment with long-acting analogs (specifically glargine may increase the relative risk for cancer. Results are controversial and methodologically weak. Therefore prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the possible tumor growth-promoting effects of these insulin

  5. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  6. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  7. Managing hereditary ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of recent developments in the management of hereditary ovarian cancer. Until recently, intensive screening of the ovaries was recommended to mutation carriers and their first-degree female relatives. However, since screening is not effective in detecting early-s

  8. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M; Cerezo, L

    1986-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the female genital tract are rare, especially those of the ovary. Most cases are small lesions that are discovered incidentally. We describe a 68-year-old woman with a benign hemangioma that presented clinically as a very large ovarian mass. PMID:3753575

  9. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  10. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan; Phulrenu Chauhan; Girish Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examinatio...

  11. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10, 2016 TESARO, Inc., an oncology-focused biopharmaceutical company, and ENGOT, the European Network for Gynecological Oncological Trial groups, today announced the presentation ... Read More NOCC Launches NOCC CancerConnect Community Social Media Network for Women with Ovarian Cancer September ...

  12. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  13. Glucocorticoid regulation of SLIT/ROBO tumour suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Dickinson

    Full Text Available The three SLIT ligands and their four ROBO receptors have fundamental roles in mammalian development by promoting apoptosis and repulsing aberrant cell migration. SLITs and ROBOs have emerged as candidate tumour suppressor genes whose expression is inhibited in a variety of epithelial tumours. We demonstrated that their expression could be negatively regulated by cortisol in normal ovarian luteal cells. We hypothesised that after ovulation the locally produced cortisol would inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE to facilitate its repair and that this regulatory pathway was still present, and could be manipulated, in ovarian epithelial cancer cells. Here we examined the expression and regulation of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in OSE, ovarian cancer epithelial cells and ovarian tumour cell lines. Basal SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 expression was lower in primary cultures of ovarian cancer epithelial cells when compared to normal OSE (P<0.05 and in poorly differentiated SKOV-3 cells compared to the more differentiated PEO-14 cells (P<0.05. Cortisol reduced the expression of certain SLITs and ROBOs in normal OSE and PEO-14 cells (P<0.05. Furthermore blocking SLIT/ROBO activity reduced apoptosis in both PEO-14 and SKOV-3 tumour cells (P<0.05. Interestingly SLIT/ROBO expression could be increased by reducing the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor using siRNA (P<0.05. Overall our findings indicate that in the post-ovulatory phase one role of cortisol may be to temporarily inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression to facilitate regeneration of the OSE. Therefore this pathway may be a target to develop strategies to manipulate the SLIT/ROBO system in ovarian cancer.

  14. Ovarian vein thrombosis in a polytrauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Emma; Beaven, Alastair; Balogun, Moji; Porter, Keith

    2015-12-18

    A young mother presented to a major trauma centre following a road traffic collision. Her admission CT traumagram demonstrated liver and renal lacerations, spinal and pelvic fractures with no abnormalities of the ovarian veins. Her inpatient course was uncomplicated other than a sustained, isolated raised C reactive protein. CT of the abdomen 1 week after injury demonstrated stable solid organ injuries and the additional, unexpected finding of a right ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT). A pragmatic approach was taken towards the management of the OVT given the haemorrhagic risk from her traumatic injuries. A multidisciplinary, consultant-led plan was made to slowly increase enoxaparin to a therapeutic dose under close surveillance and to then switch to warfarin following an outpatient consultation with a consultant haematologist. A MR venogram was performed after 3 months of anticoagulation, and this demonstrated complete resolution of the OVT and normal appearances of the ovary.

  15. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  16. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  17. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  18. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2002-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  19. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  20. Candidate Tumor-Suppressor Gene DLEC1 Is Frequently Downregulated by Promoter Hypermethylation and Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of ovarian tumor growth by chromosome 3p was demonstrated in a previous study. Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1 on 3p22.3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in lung, esophageal, and renal cancers. The potential involvement of DLEC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer remains unknown. In the present study, DLEC1 downregulation was found in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors. Focus-expressed DLEC1 in two ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in 41% to 52% inhibition of colony formation. No chromosomal loss of chromosome 3p22.3 in any ovarian cancer cell line or tissue was found. Promoter hypermethylation of DLEC1 was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines with reduced DLEC1 transcripts, whereas methylation was not detected in normal ovarian epithelium and DLEC1-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with demethylating agent enhanced DLEC1 expression in 90% (9 of 10 of ovarian cancer cell lines. DLEC1 promoter methylation was examined in 13 high-grade ovarian tumor tissues with DLEC1 downregulation, in which 54% of the tumors showed DLEC1 methylation. In addition, 80% of ovarian cancer cell lines significantly upregulated DLEC1 transcripts after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Therefore, our results suggested that DLEC1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells and that its downregulation was closely associated with promoter hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

  1. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, EH; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  2. Identification and characterization of a spontaneous ovarian carcinoma in Lewis rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sharrow, Allison C; Brigitte M Ronnett; Thoburn, Christopher J.; Barber, James P.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Jones, Richard J; Hess, Allan D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in women. Limited progress has been made toward improving the survival rate of patients with this disease in part because of the lack of a good animal model. We present here a model of spontaneous ovarian carcinoma arising in a normal Lewis rat. Methods A spontaneously occurring tumor of the left ovary was found in a normal Lewis rat during necropsy, which was sectioned for histological examination and placed in...

  3. Stress-induced Phosphoprotein 1 as a Secreted Biomarker for Human Ovarian Cancer Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chao, Angel; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chang, Chih-Long; Chen, Shun-Hua; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chen, Jen-Kun; Lin, Yi-Jun; Chang, Pi-Yueh; Wang, Chin-Jung; Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancers are frequently not diagnosed until advanced stages, resulting in a high case fatality rate. Because of this, more tumor markers, in addition to CA125, for detecting and monitoring ovarian cancer are needed. During a systematic search for potential biomarkers of ovarian cancer, we compared the protein profiles between tumor interstitial fluid and normal interstitial fluid of ovaries, rationalizing that abnormal levels of proteins in tumor interstitial fluid may be detected in p...

  4. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Animal models of ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Tanya J; Vanderhyden Barbara C; Ethier Jean-François

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all of the gynecological cancers and can arise from any cell type of the ovary, including germ cells, granulosa or stromal cells. However, the majority of ovarian cancers arise from the surface epithelium, a single layer of cells that covers the surface of the ovary. The lack of a reliable and specific method for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer results in diagnosis occurring most commonly at late clinical stages, when treatment is...

  6. Ovarian pregnancy: an unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Arif Hussain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and usually, it ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. The clinical picture generally mimics that of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy and hemorrhagic ovarian cyst. Transvaginal sonography may be helpful. We report a rare primary ruptured ovarian pregnancy in a 23 years lady. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2888-2890

  7. Molecular subtyping of serous ovarian tumors reveals multiple connections to intrinsic breast cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities with the well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. RESULTS: 5,944 genes were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant serous ovarian tumors, with cell cycle processes enriched in the malignant subgroup. Borderline tumors were split between the two clusters. Significant correlations between the malignant serous tumors and the highly aggressive ovarian cancer signatures, and the basal-like breast cancer subtype were found. The benign and borderline serous tumors together were significantly correlated to the normal-like breast cancer subtype and the ovarian cancer signature derived from borderline tumors. The borderline tumors in the study dataset, in addition, also correlated significantly to the luminal A breast cancer subtype. These findings remained when analyzed in an independent dataset, supporting links between the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer and breast cancer beyond those recently acknowledged. CONCLUSIONS: These data link the transcriptional profiles of serous ovarian cancer to the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer, in line with the shared clinical and molecular features between high-grade serous ovarian cancer and

  8. RELATIONSHIP AMONG COX-2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION, PGs LEVELS AND BIOLOGIC BEHAVIOR IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 王欣彦; 唐丽霞; 高岩

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship among cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, prostaglandins levels and biologic behavior in ovarian carcinoma tissues. Methods: The expression of COX-2 protein, levels of prostaglandin (PG)E2, 6-keto-PGF1( and thromboxane (TX)B2 in 54 biopsy specimens from patients with ovarian serous tumors which included three groups: 33 samples of ovarian serous carcinoma; 10 samples of borderline ovarian serous tumors and 11 samples of benign ovarian serous tumors and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissues were detected by Western blot analysis and radioimmunoassay to investigate their clinical significance. Results: The expression of COX-2 protein (82%, 27/33) and its relative content (20.08±3.53) in ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were statistically higher than those in benign ovarian serous tumor tissues and normal ovary tissues i.e., 0 and (15.04(0.12), 0 and (15.33(0.60) (P0.05). The levels of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1( and TXB2 showed no significant differences in ovarian carcinoma tissues with different clinical stages (I to II and III to IV), different histological grades, with or without ascites and lymph metastasis. COX-2 expression was correlated with the levels of PGE2, 6-KETO-PGF1( and TXB2 (P<0.01). Conclusion: Our data suggest that COX-2 overexpression leads to increased PGE2, 6-KETA-PGF1( and TXB2 biosynthesis, which may be mechanisms underlying the contribution of COX-2 to the development of ovarian serous carcinoma. BGF2, 6-keto-PGF1( and TXB2 may be helpful parameters of diagnosis and differentiate diagnosis in ovarian serous carcinoma.

  9. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  10. Expression of MTA2 Gene in Ovarian Epithelial Cancer and Its Clinical Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yuxin; ZHANG Ping; LU Yunping; MA Ding

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the roles of MTA2 in the pathogenesis of ovarian epithelial cancer, the expression of MTA2 in 4 ovarian cell lines were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot assays. MTA2 expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial o varian tissues was immunohistochemically examined. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was detected in all of 4 cell lines of ovarian epithelial cancer. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was higher in strong migration cell lines than in weak migration ones. In borderline and malignant ovarian tissues tested, MTA2 staining was dramatically stronger than in normal and benign tissues (P<0.01). The expression levels in malignant ovarian tissues were significantly higher than that in borderline epithelial ovarian tissues (P<0.01). The expression of MTA2 was correlated with clinical stage, histopathological grade and lymph node metastasis. It was concluded that the high expression of MTA2 was associated with more aggressive behaviors of epithelial ovarian cancer. MTA2 provides a novel indicator of ovarian cancer.

  11. Detection of Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Infection in Ovarian Cancer with in situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YANG; Jian-zhi ZHANG; Cheng-chao SHOU

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis in ovarian cancer tissues and the relationship between mycoplasma infection and ovarian cancer. METHODS All specimens obtained from 109 cases with ovarian cancer were fixed in freshly prepared 10% neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and cut into 4-μm sections for insitu hybridization (ISH) and then detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expressions of 16S rRNA and P37 protein from mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected respectively using ISH and IHC. SPSS 13.0 so ware was employed to analyze the relationship between the results of the study and clinical pathological materials. RESULTS The expression rate of mycoplasma hyorhinis 16S rRNA gene and P37 protein was 20.2% (22/109) and 43.1% (47/109cases) in ovarian cancer tissues, respectively, but it was 0 (0/30cases) in the normal ovarian tissues. The difference in mycoplasma infection ratio between ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues was extremely significant (P < 0.001). Anyhow, we didn't found any association between the mycoplasma infection and clinical pathological characters.CONCLUSION There was a mycoplasma infection in ovarian cancer tissues, which may play a role in oncogenesis of ovarian cancer.

  12. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  14. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff C; Deodhar K; Patkar V; Fonseca J

    1981-01-01

    Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 mo...

  15. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff C

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 months earlier. The 2nd case sought medical attention for backache and leucorrhea of 4 years′ duration. Exploratory laparotomy in the 1st case revealed tubo-ovarian masses; the vermiform appendix was not traceable. The uterine cavity in the 2nd case harbored a wooden stick. Direct extension from established ileocacal actinomycosis was believed to involve the female genital adnexae in the past. Association of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis with the presence of a foreign body in the female genital tract has been reported sporadically in the literature, yet an increase in the incidence may be expected because of the frequent use of intrauterine contraceptive devices in recent times. It is suggested that in women presenting clinically with vague abdominal symptoms, backache and discharge, actinomycosis should be considered and ruled out with the help of cytologic and proper microbial culture methods. Once the diagnosis is established, the infection can be treated with good results with penicillin.

  16. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  17. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. Methods mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. Results MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20. In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41 and 36.6% (15/41, while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41 and 14.6% (6/41. In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7 and 14.3% (1/7. The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P P Conclusion Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. These genes can be used as one of the important indicators for early diagnosis, efficacy evaluation and prognostic determination of ovarian cancer.

  18. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  19. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  20. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  1. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  2. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  3. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    of free T 4 , normal FSH and LH and high concentrations of E 2 . A series of weekly amniocenteses and intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine was initiated, along with a reduction of the mother's methimazole dosage. The level of TSH in amniotic fluid was initially high, but was considerably reduced...... successfully with intra-amniotic injection of levothyroxine.More importantly, it shows that fetal hypothyroidism with elevated levels of TSH can be accompanied by ovarian cysts,suggesting interference between thyreotropic and gonadotropic hormones....

  4. Imunotherapy opportunities in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zh. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, accumulated evidence in favor of that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic tumor. Immunotherapy is aimed at stimulating the innate and adaptive immunity, may cause an effective response in patients with ovarian cancer. Various approaches immunotherapy include cytokinetherapy, use of monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy.

  5. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe;

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond a...

  6. Expression and histopathological correlation of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Stockard, Cecil R; Grizzle, William E; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women and its poor prognosis is mainly due to metastasis. Chemokine receptor CCR9 is primarily expressed by a small subset of immune cells. The interactions between CCL25 and CCR9 have been implicated in leukocyte trafficking to the small bowel, a frequent metastatic site for ovarian cancer cells. We have previously shown that ovarian cancer cells express CCR9 and play an important role in cell migration, invasion and survival in the presence of its natural ligand in vitro. In this study, we have evaluated the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells and clinical samples. Ovarian cancer tissue microarrays from University of Alabama at Birmingham and AccuMax were stained for CCR9 and CCL25. Aperio ScanScope was used to acquire 80X digital images and expression analysis of CCR9 and CCL25. Flow cytometry and the Image stream system were used to conform the expression of CCR9 and CCL25 in ovarian cancer cells. Our results show significantly higher (ptumor, dysgerminoma, transitional cell carcinoma, Brenner tumor, yolk sac tumor, adenocarcinoma and fibroma cases, compared to non-neoplastic ovarian tissue. Similar to tissue expression, CCR9 was also significantly expressed by the ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3) in comparison to normal adult ovarian epithelial cell. We provide the first evidence that CCR9 and its natural ligand CCL25 are highly expressed by ovarian cancer tissue and their expression correlates with histological subtypes. Expression of this chemokine receptor and its ligand CCL25 within primary tumor tissue further suggests a potential role of this chemokine-receptor axis in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:21637913

  7. Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Serous Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous subtype of ovarian cancer is considered to originate from fallopian epithelium mucosa that has been exposed to physiological changes resulting from ovulation. Ovulation influences an increased in inflammation of epithelial ovarian cells as results of constant exposure of cells to ROS. The imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, as well as a disruption of redox signaling, causes a wide range of damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. This study applied spectrophotometric, dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analyses to assess the levels of oxidatively modified proteins in 100 primary serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and normal/surrounding tissues. These samples were obtained from 56 Caucasian and 44 African-American patients within the age range of 61±10 years. Analyses showed that the levels of reactive protein carbonyl groups increased as stages progressed to malignancy. Additionally, the levels of protein carbonyls in serous ovarian carcinoma among African Americans are 40% (P<0.05 higher relative to Caucasian at similar advanced stages. Results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the modification of carbonyl protein groups, leading to increased aggressiveness of epithelial ovarian tumors and may contribute to the disease's invasiveness among African Americans.

  8. Distribution of p53 expression in tissue from 774 Danish ovarian tumour patients and its prognostic significance in ovarian carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.S.; Christensen, L.; Frederiksen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The clinical roles played by normal and altered p53 in cancer are under intensive investigation, but larger studies describing the pattern as well as the prognostic value are still needed. The aim of this study was, using tissue array (TA), to examine the overexpression of p53 protein in 774...... epithelial ovarian tumour tissues from Danish women and to evaluate whether p53 tissue expression levels correlate with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The distribution of p53 expression levels at different stages of disease, in different histological subtypes, and the prognostic value of p53...... tissue expression were examined. Overall, p53 was expressed in 24/189 (13%) low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP) and in 278/585 (48%) ovarian cancers (OC). No significant difference in frequency of p53 tissue expression in LMP tissue was noted with increasing tumour stage (p=0.98). By contrast...

  9. Napsin A is a specific marker for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoriko; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Sato, Shinya; Suzuki, Shugo; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ito, Masafumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has a relatively poor prognosis among the ovarian cancer subtypes because of its high chemoresistance. Differential diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma from other ovarian surface epithelial tumors is important for its treatment. Napsin A is a known diagnostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and expression of napsin A is reported in a certain portion of thyroid and renal carcinomas. However, napsin A expression in ovarian surface epithelial tumors has not previously been examined. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in 71 of 86 ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma patients (83%) and all of the 13 patients with ovarian clear cell adenofibroma, positive napsin A staining was evident. No expression was observed in 30 serous adenocarcinomas, 11 serous adenomas or borderline tumors, 19 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22 mucinous adenomas or borderline tumors, 10 mucinous adenocarcinomas, or 3 yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Furthermore, expression of napsin A was not observed in the normal surface epithelium of the ovary, epithelia of the fallopian tubes, squamous epithelium, endocervical epithelium, or the endometrium of the uterus. Therefore, we propose that napsin A is another sensitive and specific marker for distinguishing ovarian clear cell tumors (especially adenocarcinomas) from other ovarian tumors. PMID:24721826

  10. Zinc and homocysteine levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ismail; Himmetoglu, Ozdemir; Turp, Ahmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Onan, M Anıl; Taskiran, Cagatay; Taslipinar, Mine Yavuz; Guner, Haldun

    2014-06-01

    In this study, our objective was to evaluating the value of serum zinc levels as an etiologic and prognostic marker in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. We conducted a prospective study, including 53 women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and 33 healthy controls. We compared serum zinc levels, as well as clinical and metabolic features, of the cases. We also compared serum zinc levels between patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with insulin resistance. Mean zinc levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome than healthy controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis of significant metabolic variables between polycystic ovarian syndrome and control groups (serum zinc level, body mass index, the ratio of triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homocysteine) revealed that zinc level was the most significant variable to predict polycystic ovarian syndrome. Mean serum zinc levels tended to be lower in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with impaired glucose tolerance than patients with normal glucose tolerance, but the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, zinc deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome and may be related with its long-term metabolic complications.

  11. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. PMID:27393623

  12. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women.

  13. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  14. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  15. Analysis of computed tomography of ovarian tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Makoto; Taniike, Keiko; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu

    1987-07-01

    One hundred and twenty six patients with ovarian mass were studied with computed tomography (CT) and classified into five groups according to its margin and inner structure. The incidence of malignancy of cystic ovarian mass with smooth margin was low and that of solid ovarian mass with irreglar margin was high. Three cases (6.7 %) of malignant ovarian tumor demonstrated completely cystic pattern. Ovarian teratomas contained well defined component of fat density.

  16. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Nationw......OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN...

  17. "Incessant ovulation" and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J T; Louie, E W; Pike, M C; Roy, S; Ross, R K; Henderson, B E

    1979-07-28

    A case-control study of 150 ovarian cancer patients under the age of 50 and individually matched controls was done to study the influence of fertility and oral contraceptive use on the risk of ovarian cancer. The risk decreased with increasing numbers of live births, with increasing numbers of incomplete pregnancies, and with the use of oral contraceptives. These three factors can be amalgamated into a single index of protection--"protected time"--by considering them all as periods of anovulation. The complement of protected time--viz., "ovulatory age", the period between menarche and diagnosis of ovarian cancer (or cessation of menses) minus "protected time"--was strongly related to risk of ovarian cancer. Other factors found to be associated with increased ovarian cancer risk were obesity, cervical polyps, and gallbladder disease. Women who had an "immediate" intolerance to oral contraceptive use had a fourfold increased risk of ovarian cancer. 7 patients, but no controls, could recall a family history of ovarian cancer. PMID:89281

  18. Ovarian actions of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Israel; Duleba, Antoni J

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries, and medicinal plants, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and has been proposed to be a longevity-prolonging agent. There is also growing evidence that resveratrol has cardioprotective properties and beneficial effects on both glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, several studies have examined the use of resveratrol as a therapeutic agent to treat numerous pathological and metabolic disorders. Herein, we present insights into the mechanisms of action, biological effects, and current evidence of actions of resveratrol on the ovary. In vitro, resveratrol inhibits proliferation and androgen production by theca-interstitial cells. Resveratrol also exerts a cytostatic, but not cytotoxic, effect on granulosa cells, while decreasing aromatization and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. In vivo, resveratrol treatment reduced the size of adipocytes and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, resveratrol increased the ovarian follicular reserve and prolonged the ovarian life span in rats. Taken together, resveratrol emerges as a potential therapeutic agent to treat conditions associated with androgen excess, such as PCOS. The efficacy of resveratrol in the treatment of gynecological conditions requires further investigation. PMID:26315293

  19. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Svetlana; Ivović, Miomira; Tancić-Gajić, Milina; Marina, Ljiljana; Barać, Marija; Arizanović, Zorana; Nenezić, Ana; Ivanisević, Maja; Micić, Jelena; Sajić, Silvija; Micić, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions) or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc.The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone), karyotype (libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc. PMID:23350261

  20. Differential analysis of ovarian and endometrial cancers identifies a methylator phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Kolbe

    Full Text Available Despite improved outcomes in the past 30 years, less than half of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer live five years beyond their diagnosis. Although typically treated as a single disease, epithelial ovarian cancer includes several distinct histological subtypes, such as papillary serous and endometrioid carcinomas. To address whether the morphological differences seen in these carcinomas represent distinct characteristics at the molecular level we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in 11 papillary serous tumors, 9 endometrioid ovarian tumors, 4 normal fallopian tube samples and 6 normal endometrial tissues, plus 8 normal fallopian tube and 4 serous samples from TCGA. For comparison within the endometrioid subtype we added 6 primary uterine endometrioid tumors and 5 endometrioid metastases from uterus to ovary. Data was obtained from 27,578 CpG dinucleotides occurring in or near promoter regions of 14,495 genes. We identified 36 locations with significant increases or decreases in methylation in comparisons of serous tumors and normal fallopian tube samples. Moreover, unsupervised clustering techniques applied to all samples showed three major profiles comprising mostly normal samples, serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors including ovarian, uterine and metastatic origins. The clustering analysis identified 60 differentially methylated sites between the serous group and the normal group. An unrelated set of 25 serous tumors validated the reproducibility of the methylation patterns. In contrast, >1,000 genes were differentially methylated between endometrioid tumors and normal samples. This finding is consistent with a generalized regulatory disruption caused by a methylator phenotype. Through DNA methylation analyses we have identified genes with known roles in ovarian carcinoma etiology, whereas pathway analyses provided biological insight to the role of novel genes. Our finding of differences between serous and endometrioid

  1. [The expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in primary ovarian epithelial tumor tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Wei; Gan, Ning Yue; Zhang, Wei Jiang

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the expression of mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and phosphorylation extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK(1/2)) in primary ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, and provide experiment's foundation on the new treatment in ovarian cancer. Expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in tissues from 64 patients with primary ovarian epithelial tumor, 35 patients with ovarian epithelial bordline tumor, 32 patients with ovarian epithelial benign tumor and 26 normal ovarian tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Western-blot was also used for detecting the expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) protein in these tissues. Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot assay showed that the expression of MKP-1 was gradually decreased in normal ovarian tissues, benign tumor, bordline tumor and carcinoma respectively, and there were significant differences among them (P ERK(1/2) was gradually increased in normal ovarian tissues, benign tumor, bordline tumor and carcinoma respectively, and there were also significant differences among them (P ERK(1/2) expression level in the carcinoma tissues of stage III/IV patients was significantly higher than that of stage I/II patients. Expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) in same ovarian carcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry and Western-blot assay showed significant negative correlation (r = -0.90, P ERKs may play a role in the development of ovarian carcinoma. The abnormal expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) probably assists in promoting the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma.

  2. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  3. Ovarian Hemangioma: a Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ziari, Katayoun; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are benign and rare tumors of female genital tract with less than 60 reported cases in the literature. A 38- yr- old woman was admitted to Be’sat Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2012, due to severe abdominal pain. Ultrasound evaluation revealed a 6 cm left ovarian cystic mass and serum tumor markers were normal. Then, left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed for the patient. Microscopic examination revealed a follicular cyst and an incidental cavernous hemangioma consisting thin...

  4. Paclitaxel sensitivity in relation to ABCB1 expression, efflux and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Healey, Sue; Henderson, Michelle; Wong, Mark; Emmanuel, Catherine; Johnatty, Sharon E.; ,; Bowtell, David; Gertig, Dorota; Green, Adle; Webb, Penelope; Hung, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may under...

  5. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm3. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10-16; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm3 [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm3 [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10-7; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10-6; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10-5). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  6. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  7. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20). In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41) and 36.6% (15/41), while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41) and 14.6% (6/41). In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7) and 14.3% (1/7). The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P < 0.05). Gene expression rate was not correlated with menopause or lymph node metastasis. Positive expression of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was positively correlated with tumor differentiation and the clinical stage of the ovarian cancer. In addition, the positive expression rate of BAGE was significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients with ascites (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression profiles of MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3, A2780 and COC1 varied, but there was at least one gene expressed in each cell line. Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer

  8. Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Vera M. Abeler; Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes G; Heim, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods We cytogenetically analyzed 110 new cases of ovarian carcinoma of different histologic...

  9. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  10. The origin of ovarian teratomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Parrington, J M; West, L F; Povey, S

    1984-01-01

    Chromosome and enzyme markers have been studied in 21 benign ovarian teratomas from 14 patients. Markers heterozygous in the patient were completely homozygous in 52% of the teratomas and completely heterozygous in 19%. The remainder showed a mixture of the two, 10% having homozygous centromeres with some heterozygous enzyme markers and 19% having heterozygous centromeres and some homozygous enzyme markers. These results suggest that benign ovarian teratomas in the present series arise from g...

  11. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Bradford A.; Lane Mercer; Albert J. Peters; Ralph Kazer

    1994-01-01

    Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI). Case: In this presentation, we report the first case of an ovarian abscess following IUI with the husband's semen. Despite treatment with triple antibiotics, an oophorectomy was required. Surgical as well as pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of an ovarian...

  12. Inhibition of Hec1 expression enhances the sensitivity of human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-qing MO; Ping-bo CHEN; Xin JIN; Qian CHEN; Lan TANG; Bei-bei WANG; Ke-zhen LI

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Hec1,a member of the Ndc80 kinetochore complex,is highly expressed in cancers.The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of action of Hec1 with respect to the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in ovarian cancer.Methods:Thirty ovarian cancer samples and 6 normal ovarian samples were collected.Hec1 expression in these samples was determined with immunohistochemistry.Ovarian cancer cell lines A2780,OV2008,C13K,SKOV3,and CAOV3 and A2780/Taxol were examined.Cell apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were detected with flow cytometric technique.siRNA was used to delete Hec1 in the cells.The expression of related mRNAs and proteins was measured using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis,respectively.Results:Hec1 expression was significantly higher in ovarian cancer samples than in normal ovarian samples,and was associated with paclitaxel-resistance and poor prognosis.Among the 6 ovarian cancer cell lines examined,Hec1 expression was highest in paclitaxelresistant A2780/Taxol cells,and lowest in A2780 cells.Depleting Hec1 in A2780/Taxol cells with siRNA decreased the IC5o value of paclitaxel by more than 10-fold (from 590±26.7 to 45.6±19.4 nmol/L).Depleting Hec1 in A2780 cells had no significant effect on the paclitaxel sensitivity.In paclitaxel-treated A2780/Taxol cells,depleting Hec1 significantly increased the cleaved PARP and Bax protein levels,and decreased the Bcl-xL protein level.Conclusion:Hec1 overexpression is associated with the progression and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer.Inhibition of Hec1 expression can sensitize ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel.

  13. Tamoxifen and ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Berliere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that the clinical parameter "amenorrhea" is insufficient to define the menopausal status of women treated with chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In this study, we investigated and compared the ovarian function defined either by clinical or biological parameters in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen administered as adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2003, 138 premenopausal patients consecutively treated for early breast cancer were included. Sixty-eight received tamoxifen in monotherapy as the only adjuvant systemic treatment (Group I and 70 were treated with tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy (Group II. All patients had a confirmed premenopausal status based on clinical parameters and hormonal values at study entry. They were followed prospectively every 3 months for 3 years: menses data, physical examination and blood tests (LH, FSH, 17-beta-estradiol. Vaginal ultrasonography was carried out every 6 months. After 3 years, prospective evaluation was completed and monitoring of ovarian function was performed as usual in our institution (1x/year. All data were retrospectively evaluated in 2011. RESULTS: Three patients were excluded from the study in group I and 2 were excluded in group II. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to clinical data, i.e. menses patterns. These patterns were assessed by questionnaires. a: Regular menses (>10 cycles/year b: Oligomenorrhea (5 to 9 cycles/year c: Severe oligomenorrhea (1 to 4 cycles/year d: Complete amenorrhea Estrogen levels did not appear to have any impact on disease-free survival rates after 3 or 8 years. FSH values were also documented and analyzed. They exhibited the same profile as estradiol values. CONCLUSIONS: Amenorrhea is an insufficient parameter to define menopausal status in patients receiving tamoxifen. Low estradiol levels must be coupled with other biological parameters to characterize endocrine status

  14. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  15. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  16. Doxorubicin-induced ovarian toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizel Shulamith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young cancer patients may occasionally face infertility and premature gonadal failure. Apart from its direct effect on follicles and oocytes, chemotherapy may induce ovarian toxicity via an impact on the entire ovary. The role of doxorubicin in potential ovarian failure remains obscure. Our intention was to elucidate doxorubicin-related toxicity within ovaries. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 or 10 mg/kg doxorubicin and their ovaries were visualized in vivo by high resolution MRI, one day and one month following treatment. Ovaries of other treated mice were excised and weighed at the same post-treatment intervals. Ovarian histological sections were stained for TUNEL or active caspase-3 and follicles were counted and categorized. Ovulation rates were evaluated in superovulated female mice treated with doxorubicin. Results A single injection of doxorubicin resulted in a major reduction in both ovarian size and weight that lasted even one month post treatment. A dramatic reduction in ovulation rate was observed one week after treatment, followed by a partial recovery at one month. Histological examination revealed positive staining of TUNEL and active caspase-3. We observed a significant reduction in the population of secondary and primordial follicles one month following treatment. Conclusions Our results may imply a mechanism of chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity, manifested by reduced ovulation and accompanied by a reduction in ovarian size, caused probably by an acute insult to the ovary.

  17. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p0.05 but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p<0.05 or p<0.01. A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p<0.01, in which the clinical stage (p<0.05 and Notch3 expression (p<0.01 played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Genomic alterations detected by comparative genomic hybridization in ovarian endometriomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Veiga-Castelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a complex and multifactorial disease. Chromosomal imbalance screening in endometriotic tissue can be used to detect hot-spot regions in the search for a possible genetic marker for endometriosis. The objective of the present study was to detect chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH in ectopic tissue samples from ovarian endometriomas and eutopic tissue from the same patients. We evaluated 10 ovarian endometriotic tissues and 10 eutopic endometrial tissues by metaphase CGH. CGH was prepared with normal and test DNA enzymatically digested, ligated to adaptors and amplified by PCR. A second PCR was performed for DNA labeling. Equal amounts of both normal and test-labeled DNA were hybridized in human normal metaphases. The Isis FISH Imaging System V 5.0 software was used for chromosome analysis. In both eutopic and ectopic groups, 4/10 samples presented chromosomal alterations, mainly chromosomal gains. CGH identified 11q12.3-q13.1, 17p11.1-p12, 17q25.3-qter, and 19p as critical regions. Genomic imbalances in 11q, 17p, 17q, and 19p were detected in normal eutopic and/or ectopic endometrium from women with ovarian endometriosis. These regions contain genes such as POLR2G, MXRA7 and UBA52 involved in biological processes that may lead to the establishment and maintenance of endometriotic implants. This genomic imbalance may affect genes in which dysregulation impacts both eutopic and ectopic endometrium.

  19. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  20. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  1. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  2. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  3. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Ke; Arlin G. Cameron; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA) analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR) dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occur...

  4. The Age of Analog Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiussi, Claudio; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Marbach, Daniel; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Dürr, Peter; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Floreano, Dario; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

    2008-01-01

    A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamical devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems which include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different timescales. When tackled b...

  5. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.......The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors....

  6. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  7. Expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44/Mep50/WDR77 in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ligr

    Full Text Available Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR and estrogen receptor (ER in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.

  8. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  9. Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159486.html Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer Chronic inactivity linked ... TUESDAY, June 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of exercise is associated with an increased risk of ovarian ...

  10. Genetic analysis of ovarian microcystic stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Cho, Nam Hoon; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) of the ovary is a rare subtype of ovarian tumor first described in 2009. Although high nuclear expression of β-catenin and β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutation are related with ovarian MCST, the origin and genetic background of ovarian MCST remain unclear. In this study, two cases of ovarian MCST are presented. Microscopically, the tumors showed a microcystic pattern and regions with lobulated cellular masses with intervening hyalinized, fibrous stroma. Tumor cell...

  11. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  12. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  13. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  14. Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, Frank J.; Visser, Jenny A.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Broer, Simone L.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Fauser, Bart C.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has important roles in postnatal ovarian function. Produced by ovarian granulosa cells, AMH is involved in initial follicle development. In fact, serum AMH level correlates with ovarian follicle number. In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), AMH levels are el

  15. A retrospective study of ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Neelgund

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Unilocular simple ovarian cysts are usually functional ovarian cysts and resolve spontaneously. Therapy by 3 to 6 months of Oral Contraceptives, usually resolves them and this also helps to distinguish between physiological and pathological ovarian cysts [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1969-1973

  16. Do We Know What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes ovarian cancer? We don’t yet know exactly what causes most ovarian cancers. As discussed in the previous section, we do know some factors that make a woman ...

  17. Ovarian teratoma and endometritis in a mare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract An 8-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for a large ovarian anovulatory follicle. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian tumor and endometritis was established. Histological examinations revealed an ovarian teratoma and a grade II endometritis. Three months after unilateral ovariectomy, the mare was confirmed pregnant and eventually gave birth uneventfully. PMID:16363331

  18. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in microdissected clear cell ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Stany

    Full Text Available Clear cell ovarian cancer is an epithelial ovarian cancer histotype that is less responsive to chemotherapy and carries poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid histotypes. Despite this, patients with these tumors are treated in a similar fashion as all other ovarian cancers. Previous genomic analysis has suggested that clear cell cancers represent a unique tumor subtype. Here we generated the first whole genomic expression profiling using epithelial component of clear cell ovarian cancers and normal ovarian surface specimens isolated by laser capture microdissection. All the arrays were analyzed using BRB ArrayTools and PathwayStudio software to identify the signaling pathways. Identified pathways validated using serous, clear cell cancer cell lines and RNAi technology. In vivo validations carried out using an orthotopic mouse model and liposomal encapsulated siRNA. Patient-derived clear cell and serous ovarian tumors were grafted under the renal capsule of NOD-SCID mice to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the identified pathway. We identified major activated pathways in clear cells involving in hypoxic cell growth, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism not seen in other histotypes. Knockdown of key genes in these pathways sensitized clear cell ovarian cancer cell lines to hypoxia/glucose deprivation. In vivo experiments using patient derived tumors demonstrate that clear cell tumors are exquisitely sensitive to antiangiogenesis therapy (i.e. sunitinib compared with serous tumors. We generated a histotype specific, gene signature associated with clear cell ovarian cancer which identifies important activated pathways critical for their clinicopathologic characteristics. These results provide a rational basis for a radically different treatment for ovarian clear cell patients.

  19. Syntheses and Bioactivities of Targeted and Conformationally Restrained Paclitaxel and Discodermolide Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel was isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia in the late 1960s. It exerts its biological effect by promoting tubulin polymerization and stabilizing the resulting microtubules. Paclitaxel has become one of the most important current drugs for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. Studies aimed at understanding the biologically active conformation of paclitaxel bound on ï ¢â tubulin are described. In this work, the synthesis of isotopically labeled taxol analogs is desc...

  20. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  1. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis;

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  2. Long-Term Moderate Oxidative Stress Decreased Ovarian Reproductive Function by Reducing Follicle Quality and Progesterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiwen; Tian, Yong; Fang, Li; Wu, Meng; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Qin, Xian; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian aging is a long-term and complex process associated with a decrease in follicular quantity and quality. The damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian aging and ovarian aging-associated disorders have received relatively little attention. Thus, we assessed if the oxidative stress induced by long-term (defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as at least 30 days in duration) moderate ozone inhalation reduced ovarian reserves, decreased ovarian function and induced ovarian aging-associated disorders. The expression of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes was used to determine the degree of oxidative stress. Ultrastructural changes in ovarian cells were examined via electron microscopy. The ovarian reserve was assessed by measuring multiple parameters, such as the size of the primordial follicle pool and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrous cycle, hormone levels and fertility status were investigated to assess ovarian function. To investigate ovarian aging-associated disorders, we utilized bone density and cardiovascular ultrasonography in mice. The levels of oxidized metabolites, such as 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NTY), significantly increased in ovarian cells in response to increased oxidative stress. The ultrastructural analysis indicated that lipid droplet formation and the proportion of mitochondria with damaged membranes in granulosa cells were markedly increased in ozone-exposed mice when compared with the control group. Ozone exposure did not change the size of the primordial follicle pool or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrogen concentration remained normal; however, progesterone and testosterone levels decreased. The mice exposed to ozone inhalation exhibited a substantial decrease in fertility and fecundity. No differences were revealed by the bone density or cardiovascular ultrasounds. These findings suggest that the

  3. Radiolabeled nucleoside analogs in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, A I; Adelstein, S J; Mariani, G

    1996-09-01

    ]IUdR in cultured cells, animal tumor-model systems, and patients. In vitro, DNA incorporation of 123I- and 125I-labeled IUdR leads to an exponential decrease in cell survival (no shoulder on the survival curve). However, the total number of decays needed to produce a given lethal effect with [123I]IUdR is approximately twice that required with [125I]IUdR. In vivo, the scintigraphic and antineoplastic capabilities of radioiodinated IUdR have been demonstrated in an intraperitoneal murine ovarian tumor model following intraperitoneal injection; in an intracerebral rat gliosarcoma model after intracranial administration; in an intrathecal rat gliosarcoma model after intrathecal infusion; and in a rat transitional cell bladder cancer model following intravesicular infusion. [123I]IUdR, [125I]IUdR, and/or [131I]IUdR have been administered to patients with brain, breast, colorectal, or gastrointestinal cancers (intratumorally); ovarian cancer (intraperitoneally); bladder cancer (intravesically); liver metastases from colorectal cancer (through the hepatic artery, permanent intra-arterial catheter). These studies have confirmed the observations made in animal models. The data indicate that 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine radiolabeled with an Auger electron emitter (123I or 125I) may be a useful agent for the scintigraphic diagnosis and/or therapy of neoplastic diseases that are accessible to direct radiopharmaceutical administration. This radiopharmaceutical should serve as a prototype for, and facilitate the development of, other radiolabeled nucleoside analogs. Further investigations are certainly warranted. PMID:8961807

  4. Examination of diagnostic features in multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tumorigenesis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M.

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only a fraction of high risk women go on to develop ovarian cancer. Better understanding of the early development of ovarian cancer and characterization of morphological changes associated with early disease could lead to the development of an effective screening test for women at high risk. Optical imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are excellent tools for studying disease progression owing to the high resolution and depth sectioning capabilities. Further, these techniques are excellent for optical biopsy because they can image in situ non-destructively. In the studies described in this dissertation OCT and MPM are used to identify cellular and tissue morphological changes associated with early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. This work is organized into three specific aims. The first aim is to use the images from the MPM phenomenon of second harmonic generation to quantitatively examine the morphological differences in collagen structure in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The second aim is to examine the differences in endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The third and final aim is to identify changes in ovarian microstructure resulting from early

  5. Ovarian function after removal of an entire ovary for cryopreservation of pieces of cortex prior to gonadotoxic treatment: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M.; Andersen, Claus Yding; Ernst, E.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian function was studied in Danish patients who had ovarian tissue cryopreserved, and the patients' experiences with the procedure were investigated. METHODS: There were 92 women who had an entire ovary removed for cryopreservation 18-75 months earlier. Reasons included: breast......) were performed in 73 women. RESULTS: In total, 11% of the BMT patients had normal ovarian function. Hodgkin's patients who only received ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) (n = 12) and 60% of the breast cancer patients showed little evidence of ovarian damage. Regular...... menstruation was shown to be a good indicator of ovarian function. The cryopreservation procedure rarely complicated cancer treatment (5%) and 84% felt comforted because they had potentially secured their fertility. CONCLUSIONS: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue should be considered in young female patients...

  6. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BASIC FIBROBLAST GWOWTH FACTOR AND FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-1 IN OVARIAN EPITHELIAL NEOPLASM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚风; 杨蓉; 高博; 刘惠喜

    2003-01-01

    fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) and carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian epithelial neoplasm. Methods Ten cases of normal ovarian tissues and 75 cases of ovarian epithelial neoplasm tissues were detected by immunohistochemical methods: S-P for bFGF, FGFR-1,double immunohistochemistry Lab-SA for Ki-67 antigen and bFGF. Results The expression level of bFGF, FGFR-1in ovarian epithelium and ovarian epithelial neoplasm showed a step-wise increase in the following order:normal〈benign〈borderline〈malignant; The expression level and intensity of bFGF and FGFR-1 were increased with the decrease of differentiation degree and increase of clinical stage in ovarian carcinoma; There was no statistical difference between the expression of bFGF, FGFR-1 in serous cystadenocarcinoma and that of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; The expression of bFGF was correlated with that of FGFR-1 in neoplastic tissues; There were positive expression rates of bFGF and Ki-67 antigen in ovarian epithelial neoplasm. Conclusion As an important proliferative factor, bFGF plays an important role in carcinogenisis and progression of ovarian epithelial neoplasm.

  7. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  8. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  9. Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis: A Model in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Karst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease for which there is no effective means of early detection. Ovarian carcinomas comprise a diverse group of neoplasms, exhibiting a wide range of morphological characteristics, clinical manifestations, genetic alterations, and tumor behaviors. This high degree of heterogeneity presents a major clinical challenge in both diagnosing and treating ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the early events leading to ovarian carcinoma development are poorly understood, thus complicating efforts to develop screening modalities for this disease. Here, we provide an overview of the current models of ovarian cancer pathogenesis, highlighting recent findings implicating the fallopian tube fimbria as a possible site of origin of ovarian carcinomas. The ovarian cancer model will continue to evolve as we learn more about the genetics and etiology of this disease.

  10. Anti-mullerian hormone and antral follicle count as predictors of ovarian response in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Himabindu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that AMH and antral follicle count (AFC are good predictors of ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation and to compare them. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 56 subjects aged between 25 and 42 years who were enrolled between 1 st January and 31 st December 2010 for their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI program. Baseline hormone profiles including serum levels of Estradiol (E2, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH, and Anti-mullerian Hormone (AMH were determined on day 3 of the previous cycle. The antral follicle count measurements were performed on days 3-5 of the same menstrual cycle. Antral follicles within the bilateral ovaries between 2-6 mm were recorded. The subjects were treated with long protocol for ovarian stimulation. Ovulation was induced with 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG when at least 3 follicles attained the size of more than 17 mm. Transvaginal oocyte retrieval was performed under ultrasound guidance 36 hours after hCG administration. An oocyte count less than 4 and absence of follicular growth with controlled ovarian hyper stimulation was considered as poor ovarian response. Oocyte count of 4 or more was considered as normal ovarian response. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software trail version 16.0. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, depending on the ovarian response. The mean oocyte counts were 12.27 ± 6.06 and 2.22 ± 1.24 in normal and poor responders, respectively, ( P = 001. Multiple regression analysis revealed AMH and antral follicle count as predictors of ovarian response (β coefficient ± SE for AMH was 1.618 ± 0.602 ( P = 0.01 and for AFC, it was, 0.528 ± 0.175 ( P = 0.004. AFC was found to be a better predictor of ovarian response compared to AMH in controlled ovarian hyper stimulation. Conclusion: The observations made

  11. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  12. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  13. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  14. Bacillus intermedius ribonuclease (BINASE) induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipov, Azat R; Nesmelov, Alexander A; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Ilinskaya, Olga N

    2014-12-15

    The cytotoxic effects of Bacillus intermedius RNase (binase) towards ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 and OVCAR5) were studied in comparison to normal ovarian epithelial cells (HOSE1 and HOSE2). Binase decreased viability and induced the selective apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. The apoptosis rate was 50% in SKOV3 and 48% in OVCAR5 cells after 24 h of binase treatment (50 μg/ml). Binase-induced apoptosis in these cell lines was accompanied by caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase fragmentation. Normal ovarian epithelial cells were not affected by binase, except for a slight decrease of HOSE2 cell viability and the appearance of traces of activated caspase-3, but not the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 85-kDA fragment. Binase did not induce alteration of EZH2 (enhancer of zeste-homolog-2) protein expression neither, in tumor nor in normal cells. In conclusion, selective binase-induced cell death and apoptosis via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase fragmentation may serve as a new treatment option against ovarian cancer progression.

  15. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 in Serous Ovarian Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖; 刘军; 吴静; 宋天保

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 7 in serous ovarian tumors. Methods: Ezpressiou of MMP-7 in 6 normal ovaries, 12 serous cystaderunnas of ovary, 6 borderline cystadenomas of ovary, and 22 serous cystadenocarcinomas of ovary were studied by immunohistochemical SP staining. Results: No expression of MMP-7 was detected in normal ovaries. In most serous ovarian tumors, expression of MMP-7 was detected in both the cytoplasm of tumor cells and stroma, although it was reported in other tumors that MMP-7 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. The expression level of MMP-7 in the cytoplasm of tumor cells was statistically insignificant between serous cystadenomas of ovary, borderline cystadenemuts of ovary, and serous cystadenocarcinomas of ovary. But in the stroma, the expression level of MMP-7 in borderline cystadenomas of ovary and serous cystadenocarcinomas of ovary was significantly higher than that in serous cystadenomas of ovary ( P<0. 05). In borderline cystadenomas and serous cystadencarcinomas of ovary, expression of MMP-7 could also be detected in the nuclei of some tumor cells. Conclusion, MMP-7 may play an important role in the progression of serous ovarian tumors.

  16. FET comparator detects analog signal levels without loading analog device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    FET comparator circuit detects discrete analog computer output levels without excessively loading the output amplifier of the computer. An FET common source amplifier is coupled by a differential amplifier to a bistable transistor flip-flop. This circuit provides a digital output for analog voltages above or below a predetermined level.

  17. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  18. Bisphenol A and ovarian steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Mok-Lin, Evelyn; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2016-09-15

    Bisphenol A is widely used as a component in polycarbonate plastics for food and beverage packaging, epoxy linings for canned foods, and dental sealants, among other applications. Experimental literature demonstrates BPA's affinity for estrogen receptors and downstream effects on estrogen-responsive genes. Additional data suggest that BPA reduces endogenous estrogen synthesis, likely by antagonizing ovarian enzyme activities involved in sex-steroid hormone synthesis. More specifically, evidence indicates BPA-mediated disruption of STAR, CYP450scc, and HSD-3β in theca cells and CYP450 aromatase activity in granulosa cells. Yet the results of the few human studies reported to date are equivocal. It also remains in question the extent to which BPA penetrates developing ovarian follicles. Uncertainty as to the relevance of experimental BPA doses and administration routes for common human exposure levels limits extrapolation of experimental results. To more definitively address the potential risk of BPA on human ovarian steroidogenesis, additional experimental studies using biologically active BPA doses likely to reflect those within the ovarian follicle will be necessary, as will additional prospective investigations in human populations with the use of standardized assay methodology. PMID:27543890

  19. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...

  20. Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Vera M. Abeler; Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes G; Heim, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and...

  3. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  4. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  5. Ovarian Drilling in PCOS: is it really useful!?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSAM eLEBBI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a frequent disorder, affecting approximately 5 to 10 % of infertile women. It can represent more than 80% of cases of infertility due to anovulation. The main goal of treatment is the induction of mono-ovulatory cycles. A pragmatic management of infertility in PCOS will allow most patients to conceive.Weight loss and clomiphene citrate (CC are the first-line components of patients treatment before gonadotropins are used. However, during gonadotropin administration, there is a high risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation (OHSS and multiple pregnancies. So, surgery with laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD is often used before gonadotropins in order to obtain normal ovulatory cycles.

  6. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  7. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  8. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  9. Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumesic Daniel A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In female mammals, including humans, deviations from normal androgenic or estrogenic exposure during fetal development are detrimental to subsequent adult ovarian function. Androgen deficiency, without accompanying estrogen deficit, has little apparent impact on ovarian development. Fetal estrogen deficiency, on the other hand, results in impaired oocyte and follicle development, immature and abnormal adult ovaries, and excessive ovarian stimulation from endogenous gonadotropins ultimately generating hemorrhagic follicles. Complete estrogen deficiency lasting into adulthood results in partial ovarian masculinization. Fetal androgen excess, on the other hand, mediated either by direct androgen action or following androgen aromatization to estrogen, reprograms ovarian development and reproductive neuroendocrinology to mimic that found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: enlarged, polyfollicular, hyperandrogenic, anovulatory ovaries with accompanying LH hypersecretion. Oocyte developmental competence is also compromised. Insulin is implicated in the mechanism of both anovulation and deficient oocyte development. Fetal estrogen excess induces somewhat similar disruption of adult ovarian function to fetal androgen excess. Understanding the quality of the fetal female sex steroid hormone environment is thus becoming increasingly important in improving our knowledge of mechanisms underlying a variety of female reproductive pathologies.

  10. BCAT1 expression associates with ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in altered disease metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Guillemette, Chantal; Gobeil, Stéphane; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2015-10-13

    Previously, we have identified the branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) gene as notably hypomethylated in low-malignant potential (LMP) and high-grade (HG) serous epithelial ovarian tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Here we show that BCAT1 is strongly overexpressed in both LMP and HG serous epithelial ovarian tumors, which probably correlates with its hypomethylated status. Knockdown of the BCAT1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inhibited cell cycle progression. BCAT1 silencing was associated with the suppression of numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, and the induction of some tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Moreover, BCAT1 suppression resulted in downregulation of numerous genes implicated in lipid production and protein synthesis, suggesting its important role in controlling EOC metabolism. Further metabolomic analyses were indicative for significant depletion of most amino acids and different phospho- and sphingolipids following BCAT1 knockdown. Finally, BCAT1 suppression led to significantly prolonged survival time in xenograft model of advanced peritoneal EOC. Taken together, our findings provide new insights about the functional role of BCAT1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and identify this transaminase as a novel EOC biomarker and putative EOC therapeutic target.

  11. Steroid Cell Ovarian Neoplasm, Not Otherwise Specified: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Steroid cell ovarian tumors, not otherwise specified, represent a unique cause of female virilization. Most commonly encountered in premenopausal women, these tumors can exist throughout a women’s lifetime, from before puberty until after menopause. Case. Steroid cell, not otherwise specified, was diagnosed in a 70-year-old female significant for hirsutism. The patient demonstrated elevated total testosterone levels with normal gonadotropins, DHEA, and DHEA-S levels. CT imaging revealed a right ovarian mass and subsequent laparoscopic right oophorectomy yielded clinical improvement promptly. Conclusion. Virilization in females can occur based on ovarian or adrenal pathology. In terms of ovarian-based female virilization, many tumors exist that may induce women to demonstrate masculine features, such as pure Sertoli, pure Leydig, Sertoli-Leydig combinations, and gynandroblastomas. Each of these tumor types possesses a unique histologic pattern that allows for pathologic identification after removal. A rare source of ovarian-based female virilization is steroid cell neoplasms, not otherwise specified, that do not demonstrate these specific histologic characteristics and thus represent a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes of ovarian-based female virilization have been ruled out.

  12. Metabolomic Characterization of Ovarian Epithelial Carcinomas by HRMAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ben Sellem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of the present study are to determine if a metabolomic study by HRMAS-NMR can (i discriminate between different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue, (ii generate statistical models capable of classifying borderline tumors and (iii establish a potential relationship with patient's survival or response to chemotherapy. Methods. 36 human epithelial ovarian tumor biopsies and 3 healthy ovarian tissues were studied using 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Results. The results presented in this study demonstrate that the three histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas present an effective metabolic pattern difference. Furthermore, a metabolic signature specific of serous (N-acetyl-aspartate and mucinous (N-acetyl-lysine carcinomas was found. The statistical models generated in this study are able to predict borderline tumors characterized by an intermediate metabolic pattern similar to the normal ovarian tissue. Finally and importantly, the statistical model of serous carcinomas provided good predictions of both patient's survival rates and the patient's response to chemotherapy. Conclusions. Despite the small number of samples used in this study, the results indicate that metabolomic analysis of intact tissues by HRMAS-NMR is a promising technique which might be applicable to the therapeutic management of patients.

  13. Targeting of Topoisomerase I for Prognoses and Therapeutics of Camptothecin-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiang-Ping; An, Herng-Wei; Lee, Chi-Ming; Wu, Jen-Chine; Chen, Chien-Shu; Huang, Shih-Hao; Hwang, Jaulang; Cheng, Kur-Ta; Leiw, Phui-Ly; Chen, Chi-Long; Lin, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1) levels of several human neoplasms are higher than those of normal tissues. TOP1 inhibitors are widely used in treating conventional therapy-resistant ovarian cancers. However, patients may develop resistance to TOP1 inhibitors, hampering chemotherapy success. In this study, we examined the mechanisms associated with the development of camptothecin (CPT) resistance in ovarian cancers and identified evodiamine (EVO), a natural product with TOP1 inhibiting activity that overcomes the resistance. The correlations among TOP1 levels, cancer staging, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. The effect of EVO on CPT-resistant ovarian cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. TOP1 was associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancers (p = 0.024). EVO induced apoptosis that was detected using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The tumor size decreased significantly in the EVO treatment group compared with the control group (p < 0.01) in a xenograft mouse model. Effects of drugs targeting TOP1 for prognosis and therapy in CPT-resistant ovarian cancer are anticipated. EVO with TOP1 can be developed as an antiproliferative agent for overcoming CPT resistance in ovarian cancers. PMID:26207989

  14. Targeting of Topoisomerase I for Prognoses and Therapeutics of Camptothecin-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Lee

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1 levels of several human neoplasms are higher than those of normal tissues. TOP1 inhibitors are widely used in treating conventional therapy-resistant ovarian cancers. However, patients may develop resistance to TOP1 inhibitors, hampering chemotherapy success. In this study, we examined the mechanisms associated with the development of camptothecin (CPT resistance in ovarian cancers and identified evodiamine (EVO, a natural product with TOP1 inhibiting activity that overcomes the resistance. The correlations among TOP1 levels, cancer staging, and overall survival (OS were analyzed. The effect of EVO on CPT-resistant ovarian cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. TOP1 was associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancers (p = 0.024. EVO induced apoptosis that was detected using flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. The tumor size decreased significantly in the EVO treatment group compared with the control group (p < 0.01 in a xenograft mouse model. Effects of drugs targeting TOP1 for prognosis and therapy in CPT-resistant ovarian cancer are anticipated. EVO with TOP1 can be developed as an antiproliferative agent for overcoming CPT resistance in ovarian cancers.

  15. Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Sundberg, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    normal reference ranges. Ovarian follicles became visible in 58% after 1 year compared with 28% before GH therapy. Anti-Müllerian hormone increased significantly during the 3 years of GH therapy but remained within the normal range. Precocious puberty was observed in one girl; another girl developed......OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on ovarian and uterine morphology and function in short, prepubertal small-for-gestational-age (SGA) girls.DESIGN: A multinational, randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of GH therapy in short, prepubertal children born......(S): Data on anthropometrics, reproductive hormones, and ultrasonographic examination of the internal genitalia were collected during 36 months of GH treatment.RESULT(S): Uterine and ovarian volume increased significantly during 3 years of treatment (64% and 110%, respectively) but remained low within...

  16. Bilateral ovarian maldescent: Unusual cause of infertility - A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, D; Grazi, R; Kankanala, N; Melzer-Ross, K

    2016-08-01

    Infertility due to ovarian maldescent is extremely rare and diagnosis can be challenging in the absence of uterine anomalies. We present a case of infertility due to bilateral ovarian maldescent with normal uterine anatomy who conceived after in vitro fertilization and did not require removal of the ovaries. A 19-year-old woman presented with primary infertility. After three failed cycles of ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination and one failed cycle of fresh embryo transfer, the patient underwent laparoscopy, which showed bilateral ovaries above the pelvic brim. The patient conceived after second in vitro fertilization and delivered at 34 weeks. Accurate diagnosis of ovarian maldescent in a patient of unexplained infertility and normal uterus is crucial for successful follicular aspiration and infertility treatment. It is important to counsel patients about the benign nature of this rare entity and future fertility. PMID:27094464

  17. Gene expression profile differences in high and low metastatic human ovarian cancer cell lines by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沈华; 牟瀚舟; 吕桂泉; 朱赤红; 羊正炎; 高永良; 楼洪坤; 刘祥麟; 程勇; 杨文

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the difference between gene expressions of high (H0-8910PM) and low (HO-8910) metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and screen novel associated genes by cDNA microarray. Methods cDNA retro-transcribed from equal quantities of mRNA derived from high and low metastatic tumor cells or normal ovarian tissues were labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescein as probes. The mixed probe was hybridized with two pieces of BioDoor 4096 double dot human whole gene chip and scanned with a ScanArray 3000 laser scanner. The acquired image was analyzed by ImaGene 3.0 software. Results A total of 355 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger were found by comparing the HO-8910 cell with normal ovarian epithelial cells. A total of 323 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger in HO-8910PM cells compared to normal ovarian epithelium cells were also detected. A total of 165 genes whose expression levels were more than two times those of HO-8910PM cells compared to their mother cell line (HO-8910) were detected. Twenty-one genes with expression levels >3 times were found from comparison of these two tumor cell lines.Conclusions cDNA microarray techniques are effective in screening differential gene expression between two human ovarian cancer cell lines (H0-8910PM; HO-8910) and normal ovarian epithelial cells. These genes may be related to the genesis and development of ovarian carcinoma. Analysis of the human ovarian cancer gene expression profile with cDNA microarray may help in gene diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  18. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) f...

  19. From primordial germ cells to primordial follicles: a review and visual representation of early ovarian development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wear, Hannah M.; McPike, Matthew J; Watanabe, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal development of reproductive organs is crucial for successful reproduction. In mice the early ovarian developmental process occurs during the embryonic and postnatal period and is regulated through a series of molecular signaling events. Early ovarian development in mice is a seventeen-day process that begins with the rise of six primordial germ cells on embryonic day five (E5) and ends with the formation of primordial follicles on postnatal day two (P2). Results We reviewed ...

  20. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry;

    2016-01-01

    and warming. METHODS: 36 patients aged from 8 to 41 years who had one ovary excised for fertility preservation were included. Oocytes were collected from the medulla tissue and matured in vitro 44-48 h followed by vitrification. Number of oocytes collected, the rates of maturation and post-warming survival...... following in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes collected from medulla tissue, of which two survived vitrification and warming. This approach represents an add-on method to potentially augment the fertility opportunity for cancer patients, especially in young women with cancer where transplantation......PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification...

  1. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  2. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  3. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P<0.01. On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

  4. Overexpression of SnoN/SkiL, amplified at the 3q26.2 locus, in ovarian cancers: A role in ovarian pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanjundan, Meera; Cheng, Kwai Wa; Zhang, Fan; Lahad, John; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Smith-McCune, Karen; Fishman, David; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2008-07-18

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization of 235 serous epithelial ovarian cancers demonstrated a regional increase at 3q26.2 encompassing SnoN/SkiL, a coregulator of SMAD/TGF{beta} signaling. SnoN RNA transcripts were elevated in {approx}80% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In both immortalized normal (TIOSE) and ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCA), SnoN RNA levels were increased by TGF{beta} stimulation and altered by LY294002 and JNK II inhibitor treatment suggesting that the PI3K and JNK signaling pathways may regulate TGF{beta}-induced increases in SnoN RNA. In TIOSE, SnoN protein levels were reduced 15min post TGF{beta}-stimulation, likely by proteosome-mediated degradation. In contrast, in OVCA, SnoN levels were elevated 3h post-stimulation potentially as a result of inhibition of the proteosome. To elucidate the role of SnoN in ovarian tumorigenesis, we explored the effects of both increasing and decreasing SnoN levels. In both TIOSE and OVCA, SnoN siRNA decreased cell growth between 20 and 50% concurrent with increased p21 levels. In TIOSE, transient expression of SnoN repressed TGF{beta} induction of PAI-1 promoters with little effect on the p21 promoter or resultant cell growth. In contrast to the effects of transient expression, stable expression of SnoN in TIOSE led to growth arrest through induction of senescence. Collectively, these results implicate SnoN levels in multiple roles during ovarian carcinogenesis: promoting cellular proliferation in ovarian cancer cells and as a positive mediator of cell cycle arrest and senescence in non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells.

  5. Genetic changes in nonepithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Leunen, Karin; Amant, Frédéric; Vergote, Ignace

    2013-07-01

    Nonepithelial ovarian cancers (OCs), including sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs), are an uncommon subset of OC, together accounting for 10% of all OCs. The etiology of these tumors remains largely unresolved. It is well established that tumorigenesis is the result of multiple genetic alterations driving a normal cell toward a malignant state. Much effort has been made into researching the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial OC, but far less is known about the genetic changes in SCSTs and GCTs. Recently, a single point missense mutation (C134W) was found in the FOXL2 gene in approximately 95% of adult-type granulosa cell tumors, suggesting a key role for FOXL2 in these tumors. By contrast, the FOXL2 mutation was not found in the juvenile type. DICER1 somatic missense mutations were found in approximately 60% of Sertoli-Leydig tumors. Ovarian GCTs share many morphological features and a similar pattern of chromosomal alterations with testicular GCTs. In the latter, recent genome-wide association studies have identified seven susceptibility loci near KITLG, SPRY4, UKC2, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT and ATF7IP. All of the susceptibility loci detected thus far are all involved in primordial germ cell function or sex determination. TGF-β/BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling was absent in dysgerminomas, but present in yolk sac tumors, suggesting intertumoral heterogeneity. In this article, the authors aim to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the possible molecular changes in SCSTs and GCTs of the ovary. PMID:23875665

  6. Clinicopathologic features of ovarian neoplasms with emphasis on borderline ovarian tumors: an institutional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Bhagwani, Aneel Roy; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Faridi, Naveen; Hussain, Syed Danish; Khan, Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and it represents third most common malignancy in Karachi (after breast and oral cancer). Due to lack of well established cancer registry in our country, changing trends of ovarian tumors has not been determined. Therefore we aimed to establish the current trends and classification of ovarian tumors in our setup according to latest WHO guidelines. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 162 cases of ovarian tumors that underwent ...

  7. Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: An integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald John F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfatides (ST are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Results Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS. The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6 that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely

  8. Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sarojini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of conventional and contemporary methods to detect ovarian cancer development, ovarian cancer remains a common and commonly fatal gynecological malignancy. The identification and validation of early detection biomarkers highly specific to ovarian cancer, which would permit development of minimally invasive screening methods for detecting early onset of the disease, are urgently needed. Current practices for early detection of ovarian cancer include transvaginal ultrasonography, biomarker analysis, or a combination of both. In this paper we review recent research on novel and robust biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer and provide specific details on their contributions to tumorigenesis. Promising biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer include KLK6/7, GSTT1, PRSS8, FOLR1, ALDH1, and miRNAs.

  9. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  10. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression was...... used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  11. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Soede, N M; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to one of three dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and one of two diets in early lactation (glucogenic or lipogenic diet) resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Cows were monitored for body condition score, milk yield, dry matter intake, and energy balance from calving to week 8 postpartum, and blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from calving to week 8 postpartum. Milk samples were collected three times a week until 100 DIM postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. At least two succeeding milk samples with progesterone concentration of 2 ng/mL or greater were used to indicate the occurrence of luteal activity. Normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity was defined as the onset of luteal activity (OLA) occurring at 45 DIM or less, followed by regular ovarian cycles of 18 to 24 days in length. Within 100 DIM postpartum, cows with a 0-day dry period had greater incidence of normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (53.2%; 25 out of 47 cows) compared with cows with a 60-day dry period (26.0%; 13 out of 50 cows, P = 0.02). Independent of dry period length or diet, cows with OLA at less than 21 DIM had a greater body condition score during weeks 1 and 2 (P = 0.01) and weeks 1 through 8 (P = 0.01) postpartum compared with cows with OLA at greater than 30 DIM. Cows with the first ovarian cycle of medium length (18-24 days) had greater energy balance (P = 0.03), plasma concentrations of insulin (P = 0.03), glucose (P = 0.04), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.04) than cows with long ovarian cycle lengths (>24 days) but had lower plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (P cows with

  12. Plexin-B1 silencing inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated Plexin-B1 expression has been found in diverse human cancers and in non-neoplastic tissues, and it mediates diverse biological and pathological activities. However, whether or not Plexin-B1 expression is involved in human ovarian tumors remains unclear. In the present study, Plexin-B1 expression was explored in benign and malignant human ovarian tumor tissues. In addition, the impact of Plexin-B1 expression on ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro. Plexin-B1 expression was analyzed in normal and benign ovarian tissues and serous ovarian tumors (both borderline and malignant) by immunohistochemical staining, as well as in four human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C13*, SKOV3, and OV2008) by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Furthermore, endogenous Plexin-B1 expression was suppressed by Plexin-B1 siRNA in SKOV3 cells, which overexpress Plexin-B1. Protein levels of Plexin-B1, AKT and AKTSer473 were examined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were measured with MTT, wound healing and boyden chamber assays, respectively, and the cytoskeleton was monitored via F-actin staining. Expression levels of Plexin-B1 protein were significantly higher in serous ovarian carcinomas than in normal ovaries or benign ovarian neoplasms, and in the former, Plexin-B1 expression was positively correlated with lymphatic metastasis, and the membrane and cytoplasm of cancer cells stained positively. SKOV3 cells displayed the highest Plexin-B1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels among the four tested human ovarian cancer cell lines and was selected as a cell model for further in vitro experiments. Plexin-B1 siRNA significantly suppressed phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 in SKOV3 cells, but it did not alter total AKT expression. In addition, silencing of Plexin-B1 in SKOV3 cells inhibited cell migration and invasion and reorganized the cytoskeleton, whereas cell proliferation was not affected

  13. ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING SOLUTION FOR IMAGE ALIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Athreyas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and Image sensors is a field that is continuously evolving. There are new products coming into the market every day. Some of these have very severe Size, Weight and Power constraints whereas other devices have to handle very high computational loads. Some require both these conditions to be met simultaneously. Current imaging architectures and digital image processing solutions will not be able to meet these ever increasing demands. There is a need to develop novel imaging architectures and image processing solutions to address these requirements. In this work we propose analog signal processing as a solution to this problem. The analog processor is not suggested as a replacement to a digital processor but it will be used as an augmentation device which works in parallel with the digital processor, making the system faster and more efficient. In order to show the merits of analog processing the highly computational Normalized Cross Correlation algorithm is implemented. We propose two novel modifications to the algorithm and a new imaging architecture which, significantly reduces the computation time.

  14. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izza Rozalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically.

  15. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza Rozalli, Faizatul; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Boylan, Colm; Deb, Pratima

    2015-10-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically). PMID:26715980

  16. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Izza Rozalli; Rahmat; Fadzli; Boylan; Deb

    2015-01-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically).

  17. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian failur

  18. The prognostic significance of specific HOX gene expression patterns in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Zoe; Moller-Levet, Carla; McGrath, Sophie; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Kavitha Madhuri, Thumuluru; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Pandha, Hardev; Morgan, Richard; Michael, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    HOX genes are vital for all aspects of mammalian growth and differentiation, and their dysregulated expression is related to ovarian carcinogenesis. The aim of the current study was to establish the prognostic value of HOX dysregulation as well as its role in platinum resistance. The potential to target HOX proteins through the HOX/PBX interaction was also explored in the context of platinum resistance. HOX gene expression was determined in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary EOCs by QPCR, and compared to expression in normal ovarian epithelium and fallopian tube tissue samples. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA and t-tests, using statistical software R and GraphPad. The analysis identified 36 of the 39 HOX genes as being overexpressed in high grade serous EOC compared to normal tissue. We detected a molecular HOX gene-signature that predicted poor outcome. Overexpression of HOXB4 and HOXB9 was identified in high grade serous cell lines after platinum resistance developed. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer with the HXR9 peptide enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. In conclusion, this study has shown the HOX genes are highly dysregulated in ovarian cancer with high expression of HOXA13, B6, C13, D1 and D13 being predictive of poor clinical outcome. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer in platinum-resistant cancer represents a potentially new therapeutic option that should be further developed and tested in clinical trials. PMID:27225067

  19. CO-EXPRESSIONS OF SURVIVIN GENE,BCL-2 AND BAX PROTEINS IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓓; 张淑兰; 赵长清

    2004-01-01

    Objective To characterize the cellular properties of ovarian cancer, we examined the correlation between the expression of apoptosis-related gene survivin and those of Bcl-2 and Bar proteins. Methods Expressions of survivin mRNA, and Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in 35 cases of ovarian carcinoma, 10 cases of borderline carcinoma, 10 cases of benign tumors and 10 cases of normal tissue were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry SABC method, respectively. Results Expression of survivin gene was detected in a significantly greater proportion in ovarian carcinoma and borderline carcinoma than those in benign tumors and normal tissues. Although there was no relationship between expression of survivin gene and FIGO stage, histologic grade, pathological type and lymphatic metastasis, expressions of Bcl-2 and Bar proteins were positively and negatively correlated with that of survivin gene, respectively. Conclusion Survivin may play an important role in pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma, with a synergistic role of apoptosis-related gene Bcl-2protein and an antagonistic role of Bax protein in formation and progression of ovarian carcinoma.

  20. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T;

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...... in the teratoma. The patient died 6 months later from progressive disease after a transient adriamycin-induced tumor response. The literature on ovarian immature teratoma and ovarian rhabdomyosarcoma is briefly reviewed, and the available treatment is discussed....

  1. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  2. Primary ovarian pregnancy with intrauterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Saichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare variant of extra-uterine pregnancies. However the cause for primary ovarian pregnancy is still obscure. Some studies have reported a strong correlation of this condition with intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD. The diagnosis of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is seldom made before surgery though ultrasound proves to be an invaluable tool for its diagnosis. We describe here about a case of primary ovarian pregnancy which was diagnosed only at the time of operation and was managed with wedge resection of the ovary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1191-1193

  3. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  4. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  5. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of ovarian teratomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il Gi; Kwak, Dong Yeob; Kim, Si Woon; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    24 cases of surgically proven ovarian teratomas were analyzed. 1. The most prevalent age group was 3rd decades (57%). 2. The size of most tumors falls into 5-15cm (96%). 3. The site of involvement was more common on left side than right. 4. Well developed teeth or bones were identified in 9 patients on simple abdominal films (39%). 5. Ultrasonographic findings of the tumors were purely cystic in 3 cases (12.5%), mixed in 15 cases (62.5%), and solid in 6 cases (25%). 6. Among mixed typed masses, predominant cystic tumors were 11 cases, and the remained (4 cases) were predominantly solid type. 7. Various ultrasonic findings were seen such as hair-fluid level, linear echoes, scattered echoes, nodular intermixed dense echoes, papillary echogenic mass, and calcifications. 8. Echogenic nodular foci on nonindependent portion were considered to be a helpful diagnostic sign of ovarian teratomas.

  7. [Cytostatic treatment of ovarian carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijt, J P

    1999-10-30

    Shortly after treatment with the cytostatic combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel was generally accepted as the standard therapy for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma, many have come to regard the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as a better choice. The latter combination causes fewer side effects and may be used in the outpatient clinic. Conceivably, the carboplatin-paclitaxel scheme will shortly have to be adjusted again owing to results of current research. The intensive basic research of recent years, namely, is beginning to yield benefits for the therapeutic arsenal against ovarian carcinoma. Possibilities are inhibitors of the breakdown of extracellular matrix (such as marimastat) and inhibitors of signal transduction (such as trastuzumab). PMID:10578409

  8. Extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L

    2000-05-25

    A lot is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones, but less is known about the roles of extracellular matrix in the control of follicular growth and development. In this review we focus on the specialized extracellular matrix of the basal laminas that are present in ovarian follicles. These include the follicular basal lamina itself, the Call-Exner bodies of the membrana granulosa, the subendothelial and arteriole smooth muscle basal laminas in the theca, and the basal lamina-like material of the thecal matrix. We discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition, that many of its components are produced by the granulosa cells, and that the follicular basal laminas of different follicles have different ultrastructural appearances, linked to the shape of the aligning granulosa cells. All these studies suggest that the follicular basal lamina is extremely dynamic during follicular development. PMID:10963877

  9. ORGAN-PRESERVING OPERATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Davydova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ-preserving operations (OPO in patients with immature ovarian teratoma are shown to be a required technique that permits reproductive function to be preserved in young female patients. The most important positive aspect of OPO is also to preserve a normal hormonal background, owing to which surgical castration-related disorders may be prevented.

  10. IMP3 expression in human ovarian cancer is associated with improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noske, Aurelia; Faggad, Areeg; Wirtz, Ralph;

    2009-01-01

    carcinomas (47%). In contrast, epithelium of borderline tumors, as well as, benign ovarian lesions and normal ovaries exhibited only weak or no IMP3 expression. In univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, IMP3 protein expression was significantly associated with better overall survival (P=0.048). To confirm...

  11. Human Leukocyte Antigen-Presented Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is a Surface Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrea M; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Ken W; Zuna, Rosemary E; Husain, Sanam; Adams, Gregory P; MacDonald, Glen; Dillon, Rachelle L; Ames, Harold; Buchli, Rico; Hawkins, Oriana E; Weidanz, Jon A; Hildebrand, William H

    2016-02-01

    T cells recognize cancer cells via HLA/peptide complexes, and when disease overtakes these immune mechanisms, immunotherapy can exogenously target these same HLA/peptide surface markers. We previously identified an HLA-A2-presented peptide derived from macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and generated antibody RL21A against this HLA-A2/MIF complex. The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for targeting the HLA-A2/MIF complex in ovarian cancer. First, MIF peptide FLSELTQQL was eluted from the HLA-A2 of the human cancerous ovarian cell lines SKOV3, A2780, OV90, and FHIOSE118hi and detected by mass spectrometry. By flow cytometry, RL21A was shown to specifically stain these four cell lines in the context of HLA-A2. Next, partially matched HLA-A*02:01+ ovarian cancer (n = 27) and normal fallopian tube (n = 24) tissues were stained with RL21A by immunohistochemistry to assess differential HLA-A2/MIF complex expression. Ovarian tumor tissues revealed significantly increased RL21A staining compared with normal fallopian tube epithelium (P < 0.0001), with minimal staining of normal stroma and blood vessels (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001 compared with tumor cells) suggesting a therapeutic window. We then demonstrated the anticancer activity of toxin-bound RL21A via the dose-dependent killing of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, MIF-derived peptide FLSELTQQL is HLA-A2-presented and recognized by RL21A on ovarian cancer cell lines and patient tumor tissues, and targeting of this HLA-A2/MIF complex with toxin-bound RL21A can induce ovarian cancer cell death. These results suggest that the HLA-A2/MIF complex should be further explored as a cell-surface target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy.

  12. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi; Pratibha; Santosh Kumar; Neeeta; Kamal

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We repo...

  13. Discrimination analysis of mass spectrometry proteomics for ovarian cancer detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jun HONG; Xiao-dan WANG; David SHEN; Su ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:A discrimination analysis has been explored for the probabilistic classifica-tion of healthy versus ovarian cancer serum samples using proteomics data from mass spectrometry (MS).Methods:The method employs data normalization,clustering,and a linear discriminant analysis on surface-enhanced laser desorp-tion ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight MS data.The probabilistic classification method computes the optimal linear discriminant using the complex human blood serum SELDI spectra.Cross-validation and training/testing data-split experi-ments are conducted to verify the optimal discriminant and demonstrate the accu-racy and robustness of the method.Results:The cluster discrimination method achieves excellent performance.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive predic-tive values are above 97% on ovarian cancer.The protein fraction peaks,which significantly contribute to the classification,can be available from the analysis process.Conclusion:The discrimination analysis helps the molecular identities of differentially expressed proteins and peptides between the healthy and ovarian patients.

  14. Risks associated with premature ovarian failure in Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered.

  15. Identification of candidate methylation-responsive genes in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickerson Erin B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions has been linked to changes in gene expression in cancer development and progression. Genes associated with CpG islands (CGIs are especially prone to methylation, but not all CGI-associated genes display changes in methylation patterns in cancers. Results In order to identify genes subject to regulation by methylation, we conducted gene expression profile analyses of an ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3 before and after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC. An overlapping subset of these genes was found to display significant differences in gene expression between normal ovarian surface epithelial cells and malignant cells isolated from ovarian carcinomas. While 40% of all human genes are associated with CGIs, > 94% of the overlapping subset of genes is associated with CGIs. The predicted change in methylation status of genes randomly selected from the overlapping subset was experimentally verified. Conclusion We conclude that correlating genes that are upregulated in response to 5-aza-dC treatment of cancer cell lines with genes that are down-regulated in cancer cells may be a useful method to identify genes experiencing epigenetic-mediated changes in expression over cancer development.

  16. Gene bionetwork analysis of ovarian primordial follicle development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric E Nilsson

    Full Text Available Ovarian primordial follicles are critical for female reproduction and comprise a finite pool of gametes arrested in development. A systems biology approach was used to identify regulatory gene networks essential for primordial follicle development. Transcriptional responses to eight different growth factors known to influence primordial follicles were used to construct a bionetwork of regulatory genes involved in rat primordial follicle development. Over 1,500 genes were found to be regulated by the various growth factors and a network analysis identified critical gene modules involved in a number of signaling pathways and cellular processes. A set of 55 genes was identified as potential critical regulators of these gene modules, and a sub-network associated with development was determined. Within the network two previously identified regulatory genes were confirmed (i.e., Pdgfa and Fgfr2 and a new factor was identified, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF. CTGF was tested in ovarian organ cultures and found to stimulate primordial follicle development. Therefore, the relevant gene network associated with primordial follicle development was validated and the critical genes and pathways involved in this process were identified. This is one of the first applications of network analysis to a normal developmental process. These observations provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for preventing ovarian disease and promoting female reproduction.

  17. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J;

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  18. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  19. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occurs only after degradation. It is found that the conjugate containing 1%–2% NIR dye can be used as a normal optical imaging agent, while bioactivable imaging agents are formed at 6% to 17% dye loading. It was determined that the conjugation of dye to HA with different loading percentages does not impact HA biodegradation by hyaluronidase (Hyal. The feasibility of using these two NIR fluorescent hyaluronan analogs for HA investigation was evaluated in vivo with optical imaging. The data demonstrates that the 1% dye loaded fluorescent HA can be used to monitor the behavior of HA and its fragments, whereas bioactivatable HA imaging agent (17% dye in HA is more suitable for detecting HA fragments.

  20. Tetracycline hydrochloride sclerotherapy; renal, hepatic, ovarian, and perivesical cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the efficacy and resulting complications of tetracycline sclerotherapy in renal, hepatic, ovarian, and perivesical cysts. We retrospectively reviewed 23 cases of benign cysts (16 renal, 4 hepatic, 2 ovarian, and 1 perivesical) in 22 patients in whom the condition was diagnosed or confirmed by either ultrasound, CT, or cytology, and who underwent percutaneous tetracycline sclerotherapy. Using a 21-gauge Chiba needle, the target cyst was punctured under ultrasound guidance. Prior to the injection of 1500 mg of tetracycline diluted in 5 ml of normal saline, almost all the cystic content was aspirated, and at the end of the procedure the tetracycline was left in the cyst. During a period of between 3 and 22 months, 18 of the 23 cases were followed up. In six of the 18 cases followed up, the cysts either decreased in size by 10%, or collapsed completely. In seven cases a collapse of over 50% was noted, and in the remaining five the cyst recurred. In one of these, complete collapse occurred after retreatment at ten months, and the patient with a perivesical cyst underwent surgery six months after recurrence. Thus, treatment was effective (a collapse of at least 50%) in 13 of 18 cases (72.2%). This total of 13 comprised ten of 12 renal cysts (83.3%), two of two ovarian (100%), and one of three hepatic (33.3%). Percutaneous therapy was unsuccessful in five cases (two hepatic cysts, one renal, one parapelvic and one perivesical). Complications occurring during the procedure or follow-up period included discomfort or mild pain, vomiting, and transient fever, though these subsided within 24 hours. In one patient with severe pain, this subsided after four days. As single-shot injection of tetracycline provides safe and effective treatment for renal and ovarian cysts, but for hepatic cysts is unsuccessful

  1. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail

  2. Reversible paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis as the presenting feature of ovarian teratoma: A clinicopathological correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajappa Senthil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM is a well-characterized neurological syndrome. Its association with ovarian teratoma is rare. A young lady presented with features suggestive of encephalomyelitis with predominant cerebellar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging brain was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Computerized tomography scan of the pelvis revealed a complex left ovarian cyst. With a clinical diagnosis of PEM she underwent a left salpingo-oopherectomy. This was followed by total recovery of the PEM in two weeks. The histopathology revealed immature teratoma. The interesting feature was the clinicopathological correlation between the finding of fetal cerebellar tissue in the tumor and the PEM with predominant cerebellar features.

  3. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Expression of Wnt-1,beta-catenin and c-myc in Ovarian Epithelial Tumor and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao; HU Zhuo-ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of Wnt-1, beta-catenin and c-myc in normal ovarian epithelial cell and malignant ovarian epithelial tumor. Methods:Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to identify the expression of Wnt-1,beta-catenin and c-myc in 18 samples of normal epithelial tissue and 34 cases of malignant epithelial tumor of ovary. Results:The expression rate of Wnt-1 and c-myc in malignant epithelial tumors was higher than those in normal epithelial cell(P<0.05).The abnormal expression rate of beta-catenin in malignant ovarian epithelial tumors was higher than that in normal epithelial cell(P<0.05).A significant positive correlation was found between Wnt-1, beta-catenin and c-myc in malignant ovarian epithelial tumor(P<0.05).A significant difierence of expressions of Beta-catenin and C-myc was found between serous and mutinous tumors (P<0.05). Conclusion:The abnormal expression of Wnt-1,beta-catenin and c-myc might indicate the malignant transformation in ovarian epithelial tumors.

  5. 高反应人群超排卵%Controlled ovarian stimulation for high responder women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶虹

    2012-01-01

    High responder women are characterized by high response to exogenous gonadotrophin therapy manifested hy recruitment of a large number of follicles, rapid estradiol response and significant cancellation rate due to the potential risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Even for those patients who progress to oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer, appreciably lower fertilization rate and chromosomally normal blastocyst development rate are found. The super ovulation strategies for high responder women are included to reduce excessive ovarian stimulation and avoid OHSS by several approaches, such as dual suppression with oral contraceptives and GnRH agonist, reduced doses of GnRH agonist, GnRH antagonist protocol and GnRH agonist instead of hCG to trigger the final oocyte maturation, gonadotrophins step up and step down, different gonadotrophins for ovarian stimulation, application of metf ormin, and mild ovarian stimulation.

  6. Post-partum, post-sterilization tubo-ovarian abscess caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayachinda Chenchit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-partum, post-sterilization tubo-ovarian abscess is a rare event. Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme, a normal flora found mainly in the oral cavity, appears to be the etiologic organism. Case presentation In this case report, a 25-year-old Thai woman had a post-partum, post-sterilization tubo-ovarian abscess caused by the strictly anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme. Progressively severe symptoms started 3 weeks after her third vaginal delivery with a tubal sterilization on the following day. On admission, she presented with peritonitis and impending shock. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured left tubo-ovarian abscess. A segment of her ileum had to be resected because of severe inflammation. Conclusions Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme can be an etiologic organism of a ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess following tubal sterilization in a healthy host.

  7. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to

  8. Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous OHSS in a term pregnancy is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to present a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in a term pregnancy. A 29-year-old primigravida woman conceived spontaneously and was observed up until 35 weeks of gestation. During this time the patient had a normal pregnancy with normal ovaries. She applied to the current clinic during the 37th week of gestation with complaints of rapid weight gain, abdominal disturbance, and pain. Ultrasound examination showed large bilateral ovaries with multiple follicles and mild ascites. At 39 weeks of gestation, the ovaries were the same as detected previously, and a caesarean section was performed due to fetal macrosomia. A healthy female foetus weighing 4060 gr was delivered. The enlarged bilateral ovaries containing multiple follicles were drilled with electrocautery. The ovaries returned to a near normal state for two weeks after the birth. There are no reported cases of spontaneous OHSS in late pregnancy in the literature. Ovarian drilling may be useful during caesarean section. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 623-626

  9. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  10. Premature ovarian failure : from phenotype to genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Postponement of childbearing has led to increased rates of age-related female subfertility. Age-related decreases in ovarian follicle numbers and decay in oocyte quality influence the natural loss of fecundity and ultimately the start of menopause. The rate of ovarian ageing is highly variable among

  11. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed fr...

  12. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  13. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  14. Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-01-01

    Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm−1 (±0.59), while the average coefficient obtai...

  15. Right ovarian vein drainage variant: Is there a relationship with pelvic varices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Zafer [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com; Ulusan, Serife [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To correlate right ovarian vein (ROV) variations that drain into the right renal vein (RRV) with the presence of pelvic varices. Materials and methods: Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women were analyzed for the presence and type of ROV variations in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with ROV variations and those without such variations. The diameters of the subjects' ROV, left ovarian vein (LOV), and parauterine veins were measured. Pelvic varices and the presence and degree of ovarian vein reflux were noted and compared between the 2 groups. The {chi}{sup 2}-test and the Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty-two (9.9%) of 324 women studied exhibited ROV variant that drained into the right renal vein, and the remaining subjects (90.1%) exhibited a normal pattern of ROV drainage that flowed directly into the inferior vena cava. Pelvic varices were identified in 59 (18%) of the subjects. Reflux was not observed in any patient without pelvic varices. Fifty-seven of 59 women exhibited ovarian vein reflux. In 56 of those 57 individuals, reflux occurred only in the LOV, and in 1 subject, reflux was noted predominantly in the ROV. No significant relationship between the presence of an ROV that drained into the right renal vein and pelvic varices was noted. Conclusion: Although right-sided pelvic varices associated with right ovarian vein drainage variations are rare, anatomic variations of the right ovarian vein are not. This study did not find an association between the presence of right ovarian vein and pelvic varices.

  16. [Ovarian torsion revealing an ovarian cavernous hemangioma in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'pemba Loufoua-Lemay, A-B; Peko, J-F; Mbongo, J-A; Mokoko, J-C; Nzingoula, S

    2003-11-01

    The authors report one case of cavernous hemangioma of the left ovary, which was revealed by ovarian torsion. Such benign tumors of the blood vessels are rare in ovaries during childhood. This hemangioma was observed in a 13-year-old patient, who presented with abdominal and pelvic pain and vomiting. The pelvic mass was noted and sonography revealed a cystic tumor. An annexectomia was realized. Histology showed narcotized ovary cells, with an increased number of vascular channels composed of thin walled vessels, whose wall consisted of an endothelium. This aspect evoked a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. PMID:14613693

  17. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  18. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  19. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26046426

  20. OVARIAN METASTASIS IN PATIENT WITH ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-zhi; CHEN Yi-nan; ZHANG Guo-nan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical pathological characteristics of ovarian metastasis of endometrial carcinoma and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made to the clinical pathological outcome of endometrial carcinoma patients receiving surgical treatment in our hospital from January 1990 to December 2002. Results:Among the 191 cases of endometrial carcinoma patients, 17 cases (8.9%) had ovarian metastasis and young patients were more likely to have ovarian metastasis. The multiple factor analysis showed that the independent risk factors of ovarian metastasis in endometrial carcinoma included the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and pathological types. Conclusion: Ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and histologic types are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis. For young patients at early stage of the disease, it should be prudent as to whether to retain the ovary.

  1. Diazaquinomycins E–G, Novel Diaza-Anthracene Analogs from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Mullowney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of our program to identify novel secondary metabolites that target drug-resistant ovarian cancers, a screening of our aquatic-derived actinomycete fraction library against a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR5 led to the isolation of novel diaza-anthracene antibiotic diazaquinomycin E (DAQE; 1, the isomeric mixture of diazaquinomycin F (DAQF; 2 and diazaquinomycin G (DAQG; 3, and known analog diazaquinomycin A (DAQA; 4. The structures of DAQF and DAQG were solved through deconvolution of X-Ray diffraction data of their corresponding co-crystal. DAQE and DAQA exhibited moderate LC50 values against OVCAR5 of 9.0 and 8.8 μM, respectively. At lethal concentrations of DAQA, evidence of DNA damage was observed via induction of apoptosis through cleaved-PARP. Herein, we will discuss the isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these secondary metabolites.

  2. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan;

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...

  3. Ovarian Hemangioma: a Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziari, Katayoun; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are benign and rare tumors of female genital tract with less than 60 reported cases in the literature. A 38- yr- old woman was admitted to Be'sat Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2012, due to severe abdominal pain. Ultrasound evaluation revealed a 6 cm left ovarian cystic mass and serum tumor markers were normal. Then, left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed for the patient. Microscopic examination revealed a follicular cyst and an incidental cavernous hemangioma consisting thin-walled vascular channels filled with blood that lined with flatten endothelial cells. In IHC staining strong immunoreactivity for CD31 and CD34 were seen, finally, the diagnosis of primary ovarian hemangioma, cavernous-type was made. The clinicopathologic presentation of this unusual benign tumor is discussed. PMID:26870145

  4. CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer, with a mortality rate of > 60%. Cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis offers an attractive explanation of chemoresistance, metastasis, etc., associated with the disease. However, there are still controversy and limitation in defining the CSC markers. CD24 is a mucin-type glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein, expressed on the surface of cells, which serves as a normal receptor for P-selectin and is found involved in molecular adhesion and metastatic tumor spread. Expression rate of CD24 has been associated with progression of various cancers and poor survival rates. In this review, the function of CD24 in ovarian cancer, especially in ovarian CSC system, was discussed in an effort to broaden the interpretation of potential mechanism.

  5. The emerging role of angiogenic factor dysregulation in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Arici, Aydin

    2015-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive age affecting 5 to 7% of women. It is characterized by anovulatory infertility, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Angiogenesis in the ovary is critical for follicular growth, ovulation, and the subsequent development and regression of the corpus luteum. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple angiogenic factors are dysregulated in PCOS, including vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietins, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. This angiogenic factor imbalance likely underlies the increased stromal vascularity observed in PCOS. Angiogenic factor dysregulation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of PCOS and may contribute to ovulatory dysfunction, subfertility, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, which are commonly seen in women with PCOS. Further experimental studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the growth factors that are involved in normal and pathological ovarian angiogenesis, and to assess the potential of angiogenesis-based treatment strategies in PCOS.

  6. Investigating the association between polymorphism of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene and ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the study was to investigate the association between follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR gene polymorphism at Position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET in infertile women. Materials and Methods : One hundred and eight patients under 35 years of age who underwent IVF-ET procedures were included in this study. The hormonal profile and treatment of all patients were analyzed and FSHR polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Women from all groups were classified based on polymorphisms at Position 680, occupied either by asparagines (Asn or serine (Ser as Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser genotype. Result : Our study showed that all patients in the Asn/Asn group were normal responders and in the Asn/Ser group 64.8% were normal responders and 21.1% and 14.1% were poor and hyper responders respectively. In the Ser/Ser group we did not have normal responders and 46.7% of these patients were poor responders and 53.3% were hyper responders. Conclusion : FSH receptor polymorphism is correlated with response to ovarian stimulation.

  7. Decreased expression of H3K27me3 in human ovarian carcinomas correlates with more aggressive tumor behavior and poor patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W P; Li, Q; Zhou, J; H, Z S; Kung, H F; Guan, X Y; Xie, D; Yang, G F

    2015-01-01

    It has been confirmed that trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) plays an important role in epigenetic process of tumorigenesis. However, the status of H3K27me3 in ovarian cancer and its impact on patients' clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis are unclear. In the present study, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to detect protein expression of H3K27me3 in 12 normal ovaries, 26 ovarian cystadenomas, 31 borderline ovarian tumors and 168 ovarian carcinomas by tissue microarray. The association between H3K27me3 expression with clinicopathologic features and patient prognosis were also evaluated using various statistical models. The expression of H3K27me3 was decreased in 2 of 12 (16.7%) cases of the normal ovaries, 8 of 26 (30.8%) cases of cystadenomas, 12 of 31 (38.7%) cases of borderline ovarian tumors, and 93 of 168 (55.4%) cases of primary ovarian carcinomas, respectively (P<0.05). Further correlation analysis suggested that decreased expression of H3K27me3 in ovarian carcinomas was significantly correlated with more advanced pM and FIGO stages (P<0.05). In addition, a significant association between decreased expression of H3K27me3 and shortened patient survival (mean 66 months versus 101 months, p=0.019) was demonstrated by univariate survival analysis of the ovarian carcinoma cohorts. Importantly, H3K27me3 expression provided a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (p=0.028). These findings confirmed that decreased expression of H3K27me3 in primary ovarian cancer might be correlated with the acquisition of an invasive and/or aggressive phenotype of tumor, and might serve as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  8. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  9. MUS81 is associated with cell proliferation and cisplatin sensitivity in serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Suhong; Zheng, Hui; Wen, Xuemei; Sun, Jiajun; Wang, Yanchun; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin; Lu, Renquan

    2016-08-01

    The dysfunction of DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and drug-resistance in cancer. MUS81 is a member of the conserved xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) family protein of endonucleases, which is important to the DDR pathway. However, the role of MUS81 in the development of ovarian cancer remains uncertain. To explore the expression of MUS81 and its association to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 43 biopsies of SOC patients were detected by qRT-PCR, and 29 specimens were further performed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Here, we observed that MUS81 was over-expressed in SOC tissues at both transcript and protein levels, and the expression level of MUS81 protein in ovarian cancer cell lines was also higher than that in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line (HOSEpiC). We also found that down-regulation of MUS81 expression in ovarian cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and influenced cell cycle progression. Moreover, inhibition of MUS81 expression induced cellular senescence and enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin. Down-regulation of MUS81 expression could suppress the growth and development of SOC. These results indicate that MUS81 might play important roles in the progression of SOC and influence the antitumor effect of cisplatin. PMID:27255997

  10. Paraneoplastic Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Leading to Diagnosis of Bilateral Ovarian Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irappa Madabhavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian ependymomas are extremely rare tumors of the ovary. We present a case of a 67-year-old lady presented to us with swelling in the right side of neck for 2 months followed by pelvic pain, lower abdominal distention, and weight loss for 1 month. Her coagulation profile, blood chemistry, lipid profile, and tumor markers were within normal limits. Neck Doppler ultrasonography revealed thrombus in the right internal jugular vein and CT scan of the abdomen showed bilateral ovarian masses. Patient was subjected to debulking surgery for suspected ovarian cancer and microscopy revealed a highly cellular tumor composed of small cells with hyperchromatic, round-to-oval nuclei with scanty cytoplasm, and perivascular pseudorosettes. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunophenotype showing strong positivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors. Patient was successfully managed with anticoagulants, adjuvant chemotherapy with BEP regimen, and letrozole. After ruling out other common conditions for thrombosis in this age group, this seems to be a paraneoplastic presentation of ovarian malignancy that preceded the diagnosis of ependymoma by 2 months. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the world literature as “paraneoplastic internal jugular vein thrombosis leading to diagnosis of bilateral ovarian ependymoma.”

  11. Research Perspective: Potential Role of Nitazoxanide in Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Old Drug, New Purpose?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Santo, Nicola, E-mail: nico.disanto@duke.edu; Ehrisman, Jessie [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Among gynecological malignancies epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death. Despite improvements in conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate has remained mostly stable over the years, and only 10%–15% of patients maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. To improve the efficacy of ovarian cancer chemotherapy it is essential to develop drugs with new mechanisms of action. Compared to normal tissues, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PDI is a cellular enzyme in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes or the periplasmic region of prokaryotes. This protein catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, which affects protein folding. Selective inhibition of PDI activity has been exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity in human ovarian cancer models. PDI inhibition caused accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which led to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), and in turn resulted in cell death. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. In this article, we propose that NTZ, acting as PDI inhibitor, may be a new and potent addition to the chemotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  12. Research Perspective: Potential Role of Nitazoxanide in Ovarian Cancer Treatment. Old Drug, New Purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Ehrisman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among gynecological malignancies epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death. Despite improvements in conventional chemotherapy combinations, the overall cure rate has remained mostly stable over the years, and only 10%–15% of patients maintain a complete response following first-line therapy. To improve the efficacy of ovarian cancer chemotherapy it is essential to develop drugs with new mechanisms of action. Compared to normal tissues, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PDI is a cellular enzyme in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of eukaryotes or the periplasmic region of prokaryotes. This protein catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, which affects protein folding. Selective inhibition of PDI activity has been exhibited both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity in human ovarian cancer models. PDI inhibition caused accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which led to ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR, and in turn resulted in cell death. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolylbenzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. In this article, we propose that NTZ, acting as PDI inhibitor, may be a new and potent addition to the chemotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  13. Analysis of Chinese women with primary ovarian insufficiency by high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Can; FU Fang; YANG Xin; SUN Yi-min; LI Dong-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years. The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency in human female patients is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential genetic causes in primary amenorrhea patients by high resolution array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis.Methods Following the standard karyotyping analysis, genomic DNA from whole blood of 15 primary amenorrhea patients and 15 normal control women was hybridized with Affymetrix cytogenetic 2.7M arrays following the standard protocol. Copy number variations identified by array-CGH were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction.Results All the 30 samples were negative by conventional karyotyping analysis. Microdeletions on chromosome 17q21.31-q21.32 with approximately 1.3 Mb were identified in four patients by high resolution array-CGH analysis. This included the female reproductive secretory pathway related factor N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) gene.Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that there may be critical regions regulating primary ovarian insufficiency in women with a 17q21.31-q21.32 microdeletion. This effect might be due to the loss of function of the NSF gene/genes within the deleted region or to effects on contiguous genes.

  14. Ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a peri-menopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism and virilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, L G; Ray, D W; Laing, I; Williams, C; McVey, R J; Seif, M W

    2005-10-01

    The authors report a case of Leydig cell tumor in a 46-year-old woman who first presented with severe clinical hyperandrogenism and associated complex medical history. Investigations revealed markedly raised serum concentrations of testosterone (28.3 nmol/l) and free androgen index (54.4), whereas sex hormone binding globulin, random cortisol, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations were all within the normal range. Transabdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan of the pelvis and abdomen showed a slightly bulky right ovary, but no other abnormalities. An ovarian source of androgens was suspected and surgery was arranged. Following a three-year history of defaulting appointments due to agoraphobia, she underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and intraoperative selective ovarian venous sampling. Histopathological examination revealed a 2 cm Leydig cell tumor within the right ovary. Successful intraoperative ovarian venous sampling demonstrated significantly elevated testosterone levels (>260 nmol/l) from the right ovarian vein. Hyperandrogenaemia normalized post-operatively. The patient showed significant regression of clinical signs and symptoms, including the anxiety disorder. Clinical presentation, biochemistry and imaging modalities should allow to detect androgen-secreting ovarian tumors, while selective venous sampling should be reserved for patients whom uncertainty remains. The present case confirms that androgen-secreting ovarian tumors represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe hyperandrogenism even in peri-menopausal women. Although selective venous sampling is of diagnostic value, however, its impact on future management should be considered on individual basis.

  15. Morphology and survival of cryopreserved-thawed ovarian tissues after heterotopic autotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumana Jafarey; Jing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to observe the survival and morphological changes of thawed ovarian tis-sues after heterotopic transplantation. Methods:Twenty SPF-SD female rats (5-6 weeks old) were equal y randomized into the control group and experimental group. In control group, the freshly isolated ovaries were fixed in formalin. In experimental group, the freshly isolated ovaries were vitrified immediately and cut into thin slices. After stored in liquid nitrogen for 21 days, the tissues of experimental group were rapidly thawed and transplanted into back muscles of rats for 2 or 4 weeks, respectively. After that, al rats in experimental group were sacrificed and the ovarian tissues were col ected and fixed in 4%formaldehyde solution. Then the ovarian tissues were stained with HE and observed under the light confocal microscope. Re-sults:With the naked eyes, there was no specific alteration except the size reduction with color changing. Under microscopy, we found normal cortex and medul a in the ovary, and the primordial fol icles and fol icles in various stages were observed in the cortex. The normal oocytes in ovarian tissues of experimental group were significant decreased than in the control group. Conclusion:The ovarian tissues survive wel in experimental group and there is no significant dif erence in the proportion of fol icles between dif erent times (2 and 4 weeks) after grafting. Our results suggest that thawed ovarian tissues could survive after heterotopic transplantation into back muscles of rat models and maintain their morphology and function.

  16. ROS accumulation by PEITC selectively kills ovarian cancer cells via UPR-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-hee eHong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unfolded protein response (UPR is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on UPR mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null- type, respectively. PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 µM, apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and ER resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR (PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3 in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 µM. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78, suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner.

  17. DNA methylation changes in ovarian cancer are cumulative with disease progression and identify tumor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGeest Koen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands with associated loss of gene expression, and hypomethylation of CpG-rich repetitive elements that may destabilize the genome are common events in most, if not all, epithelial cancers. Methods The methylation of 6,502 CpG-rich sequences spanning the genome was analyzed in 137 ovarian samples (ten normal, 23 low malignant potential, 18 stage I, 16 stage II, 54 stage III, and 16 stage IV ranging from normal tissue through to stage IV cancer using a sequence-validated human CpG island microarray. The microarray contained 5' promoter-associated CpG islands as well as CpG-rich satellite and Alu repetitive elements. Results Results showed a progressive de-evolution of normal CpG methylation patterns with disease progression; 659 CpG islands showed significant loss or gain of methylation. Satellite and Alu sequences were primarily associated with loss of methylation, while promoter CpG islands composed the majority of sequences with gains in methylation. Since the majority of ovarian tumors are late stage when diagnosed, we tested whether DNA methylation profiles could differentiate between normal and low malignant potential (LMP compared to stage III ovarian samples. We developed a class predictor consisting of three CpG-rich sequences that was 100% sensitive and 89% specific when used to predict an independent set of normal and LMP samples versus stage III samples. Bisulfite sequencing confirmed the NKX-2-3 promoter CpG island was hypermethylated with disease progression. In addition, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of the ES2 and OVCAR ovarian cancer cell lines re-expressed NKX-2-3. Finally, we merged our CpG methylation results with previously published ovarian expression microarray data and identified correlated expression changes. Conclusion Our results show that changes in CpG methylation are cumulative with ovarian cancer progression in a sequence-type dependent manner, and that Cp

  18. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We report a case of heavily calcified left ovary which mimicked as vesicle calculus on X- ray leading to confusion in diagnosis.

  19. Prevalence, specificity and significance of ovarian antibodies during spontaneous premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, P; Sosset, C; Barbarino-Monnier, P; Gobert, B; Hiéronimus, S; Béné, M C; Harter, M

    1997-12-01

    Autoimmunity may be involved in idiopathic premature ovarian failure (POF). However, the frequency, physiopathology and potential reversibility of autoimmune oophoritis needs clarification. Using an ELISA against whole tissue homogenate as antigen, from human ovaries at different ages, positive circulating ovarian antibodies (AOA) were found in 59% of patients with primitive idiopathic POF (27/46); 20/27 were positive for IgG isotype, 9/27 for IgM and 8/27 for IgA. Specificity of AOA was examined (i) by comparison to different control groups; mean values of the three subclasses of immunoglobins were significantly higher in POF women than in normally cycling fertile young women (n = 23) and fertile young men (n = 17), in untreated Grave's disease (n = 35) or in women with positive antinuclear factor (n = 25); and (ii) by assessing possible cross-reaction; only six out of the 27 positive sera reacted with other tissues (thyroid, pancreas, adrenal), including four clinical polyendocrinopathies. Significance of AOA was explored (i) by comparison with postmenopausal women (n = 40) and older women (n = 15), who did not have enhanced ratios of AOA, thereby excluding a potential role of high FSH values; (ii) by analysing the factors time and surgery; no relation could be found either with the duration of amenorrhoea (6 months to 21 years) or with the history of an ovarian biopsy (12/47) in the absence of any associated pelvic surgery; and (iii) by screening for other immunological factors; familial or personal autoimmune disease (8/46), HLA DR3 (10/42), HLA DR4 (11/42), associated autoantibodies (thyroperoxidase, adrenal, beta islets, parathyroid, DNA, smooth muscles) (12/42). If one positive AOA isotype was present, a second immunological factor was found in 45% of cases. Spontaneous pregnancies during oestrogen therapy occurred in four cases, including three women with positive AOA. Circulating AOA detected by an ELISA may represent a practical and suitable marker for

  20. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  1. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  2. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  3. Characterization of the specificity by immunohistology of a monoclonal antibody to a novel epithelial antigen of ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani-Costantini, R; Agresti, R; Colnaghi, M I; Ménard, S; Andreola, S; Rilke, F

    1985-08-01

    An immunohistological study, using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, was carried out to define the reactivity profile of a murine monoclonal antibody, MOv2, which recognizes a novel glycoprotidic antigen associated with ovarian epithelial tumors. Among the primary ovarian tumors tested, MOv2 immunostained 93% of mucinous and 75% of serous cystadenomas, 100% of mucinous, 81% of serous and 73% of endometrioid carcinomas. Undifferentiated and clear cell tumors revealed more limited reactivity with the antibody, whereas ovarian sex cord-stromal and germinal tumors were immunonegative. Positive reactions were also documented in omental metastases from primary ovarian carcinomas. No immunoreactivity was detected in normal ovarian epithelium, whereas the cells lining Walthard's nests adjacent to the fallopian tubes and a variety of normal epithelia were consistently immunolabeled. These included the lining epithelia of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi and endocervix, and the epithelium of salivary, biliary and pancreatic ducts and sweat glands. To a lesser extent, positive reactions were detected in other surface epithelia, such as squamous and transitional epithelia. Among tumors other than ovarian, MOv2 consistently reacted with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas from different sites, most notably breast, lung and gastrointestinal tract, and with transitional cell carcinomas. In contrast, no staining was demonstrated in non-epithelial malignancies. The antigen defined by MOv2 may be operationally useful as a marker of epithelial lineage in tumor histopathology. Its pattern of immunohistochemical distribution indicates that an antigenic phenotype shared by normal surface epithelia and non-ovarian carcinomas is strongly associated with common epithelial neoplasms of the ovaries.

  4. Ovarian cancer after in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is serious concern about cancer risk in women undergoing ovarian stimulation treatment for infertility and long-term safety of these procedures. Association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer is still controversial. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution with the initial diagnosis of an adnexal tumor after in vitro fertilization. Her history revealed adnexectomy for mucinous cystadenofibroma of the left ovary eight years ago, and cystectomy due to cystadenoma of the right ovary three years ago. At admission, the most remarkable findings were high temperature and elevated white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Broad spectrum antibiotic treatment was initiated. Six days after admission, the patient was feverish, with temperature up to 38°C, and evident signs of the acute abdomen. Immediate laparotomy was performed and multilocular right adnexal tumor 150x130x100 millimeters in size was identified. The right salpingo-oophorectomy was carried out. Pathological diagnosis was mucinous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Eighteen days later, radical surgery was performed. After the surgery, chemotherapy was applied. There is an urgent need for clear interpretation of the association between fertility drugs and subsequent higher ovarian cancer risk. Lacking conclusive evidence, an increased risk of ovarian cancer has been reported and more recently disputed. Higher ovarian cancer risk may be serious and even life-threatening complication for women undergoing ovarian stimulation.

  5. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C;

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv......, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case...

  6. Thrombosis following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Danolić, Damir; Orešković, Slavko; Ježek, Davor; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Pekez, Marijeta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review is to analyse the pathophysiology and complications of thrombosis in conjuction with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) following ovulation induction and to suggest practical guidelines usefull for the prevention and treatment. Although the incidence of thrombosis varies from 0.2% among in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and up to 10% for severe cases of the syndrome, it represents the most dangerous complication of OHSS. Different changes in haemostatic markers have been found to create a state of hypercoagulability, but no single standard test is available to estimate the state of thrombosis. The role of markers for thrombophilia is controversial. Thromboses are mostly venous (67-75%) involving upper limbs and neck, then arterial (25-33%) which are mainly intracerebral. The predominant sites of venous thromboembolism in the upper part of the body may be explained by higher concentrations of estrogens drained through lymphatic ducts from ascites and by compression of rudimentary branchyal cysts. Once early diagnosis is established, it is crucial to use an anticoagulant treatment with heparin proceeded with thromboprophylaxis. However, identification of patients at risk and preventive measures of OHSS are the best means in reducing the risk of thrombosis after ovarian stimulation.

  7. The circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif Johan; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona Berger Håkonsen;

    2013-01-01

    To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women. By compa...

  8. Four channel analog router for spectroscopy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four input analog multiplexer/router has been developed in order to acquire spectral data from four different detector systems on first-come-first-sort basis. The circuit is incorporated in a single width NIM module and is fully compatible with the HPD 4K MCA developed in the Health Physics Division. The analog router accepts output from upto 4 detectors after these are passed through individual preamplifiers and linear amplifiers. The router generates signal for the channel whose input crosses set LLD limits first and simultaneously disables other inputs. The selected input is then passed to the ADC for further processing. The processed signal generates a channel dependent two bit address along with normal digital outputs of the ADC. The channel dependent two bit address is directly used to store the event in one of the four 1k segment of the HPD 4K MCA. The multiplexer is re-enabled to accept next input on priority basis. One such unit has already been commissioned to acquire data from four solid state detectors used for spectrometry. The paper discusses hardware of the router, its linearity resolution cross-talk between the channels and other performance characteristics. (author). 3 figs

  9. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, C. M.; Nagle, C. M.; Whiteman, D C; Ness, R; C. L. Pearce; Pike, M. C.; Rossing, M A; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Wu, A. H.; Risch, H A; Yu, H.; Doherty, J. A.; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R.; Nickels, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher body-mass index (BMI) increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We ev...

  10. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    OpenAIRE

    Qin CHEN; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for...

  11. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, David D; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S; Birrer, Michael J; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A; Brenton, James D; Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; Lu, Karen H; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steven A; Nelson, Brad H; Nephew, Kenneth P; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L; Scott, Clare L; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Balkwill, Frances R

    2015-11-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This 'roadmap' for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  12. CHOLINE METABOLISM ALTERATION: A FOCUS ON OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBagnoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normal differentiated cells, cancer cells require a metabolic reprogramming to support their high proliferation rates and survival. Aberrant choline metabolism is a fairly new metabolic hallmark reflecting the complex reciprocal interactions between oncogenic signaling and cellular metabolism. Alterations of the involved metabolic network may be sustained by changes in activity of several choline transporters as well as of enzymes like choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-α and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D. Of note, the net outcome of these enzymatic alterations is an increase of phosphocholine and total choline-containing compounds, a cholinic phenotype that can be monitored in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review will highlight the molecular basis for targeting this pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC, a highly heterogeneous and lethal malignancy characterized by late diagnosis, frequent relapse and development of chemoresistance. Modulation of ChoK-α expression impairs only EOC but not normal ovarian cells, thus supporting the hypothesis that cholinic phenotype is a peculiar feature of transformed cells, and indicating ChoK-α targeting as a novel approach to improve efficacy of standard EOC chemotherapeutic treatments.

  13. Preoperative serum levels of epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant and benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jeppesen, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptors ([EGFRs]; EGFR/HER1 and ErbB2/HER2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are essential to tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of these potential biomarkers in benign, borderline......, and malignant ovarian tumors. Patients and Methods: Serum from 233 patients (75 serous ovarian/tubal/peritoneal cancers, 24 borderline tumors, 110 benign ovarian tumors, and 24 with normal ovaries) were analyzed for EGFR, HER2, and VEGF using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA...

  14. Ovarian tuberculosis mimicking a malignant tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Yebouet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been reported increased incidence of ovarian tuberculosis in the tropics since the advent of HIV/AIDS disease. We report a case of bilateral ovarian tuberculosis associated with a single right kidney of uncertain origin in an immunocompetent 15-year-old generally healthy-looking girl. Abdominopelvic scan was equivocal about the diagnosis of the lesion as it failed to differentiate it from malignancy. Tuberculin and histopathology were necessary to confirm the diagnosis of ovarian tuberculosis. Antituberculous medical therapy successfully resolved the disease.

  15. Premature ovarian failure: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M A; Baracat, E C; Simões, M J; Focchi, G R; Evêncio Neto, J; de Lima, G R

    1994-01-01

    The authors documented by means of light and transmission electron microscopy that the ovaries of women with premature ovarian failure (POF) displayed dense connective tissue and rare corpora albicantia. Eight of the ten studied cases did not present ovarian follicles; in two cases, it was verified the presence of ovarian follicles, atypical primordial follicles and in one case, a corpus luteum was identified (after stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophin). Regarding the ultrastructural analysis, it was noted that the fibroblasts were united one to each other by cellular prolongations that formed a woof, constituting a cellular syncicius. PMID:7610321

  16. Ovarian cancer plasticity and epigenomics in the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Nicholas B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aggressive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is genetically and epigenetically distinct from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE and early neoplasia. Co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in EOC suggests an involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer initiation and progression. This phenomenon is often associated with acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype and chemoresistance that correlate with the specific gene expression patterns accompanying transformation, revealing a plasticity of the ovarian cancer cell genome during disease progression. Differential gene expressions between normal and transformed cells reflect the varying mechanisms of regulation including genetic changes like rearrangements within the genome, as well as epigenetic changes such as global genomic hypomethylation with localized promoter CpG island hypermethylation. The similarity of gene expression between ovarian cancer cells and the stem-like ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC are surprisingly also correlated with epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in normal stem cells. Both normal and cancer stem cells maintain genetic flexibility by co-placement of activating and/or repressive epigenetic modifications on histone H3. The co-occupancy of such opposing histone marks is believed to maintain gene flexibility and such bivalent histones have been described as being poised for transcriptional activation or epigenetic silencing. The involvement of both-microRNA (miRNA mediated epigenetic regulation, as well as epigenetic-induced changes in miRNA expression further highlight an additional complexity in cancer stem cell epigenomics. Recent advances in array-based whole-genome/epigenome analyses will continue to further unravel the genomes and epigenomes of cancer and cancer stem cells. In order to illuminate phenotypic signatures that delineate ovarian cancer from their associated cancer stem cells, a priority must lie

  17. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  19. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  20. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  1. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  2. Analogy between Thermodynamics and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Establishes and illustrates a formal analogy between the motion of a particle and the "motion" of the equilibrium state of a homogeneous system in a quasistatic process. The purpose is to show that there is a much larger set of natural coordinate transformations in thermodynamics. (GA)

  3. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer

  4. Characterization of ascites-derived ovarian tumor cells from spontaneously occurring ovarian tumors of the chicken: evidence for E-cadherin upregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Tiwari

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer, a highly metastatic disease, is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Chickens are widely used as a model for human ovarian cancer as they spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian tumors similar to humans. The cellular and molecular biology of chicken ovarian cancer (COVCAR cells, however, have not been studied. Our objectives were to culture COVCAR cells and to characterize their invasiveness and expression of genes and proteins associated with ovarian cancer. COVCAR cell lines (n = 13 were successfully maintained in culture for up to19 passages, cryopreserved and found to be viable upon thawing and replating. E-cadherin, cytokeratin and α-smooth muscle actin were localized in COVCAR cells by immunostaining. COVCAR cells were found to be invasive in extracellular matrix and exhibited anchorage-independent growth forming colonies, acini and tube-like structures in soft agar. Using RT-PCR, COVCAR cells were found to express E-cadherin, N-cadherin, cytokeratin, vimentin, mesothelin, EpCAM, steroidogenic enzymes/proteins, inhibin subunits-α, βA, βB, anti-müllerian hormone, estrogen receptor [ER]-α, ER-β, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and activin receptors. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed greater N-cadherin, vimentin, and VEGF mRNA levels and lesser cytokeratin mRNA levels in COVCAR cells as compared with normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE cells, which was suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. Western blotting analyses revealed significantly greater E-cadherin levels in COVCAR cell lines compared with NOSE cells. Furthermore, cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines expressed higher levels of an E-cadherin cleavage product when compared to normal ovaries and NOSE cells, respectively. Cancerous ovaries were found to express significantly higher ovalbumin levels whereas COVCAR cell lines did not express ovalbumin thus suggesting that the latter did not originate from

  5. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry.

  6. Ovarian dysfunction and FMR1 alleles in a large Italian family with POF and FRAXA disorders: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Urso Michele

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between premature ovarian failure (POF and the FMR1 repeat number (41> CGGnFMR1 alleles. Case presentation We describe the coexistence in a large Italian kindred of Fragile X syndrome and familial POF in females with ovarian dysfunctions who carried normal or expanded FMR1 alleles. Genetic analysis of the FMR1 gene in over three generations of females revealed that six carried pre-mutated alleles (61–200, of which two were also affected by POF. However a young woman, who presented a severe ovarian failure with early onset, carried normal FMR1 alleles ( Conclusion Our case study represents a helpful observation and will provide familial cases with heterogeneous etiology that could be further studied when candidate genes in addition to the FMR1 premutation will be available.

  7. [Autonomous ovarian cysts and pseudo-pubertas praecox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andler, W

    1991-04-01

    Six prepubertal girls presented with precocious pseudopuberty associated with ovarian follicular cysts. Five patients normalized spontaneously after several months, in one patient the cyst was removed by laparotomy. Elevated estrogen serum levels and failure of gonadotropin responses after gonadotropin releasing hormone were the classical findings in these patients during the acute period of the disease. In a later period, however, estrogen and gonadotropin levels may be normalized although breast development is still present. Surgical treatment was performed in one patient although spontaneous remission would have been probable. Three patients showed several episodes of precocious pseudopuberty. In three patients ACTH testing was performed after dexamethason suppression. All three patients showed elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone responses which were similar to those in heterocygotes for C21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:2072962

  8. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  9. Novel Treatment Shrinks Ovarian Tumors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a new approach for treating tumors that express mutant versions of the p53 protein, which are present in more than half of all cancers, including an aggressive and common subtype of ovarian cancer.

  10. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  11. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  12. Olaparib in the management of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixel K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kristin Bixel,1 John L Hays2 1Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Hematology Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Alterations in the homologous repair pathway are thought to occur in 30%–50% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Cells deficient in homologous recombination rely on alternative pathways for DNA repair in order to survive, thereby providing a potential target for therapy. Olaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor, capitalizes on this concept and is the first drug in its class approved for patients with ovarian cancer. This review article will provide an overview of the BRCA genes and homologous recombination, the role of PARP in DNA repair and the biological rationale for the use of PARP inhibitors as cancer therapy, and ultimately will focus on the use of olaparib in the management of ovarian cancer.Keywords: olaparib, ovarian cancer, PARP inhibitor

  13. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

    quality of treatment.   Patients/ Methods We developed an interdisciplinary programme including patient data from the records of doctors, nurses, anaesthetists and observations. This programme was applied on a population of 65 women with ovarian malignancies. Subsequently analyses were performed...

  14. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

      Introduction Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer, with more than 200,000 new cases each year and 125,000 related deaths. During the last decade, centralization and standardisation of surgical treatment have proven to be important tools in ovarian cancer to improve...... quality and survival. However, treatment efforts must be combined with high quality care, psychosocial support and organisational improvements.   Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimal debulking surgery programme in ovarian cancer, and subsequently develop a method of monitoring...... care resources and in future research. By using the interdisciplinary approach, women with ovarian cancer can benefit from a coherent and collaborative health care system.  ...

  15. Genetic and molecular changes in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Robert L; Gourley, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, and can be divided into five main histological subtypes: high grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous. These subtypes represent distinct disease entities, both clinically and at the molecular level. Molecular analysis has revealed significant genetic heterogeneity in ovarian cancer, particularly within the high grade serous subtype. As such, this subtype has been the focus of much research effort to date, revealing molecular subgroups at both the genomic and transcriptomic level that have clinical implications. However, stratification of ovarian cancer patients based on the underlying biology of their disease remains in its infancy. Here, we summarize the molecular changes that characterize the five main ovarian cancer subtypes, highlight potential opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention and outline priorities for future research.

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...

  17. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  18. Ovarian cancer after in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Vera; Sparić Radmila; Dokić Milan D.; Petković Spasoje; Atanacković Jasmina

    2004-01-01

    There is serious concern about cancer risk in women undergoing ovarian stimulation treatment for infertility and long-term safety of these procedures. Association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer is still controversial. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our institution with the initial diagnosis of an adnexal tumor after in vitro fertilization. Her history revealed adnexectomy for mucinous cystadenofibroma of the left ovary eight years ago, and cystectomy due to cystadenoma of the...

  19. Repopulation of Ovarian Cancer Cells After Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Telleria, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    The high mortality rate caused by ovarian cancer has not changed for the past thirty years. Although most patients diagnosed with this disease respond to cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy and undergo remission, foci of cells almost always escape therapy, manage to survive, and acquire the capacity to repopulate the tumor. Repopulation of ovarian cancer cells that escape front-line chemotherapy, however, is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here I analyze cancer-initiating ce...

  20. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jurjees Hasan; Loaie El-Helw; Emma Dean

    2010-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the a...

  1. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Urmila; Elisa V Bandera; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New J...

  2. Ovarian cystadenofibroma: A masquerader of malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wasnik Ashish; Elsayes Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare benign ovarian tumor that contains both epithelial and fibrous stromal components. The appearance of cystadenofibroma on imaging is often complex; cystic- to solid-appearing masses may be visualized and it often resembles a malignant tumor. Owing to the fibrous component of this tumor, MRI shows low-signal intensity on T2W images. This finding may help a radiologist make a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor and thus perhaps avoid aggressive surg...

  3. ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN OVARIAN TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna; Amita; Asha,; Chayanika; Sanjay; Rahul K.; Kiran

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are characterized by marked heterogeneity in their clinical presentation, so an accurate histopathological diagnosis is needed. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in vast number of cases where the morphology and clinical data alone do not allow definite diagnosis of tumor present in tissue sections. AIMS: 1. To evaluate the role of immune- histochemistry in classification and histogenesis of ovarian tumours and in resolving diagnostic dilemma in clo...

  4. Secondary ovarian tumors: Evaluation of 44 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgiye KAÇAR ÖZKARA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary ovarian tumors compose 3-8% of all, and 10-30% of malignant ovarian tumors. Histopathological features of SOT diagnosed in our department in 10-year period are discussed. Macroscopical, microscopical, immunohistochemical and cytopathological features of secondary ovarian tumors diagnosed between 1997- 2006 were re-evaluated. Additional histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were applied to find the primaries. Data was statistically evaluated. Totally, 44 secondary ovarian tumors had been diagnosed within this period. The mean age of the patients was 52.9 years; the mean tumor diameter was 103.7 mm.The primary was gastrointestinal system in 50% of the cases. Ten of them (22.7% were metastases of signet ring cell carcinoma of stomach (Kruckenberg tumor while 9 cases (20.5% were from colorectal and three (6.8% were from appendiceal adenocarcinomas. 27.3% of our cases were originated from genital tract. Synchronous endometrioid adenocarcinomas of corpus uteri and ovary were seen in six cases (13.6%. Ovarian involvement of serous carcinomas of corpus uteri was seen in five (11.4% cases. Ovarian metastases of breast carcinoma in four cases (9.1% were seen while the ovarian involvement of adrenal cortical and tubal carcinomas was observed in one case, each. The primary was peritoneal surface in five (11.4% of the cases. Tumors were bilateral in 65.9% of the cases, and there was statistically significant correlation between the bilaterality rate of the tumors and the primary (p=0.015.The more precise diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors could be reached by evaluation of clinical, surgical, macroscopical, microscopical, cytopathological and immunohistochemical findings together.

  5. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  6. Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I; Bast, Robert C; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S; Brenton, James D; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B; Lord, Chris J; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B; Nephew, Kenneth P; Oza, Amit M; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D; Balkwill, Frances R

    2011-10-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies that are collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Opinion article. PMID:21941283

  7. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  8. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  9. Ovarian dysgerminoma in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander F Aldhafery

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rare, dysgerminomas are important irrespective of incidence because they affect women of reproductive age (i.e., <45 years. Dysgerminomas make up two thirds of all malignant ovarian neoplasms in women younger than 20 years. All dysgerminomas are considered malignant, but only one third of dysgerminomas behave aggressively. Their exact etiology has not been determined. Few reports are found in the review of the literature on the incidence of dysgerminoma and other germ cell tumors in families. Some of these reports focus on the genetic abnormalities associated with germ cell tumor and the responsible gene. Two cases of dysgerminomas diagnosed in two sisters aged 14 and 19 years old are presented here with their radiological studies.

  10. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Identifying microRNA/mRNA dysregulations in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Gregory D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA molecules that co-regulate the expression of multiple genes via mRNA transcript degradation or translation inhibition. Since they often target entire pathways, they may be better drug targets than genes or proteins. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated in many tumours and associated with aggressive or poor prognosis phenotypes. Since they regulate mRNA in a tissue specific manner, their functional mRNA targets are poorly understood. In previous work, we developed a method to identify direct mRNA targets of microRNA using patient matched microRNA/mRNA expression data using an anti-correlation signature. This method, applied to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC, revealed many new regulatory pathways compromised in ccRCC. In the present paper, we apply this method to identify dysregulated microRNA/mRNA mechanisms in ovarian cancer using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Methods TCGA Microarray data was normalized and samples whose class labels (tumour or normal were ambiguous with respect to consensus ensemble K-Means clustering were removed. Significantly anti-correlated and correlated genes/microRNA differentially expressed between tumour and normal samples were identified. TargetScan was used to identify gene targets of microRNA. Results We identified novel microRNA/mRNA mechanisms in ovarian cancer. For example, the expression level of RAD51AP1 was found to be strongly anti-correlated with the expression of hsa-miR-140-3p, which was significantly down-regulated in the tumour samples. The anti-correlation signature was present separately in the tumour and normal samples, suggesting a direct causal dysregulation of RAD51AP1 by hsa-miR-140-3p in the ovary. Other pairs of potentially biological relevance include: hsa-miR-145/E2F3, hsa-miR-139-5p/TOP2A, and hsa-miR-133a/GCLC. We also identified sets of positively correlated microRNA/mRNA pairs that are most likely result from

  12. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Diane M.; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan; Ebeling, Mara C.; Bauer, Nichole A.; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25306892

  13. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muhammad; Beseler, Cheryl L; Hall, James B; LeVan, Tricia; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2014-05-15

    Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:24170413

  14. Multi-step radioimmunotherapy of ovarian carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among gynecological malignancies. Some 70 - 80% of patients fail conventional therapy, eventually succumbing to ovarian carcinomatosis. We are exploring a multi-step targeting approach as an adjuvant therapy to surgical debulking of the tumour. The prospective intraperitoneal treatment involves administration of a bispecific antibody to target CA-125 on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and biotin; followed by administration of biotinylated, radiolabeled liposomes to effect selective tumour cell killing within the peritoneal cavity. The goal of the study is to provide efficacious control of peritoneal metastatic disease, with improved quality and duration of the life of the patient. Bispecific antibodies to the human ovarian tumour-associated antigen, CA-125, were engineered and their selective targeting of human NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Co-localisation of biotinylated, long-circulating liposomes was demonstrated, using the same technique. Kinetics analysis of internalisation and shedding of the antigen/antibody complex demonstrates an effective residency on the cell surface for at least four hours in vitro. Biodistribution studies in immunodeficient Balb/c mice demonstrate selective tumour association of radiolabeled, targeted liposomes. Tumour growth delay/control studies are imminently planned. Our current results warrant further development of this approach as a potential therapy for human ovarian carcinomatosis

  15. Genomic analysis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Farley; Laurent L Ozbun; Michael J Birrer

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major health problem for women in the United States.Despite evidence of considerable heterogeneity,most cases of ovarian cancer are treated in a similar fashion.The molecular basis for the clinicopathologic characteristics of these tumors remains poorly defined.Whole genome expression profiling is a genomic tool,which can identify dysregulated genes and uncover unique sub-classes of tumors.The application of this technology to ovarian cancer has provided a solid molecular basis for differences in histology and grade of ovarian tumors.Differentially expressed genes identified pathways implicated in cell proliferation,invasion,motility,chromosomal instability,and gene silencing and provided new insights into the origin and potential treatment of these cancers.The added knowledge provided by global gene expression profiling should allow for a more rational treatment of ovarian cancers.These techniques are leading to a paradigm shift from empirical treatment to an individually tailored approach.This review summarizes the new genomic data on epithelial ovarian cancers of different histology and grade and the impact it will have on our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  16. Optical scattering coefficient estimated by optical coherence tomography correlates with collagen content in ovarian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-09-01

    Optical scattering coefficient from ex vivo unfixed normal and malignant ovarian tissue was quantitatively extracted by fitting optical coherence tomography (OCT) A-line signals to a single scattering model. 1097 average A-line measurements at a wavelength of 1310 nm were performed at 108 sites obtained from 18 ovaries. The average scattering coefficient obtained from the normal tissue group consisted of 833 measurements from 88 sites was 2.41 mm-1 (+/-0.59), while the average coefficient obtained from the malignant tissue group consisted of 264 measurements from 20 sites was 1.55 mm-1 (+/-0.46). The malignant ovarian tissue showed significant lower scattering than the normal group (p Sirius Red. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the normal tissue group was 48.4% (+/-12.3%), while the average CAF obtained from the malignant tissue group was 11.4% (+/-4.7%). A statistical significance of the collagen content was found between the two groups (p < 0.001). These results demonstrated that quantitative measurements of optical scattering coefficient from OCT images could be a potential powerful method for ovarian cancer detection.

  17. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  18. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  19. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  20. Splitting Compounds by Semantic Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Daiber, Joachim; Quiroz, Lautaro; Wechsler, Roger; Frank, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Compounding is a highly productive word-formation process in some languages that is often problematic for natural language processing applications. In this paper, we investigate whether distributional semantics in the form of word embeddings can enable a deeper, i.e., more knowledge-rich, processing of compounds than the standard string-based methods. We present an unsupervised approach that exploits regularities in the semantic vector space (based on analogies such as "bookshop is to shop as...

  1. Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to

  2. Predictors of ovarian response : progress towards individualized treatment in ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Diedrich, K.; Devroey, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation is applied in the clinic to restore mono-ovulatory cycles in anovulatory women (ovulation induction) or to induce the development of multiple dominant follicles for assisted reproduction. Ovarian response is the endocrine and follicular reaction of the ovaries to stimulation. Ach

  3. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  4. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  5. Possibilities and limits of ovarian reserve testing in ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Argento, Cindy; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Grisendi, Valentina; Carbone, Marilena; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Artenisio, Alfredo Carducci; Stabile, Gaspare; Volpe, Annibale

    2012-03-01

    Markers of ovarian reserve are associated with ovarian aging as they decline with chronologic age, and hence may predict stages of reproductive aging including the menopause transition. Assessment of ovarian reserve include measurement of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-M�llerian hormone (AMH), and inhibin-B. Ultrasound determination of antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian vascularity and ovarian volume also can have a role. The clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT), exogenous FSH ovarian reserve test (EFORT), and GnRH-agonist stimulation test (GAST) are dynamic methods that have been used in the past to assess ovarian reserve. In infertile women, ovarian reserve markers can be used to predict low and high oocyte yield and treatment failure in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. However the markers may have limitations when an in depth analysis of their accuracy, cost, convenience, and utility is performed. As ovarian reserve markers may permit the identification of both the extremes of ovarian stimulation, a possible role for their measurement may be in the individualization of treatment strategies in order to reduce the clinical risk of ART along with optimized treatment burden. It is fundamental to clarify the cost/benefit of its use in the ovarian reserve testing before initiation of an IVF cycle and whether the ovarian reserve markers-determined strategy of ovarian stimulation for assisted conception may be associated to improved live birth rate.

  6. A Global Analog of Cheshire Charge

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  7. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we....... RESULTS: Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer...

  8. Profile of vintafolide (EC145 and its use in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

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    Luyckx M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathieu Luyckx,1,2 Raffaella Votino,1 Jean-Luc Squifflet,1,2 Jean-François Baurain2,31Gynecology and Andrology Unit, 2Centre du cancer, Gynecologic Oncology Group, 3Medical Oncology Unit, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, BelgiumObjective: Our aim was to review the profile of vintafolide (EC145 and its rationale for use in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. First we investigated the folate receptors (FRs, folate's pathway into cells, and its expression in normal and cancerous cells, before detailing the mechanism of action of vintafolide, its clinical applications, and the results of different study phases.Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted through Pubmed/Medline, Google, ClinicalTrials.gov and websites of pharmaceutical companies. Only articles in English were selected. All articles investigating folate receptor expression in ovarian cancer were selected first, than articles reviewing platinum resistance. Papers about vintafolide were collected, while those talking about synthesis and biochemistry concerns were excluded. The different Phase I and II studies were read, and an update on the website of pharmaceuticals companies were added.Results: FR is a bundle-membrane receptor that is expressed normally in some normal tissues on the apical surface of cells, but highly expressed in ovarian cancer cells (>80%. It collects folate through endocytosis. Chemotherapy does not modify its expression in ovarian cancer cells, and its expression appears to be mostly associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance. Vintafolide is a folate-desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate, allowing a liberation of the drug into the cytoplasm of cancerous cells via the FR-α (FR α and endocytosis, with high specificity. Phase I studies showed a 2.5 mg bolus dose to be nontoxic, with moderately adverse events. Phase II clinical trials for the first time demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in disease

  9. ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN OVARIAN TUMORS

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    Lubna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are characterized by marked heterogeneity in their clinical presentation, so an accurate histopathological diagnosis is needed. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in vast number of cases where the morphology and clinical data alone do not allow definite diagnosis of tumor present in tissue sections. AIMS: 1. To evaluate the role of immune- histochemistry in classification and histogenesis of ovarian tumours and in resolving diagnostic dilemma in closely mimicking and poorly differentiated tumours. 2. To evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry in ovarian tumours and to differentiate primary from metastatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 operated cases of ovarian tumours over a period of one and half year (January 2008 to September 2010 were studied. Paraffin blocks of various ovarian tumours for relevant immunostains were subjected for automated immunostaining. Total 52 immunostains were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of the 80 cases of ovarian tumours, benign ovarian lesions were more common (75% than malignant lesions (25%. Serous cystadenoma was the commonest benign tumor (45%. Overall surface epithelial carcinomas were responsible for 70% of all malignant lesions among which serous cyst adenocarcinoma was most common (45%. 88.8% cases of serous carcinomas showed diffuse positivity for CK7, 60% showed positivity for CA125 and 100% were negative for CK20. 100% cases of mucinous carcinoma showed positivity for CK7, 66.66% showed positivity for CEA and 100% were negative for CA125. ER and PR showed nuclear positivity in both cases (100% of endometrioid carcinoma. Dysgerminoma showed positivity for placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP. Yolk sac tumor was positive for alpha-feto protein (AFP. Embryonal carcinoma was positive for CD30. Granulosa cell tumor was positive for Calretinin and Inhibin and negative for AFP. CONCLUSION: Thus IHC is helpful in confirming the histological diagnosis, to know the histogenesis

  10. Somatostatin analog treatment of acromegaly: new aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, S W; del Pozo, E

    1988-01-01

    Ten acromegalics received daily doses of 200-300 micrograms of a long-acting somatostatin analog, SMS 201-995 (Sandostatin, SMS), for an average of 64 weeks. Basal mean GH values of 44 +/- (SE) 7.8 ng/ml had fallen into the normal range at the end of the observation period (mean 64 weeks). This effect was accompanied by a substantial drop in somatomedin-C values. Reduction of pituitary tumor size could be documented in 3 of 6 patients. Whereas SMS did not affect high plasma PRL in 4 microprolactinoma patients, lactotrophs turned sensitive to this agent in mixed GH/PRL tumors. In a comparative study between SMS and bromocriptine, the former normalized circulating GH in 10 of 17 acromegalics in an acute trial, whereas bromocriptine was effective in only 5. A combination of both substances was effective in 2 of 3 patients who were insensitive to single drug administration. Cultures of GH-secreting tumor cells showed a statistically significant hormone decrease in the medium when exposed to SMS. However, in some instances, a diminution of the GH contents of the tumor cells was also observed, presumably as the basis for intracellular breakdown and clinical tumor shrinkage.

  11. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  12. Relationship between promoter methylation & tissue expression of MGMT gene in ovarian cancer

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    V Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumour suppressor genes. O 6 -methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT is a DNA repair gene that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from the O 6 -position of guanine induced by alkylating agents. MGMT promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression has been found in some primary human carcinomas. We studied DNA methylation of CpG islands of the MGMT gene and its relation with MGMT protein expression in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Methods: A total of 88 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC tissue samples, 14 low malignant potential (LMP tumours and 20 benign ovarian tissue samples were analysed for MGMT promoter methylation by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP after bisulphite modification of DNA. A subset of 64 EOC samples, 10 LMP and benign tumours and five normal ovarian tissue samples were analysed for protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: The methylation frequencies of the MGMT gene promoter were found to be 29.5, 28.6 and 20 per cent for EOC samples, LMP tumours and benign cases, respectively. Positive protein expression was observed in 93.8 per cent of EOC and 100 per cent in LMP, benign tumours and normal ovarian tissue samples. Promoter hypermethylation with loss of protein expression was seen only in one case of EOC. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that MGMT promoter hypermethylation does not always reflect gene expression.

  13. Relationship between promoter methylation & tissue expression of MGMT gene in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, V.; Bhagat, Rahul; Premalata, C.S.; Pallavi, V.R.; Ramesh, G.; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Epigenetic alterations, in addition to multiple gene abnormalities, are involved in the genesis and progression of human cancers. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands within promoter regions is associated with transcriptional inactivation of various tumour suppressor genes. O6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair gene that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from the O6-position of guanine induced by alkylating agents. MGMT promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression has been found in some primary human carcinomas. We studied DNA methylation of CpG islands of the MGMT gene and its relation with MGMT protein expression in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Methods: A total of 88 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissue samples, 14 low malignant potential (LMP) tumours and 20 benign ovarian tissue samples were analysed for MGMT promoter methylation by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) after bisulphite modification of DNA. A subset of 64 EOC samples, 10 LMP and benign tumours and five normal ovarian tissue samples were analysed for protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: The methylation frequencies of the MGMT gene promoter were found to be 29.5, 28.6 and 20 per cent for EOC samples, LMP tumours and benign cases, respectively. Positive protein expression was observed in 93.8 per cent of EOC and 100 per cent in LMP, benign tumours and normal ovarian tissue samples. Promoter hypermethylation with loss of protein expression was seen only in one case of EOC. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that MGMT promoter hypermethylation does not always reflect gene expression. PMID:25579142

  14. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

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    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  15. Ovarian response during IVF cycle following laparascopic cystectomy of ovarian endometrioma

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    Nasrin Moghadami Tabrizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrioma of ovary is one of the common diseases during reproductive age and the effect of laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma on infertility is still matter of debate. We designed this case control study to evaluate the ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF (In vitro fertilization cycle following laparoscopic unilateral cystectomy of endometrioma. Methods: In a case control study, we enrolled 30 women with history of unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of ovarian endometrioma in stripping method who underwent IVF cycle in women Hospital, 2009-2012. The numbers of follicles in response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF cycle in the ovary with history of  unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. Results: The mean age (±SD of patients was 32.3 (±3.4. The mean (±SD diameter of excised ovarian endometrioma was 42.4 (±10.4 mm. Interval since ovarian surgery to induction ovulation was 2.7 (±2.6 years. Mean number of follicles in the ovary with history of unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma was 2.5 (±1.2 with the range of 1 to 5 and in the control ovary 3.9 (±1.4 with the range of 1 to 6. There was significant difference in the number of follicles in the ovary with laparascopic cystectomy of endometrioma compared with opposite one (P<0.001.Conclusion: Laparoscopic cystectomy for unilateral endometrioma is associated with a reduced ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF cycle. We did not find any statistically significant difference in reduced ovarian response with regard to patients age, body mass index, size and location of the cyst, and time duration since ovarian cystectomy.

  16. Expression of Mycoplasma Hyorhinis P37 in the Tissues of Ovarian Cancer%P37蛋白在卵巢癌组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 寿成超

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究卵巢癌组织中P37蛋白的表达,探讨猪鼻支原体感染与卵巢癌发生的关系.方法 采用免疫组化法检测109例卵巢癌组织和30例正常卵巢组织中的P37蛋白表达情况.结果 卵巢癌组织中P37蛋白阳性表达率为43.1% (47/109),正常卵巢组织的阳性表达率为0(0/30),两者相比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论 卵巢癌组织中存在猪鼻支原体的感染,卵巢癌的发生与支原体感染有一定的相关性.%Objective To detect P37 protein expression of Mycoplasma hyorhinis on ovarian cancer and the relationship between mycoplasma infection and ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, 109 cases of ovarian cancer and 30 cases of normal ovarian tissues were used. Immunohis-tochemistry (IHC) was applied to analyze P37 protein. Results Mycoplasma hyorhinis P37 protein expression ratio was 43. 1%(47/109) in ovarian cancer. But it was 0(0/30 cases) in the normal ovarian tissues. Ovarian cancers had a higher mycoplasma infection ratio than the normal o-varian tissue (P<0. 001). Conclusion There was high mycoplasmal infection ratio in ovarian cancer tissues,Our data suggest mycoplasma infection have a possible function in ovarian cancer.

  17. Clinical relevance of circulating cell-free microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakatsuka, Erika; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    normalize for circulating miRNA levels, as well as differing extraction and quantification methods, are the pitfalls to be resolved before clinical application. There is still a long way, however, before this can be achieved, and further evidence would make it possible to apply circulating cell-free miRNAs not only as biomarkers but also as potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer in the future. PMID:27343009

  18. Alterations of c-Myc and c-erbB-2 genes in ovarian tumours

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    Pastor Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women. The causes of ovarian cancer remain largely unknown but various factors may increase the risk of developing it, such as age, family history of cancer, childbearing status etc. This cancer results from a succession of genetic alterations involving oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, which have a critical role in normal cell growth regulation. Mutations and/or overexpression of three oncogenes, c-erbB-2, c-Myc and K-ras, and of the tumour suppressor gene p53, have been frequently observed in a sporadic ovarian cancer. Objective. The aim of the present study was to analyze c-Myc and c-erbB-2 oncogene alterations, specifically amplification, as one of main mechanisms of their activation in ovarian cancers and to establish a possible association with the pathogenic process. Methods. DNA was isolated from 15 samples of malignant and 5 benign ovarian tumours, using proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol-chloroform isoamyl extraction and ethanol precipitation. C-Myc and c-erbB-2 amplification were detected by differential PCR. The level of gene copy increase was measured using the Scion image software. Results. The amplification of both c-Myc and c-erbB-2 was detected in 26.7% of ovarian epithelial carcinoma specimens. Only one tumour specimen concomitantly showed increased gene copy number for both studied genes. Interestingly, besides amplification, gene deletion was also detected (26.7% for c-erbB-2. Most of the ovarian carcinomas with alterations in c-Myc and c-erbB-2 belonged to advanced FIGO stages. Conclusion. The amplification of c-Myc and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in ovarian epithelial carcinomas is most probably a late event in the pathogenesis conferring these tumours a more aggressive biological behaviour. Similarly, gene deletions point to genomic instability in epithelial carcinomas in higher clinical stages as the

  19. Regimen of ovarian stimulation affects oocyte and therefore embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Ernesto; Labarta, Elena; Kolibianakis, Efstratios; Rosen, Mitchell; Meldrum, David

    2016-03-01

    Without any doubt the regimen used to mature multiple capable oocytes for IVF impacts IVF outcomes. Studies have indicated that the inclusion of LH activity, adjuvant agents such as growth hormone (GH), and regimens providing for simultaneous action of both LH and FSH during final oocyte maturation may have beneficial effects on IVF outcomes. Because of the difficulty in improving IVF outcomes in poor responders, the studies on GH are of particular interest. As pointed out in this review, the apparent beneficial effects of GH on oocyte competence may also apply to older women or to normal responders with reduced embryo quality. A much more difficult question is whether and how much ovarian stimulation impacts on oocyte competence. Paradoxically it seems that there are not demonstrated differences between the stimulated and the natural unstimulated cycle, whereas studies in laboratory animals and IVF patients have shown deleterious effects of higher compared with lower doses of gonadotropins. Recent studies suggest that the use of high doses of gonadotropins as an independent factor correlates negatively with the probability of live birth, whereas a high ovarian response per se is associated with better cumulative pregnancy rates, owing to the availability of more euploid and good-quality embryos. Although adjunctive use of androgens has not been discussed here, it is briefly covered in the first review of this series. PMID:26826273

  20. Non-coding RNA in Ovarian Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Browning; George, Jitu; Christenson, Lane K

    2016-01-01

    The ovary's primary function is to produce the mature female gamete, the oocyte that, following fertilization, can develop into an embryo, implant within the uterus and ultimately allow the mother's genetic material to be passed along to subsequent generations. In addition to supporting the generation of the oocyte, the ovary and specific ephemeral tissues within it, follicles and corpora lutea, produce steroids that regulate all aspects of the reproductive system, including the hypothalamic/pituitary axis, the reproductive tract (uterus, oviduct, cervix), secondary sex characteristics all of which are also essential for pregnancy and subsequent nurturing of the offspring. To accomplish these critical roles, ovarian development and function are tightly regulated by a number of exogenous (hypothalamic/pituitary) and endogenous (intraovarian) hormones. Within ovarian cells, intricate signalling cascades and transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks respond to these hormonal influences to provide the exquisite control over all of the temporal and spatial events that must be synchronized to allow this organ to successfully complete its function. This book chapter will focus specifically on the role of non-coding RNAs, their identification and described functional roles within the ovary with respect to normal function and their possible involvement in diseases, which involve the ovary. PMID:26659488

  1. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L;

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations....

  2. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Lene Nyhøj; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton;

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  3. Decrease of free thyroxine levels after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); A. Verhoeff; M.J. Mantel; F.H. de Jong (Frank); A. Berghout (Arie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractControlled ovarian hyperstimulation could lead to opposing effects on thyroid function. Therefore, in a prospective study of 65 women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, thyroid hormones, T4-binding globulin, TPO antibodies, gonadotropins, estrad

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubeni, Chyke A; Doubeni, Anna R; Myers, Allison E

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced stage because early-stage disease is usually asymptomatic and symptoms of late-stage disease are nonspecific. The strongest risk factors are advancing age and family history of ovarian and breast cancer. Women who have symptoms concerning for ovarian cancer should undergo a physical examination, transvaginal ultrasonography, and measurement of biomarkers such as cancer antigen 125. If results are suspicious for ovarian cancer, the patient should be referred to a gynecologic oncologist. Despite the low rate of early diagnosis, guidelines recommend against routine screening for ovarian cancer in average-risk women because screening, including routine pelvic examinations, is ineffective and associated with harm. However, a recent trial found a potential benefit of annual screening using an algorithm based on serial cancer antigen 125 measurements followed by transvaginal ultrasonography for women at increased risk, as determined by the algorithm. Women with an increased-risk family history should be referred for genetic counseling and, if genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA mutations) are identified, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy can be considered for risk reduction. In both average- and high-risk women, long-term hormonal contraceptive use reduces risk by about 50%. The treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves surgery, with or without intraperitoneal and intravenous chemotherapy. Primary care physicians have important roles in posttreatment surveillance and end-of-life care. PMID:27281838

  5. Ovarian mass in pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Dahiya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most common ovarian masses encountered during pregnancy are functional cysts of ovary and luteomas being unique to pregnancy. The other ovarian masses in order are benign cystic teratomas, serous cystadenoma, paraovarian cyst, mucinous cystadenoma and endometrioma. Torsion of ovarian cyst is the commonest complication during pregnancy. Incidence of ovarian torsion is 5 per 10000 pregnancies. The diagnosis is established by the characteristic history, presenting complaints of patient, examination findings and it is confirmed by the transvaginal ultrasound. Whenever this complication is encountered, it's important to go for immediate surgery. The surgical options available are laparoscopy or laparotomy. Here we report about a patient who was G5P4L4 with 18 weeks period of gestation. She presented in casualty with the chief complaints of acute pain abdomen on and off since morning. The patient was taken up for the ultrasound which showed a live foetus of 16 weeks gestation with adenexal mass. In view of probable diagnosis of torsion of adenexal mass, the patient was taken up for emergency laparotomy and ovarian cystectomy was performed. Patient's post-operative period was uneventful and on histopathological examination the ovarian mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma. Although, it is well established fact that surgery; if performed during second trimester is safer in case of an ovarian mass, nevertheless there is always small amount of risk to the growing foetus. Therefore, it is important to have choice of management for such cases depending on various factors viz. surgical indication, patient's condition, period of gestation. The appropriate decision should be taken after weighing all the risks and taking well informed consent. Whenever complications like torsion, rupture of cyst, infarction arise, than emergency surgery has to be taken up irrespective of period of gestation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 915-917

  6. Expression of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type 4 in Ovarian Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang, Xiaotian Chang, Guangying Yuan, Yan Zhao, Pengcheng Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4 converts arginine residues into citrulline. The current study focused on the expression of PADI4 in various subtypes of ovary cancers, and this study investigated the effects of estrogen on PADI4 expression in SKOV-3 cells that originated from ovary tumors. We utilized immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and western blotting to analyze the expression of PADI4 in the tumor tissues and in the cell line that were cultured with estrodial-17β. PADI4 was detected in serious cystadenocarcinoma (n=39, positivity=100%, clear cell cancer (n=7, positivity= 100%, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (n=6, positivity=100%, dysgerminoma (n=6, positivity=100%, squamous cell tumor (n=6, positivity=100%, sibnet-ring cell carcinoma (n=6, positivity=100%, endodermal sinus tumor (n=6, positivity=100%, germ cell tumors (n=6, positivity=100% and immature teratoma (n=6, positivity=100%. However, PADI4 was either not detected or detected at low levels in granulosa cell tumor (n=6, malignant thecoma (n=6, ovarian cystadenoma (n=5 and normal ovarian tissue (n=11. For serious cystadenocarcinoma, all of the samples with high PADI4 expression belonged to the T1 and T2 stages of pTMN, whereas all of the samples that exhibited weak or moderate PADI4 expression belonged to the T3 and T4 stages. PADI4 was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of serious cystadenocarcinoma that were classified as being grade II and III by histopathological scoring. However, PADI4 showed granular cellular distribution in the tumor tissues that were isolated from grade I cystadenocarcinoma. In addition, the PADI4 level was positively related with the ages of the patients that presented with serious adenocarcinoma (p=0.029. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses confirmed that PADI4 was expressed at higher levels in ovarian adenocarcinoma (n=8 compared to ovarian cystadenoma (n=5 (p< 0.05. The study also detected an increased level of PADI4 in SKOV-3

  7. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  8. Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic

    OpenAIRE

    Sakir Ongun; Sermin Coban; Abdullah Katgi; Funda Obuz; Aykut Kefi

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosi...

  9. Hashimoto's Disease in a Bilateral Benign Cystic Ovarian Teratoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Rupinderjeet; Singh, Jasbir; Kaur, Anureet; Bansal, Rimpi; Sharma, Satish

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of tissues derived from all the three germinal layers is seen in ovarian teratomas. Among these, thyroid tissue is present in 10% cases of all mature cystic teratomas.We report this case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a clinically euthyroid patient who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in spite of normal thyroid hormone profile.While the histological features of several disorders of thyroid tissue may be discovered, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is extremely rare fin...

  10. Quantitative analysis of estimated scattering coefficient and phase retardation for ovarian tissue characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2012-01-01

    In this report, optical scattering coefficient and phase retardation quantitatively estimated from polarization-sensitive OCT (PSOCT) were used for ovarian tissue characterization. A total of 33 ex vivo ovaries (normal: n = 26, malignant: n = 7) obtained from 18 patients were investigated. A specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 86% were achieved by using estimated scattering coefficient alone; and a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 43% were obtained by using phase retardation alon...

  11. Potent cytotoxic effects of Calomeria amaranthoides on ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Haard Paul MM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. More than 60% of the patients are presenting the disease in stage III or IV. In spite of combination of chemotherapy and surgery the prognosis stays poor for therapy regimen. Methods The leaves of a plant endemic to Australia, Calomeria amaranthoides, were extracted and then fractionated by column chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed with fractions of the plant extract and later with an isolated compound on ovarian cancer cell lines, as well as normal fibroblasts at concentrations of 1-100 μg/mL (crude extract and 1-10 μg/mL (compound. Cytotoxicity was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours by using a non-fluorescent substrate, Alamar blue. In vivo cytotoxicity was tested on ascites, developed in the abdomen of nude mice after inoculation with human OVCAR3 cells intraperitoneally. The rate of change in abdomen size for the mice was determined by linear regression and statistically evaluated for significance by the unpaired t test. Results Two compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation and identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry analyses, EPD, an α-methylene sesquiterpene lactone of the eremophilanolide subtype, and EPA, an α-methylene carboxylic acid. Cytotoxicity of EPD for normal fibroblasts at all time points IC50 was greater than 10 μg/mL, whereas, for OVCAR3 cells at 48 hours IC50 was 5.3 μg/mL (95% confidence interval 4.3 to 6.5 μg/mL. Both, the crude plant extract as well as EPD killed the cancer cells at a final concentration of 10 μg/mL and 5 μg/mL respectively, while in normal cells only 20% cell killing effect was observed. EPA had no cytotoxic effects. Changes in abdomen size for control versus Cisplatin treated mice were significantly different, P = 0.023, as were control versus EPD treated mice, P = 0.025, whereas, EPD versus Cisplatin treated mice were not significantly

  12. Identification of Epithelial Ovarian Tumor-Specific Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Gregory; Hamp, Timothy J; Wesselman, Peter J.; Richardson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed in late stages with few treatment options and poor long-term prognosis. New clinical tools for early detection of ovarian malignancies will significantly help reduce mortality and improve current long-term survival rates. The objective of this work was to identify ovarian tumor-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers that bind to malignant ovarian tumor cells and internalize with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can identify unique tumor biomarkers, can ...

  13. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  14. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth R Smith; Ying eWang; Xiang-Xi Mike Xu

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progressi...

  15. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  16. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  17. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in ovarian cancer cell lines,RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to detect the expression of COX-2 in 5 ovarian cancer cell lines. The expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was detected in all 5 cell lines. It is suggested that COX-2 is expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, which provides a basis for the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer.

  18. Establishment of a new representative model of human ovarian cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianjun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraperitoneal (i.p. models that accurately mimic the feature behavior of human ovarian cancer are required to investigate the pathology and therapeutics of the disease. However, established i.p. models which are well-characterized and reliable are few. The purposes of this study are to establish a representative mice i.p. model of the disease and to analyze the consequent pathology. Methods Fresh tumor cells fiom the ascites of patient were injected into female NOD/SCID mice intraperitoneally. Histology, Cytogenetic, immunohistochemistry,tumor markers of CA125,AFP, CA-199 and CEA were used to analyze the model. Results The mice developed marked abdominal distention within 6 months after inoculated with tumor cells from a patient with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The mice developed clinically evident intraperitoneal tumors and massive ascites containing numerous tumor cells in clumps. CA125 level in our model was high in both serum and ascites supernatants, while levels of other tumor markers, such as AFP, CA-199 and CEA, were normal. Cytogenetic analysis and immunohistochemical staining confirmed its characteristics resembling human epithelial ovarian tumor. Conclusions The model described in this paper accurately mimics the features of ovarian tumor, which may be useful for evaluation of new therapeutics.

  19. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  20. RUPTURED MALIGNANT GERM CELL OVARIAN TUMOR IN A 14 YEAR OLD GIRL: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Sudhir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immature teratoma accounts for 10 – 20% of all ovarian neoplasms in women less than 20 years of age with peak incidence between 15 – 19 years and they account for 30% of deaths arising from ovarian cancer in this age group.(1 Immature teratomas are rarely found to be bilateral,(2 Immature teratomas are malignant in nature and the most common sites of dessemination are peritoneum, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, hematogenous spread to Lung liver and brain is unusual.(3 We report a case of an immature teratoma of the ovary in a 14 year old girl who presented to us with acute pain abdomen. On examination patient was febrile, tachycardia present and abdominal rigidity was seen. Ultrasound examination showed a pelvic mass with fluid in morrisons pouch suggesting internal haemorrhage. Urine pregnancy test was done to rule out ectopic pregnancy. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy. On laparotomy ruptured ovarian mass was seen with hemoperitoneum. Unilateral salpingo - oophorectomy was done and specimen sent for Histopathological examination which revealed immature ovarian teratoma stage I, Grade 3. Post-operative period was uneventful. Patient was referred to cancer centre for chemotherapy and further management. Patient was put on BEP regime.(Bleomycin Etoposide, Paclitaxal.on further follow up patient was normal.

  1. Malnutrition Identified by the Nutritional Risk Index and Poor Prognosis in Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ga Won; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is a chronic disease with a risk of malnutrition. Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) has been reported as a simple and accurate tool to assess the nutritional status. We sought to explore the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with survival in ovarian cancer. A retrospective study was conducted in 213 advanced ovarian cancer patients. NRI was calculated before and at the end of treatment using patients' body weight and serum albumin level. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, and associations were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for known prognostic variables. Moderate to severely malnourished patients had lower 5-yr OS (45.3%) compared to normal to mild group (64.0%), respectively (P = 0.024). Adjusted for covariates, the relative risk of death was 5.8 times higher in moderate/severely malnourished group identified at the last course of chemotherapy (HR = 5.896, 95% CI = 2.723-12.764, P Malnutrition is prevalent among ovarian cancer patients and is found to be a significant predictor for mortality. PMID:27044606

  2. Sequence alterations of the whole mitochondrial genome in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Hong-hui; Song Tian; Pan Ling-ya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinomas to illuminate the impact of chemotherapy on mtDNA.Methods.Complete mtDNA genomes of tumor tissue from 7 pimary ovarian carcinoma patients without treatment and 9 recurrent ones with prior chemotherapies were sequenced as well as their matched normal tissue.MtDNA alterations, including somatic mutations and new polymorphisms and consequent amino-acid alterations were compared between the two groups.Results, A large number of mtDNA new polymorphisms (69) and somatic mutations (17) were found in 16 ovarian carcinoma samples.Chemotherapy might not lead to more, heteroplasmic mutations and consequent aminoacid alterations (P>0.05) in the recurrent ovarian carcinoma patients than in the untreated ones.Conclusions: MtDNA damage was not so certainly made by chemotherapies and some of the mtDNA defects might be part of the disease process rather than a consequence of treatment.

  3. Identification of five serum protein markers for detection of ovarian cancer by antibody arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein and antibody arrays have emerged as a promising technology to study protein expression and protein function in a high-throughput manner. These arrays also represent a new opportunity to profile protein expression levels in cancer patients' samples and to identify useful biosignatures for clinical diagnosis, disease classification, prediction, drug development and patient care. We applied antibody arrays to discover a panel of proteins which may serve as biomarkers to distinguish between patients with ovarian cancer and normal controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a case-control study design of 34 ovarian cancer patients and 53 age-matched healthy controls, we profiled the expression levels of 174 proteins using antibody array technology and determined the CA125 level using ELISA. The expression levels of those proteins were analyzed using 3 discriminant methods, including artificial neural network, classification tree and split-point score analysis. A panel of 5 serum protein markers (MSP-alpha, TIMP-4, PDGF-R alpha, and OPG and CA125 was identified, which could effectively detect ovarian cancer with high specificity (95% and high sensitivity (100%, with AUC =0.98, while CA125 alone had an AUC of 0.87. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our pilot study has shown the promising set of 5 serum markers for ovarian cancer detection.

  4. Correlating optical coherence elastography based strain measurements with collagen content of the human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Salehi, Hassan S; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the initial feasibility of a catheter based phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system was studied for characterization of the strain inside different human ovarian tissue groups. The ovarian tissue samples were periodically compressed with 500 Hz square wave signal along the axial direction between the surface of an unfocused transducer and a glass cover slide. The displacement and corresponding strain were calculated during loading from different locations for each tissue sample. A total of 27 ex vivo ovaries from 16 patients were investigated. Statistically significant difference (p Sirius Red stained histological sections. The average collagen area fraction (CAF) obtained from the tissue groups were found to have a strong negative correlation (R = -0.75, p < 0.0001) with the amount of strain inside the tissue. This indicates much softer and degenerated tissue structure for the malignant ovaries as compared to the dense, collagen rich structure of the normal ovarian tissue. The initial results indicate that the swept source OCT system can be useful for estimating the elasticity of the human ovarian tissue. PMID:26504631

  5. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  6. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  7. A Case Report of an Incidentally Diagnosed Blind-ending Bifid Ureter in a Patient with Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbaatar, Nandin E; Ono, Shun; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Hoshi, Akio; Terachi, Toshiro; Ogura, Go; Kondo, Yusuke; Ikeda, Masae; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese female was admitted to our hospital for treatment of ovarian cancer. She had no urinary tract symptoms at the time of presentation. Preoperative CT (Computed Tomography) was performed for surgical planning, and it revealed two left-sided ureters including a short ureter with a blind, cystic ending and a short ureter joined to the main ureter before entering into the bladder. On CT urography, these radiological findings were compatible with a blind-ending bifid ureter. Preoperatively, a double J stent was inserted into the normal left ureter, and then the blind-ending bifid ureter was resected before an ovarian cancer operation.

  8. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  9. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  10. Characterization of a common antigen of colorectal and mucinous ovarian tumors, COTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, K D; Zamora, P O; Rhodes, B A; Sachatello, C R; Hagihara, P F; Griffen, W O; van Nagell, J R; Fulks, R; Ram, M D

    1984-01-01

    A new colon cancer antigen is reported. It is designated as COTA, Colon-Ovarian Tumor Antigen, because it is found in mucins produced by both tissues during malignancy. The new antigen was identified by making antibodies against human colon cancer tissue in goats. The antisera were exhaustively absorbed with lyophilized extracts of normal colon, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, plasma, and the well-known colon tumor antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The new antigen was identified by immunodiffusion. Studies of 28 malignant tissue extracts, 10 ovarian adenocarcinoma cyst fluids, 43 normal tissues, and 5 plasma samples revealed that this antigen is found only in colon tumors and mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The antigen was not detected in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovaries, extracts of adenocarcinoma of lung, breast, kidney or stomach nor in the extracts of normal tissues. Other tests show that this antigen is not CEA, Ca 19-9, or CSAp. It is stable to heating at 65 degrees for 5 minutes; it elutes from an ion exchange matrix (DEAE) with 0.3-0.5M NaCl; it migrates to the alpha-2 region on immunoelectrophoresis; and its size, by exclusion chromatography on Sepharose 4B, is 3-15 million daltons. Anti-COTA stains colon cancer tissue sections indicating that COTA is present in goblet-cell mucin.

  11. [Three cases of ovarian cancer after ovulation induction for infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, J; Attieh, E; Atallah, D; Kessrouani, A; Chaoul, G

    1997-01-01

    We report three cases of ovarian carcinoma associated with fertility drugs. Two patients were hyperstimulated by clomiphen citrate (CC). The third had hMG + CC. Two of these patients had a Borderline ovarian carcinoma and the third had an invasive ovarian carcinoma associated with endometrial carcinoma.

  12. Ovarian Cancer: The Interplay of Lifestyle and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease that is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. In Europe, only 36% of women with ovarian cancer can expect to survive 5 years. While our knowledge of ovarian cancer has changed substantially throughout the years, our understanding of its etiology still lacks

  13. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ..., who have a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, or who have had certain cancers in the past are... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8853 of August 31, 2012 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the... their lives to ovarian cancer. They are mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers,...

  14. Late metastases of ovarian carcinoma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Rabin, S; Murray, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-02-01

    In cases of ovarian carcinoma distant metastases are rarely discovered before local spread has become evident. This article reports an unusual case in which renal metastases appeared 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. A discussion of the histological features of the tumour and the spread of ovarian carcinoma is included.

  15. Hedgehog signaling pathway and ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Chen; Guolan Gao; Shiwen Luo

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the most common form of ovarian malignancies and the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States.To date,in spite of treatment to it with the extensive surgical debulking and chemotherapy,the prognosis of EOC remains dismal.Recently,it has become increasingly clear that in many instances,the signaling and molecular players that control development are the same,and when inappropriately regulated,drive tumorigenesis and cancer development.Here,we discuss the possible involvement of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the cellular regulation and development of cancer in the ovaries.Using the in vitro and in vivo assays developed has facilitated the dissection of the mechanisms behind Hh-driven ovarian cancers formation and growth.Based on recent studies,we propose that the inhibition of Hh signaling may interfere with spheroid-like structures in ovarian cancers.The components of the Hh signaling may provide novel drug targets,which could be explored as crucial combinatorial strategies for the treatment of ovarian cancers.

  16. Pleural effusion following ovarian hyperstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Bammann, Ricardo Helbert; Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Castro, Ana Cristina P; Ishy, Augusto; Fernandez, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication that occurs in the luteal phase of an induced hormonal cycle. In most cases, the symptoms are self-limited and spontaneous regression occurs. However, severe cases are typically accompanied by acute respiratory distress. The objective of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pleural effusion associated with OHSS in three patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The patients ranged in age from 27 to 33 years. The onset of symptomatic pleural effusion (bilateral in all cases) occurred, on average, 43 days (range, 27-60 days) after initiation of hormone therapy for ovulation induction. All three patients required hospitalization for massive fluid resuscitation, and two required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Although all three patients initially underwent thoracentesis, early recurrence of symptoms and pleural effusion prompted the use of drainage with a pigtail catheter. Despite the high output from the pleural drain (mean, 1,000 mL/day in the first week) and prolonged drainage (for 9-22 days), the outcomes were excellent: all three patients were discharged from hospital. Although pleural effusion secondary to OHSS is probably underdiagnosed, the associated morbidity should not be underestimated, especially because it affects potentially pregnant patients. In this study, early diagnosis and appropriate supportive measures yielded favorable results, limiting the surgical approach to adequate pleural drainage.

  17. Protein levels and gene expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4 in benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Fredslund Andersen, Rikke;

    2008-01-01

    ovarian tumors. Tissue from 207 patients (101 malignant, 19 borderline, 64 benign ovarian tumors and 23 normal ovaries) were analyzed by quantitative ELISA for HER1-HER4 protein concentrations and by real-time PCR for HER1-HER4 gene expression. HER2 was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The HER2......The epidermal growth factor receptors, HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4 play a key role in the growth of malignant tumors. The receptors of the EGF receptor family are not cancer-specific proteins since these receptors are expressed to some extent in both normal and benign tissue......, but this is not elucidated in detail in ovarian tissue. High tumor-to-normal-tissue concentration ratios would be favorable for molecular targeted anti-cancer treatment. The primary aim of the study was to analyze the potential differential protein content and gene expression of the four receptors in benign and malignant...

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  19. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

  20. Nutrient-Induced Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role in the Development of Metabolic Aberration and Ovarian Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank

    2015-07-01

    A pathophysiology paradigm shift has emerged with the discovery that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state. Despite the dogma that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia of insulin resistance is the promoter of hyperandrogenism, physiological insulin infusion has no effect on androgen levels in PCOS. The dogma also does not explain the cause of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction in the 30 to 50% of women with PCOS who are of normal weight and lack insulin resistance. Inflammation is the underpinning of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may also be the cause of insulin resistance when present in PCOS. The origin of inflammation in PCOS has been ascribed to excess abdominal adiposity or frank obesity. However, nutrients such as glucose and saturated fat can incite inflammation from circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS independent of excess adiposity and insulin resistance, and can also promote atherogenesis. Hyperandrogenism activates MNC in the fasting state to increase MNC sensitivity to nutrients, and is a potential mechanism for initiating inflammation in PCOS. However, chronic ovarian androgen suppression does not reduce inflammation in normal-weight women with PCOS. Direct exposure of ovarian theca cells to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro increases androgen production. These findings may be corroborated in vivo with anti-inflammatory therapy to normal-weight insulin-sensitive women with PCOS without abdominal adiposity to observe for amelioration of ovarian dysfunction.

  1. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling by diathermy for ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of secondary infertility. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling has widely been used for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients resistant to clomiphene citrate. 80% patients ovulated after treatment and 60% patient conceived either spontaneously or after treatment with medication to which they are previously resistant. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to see the effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) with monopolar diathermy on pregnancy outcome in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Intervention: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Main Outcome Measures: Pregnancy, ovulation rate. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in the department of Gynae and Obstetrics in Sharif Medical City Hospital from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The inclusion criteria for laparoscopy ovarian drilling (LOD) were those infertile women between the age group of 25 - 38 years who meet the criteria for PCOS and who are resistant to clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins. A total of 30 women were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling after having informed consent for procedure. Response to therapy was assessed in term of pregnancy outcome and ovulation rate for 1 year after therapy. Results: A total of 30 patients were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The mean age of study group was 30 years +- SD 4.7791. Cumulative ovulation rate was observed in 22 patients (73%), out of which spontaneous ovulation occurred in 18 patients (80%), and after ovulation induction therapy in 4 patients (18%). Eleven patients (37%) conceived in two year duration. Spontaneous conception without any treatment was observed in 7 patients (63%); however 4 patients (37%) require further assistance with combined therapy of clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins after failure

  2. Ovarian activity before and after gonadal suppression by GnRH-a in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinism and acanthosis nigricans

    OpenAIRE

    Motta E.L.A.; Baracat E.C.; Haidar M.A.; Juliano I.; Lima G.R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ovarian activity before and after gonadal suppression with GnRH-analog in patients with PCO, hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinism and acanthosis nigricans. DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Six patients with clinical findings of PCO, hirsutism and acanthosis nigricans. INTERVENTIONS: Morning blood samples in the follicular phase to determine the steroid levels, glucose and insulin curve, comparing to a control gr...

  3. Expression of organic cation transporter SLC22A16 in human epithelial ovarian cancer: a possible role of the adriamycin importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kyoko; Ito, Kiyoshi; Akahira, Jun-ichi; Sato, Naoko; Onogawa, Tohru; Moriya, Takuya; Unno, Michiaki; Abe, Takaaki; Niikura, Hitoshi; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2007-07-01

    The SLC22A16 is one of the newly isolated organic cation transporters, which is responsible for uptake and transport of adriamycin into cells. Adriamycin is considered to be an active agent for ovarian cancer. Recently, the benefit of adding adriamycin to the current standard regimen, paclitaxel and platinum, is evaluated to improve the outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, we examined the expression of SLC22A16 in ovarian cancers. Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used for immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to confirm the expression of SLC22A16 mRNA and protein. Five normal ovaries, 12 ovarian adenomas, and 94 ovarian cancer cases were obtained from patients after surgical therapy. The specimens were used for immunohistochemistry. The median value of relative SLC22A16 gene expression in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in cell lines from other histologies (P < 0.001). Expression of SLC22A16 protein was also detected in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma. The SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 15 (16%) of 94 epithelial ovarian cancer, 1 (8.3%) of 12 benign adenomas, but 0 (0%) of 5 normal ovary cases. In ovarian cancer tissues, SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 2 (5%) of 38 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 (6.7%) of 15 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 0 (0%) of 14 mucinous adenocarcinoma, and 12 (46.2%) of 26 clear-cell adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001, clear-cell vs other histologies). In conclusion, SLC22A16 was abundantly expressed in clear-cell adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that adriamycin-related chemicals that are taken up via SLC22A16 may have the potential to be effective against clear-cell adenocarcinoma.

  4. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  5. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  6. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  7. Two Cases of Primary Ectopic Ovarian Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is one of the rarest varieties of ectopic pregnancies. Patients frequently present with abdominal pain and menstrual irregularities. Intrauterine devices have evolved as probable risk factors. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging but transvaginal sonography has often been helpful. A diagnostic delay may lead to rupture, secondary implantation or operative difficulties. Therefore, awareness of this rare condition is important in reducing the associated risks. Here, we report two cases of primary ovarian pregnancies presenting with acute abdominal pain. Transabdominal ultrasonography failed to hint at ovarian pregnancy in one, while transvaginal sonography aided in the correct diagnosis of the other. Both cases were confirmed by histopathological examinations and were successfully managed by surgery.

  8. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann;

    2011-01-01

    . Design. BRCA1-immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and methylation analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue. Sample: 54 ovarian cancers; 15 BRCA1 cancers, 4 BRCA2 cancers, 10 cancers from patients with a family history...... but no mutation detected, and 25 ovarian cancers with unknown BRCA1 status. Results. Abnormal BRCA1 IHC was found to indicate BRCA mutations with a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 93%, and an estimated positive predictive value of 73%. FISH analyses supported the diagnosis in most cases. Methylation analyses...... could indicate BRCA deficiency in combination with one of the other methods. Conclusions. BRCA1 IHC is a promising screening method for BRCA1 mutation detection....

  9. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  10. A STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMOURS : CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  11. Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure ratesin malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapyresidue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumorand teratoma. Aims : To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovariangerm cell tumors. Materials and Methods : Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute,Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied. Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapywith cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses. Twenty-nine out of these 35 patientsunderwent laparotomy to assess the nature of the residue. Results : On laparotomy, three patients had viable tumor, seven immature teratoma, three mature teratomaand 16 only necrosis or fibrosis. None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence ofteratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patientswith tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor. Absence of viable disease was higherin patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion : Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assessthe nature of post-chemotherapy residue. However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumorsthat initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles ofchemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable postchemotherapy residue.

  12. Linear Connections on Normal Almost Contact Manifolds with Norden Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Teofilova, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Families of linear connections are constructed on almost contact manifolds with Norden metric. An analogous connection to the symmetric Yano connection is obtained on a normal almost contact manifold with Norden metric and closed structural 1-form. The curvature properties of this connection are studied on two basic classes of normal almost contact manifolds with Norden metric.

  13. Multiple myeloma with rupture of ovarian plasmacytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yu-ping; ZHANG Jia-jia; HUANG Xiao-nan

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal proliferation of plasma cells with multiple osteolytic lesions.Extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma in ovary is relatively uncommon.A 54-year-old female patient,diagnosed as multiple myeloma three years ago,was admitted to the hospital for the complaints of intermittent abdominal pain for three days.The vaginal gynecological ultrasound showed celiac solid mass.The emergent laparotomy showed a significantly enlarged right cystic ovary and the pathological reviews showed ovarian plasmacytoma.The final diagnosis of this patient was ovarian extramedullary plasmacytoma rupture and bleeding.

  14. Metabolic profiles using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in postpartum dairy cows with ovarian inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuchu; Xia, Cheng; Sun, Yuhang; Xiao, Xinhuan; Wang, Gang; Fan, Ziling; Shu, Shi; Zhang, Hongyou; Xu, Chuang; Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    To understand the differences in metabolic changes between cows with ovarian inactivity and estrus cows, we selected cows at 60-90 days postpartum from an intensive dairy farm. According to clinical manifestations, B-ultrasound scan, rectal examination, 10 cows were assigned to the estrus group (A) and 10 to the ovarian inactivity group (B). All plasma samples were analyzed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare plasma metabolomic profiles between the groups. We used multivariate pattern recognition to screen for different metabolites in plasma of anestrus cows. Compared with normal estrous cows, there were abnormalities in 12 kinds of metabolites in postpartum cows with ovarian inactivity (|r|> 0.602), including an increase in acetic acid (r = -0.817), citric acid (r = -0.767), and tyrosine (r = -0.714), and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.820), very low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.828), lipids (r = 0.769), alanine (r = 0.816), pyruvate (r = 0.721), creatine (r = 0.801), choline (r = 0.639), phosphorylcholine (r = 0.741), and glycerophosphorylcholine (r = 0.881). These metabolites were closely related to abnormality of glucose, amino acid, lipoprotein and choline metabolism, which may disturb the normal estrus. The decrease in plasma creatine and the increase in tyrosine were new changes for ovarian inactivity of postpartum cows. The decrease in plasma creatine and choline and the increase in tyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylalanine in cows with ovarian inactivity provide new directions for research on the mechanism of ovarian inactivity in cows. PMID:27291083

  15. Metabolic profiles using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in postpartum dairy cows with ovarian inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuchu; Xia, Cheng; Sun, Yuhang; Xiao, Xinhuan; Wang, Gang; Fan, Ziling; Shu, Shi; Zhang, Hongyou; Xu, Chuang; Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    To understand the differences in metabolic changes between cows with ovarian inactivity and estrus cows, we selected cows at 60-90 days postpartum from an intensive dairy farm. According to clinical manifestations, B-ultrasound scan, rectal examination, 10 cows were assigned to the estrus group (A) and 10 to the ovarian inactivity group (B). All plasma samples were analyzed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare plasma metabolomic profiles between the groups. We used multivariate pattern recognition to screen for different metabolites in plasma of anestrus cows. Compared with normal estrous cows, there were abnormalities in 12 kinds of metabolites in postpartum cows with ovarian inactivity (|r|> 0.602), including an increase in acetic acid (r = -0.817), citric acid (r = -0.767), and tyrosine (r = -0.714), and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.820), very low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.828), lipids (r = 0.769), alanine (r = 0.816), pyruvate (r = 0.721), creatine (r = 0.801), choline (r = 0.639), phosphorylcholine (r = 0.741), and glycerophosphorylcholine (r = 0.881). These metabolites were closely related to abnormality of glucose, amino acid, lipoprotein and choline metabolism, which may disturb the normal estrus. The decrease in plasma creatine and the increase in tyrosine were new changes for ovarian inactivity of postpartum cows. The decrease in plasma creatine and choline and the increase in tyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylalanine in cows with ovarian inactivity provide new directions for research on the mechanism of ovarian inactivity in cows.

  16. Anti Mullerian Hormone: Ovarian response indicator in young patients receiving Long GnRH Agonist Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Arif, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH) is gaining place as ovarian marker, chiefly in infertility assistance. We explored its correlation with oocytes retrieval after long GnRH agonist protocol for stimulation, in younger and older infertile population. Methods: This retrospective analysis compiled data of 166 females, receiving ICSI treatment from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum FSH, LH, Estadiol, AMH and antral follicle count were assessed. Outcomes were measured as good (5 to 19 oocytes) and bad responders. Results: Higher discriminatory power of AMH (AUROC; 0.771; p 35 year (r=0.169; p>0.05). Conclusion: Our study reaffirms that serum AMH correlates well with oocytes retrieved, particularly in females younger than 35 years. We suggest incorporation of AMH in baseline assessment of infertile females, who are falsely advised to postpone interventions based on their age and normal FSH levels. PMID:27648045

  17. Hirsutism and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future. Use of these medications requires close supervision by your physician. An estrogen and/or a ... obese, but that is not part of the definition, and some women are of normal weight. Despite ...

  18. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  19. Sex steroids level in blood plasma and ovarian follicles of the chimeric chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Lakota, P; Wojtysiak, D; Hrabia, A; Mika, M; Lisowski, M; Czekalski, P; Rzasa, J; Kapkowska, E; Bednarczyk, M

    2006-12-01

    The study was performed to determine the hormonal status of mature germline chimeras obtained by blastodermal cell transfer from chicken embryos of a donor breed [Green-legged Partridgelike breed (GP) x Araucana (AR)] to those of a recipient breed [White Leghorn (WL)] being at the same stage of embryonic development. The egg-laying chimeras and WL hens (control) of the same age were used in the experiment. At first, blood samples were taken from each bird at 0.5, 5, 12.5 and 18.5 h following oviposition. Subsequently, the chimeras and the WL hens were decapitated 1-2 h after ovulation. A stroma and the following follicles were isolated from the ovary: white normal (1-4, 4-6 and 6-8 mm), white atretic and yellow preovulatory follicles (F4-F1). Sex hormones, progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The activity of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in the granulosa and theca layers of the follicles was analysed histochemically. In chimeric chickens, a higher level of T in blood plasma during the ovulatory cycle was noticed. However, in the stroma, white prehierarchical and medium-size preovulatory ovarian follicles the level of T was significantly lower. With respect to E2, its elevated levels were found both in blood and in the ovarian follicles. There were no significant differences in P4 concentrations in blood plasma while in ovarian follicles a higher level was observed only in white 6-8 mm follicles. 3beta-HSD activity in granulosa and theca layers of the ovarian follicles in chimeras was not different from that in the WL hens. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that germline chimeras exhibit significant alterations in sex hormone levels in the ovary and blood plasma, which in turn may affect their reproductive abilities. PMID:17105570

  20. Diagnostic Efficacy of Sonography for Diagnosis of Ovarian Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Niafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of sonography for ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods: In this analytic descriptive study, 323 women with suspected ovarian torsion underwent a transabdominal sonography. Findings of sonography were compared with laparatomy. Results: The ultrasound correctly diagnosed 72.1% of ovarian torsion cases and missed 27.9% of these cases (false negatives. There was a strong correlation between sonography and surgery with a kappa value of 84.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of sonography for diagnosing ovarian torsion were determined 72.1% and 99.6%, respectively. Also, sonography had a positive predictive value (PPV of 96.9%, a negative predictive value (NPV of 95.9%, and a total accuracy of 96.0% for detection of ovarian torsion. Conclusion: Sonography is excellent to evaluate patients with suspected ovarian torsion. Abnormal blood flow is highly predictive of ovarian torsion.

  1. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  2. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  3. Complete follicular development and recovery of ovarian function of frozen-thawed, autotransplanted caprine ovarian cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Regiane R; Knijn, Hiemke M; Vos, Peter L A M; Oei, Christine H Y; van Loon, Thijs; Colenbrander, Ben; Gadella, Bart M; van den Hurk, Rob; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2009-01-01

    Frozen-thawed ovarian cortical fragments (1 mm(3)) were autotransplanted to the uterus of completely ovariectomized goats. The grafts developed preovulatory follicles, accompanied by estrous behavior and a rise in plasma E(2) levels, demonstrating successful cryopreservation and transplantation.

  4. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  5. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Christensen, Ib J;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology....

  6. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, A.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Christensen, I.J.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  7. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  8. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  9. The MyD88+ phenotype is an adverse prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    d'Adhemar, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer is poor in part due to the high frequency of chemoresistance. Recent evidence points to the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and particularly its adaptor protein MyD88, as one potential mediator of this resistance. This study aims to provide further evidence that MyD88 positive cancer cells are clinically significant, stem-like and reproducibly detectable for the purposes of prognostic stratification. Expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was assessed immunohistochemically in 198 paraffin-embedded ovarian tissues and in an embryonal carcinoma model of cancer stemness. In parallel, expression of TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA and regulatory microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-146a) was assessed, as well as in a series of chemosensitive and resistant cancer cells lines. Functional analysis of the pathway was assessed in chemoresistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. TLR4 and MyD88 expression can be reproducibly assessed via immunohistochemistry using a semi-quantitative scoring system. TLR4 expression was present in all ovarian epithelium (normal and neoplastic), whereas MyD88 was restricted to neoplastic cells, independent of tumour grade and associated with reduced progression-free and overall survival, in an immunohistological specific subset of serous carcinomas, p<0.05. MiR-21 and miR-146a expression was significantly increased in MyD88 negative cancers (p<0.05), indicating their participation in regulation. Significant alterations in MyD88 mRNA expression were observed between chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and tissue. Knockdown of TLR4 in SKOV-3 ovarian cells recovered chemosensitivity. Knockdown of MyD88 alone did not. MyD88 expression was down-regulated in differentiated embryonal carcinoma (NTera2) cells, supporting the MyD88+ cancer stem cell hypothesis. Our findings demonstrate that expression of MyD88 is associated with significantly reduced patient survival and altered microRNA levels and suggest an intact\\/functioning TLR4\\/MyD88

  10. The MyD88+ phenotype is an adverse prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J d'Adhemar

    Full Text Available The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer is poor in part due to the high frequency of chemoresistance. Recent evidence points to the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, and particularly its adaptor protein MyD88, as one potential mediator of this resistance. This study aims to provide further evidence that MyD88 positive cancer cells are clinically significant, stem-like and reproducibly detectable for the purposes of prognostic stratification. Expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was assessed immunohistochemically in 198 paraffin-embedded ovarian tissues and in an embryonal carcinoma model of cancer stemness. In parallel, expression of TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA and regulatory microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-146a was assessed, as well as in a series of chemosensitive and resistant cancer cells lines. Functional analysis of the pathway was assessed in chemoresistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. TLR4 and MyD88 expression can be reproducibly assessed via immunohistochemistry using a semi-quantitative scoring system. TLR4 expression was present in all ovarian epithelium (normal and neoplastic, whereas MyD88 was restricted to neoplastic cells, independent of tumour grade and associated with reduced progression-free and overall survival, in an immunohistological specific subset of serous carcinomas, p<0.05. MiR-21 and miR-146a expression was significantly increased in MyD88 negative cancers (p<0.05, indicating their participation in regulation. Significant alterations in MyD88 mRNA expression were observed between chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and tissue. Knockdown of TLR4 in SKOV-3 ovarian cells recovered chemosensitivity. Knockdown of MyD88 alone did not. MyD88 expression was down-regulated in differentiated embryonal carcinoma (NTera2 cells, supporting the MyD88+ cancer stem cell hypothesis. Our findings demonstrate that expression of MyD88 is associated with significantly reduced patient survival and altered microRNA levels and suggest an intact/functioning TLR4

  11. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. Xampling: Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mishali, Moshe; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed wi...

  13. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitaniak, T.; Zyczkowski, K.; Feudel, U.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we d...

  14. The effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Prodromidou, Anastasia; Frountzas, Maximos; Bitos, Konstantinos; Perrea, Despina; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to study the effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve. We searched Medline (1966-2015), Scopus (2004-2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2015), and Cochrane Central Register (CENTRAL) databases along with reference lists of electronically retrieved studies. The levels of antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following the excision of the benign ovarian cyst were defined as primary outcomes. Eight studies were finally included in our systematic review, which recruited 545 women. A metaanalysis was precluded because of significant heterogeneity in the methodological characteristics of the included studies. Data from the included studies suggest that the use of bipolar coagulation compared with ovarian sutures seems to result in significantly lower AMH and AFC during the first 3 months following the excision of the ovarian cyst. Two studies reported that this effect seems to persist at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Bipolar electrodiathermy seems to be accompanied by increased damage to ovarian reserve, which is indicated by the lower levels of AMH and AFC. However, definitive results are precluded because of the significant heterogeneity of included studies and the potential bias.

  15. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  16. The influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function in ovarian cyst removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Wen Qin; Hui-Xian Zheng; Yu Ren

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of laparoscopy and laparotomy on immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function in ovarian cyst removal. Methods:According to surgical procedures, a total of 92 patients diagnosed with benign ovarian tumor were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group received laparotomy to remove ovarian cyst, while the observation group received laparoscopy to remove ovarian cyst. Postoperative immune function and short-term as well as long-term postoperative ovarian function were compared with pre-operation within group and between the two groups.Results:The hospital stays of observation group were significantly shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with pre-operation, the levels of IgG and C3 at postoperative 1 d were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and these levels in the control group experienced a stronger decrease (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 d, the level of C3 was restored to the normal level in the control group, but the level of IgG was still significantly less than that of the observation group (P<0.05); In the control group, the levels of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 at postoperative 1 d declined significantly (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 d, these levels except the level of CD3 which was approximately restored to the normal level were still significantly less than that of the observation group and pre-operation (P<0.05). Compared with pre-operation, the level of E2 was significantly decreased, while the levels of FSH and LH were significantly increased in the two groups (P<0.05), and the degree of change was more obvious in the control group (P<0.05); At postoperative 3 months and 1 year, the recovery of these indexes in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05), and these indexes in the control group were still significantly different between these time points and pre-operation (P<0.05); At postoperative 1

  17. Possible pathogenetic types of sporadical ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article in question dwells on a possible pathogenetic model ovarian cancer, it’s histogenesis speciality, the role of ovulation, chronic in- flammation and stem cells. The scheme of two variant of avarian cancer progress and possible ways of prevention it are represented as well.

  18. Chemotherapy of ovarian cancer in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiffany A. Troso-Sandoval; Stuart M. Lichtman

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is primarily a disease of older women. Advanced age is risk factor for decreased survival. Optimal surgery and the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy are essential for prolonged progression-free and overall survival (OS). In this article, the available regimens in both the primary treatment and relapsed setting are reviewed.

  19. Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Patidar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here a rare case ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. In the case patient came with complain of abdominal pain, distension, nausea, vomiting with known case of secondary infertility. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2418-2420

  20. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  1. Targeted Immune Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Keith L.; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Lamichhane, Purushottam; Preston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as recurrence free survival and overall survival, in ovarian cancer are quite variable, independent of common characteristics such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration and therapeutic targeting into the interaction between the tumor and host. One compelling host characteristic that contributes both to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer is the immune system. Hundreds of studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune regulatory cells present in the tumor microenvironment. Regulatory immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathologic network. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological targets that influence ovarian cancer outcome as well as include an update on newer immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25544369

  2. Ovarian Aging : Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, F. J.; Soules, M. R.; Fauser, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurr

  3. Valproate, bipolar disorder and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction with the principal features of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. A large number of studies conducted on this topic have suggested a possible role of anticonvulsants, particularly valproate, in the pathogenesis or risk factors associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Bipolar treatment guidelines from Canada and the United States of America recommend valproate as the first line strategy in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder. Discussion. Most persons with bipolar disorder require maintenance treatment. Long-term administration of valproate in women with bipolar disorder or epilepsy is believed to result in the increased risk of hyperandro­genism, menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovaries. Valproate may also increase the risk of infertility and other associated symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Therefore, particular caution is indicated in the use of valproate in women of reproductive age. Conclusion. The treatment of the female patients with bipolar disorder presents various challenges for the clinician. Every woman of reproductive age needs to know the risk and benefits of her pharmacologic treatment options. Bipolar disorder should be considered chronic disorder, whose development is largely affected by hormonal changes and reproductive cycle in women. These issues should be researched more thoroughly in order to opt for the most appropriate treatment in women with bipolar disorder.

  4. Role of scrape cytology in ovarian neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasm and its utilization for teaching pathology residents. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on 50 solid/solid-cystic ovarian neoplasms sent in 10% buffered formalin. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of tumors were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology has been satisfactory with 92% of cases correlating with the final diagnosis. Characteristic cytological pattern was noted in various types of surface epithelial, sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. The technique had limited value in mucinous tumors to distinguish borderline cases from invasive carcinoma. Two mucinous carcinomas were diagnosed as borderline mucinous tumor and two endometrioid carcinomas were misinterpreted as cystadenocarcinoma on scrape cytology. Formalin did not interfere or produce any remarkable changes in cytomorphology. Conclusions: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive adjunctive cytodiagnostic technique and its routine utilization in ovarian lesions could aid in expanding the cytological knowledge of ovarian neoplasms.

  5. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  6. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  7. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment o...

  8. Laparoscopic Ovarian Surgery in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong-Bae; Cho, Hye-Yon; Park, Sung-Ho; Park, Sung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although laparoscopy is widely used in gynecologic surgery in adults, few studies have been undertaken to examine its use in young and adolescent patients. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of benign ovarian disease in children and adolescents. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 106 patients (age,

  9. Management of Ovarian Cancer in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sushil K; Nayak, Bhagyalaxmi

    2015-01-01

    As a result of increasing life expectancy, the cancer incidence in older population is on the rise. Ovarian cancer (OC) is predominantly the disease of elderly women. More than half of all OC occur in women older than 65 years. The incidence of the disease increases with the advancing age, peaking during 7(th) decade of life and remains elevated until the age of 80 years. With the changing demographic scenario the percentage of elderly patients is increasing and gynaecologic oncologists need to focus more on these patients and their specific needs. Due to their higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared to younger patients, elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer are challenging to treat and are often treated less radically. Their outcome is impaired despite no consistent prognostic effect of age itself. To offer optimal radical management of the elderly women with ovarian cancer and to avoid suboptimal treatment, biological age and functional status need to be considered before individualized treatment plans are defined. Pretreatment assessment can be achieved by using different assessment tools. Patients can tolerate surgery and chemotherapy, as long as they are individually assessed for their medical, psychological, and functional capabilities before therapeutic intervention is initiated. Prospective trials involving elderly women with ovarian cancer are the need of the day to offer justified evidenced based optimal treatment for those who will be benefited from the treatment. PMID:26411955

  10. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  11. Computer tomography of ovarian dermoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, C.G.; Karlsson, S.; Nyman, U. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden)

    1981-01-01

    Five patients with ovarian dermoid cysts (benign cystic teratomas) were examined by CT. The appearance of these tumours at CT as well as at conventional radiography is discussed. It is concluded that CT adds valuable information in the preoperative evaluation of cystic teratomas.

  12. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin carboxy-terminal fragment is a novel tumor-homing peptide for human ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azoudi Masoud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of innovative, effective therapies against recurrent/chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer remains a high priority. Using high-throughput technologies to analyze genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer, we have discovered extremely high expression of the genes encoding the proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4. Methods Because claudin-3 and -4 are the epithelial receptors for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE, and are sufficient to mediate CPE binding, in this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the carboxy-terminal fragment of CPE (i.e., CPE290-319 binding peptide as a carrier for tumor imaging agents and intracellular delivery of therapeutic drugs. Claudin-3 and -4 expression was examined with rt-PCR and flow cytometry in multiple primary ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cell binding assays were used to assess the accuracy and specificity of the CPE peptide in vitro against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biodistribution assays were performed to evaluate the localization and uptake of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide in established tumor tissue. Results Using a FITC-conjugated CPE peptide we show specific in vitro and in vivo binding to multiple primary chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Bio-distribution studies in SCID mice harboring clinically relevant animal models of chemotherapy resistant ovarian carcinoma showed higher uptake of the peptide in tumor cells than in normal organs. Imunofluorescence was detectable within discrete accumulations (i.e., tumor spheroids or even single chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells floating in the ascites of xenografted animals while a time-dependent internalization of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide was consistently noted in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian tumor cells by confocal microscopy. Conclusions Based on the high levels of claudin-3 and -4 expression in chemotherapy

  13. The value of random biopsies, omentectomy, and hysterectomy in operations for borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gitte Schultz; Schledermann, Doris; Mogensen, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are treated surgically like malignant ovarian tumors with hysterectomy, salpingectomy, omentectomy, and multiple random peritoneal biopsies in addition to removal of the ovaries. It is, however, unknown how often removal of macroscopically normal-appearing...... Hospital from 2007 to 2011 were eligible for this study. Data were extracted from electronic records. Intraoperative assessment of tumor spread (macroscopic disease) and the microscopic evaluation of removed tissues were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: The study included 75 patients, 59 (78.7%) in...... surgeon's identification of macroscopic tumor spread to the contralateral ovary and the peritoneum had a sensitivity of 88% and 69.2% and a specificity of 90.2% and 92.5%, respectively. The macroscopic assessment of the uterine surface, the omentum, and the pelvic and para-aortal lymph nodes was not a...

  14. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased in the model-hydrogen group

  15. Acute respiratory failure following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Nicolini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non

  16. Huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile primary hypothyroidism causing cystic ovaries and pseudoprecocious puberty (Van-Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS is well documented in literature. There are only a few reports of primary hypothyroidism presenting as ovarian cysts in adults. Here we present a case of huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of VWGS due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism. Large uniloculor right ovarian cyst (119 × 81 × 90 mm and a multicystic left ovary (55 × 45 × 49 mm were detected in a 24 year lady with secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and palpable abdominal mass with history of neonatal jaundice, delayed milestones, short stature, and precocious menarche at age of 7.5 years age. She had elevated levels of cancer antigen (CA-125 which normalized post levothyroxine supplementation. Elevated CA-125 may lead to misdiagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and inadvertent treatment. Bilateral ovarian cysts in adults are a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism. It is necessary to screen for primary hypothyroidism in patients presenting with bilateral ovarian cysts to prevent unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  17. Imaging features of ovarian metastases from colonic adenocarcinoma in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the imaging features of ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon in adolescent females. We reviewed retrospectively abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic and pelvic ultrasound examinations, histologic slices, and clinical charts of six adolescent females with ovarian metastases secondary to adenocarcinoma of the colon. One patient had ovarian metastasis at presentation and was presumed to have a primary ovarian tumor. The ovarian metastases were either solid (n = 3), complex with both solid and cystic components (n = 2), or multilocular cysts (n = 1). The ovarian lesions were large, ranging from 6 cm to 18 cm in diameter. Colorectal carcinoma in adolescent females is frequently associated with ovarian metastases. One imaging characteristic differs in adult and adolescent ovarian metastases, although they do have features in common: in adolescents, a smaller proportion of colorectal ovarian metastases are multicystic (17%) compared with the adult series (45%). These lesions are frequently large and may be complex, multicystic, or solid. Although it is a rare disease, the differential dignosis of adnexal masses in adolescent females should include ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon. (orig.)

  18. Role of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 in ovarian cancer progression: possible implications in abnormal mucin O-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Morin, Chantale; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2014-01-30

    Previously, we have identified the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3) gene as notably hypomethylated in low-malignant potential (LMP) and high-grade (HG) serous epithelial ovarian tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Here we show that GALNT3 is strongly overexpressed in HG serous EOC tumors as compared to normal ovarian tissue. Moreover, the GALNT3 expression significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) intervals in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with advanced disease. Knockdown of the GALNT3 expression in EOC cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. Additionally, GALNT3 suppression significantly inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling and consecutive network and pathway analyses confirmed these findings, as numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, including EOC tumor invasion and metastasis, were found to be downregulated upon GALNT3 suppression, while some tumor suppressor genes were induced. Moreover, GALNT3 downregulation was associated with reduced MUC1 protein expression in EOC cells, probably related to destabilization of the MUC1 protein due to lack of GALNT3 glycosylation activity. GALNT3 knockdown was also accompanied with increase of the cell adhesion molecules β-catenin and E-cadherin, which are normally suppressed by MUC1 in cancer, thus supporting the role of the GALNT3-MUC1 axis in EOC invasion. Taken together, our data are indicative for a strong oncogenic potential of the GALNT3 gene in advanced EOC and identify this transferase as a novel EOC biomarker and putative EOC therapeutic target. Our findings also suggest that GALNT3 overexpression might contribute to EOC progression through aberrant mucin O-glycosylation.

  19. Sub-Thz Vibrational Spectroscopy for Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrance, Jerome P.; Sizov, Igor; Jazaeri, Amir; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Globus, Tatiana

    2016-06-01

    Sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy utilizes wavelengths in the submillimeter-wave range ( 1.5-30 wn), beyond those traditionally used for chemical and biomolecular analysis. This low energy radiation excites low-frequency internal molecular motions (vibrations) involving hydrogen bonds and other weak connections within these molecules. The ability of sub-THz spectroscopy to identify and quantify biological molecules is based on detection of signature resonance absorbance at specific frequencies between 0.05 and 1 THz, for each molecule. The long wavelengths of this radiation, mean that it can even pass through entire cells, detecting the combinations of proteins and nucleic acids that exist within the cell. This research introduces a novel sub-THz resonance spectroscopy instrument with spectral resolution sufficient to identify individual resonance absorption peaks, for the analysis of ovarian cancer cells. In vitro cell cultures of SK-OV-3 and ES-2 cells, two human ovarian cancer subtypes, were characterized and compared with a normal non-transformed human fallopian tube epithelial cell line (FT131). A dramatic difference was observed between the THz absorption spectra of the cancer and normal cell sample materials with much higher absorption intensity and a very strong absorption peak at a frequency of 13 wn dominating the cancer sample spectra. Comparison of experimental spectra with molecular dynamic simulated spectroscopic signatures suggests that the high intensity spectral peak could originate from overexpressed mi-RNA molecules specific for ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer cells are utilized as a proof of concept, but the sub-THz spectroscopy method is very general and could also be applied to other types of cancer.

  20. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792