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Sample records for analog resonances isobaric

  1. Decay Properties Of The Dipole Isobaric Analog Resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Safonov, I. V.; Urin, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A continuum-RPA-based approach is applied to describe the decay properties of isolated dipole isobaric analog resonances in nuclei having not-too-large neutron excess. Calculated for a few resonances in 90Zr the elastic E1-radiative width and partial proton widths for decay into one-hole s

  2. Study of $^{13}$Be through isobaric analog resonances in the Maya active target

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Orr, N A; Jonson, B N G; Raabe, R; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T

    We propose to perform an experiment with a $^{12}$Be beam and the Maya active target. We intend to study the ground state of $^{13}$Be through the population of its isobaric analog resonance in $^{13}$B. The resonance will be identified detecting its proton- and neutron-decay channels.

  3. An investigation of the influence of the pairing correlations on the properties of the isobar analog resonances in = 208 nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Küçükbursa; D I Salamov; T Babacan; H A Aygör

    2004-11-01

    Within the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA), the method of the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction which restores a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian is given. The effect of the pairing correlations between nucleons on the following quantities were investigated for the = 208 nuclei: energies of the isobar analog 0+ states, the isospin admixtures in the ground state of the even–even nuclei, and the differential cross-section for the 208Pb(3He,)208Bi reaction at E(3He) = 450 MeV. Both couplings of the excitation branches with z = 0 ± 1, and the analog state with isovector monopole resonance (IVMR) in the quasi-particle representation were taken into account in our calculations. As a result of these calculations, it was seen that the pairing correlations between nucleons have no considerable effect on the = 23 isospin admixture in the ground state of the 208Pb nucleus, and they cause partially an increase in the isospin impurity of the isobar analog resonance (IAR). It was also established that these correlations have changed the isospin structure of the IAR states, and shifted the energies of the IVMR states to the higher values.

  4. Survey of Evaluated Isobaric Analog States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2014-06-15

    Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration.

  5. The isospin admixture of the ground state and the properties of the isobar analog resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D I Salmov; T Babacan; A Kücükbursa; S Ünlü; İ Maraṣ

    2006-06-01

    Within the framework of quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), Pyatov–Salamov method [23] for the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction strength parameter, restoring a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian, is used. The isospin admixtures in the ground state of the parent nucleus, and the isospin structure of the isobar analog resonance (IAR) state were investigated with the inclusion of the pairing correlations between nucleons for the medium and heavy mass regions: 80 < < 90, 102 < < 124, and 204 < < 214. It was determined that the influence of the pairing interaction between nucleons on the isospin admixtures in the ground state and the isospin structure of the IAR state is more pronounced for the light isotopes ( ≈ ) of the investigated nuclei.

  6. Isobar giant resonance formation in self-conjugate nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1981-03-01

    The production of isobars with concomitant giant resonance excitations due to peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions is investigated. The interaction is described by a modified form of the central term in the one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) where the projectile ordinary spin operator is replaced by a transition spin operator which describes the creation of an isobar from a nucleon. The scattering is analyzed using time-dependent harmonic perturbation theory to determine the reaction total cross sections. The results obtained, which are valid for reactions involving self-conjugate nuclei, are applied to the specific collison of 2.1 {GeV}/{nucleon}16O projectiles with 12C targets at rest. Cross sections are investigated using two different models for the nuclear spin states. In the first model, the many-body nuclear spin state is reduced, in the spirit of a particle-hole state, to an equivalent two-body state called a particle-core state. In the second model, the many-body spin states are described by unsymmetrized products of individual particle spins. Properties of the spin giant resonance and isobar giant resonance states are investigated. Finally, isobar decay and isobar/pion absorption effects are discussed.

  7. Symmetry Energy from Systematic of Isobaric Analog States

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Excitation energies to isobaric states, that are analogs of ground states, are dominated by contributions from the symmetry energy. This opens up a possibility of investigating the symmetry energy on nucleus-by-nucleus basis. Upon correcting energies of measured nuclear levels for shell and pairing effects, we find that the lowest energies for a given isospin rise in proportion to the square of isospin, allowing for an interpretation of the coefficient of proportionality in terms of a symmetry coefficient for a given nucleus. In the (A,Z) regions where there are enough data, we demonstrate a Z-independence of that coefficient. We further concentrate on the A-dependence of the coefficient, in order to learn about the density dependence of symmetry energy in uniform matter, given the changes of the density in the surface region. In parallel to the analysis of data, we carry out an analysis of the coefficient for nuclei calculated within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, with known symmetry energy for unif...

  8. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlós, M.; Algora, A.; Gulyás, J.; Timár, J.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Boretzky, K.; Heil, M.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Rossi, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Weick, H.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.; Altstadt, S.; Fonseca, M.; Glorius, J.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Koloczek, A.; Kräckmann, S.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Rastrepina, G.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Bagchi, S.; Najafi, M. A.; Aumann, T.; Atar, L.; Heine, M.; Holl, M.; Movsesyan, A.; Schrock, P.; Volkov, V.; Wamers, F.; Fiori, E.; Löher, B.; Marganiec, J.; Savran, D.; Johansson, H. T.; Fernández, P. Diaz; Garg, U.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase approxima

  9. Observation of the double isobaric analog transition 18O(π+,π-) 18Ne at 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, A.; Johnson, R. R.; Wienands, U.; Hessey, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Forster, B. M.; Grion, N.; Mills, D.; Rozon, F. M.; Smith, G. R.; Trelle, And R.; Gill, D. R.; Sheffer, G.; Anderl, T.

    1985-09-01

    The angular distribution of the differential cross sections for the transition to the double isobaric analog state in the reaction 18(π+,π-) 18Ne was measured at six angles from 20° to 120°. Extrapolation of the differential cross section results in 5.3+/-0.5 μb/sr at 0° and an angle-integrated cross section of 16.7+/-1.2 μb. The forward peaking and magnitude of the cross sections differ from those predicted by simple sequential models and the trends of data at higher energies. The results are compared to recent data for the same transition on 14C at 50 MeV and to a calculation in the six-quark bag model.

  10. Neutron decay of deep hole states and isobaric analog states in Sn-115 populated by the (He-3,alpha) reaction at 102 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soderman, PO; Ringbom, A; Blomgren, J; Olsson, N; Nilsson, L; Bordewijk, JA; van't Hof, G; Hofstee, MA; van der Ploeg, H; van der Werf, SY; Krasznahorkay, A; Balanda, A; Chmielewska, D; Laurent, H

    2001-01-01

    Neutron decay of excited hole states and isobaric analog states (IAS) populated by the Sn-116(He-3,alpha) reaction at an energy of 102 MeV has been investigated. The alpha -particles were analysed in a magnetic spectrograph positioned at 1.4 degrees and detected with a multiwire drift chamber. Excit

  11. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutron-skin thickness (\\DeltaR_(pn)). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the \\DeltaR_(pn) value for 124Sn was deduced...

  12. Charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state at medium energies as a probe of the neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Loc, Bui Minh; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    The charge-exchange (3He,t) scattering to the isobaric analog state (IAS) of the target can be considered as "elastic" scattering of 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. Therefore, the accurately measured charge-exchange scattering cross- section for the IAS can be a good probe of the isospin dependence of the OP, which is determined exclusively within the folding model by the difference between the neutron and proton densities and isospin dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Given the neutron skin of the target is related directly to the same density difference, it can be well probed in the analysis of the charge- exchange (3He,t) reactions at medium energies when the two-step processes can be neglected and the t-matrix interaction can be used in the folding calculation. For this purpose, the data of the (3He,t) scattering to the IAS of 90Zr and 208Pb targets at Elab = 420 MeV have been analyzed in the distorted wave Born approximation using the...

  13. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlós, M.; Algora, A.; Gulyás, J.; Timár, J.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Harakeh, M. N.; Boretzky, K.; Heil, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Rossi, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Weick, H.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.; Altstadt, S.; Fonseca, M.; Glorius, J.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Koloczek, A.; Kräckmann, S.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Rastrepina, G.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Bagchi, S.; Najafi, M. A.; Aumann, T.; Atar, L.; Heine, M.; Holl, M.; Movsesyan, A.; Schrock, P.; Volkov, V.; Wamers, F.; Fiori, E.; Löher, B.; Marganiec, J.; Savran, D.; Johansson, H. T.; Fernández, P. Diaz; Garg, U.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2012-10-01

    The γ-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) to the isobaric analog state has been measured following the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutronskin thickness (ΔRpn). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the ΔRpn value for 124Sn was deduced to be 0.21 ± 0.07 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  14. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Thang, Dang Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi transition (\\Delta L=\\Delta S=0 and \\Delta T=1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p,n) or (3He,t) reaction, can be considered as "elastic" scattering of proton or 3He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p,n) or (3He,t) scattering cross-section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or 3He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or 3He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p,n) or (3He,t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-...

  15. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  16. Identification of the Lowest $T=2$, $J^{\\pi=}0^+$ Isobaric Analog State in $^{52}$Co and Its Impact on the Understanding of $\\beta$-Decay Properties of $^{52}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X; Shuai, P; Chen, R J; Yan, X L; Zhang, Y H; Wang, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Xu, H S; Bao, T; Chen, X C; Chen, H; Fu, C Y; Kubono, S; Lam, Y H; Liu, D W; Mao, R S; Ma, X W; Sun, M Z; Tu, X L; Xing, Y M; Yang, J C; Yuan, Y J; Zeng, Q; Zhou, X; Zhou, X H; Zhan, W L; Litvinov, S; Blaum, K; Audi, G; Uesaka, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Ozawa, A; Sun, B H; Sun, Y; Dai, A C; Xu, F R

    2016-01-01

    Masses of $^{52g,52m}$Co were measured for the first time with an accuracy of $\\sim 10$ keV, an unprecedented precision reached for short-lived nuclei in the isochronous mass spectrometry. Combining our results with the previous $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ measurements of $^{52}$Ni, the $T=2$, $J^{\\pi}=0^+$ isobaric analog state (IAS) in $^{52}$Co was newly assigned, questioning the conventional identification of IASs from the $\\beta$-delayed proton emissions. Using our energy of the IAS in $^{52}$Co, the masses of the $T=2$ multiplet fit well into the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation. We find that the IAS in $^{52}$Co decays predominantly via $\\gamma$ transitions while the proton emission is negligibly small. According to our large-scale shell model calculations, this phenomenon has been interpreted to be due to very low isospin mixing in the IAS.

  17. Analog VLSI implementation of resonate-and-fire neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Hatsuo

    2006-12-01

    We propose an analog integrated circuit that implements a resonate-and-fire neuron (RFN) model based on the Lotka-Volterra (LV) system. The RFN model is a spiking neuron model that has second-order membrane dynamics, and thus exhibits fast damped subthreshold oscillation, resulting in the coincidence detection, frequency preference, and post-inhibitory rebound. The RFN circuit has been derived from the LV system to mimic such dynamical behavior of the RFN model. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that the RFN circuit can act as a coincidence detector and a band-pass filter at circuit level even in the presence of additive white noise and background random activity. These results show that our circuit is expected to be useful for very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of functional spiking neural networks.

  18. Constraints on the Neutron Skin and the Symmetry Energy from the Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, L G; Colo', G; Sagawa, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the neutron-skin thickness Delta(R) on the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR), E(AGDR), and the isobaric analog state (IAS), E(IAS), in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb. For guidance, we first develop a simple and analytic, yet physical, approach based on the Droplet Model that linearly connects the energy difference E(AGDR)-E(IAS) with Delta(R). To test this correlation on more fundamental grounds, we employ a family of systematically varied Skyrme energy density functionals where variations on the value of the symmetry energy at saturation density J are explored. The calculations have been performed within the fully self consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus charge-exchange random phase approximation (RPA) framework. We confirm the linear correlation within our microscopic apporach and, by comparing our results with available experimental data in 208Pb, we find that our analysis is consistent with Delta(R) = 0.204 \\pm 0.009 fm, J = 31.4 \\pm 0.5 MeV ...

  19. Ion reactions for isobar separation in accelerator mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Litherland, A E; Doupe, J P

    2003-01-01

    The use of resonant and near resonant keV ion reactions for isobar separation in AMS is discussed. It is shown that these and other ionic reactions can be useful provided that the multiple scattering is taken into account.

  20. Study of nuclear reactions and analog isobar states in the system He{sup 8} + p for low energy with the help of MAYA active target; Etude de reactions et d'etats isobariques analogues dans le systeme {sup 8}He+p, a basse energie a l'aide de la cible active MAYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demonchy, Ch.E

    2003-12-01

    With the resent improvements in the field of exotics beams, and specially with the SPIRAL facility at GANIL, we were able to study He{sup 9} shell inversion already known for Be{sup 11} and Li{sup 10}, which are two members of the N=7 family. A new detector was developed and also the software tools for the data analysis. This detector is at the same time the target (active-target) and is called MAYA. The He{sup 9} was studied by determining the properties of its isobaric analogue states in Li{sup 9}. The characteristics of the IAS (isomeric analog state) states were determined by an analysis of the resonances in the elastic scattering cross section for He{sup 8} + p from 2 up to 3.9 MeV/n. A study of (p,d) and (p,t) reactions was done too, in this domain of energy. By comparing the experimental results with calculations, an assignation of spin and parity for two states in He{sup 9} was possible. (author)

  1. Neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb, and symmetry-energy constraints from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; Csige, L; Eriksen, T K; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Harakeh, M N; Julin, R; Koehler, P; Paar, N; Siem, S; Stuhl, L; Tornyi, T; Vretenar, D

    2013-01-01

    The 208Pb(p,ngamma p)207Pb reaction at a beam energy of 30 MeV has been used to excite the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) and to measure its gamma-decay of to the isobaric analog state. The energy of the transition has also been calculated with the self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and found to be linearly correlated to the predicted value of the neutron-skin thickness (DR_pn). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured transition energy, the value of 0.190 +- 0.028 fm has been determined for DR_pn of 208Pb, in agreement with previous experimental results. The AGDR excitation energy has also been used to calculate the symmetry energy at saturation (J=32.7+- 0.6 MeV) and the slope of the symmetry energy (L=49.7 +- 4.4 MeV), resulting in more stringent constraints than most of the previous studies.

  2. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  3. Leaky Modes of Waveguides as a Classical Optics Analogy of Quantum Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cruz y Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A classical optics waveguide structure is proposed to simulate resonances of short range one-dimensional potentials in quantum mechanics. The analogy is based on the well-known resemblance between the guided and radiation modes of a waveguide with the bound and scattering states of a quantum well. As resonances are scattering states that spend some time in the zone of influence of the scatterer, we associate them with the leaky modes of a waveguide, the latter characterized by suffering attenuation in the direction of propagation but increasing exponentially in the transverse directions. The resemblance is complete because resonances (leaky modes can be interpreted as bound states (guided modes with definite lifetime (longitudinal shift. As an immediate application we calculate the leaky modes (resonances associated with a dielectric homogeneous slab (square well potential and show that these modes are attenuated as they propagate.

  4. Signal modulating noise effect in bistable stochastic resonance systems and its analog simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fang-hong; YAN Gui-rong; XIE Shi-cheng

    2006-01-01

    The effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic resonance systems was studied theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical analysis was made on the bistable stochastic resonance model with small system parameters. An analogue circuit was designed to perform the effect. The effect of signal modulating noise was shown in the analog simulation experiment. The analog experiment was conducted for two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies. The results show that there are a sinusoidal component corresponding to the input sinusoidal signal and a noise component presented as a Wiener process corresponding to the input white noise in the system output. By properly selecting system parameters, the effect of signal modulating noise can be manifested in the system output.

  5. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao, E-mail: wzc@scnu.edu.cn; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-08

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  6. Isobar Model for Photoproduction of K+Sigma0 and K0Sigma+ on the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2005-01-01

    Kaon photoproductions on the proton gamma p --> K+Sigma0 and gamma p --> K0Sigma+ have been simultaneously analyzed by using isobar models and new SAPHIR data. The result shows that isobar models such as KAON MAID require more resonances in order to explain the data.

  7. Isobar model analysis of pi0-eta photoproduction on protons

    CERN Document Server

    Fix, A; Lee, A; Ostrick, M

    2010-01-01

    Photoproduction of pi0-eta on protons in the energy range from threshold to 1.4 GeV is discussed. The data for representative angular distributions recently obtained at MAMI C are analyzed using an isobar model. The isobars considered are Delta(1232) and S11(1535) for pi0-p and eta-p states, respectively. In accordance with the results of earlier works the main features of the reaction are explained through the dominance of the D33 wave with a relatively small admixture of positive parity resonances. Comparison with recent experimental results for the photon beam asymmetry is carried out.

  8. Cross-sections, spin observables, and helicity amplitudes of the {pi}{sup +}d{r_reversible}pp reaction at the isobar resonance and below

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Canton, L.; Amos, K.

    1997-06-01

    We have calculated the {pi}{sup +}d{r_reversible} pp reaction cross sections and spin observables from threshold to the {Delta} resonance by considering three types of mechanisms; the impulse (absorption) mechanism, {Delta} rescattering and s-wave {pi} N rescattering. The effect of final state interactions have been included also. While traditionally the first two mechanisms have been included within a sound theoretical basis, the {pi}N s-wave rescattering generally has been treated phenomenologically using a {pi}{pi}NN coupling constant fitted to the low-energy pion-nucleon data. Herein, we treat the isovector component of such a pion rescattering process as being mediated by the {rho}--exchange. Also, in those absorption mechanisms where the pion enters directly without rescattering, we employ a phenomenological cut-off scaling governed by the nucleon coordinates, since at the pion-nucleon vertex the nucleon itself may be off mass shell. Th energy dependence of the total cross section is well explained by the combined effects of the three mechanisms, but we find that this observable is not sensitive enough to give useful insight into fine details of the reaction. We calculated the spin observables of {pi}{sup +}d{r_reversible} pp at a variety of energies spanning the {Delta} resonance, finding such sensitivity to fine details of the calculation that we cannot obtain a complete agreement with the vast experimental data base. A better understanding of the importance of the various aspects of the reaction was obtained when the calculated helicity amplitudes were compared with those extracted via phase-shift-analyses of the {pi}{sup +}d{r_reversible} pp reaction data. (authors). 29 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  9. Observation of Fano resonance and classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in toroidal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Song; Yang, Helin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Cong, Lonqing; Singh, Ranjan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    Toroidal multipoles have recently been explored in various scientific communities, ranging from atomic and molecular physics, electrodynamics, and solid-state physics to biology. Here we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a three-dimensional toroidal metamaterial where two different toroidal dipoles along orthogonal directions have been observed. The chosen toroidal metamaterial also simultaneously supports Fano resonance and the classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena in the transmission spectra that originate from the electric-toroidal dipole and electric-magnetic dipole destructive interference. The intriguing properties of the toroidal resonances may open up avenues for applications in toroidal moments generator, sensing and slow-light devices. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Mesonic and isobar modes in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riek, Felix C.

    2007-07-01

    Experiments with heavy ion collisions, like the ones performed at the GSI, are a tool to gain insight in the structure of matter. One key point needed to understand the experimental data is the theoretical description of the in medium properties of mesons and baryons. In this thesis we first developed a self-consistent description for the light vector mesons, {rho} and {omega}, and the pion at finite temperature and in a baryon free environment. A generalisation of these calculations towards finite densities mandatorily needs a reliable description for the pion and the {delta}(1232) resonance. Here we extended the approaches discussed in literature by the inclusion of vertex corrections and a selfconsistent and completely relativistic description. Within these models we were able to show that even at high temperatures the {rho}-meson properties are not changed dramatically when temperature effects are considered only. In contrast to this the behaviour of the pion and the {delta}-isobar is dramatically changed a finite density. The isobar mass-shift is given by an appropriate choice of the mean-fields. Therefore we can not draw a final conclusion about such shifts within our model. In order to do so more calculations, especially of the photo absorption on the nucleus, have to be performed. A further aspect of the calculations presented is that due to a consistent consideration of vertex corrections we were able to achieve a description of the {delta}-resonance without the usually used soft formfactor. This is especially important for the in-medium calculations because only in this way we can guarantee that soft modes of the spectrum are treated consistently. The techniques developed within this thesis allow for a straight forward generalisation of the presented models with respect to the consideration of more resonances or couplings. Doing so the here obtained description of the in-medium properties of the considered particles can be refined. (orig.)

  11. DIRECT PROTON DECAY FROM THE GAMOW-TELLER RESONANCE IN BI-208

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AKIMUNE, H; DAITO, [No Value; FUJITA, Y; FUJIWARA, M; GREENFIELD, MB; HARAKEH, MN; INOMATA, T; JANECKE, J; KATORI, K; NAKAYAMA, S; SAKAI, H; SAKEMI, Y; TANAKA, M; YOSOI, M

    1995-01-01

    Spin-isospin excitations in Bi-208 have been investigated using the Pb-208(He-3,t)Bi-208 reaction at and near theta approximate to 0 degrees at E(He-3)=450 MeV. The microscopic structure of the Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR), the isobaric analog state (IAS), and the spin-flip dipole (Delta L = 1) reso

  12. Optical Analog-to-digital Conversion Scheme Based on Tunable Fabry-Perot Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Proposed is an interference type of optical analog-to-digital conversion(ADC). The refractive index of Fabry-Perot cavity changes with different voltages. The Fabry-Perot resonator converts electronic intensity into light wavelength through selecting lights of different wavelengthes. The parameters of the scheme are acquired with the transmission matrix of optical element and the time of steady-state light field. The maximum sampling speedes of 4-bit, 6-bit, 7-bit, 8-bit and 9-bit(ADC) are 1.695×1010 count/s, 4.33×109 count/s, 2.38×109 count/s, 1.24×109 count/s and 5.9×108 count/s, respectively.

  13. Evidences for Cooperative Resonance-Assisted Hydrogen Bonds in Protein Secondary Structure Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Deng, Geng; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Xu, Jing; Ashraf, Hamad; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2016-11-01

    Cooperative behaviors of the hydrogen bonding networks in proteins have been discovered for a long time. The structural origin of this cooperativity, however, is still under debate. Here we report a new investigation combining excess infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation on peptide analogs, represented by N-methylformamide (NMF) and N-methylacetamide (NMA). Interestingly, addition of the strong hydrogen bond acceptor, dimethyl sulfoxide, to the pure analogs caused opposite effects, namely red- and blue-shift of the N-H stretching infrared absorption in NMF and NMA, respectively. The contradiction can be reconciled by the marked lowering of the energy levels of the self-associates between NMA molecules due to a cooperative effect of the hydrogen bonds. On the contrary, NMF molecules cannot form long-chain cooperative hydrogen bonds because they tend to form dimers. Even more interestingly, we found excellent linear relationships between changes on bond orders of N-H/N-C/C = O and the hydrogen bond energy gains upon the formation of hydrogen bonding multimers in NMA, suggesting strongly that the cooperativity originates from resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds. Our findings provide insights on the structures of proteins and may also shed lights on the rational design of novel molecular recognition systems.

  14. Isochoric and isobaric freezing of fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Năstase, Gabriel; Lyu, Chenang; Ukpai, Gideon; Șerban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-02-19

    We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to -4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to -4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality. Therefore, cells in the isochoric frozen organism do not dehydrate, and the tissue maintains its morphological integrity. Comparing the histology of: a) fresh fish white muscle, b) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C in an isobaric system and c) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C I in an isochoric system, we find convincing evidence of the mechanism of cell dehydration during isobaric freezing. In contrast, the muscle tissue frozen to -5 °C in an isochoric system appears morphologically identical to fresh tissue, with no evidence of dehydration. This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that in isochoric freezing there is no cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact.

  15. Isobaric-spin relationships between nuclear spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, J.B.

    1961-01-01

    The simple fact that a one-body energy describes the interaction of a nucleon with a closed neutron subshell is used to establish sets of equations connecting the spectra of nuclei which are related by isobaric-spin when described by means of the nuclear shell model. Certain formal questions about i

  16. A mechanical analog of the two-bounce resonance of solitary waves: Modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Roy H.; Rahman, Aminur; Bellanich, Michael J.; Morrison, Catherine N.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a simple mechanical system, a ball rolling along a specially-designed landscape, which mimics the well-known two-bounce resonance in solitary wave collisions, a phenomenon that has been seen in countless numerical simulations but never in the laboratory. We provide a brief history of the solitary wave problem, stressing the fundamental role collective-coordinate models played in understanding this phenomenon. We derive the equations governing the motion of a point particle confined to such a surface and then design a surface on which to roll the ball, such that its motion will evolve under the same equations that approximately govern solitary wave collisions. We report on physical experiments, carried out in an undergraduate applied mathematics course, that seem to exhibit the two-bounce resonance.

  17. Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Cascaded Ring-Resonator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Hua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical methods has shown great potential in slow light and sensing applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a coupled resonator induced transparency system with three cascaded ring coupled resonators in a silicon chip. The structure was modeled by using the transfer matrix method. Influences of various parameters including coupling ratio of couplers, waveguide loss and additional loss of couplers on transmission characteristic and group index have been investigated theoretically and numerically in detail. The transmission character of the system was measured by the vertical grating coupling method. The enhanced quality factor reached 1.22 × 105. In addition, we further test the temperature performance of the device. The results provide a new method for the manipulation of light in highly integrated optical circuits and sensing applications. PMID:27463720

  18. Isobar separator for radioactive nuclear beams project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    In order to produce pure beams of radioactive products emanating from the production target/ion source system, both mass and isobar separation is required. A preliminary mass separation with a resolution {triangle}M/M of approximately 10{sup -3} will select the proper mass beam. An isobar separator is needed because the masses of adjacent isobars are usually quite close, especially for beams near stability. In general, a mass resolution of 5 x 10{sup -5} is needed for isobar separation in the A < 120 region, while a resolution of 3 x 10{sup -5} or better is needed for heavier masses. Magnets are used to obtain mass separation. However, in addition to having mass dispersion properties, magnets also have an equal energy dispersion. This means that an energy variation in the beam cannot be distinguished from a mass difference. This is important because ions emerge from the ion source having a small ({approximately} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4}) energy spread. In order to make the system respond only to mass differences, it must be made energy dispersion. This is normally accomplished by using a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The most convenient way of doing this is to use an electric deflection following the magnet separator. A preliminary isobar separator which achieves a mass resolution of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} is shown in Figure I-38. It uses two large 60{degrees} bending magnets to obtain a mass dispersion of 140 mm/%, and four electric dipoles with bending angles of 39{degrees} to cancel the energy dispersion. Sextupole and octupole correction elements are used to reduce the geometrical aberrations.

  19. Design and optimization of polymer ring resonator modulators for analog microwave photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Efficient modulation of electrical signals onto an optical carrier remains the main challenge in full implementation of microwave photonic links (MPLs) for applications such as antenna remoting and wireless access networks. Current MPLs utilize Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) with sinusoidal transfer function as electro-optic modulators causing nonlinear distortions in the link. Recently ring resonator modulators (RRM) consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a base waveguide attracted interest to enhance linearity, reduce the size and power consumption in MPLs. Fabrication of a RRM is more challenging than the MZI not only in fabrication process but also in designing and optimization steps. Although RRM can be analyzed theoretically for MPLs, physical structures need to be designed and optimized utilizing simulation techniques in both optical and microwave regimes with consideration of specific material properties. Designing and optimization steps are conducted utilizing full-wave simulation software package and RRM function analyzed in both passive and active forms and confirmed through theoretical analysis. It is shown that RRM can be completely designed and analyzed utilizing full-wave simulation techniques and as a result linearity effect of the modulator on MPLs can be studied and optimized. The material nonlinearity response can be determined computationally and included in modulator design and readily adaptable for analyzing other materials such as silicon or structures where theoretical analysis is not easily achieved.

  20. Tunable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in graphene-ring resonators system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Zengxing; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Wendong; Yan, Shubin

    2016-12-01

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical ways has shown great potential in optical delay and quantum-information technology due to its flexible design and easy implementation. The chief drawback for these devices is the bad tunability. Here we demonstrate a tunable optical transparency system formed by graphene-silicon microrings which could control the transparent window by electro-optical means. The device consists of cascaded coupled ring resonators and a graphene/graphene capacitor which integrated on one of the rings. By tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheets, we can modulate the round-trip ring loss so that the transparency window can be dynamically tuned. The results provide a new method for the manipulation and transmission of light in highly integrated optical circuits and quantum information storage devices.

  1. Rational Convolution Roots of Isobaric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Conci, Aura; Li, Huilan; MacHenry, Trueman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit two matrix representations of the rational roots of generalized Fibonacci polynomials (GFPs) under convolution product, in terms of determinants and permanents, respectively. The underlying root formulas for GFPs and for weighted isobaric polynomials (WIPs), which appeared in an earlier paper by MacHenry and Tudose, make use of two types of operators. These operators are derived from the generating functions for Stirling numbers of the first kind and second kind. Hen...

  2. A photonic analog of Möbius strips using coupled optical ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Tie-Jun; Chen, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A Möbius strip has an intriguing topological property in that it only has one non-orientable side. Here we propose to utilize coupled optical ring resonators (ORRs) to simulate the topological effect of Möbius strips. This scheme is based on the fact that the counter-clockwise mode in an ORR only couples to the clockwise mode of an adjacent ORR. We show that if an odd number of ORRs form a closed loop, after a round trip the handedness of the excited mode does not return to the initial one. Only after a double round trip does the mode come back to its initial state. Such a kind of Möbius-type coupling topology can be observed from the strong backward reflection in a common bus that provides the initial excitation. Eigenmodes, reflection and transmission spectra, and field distributions are calculated and analyzed. We also study the situation without Möbius-type coupling. The difference between these two categories is discussed. COMSOL simulations verify our analysis. The importance of this investigation and potential applications are briefly discussed.

  3. Dalitz plot analysis of the $D^+ \\rightarrow K^- K^+ K^+$ decay with the isobar model

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a study of the $K^-K^+$ S-wave amplitude in doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ${D^+ \\rightarrow K^- K^+ K^+}$ decays performed using $2 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at $8~\\text{TeV}$ centre-of-mass energy. The Dalitz plot is studied under the assumption of the isobar model for resonance scattering. Models with combinations of resonant states are tested. Fits of comparable quality are obtained for different $K^-K^+$ S-wave parameterizations. The results obtained indicate that a variation of the S-wave phase at both ends of $K^-K^+$ spectrum is needed to describe the data. Further studies beyond the näive isobar model are foreseen to understand the $K^-K^+$ S-wave.

  4. Analysis of structure-function relationships in cytochrome c oxidase and its biomimetic analogs via resonance Raman and surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Inez M

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the four electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water while avoiding the formation of toxic peroxide; a quality that is of high relevance for the development of oxygen-reducing catalysts. Resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used since many years as a technique to identify electron transfer pathways in cytochrome c oxidase and to identify the key intermediates in the catalytic cycle. This information can be compared to artificial systems such as modified heme-copper enzymes, molecular heme-copper catalysts or CcO/electrode complexes in order to shed light into the reaction mechanism of these non-natural systems. Understanding the structural commonalities and differences of CcO with its non-natural analogs is of great value for designing efficient oxygen-reducing catalysts. In this review therefore Raman spectroscopic measurements on artificial heme-copper enzymes and model complexes are summarized and compared to the natural enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems.

  5. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  6. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation at A=53, T=3/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Su

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The T=3/2 isobaric analog state (IAS in 53Co is firmly established through a comprehensive measurement of β-delayed γ and proton decay of 53Ni. The determined excitation energy of 53Co IAS combined with the mass of 53Co generates a precise mass excess of −38333.6(27 keV for the 53Co IAS, which is 70(18 keV lower than the previously adopted value. The new result solves a problem raised by incorrect assignments of the 53Co IAS of unexpected deviation from the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME at A=53, T=3/2.

  7. Phase Structure of the T-matrix and Multichannel Unitary Isobar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Nakayama, K.

    2015-04-01

    By exploiting the full phase structure of the meson-baryon coupled channels reaction amplitude-here including also the photon-baryon channel-an isobar model is constructed which fulfills automatically the unitarity and analyticity conditions of the S-matrix, in addition to gauge invariance in the case of photoproduction. In particular, it is shown that the unitarity of the (resonance) pole amplitude arises from the dressing mechanism inherent in the basic T-matrix equation, requiring no extra unitarity condition on the pole amplitude as is the case in earlier works on isobar models. As an example, the present model is applied in the description of the meson-nucleon reactions including the πN , ηN , σN , ρN and πΔ channels. The latter three account effectively for the ππN channel. FFE-COSY Grant No. 41788390.

  8. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=31$ $T = 3/2$ quartets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number $A$ and isospin $T$ can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93 041304(R) (2016)] of the ground-state mass of $^{31}$Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet. The second-lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the $^{31}$S member state. Using a fast $^{31}$Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge $\\gamma$-ray detection array, $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{31}$Cl$(\\beta\\gamma)$$^{31}$S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Isospin mixing between the $^{31}$S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second ...

  9. Method of Measurement Isobaric Heat Capacity of the Organic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Neruchev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for measuring the heat capacity of liquids on modernized authors the installation of IT-Cp-400 is considered. The results of measurements the isobaric heat capacity of some bromosubstituted n-alkanes is presented.

  10. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by laser photodetachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, Oliver [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Andersson, Pontus [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hanstorp, Dag [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Lahner, Johannes; Martschini, Martin; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Laser photodetachment is the process when the extra electron of a negative ion is removed by means of laser radiation. This can happen only if the photon energy is larger than the electron affinity of the ion. The process can be used in mass spectrometry to selectively suppress unwanted isobars, provided that the electron affinity of the unwanted isobar is lower than that of the isobar under investigation. At the Ion Laser InterAction Setup (ILIAS) at the University of Vienna laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions is studied and its applicability for selective isobar suppression in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is evaluated. The setup provides mass separated beams of negative ions with energies up to 30 keV. Negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source, mass selected and overlapped with a strong continuous wave laser beam. In order to extend the interaction time of ions and laser, the ion beam is decelerated to thermal energies in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler. For an appropriate choice of the photon energy, unwanted isobars are neutralized while the isobar of interest is unaffected and remains negatively charged. A description of the ILIAS setup and results from the commissioning phase of the RFQ cooler are presented. Up to 8% ion beam transmission could be achieved after a recent redesign of the extraction system. Furthermore first results of photodetachment experiments of {sup 63}Cu{sup −} within the RFQ cooler are presented.

  11. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by laser photodetachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Oliver; Andersson, Pontus; Hanstorp, Dag; Lahner, Johannes; Martschini, Martin; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Laser photodetachment is the process when the extra electron of a negative ion is removed by means of laser radiation. This can happen only if the photon energy is larger than the electron affinity of the ion. The process can be used in mass spectrometry to selectively suppress unwanted isobars, provided that the electron affinity of the unwanted isobar is lower than that of the isobar under investigation. At the Ion Laser InterAction Setup (ILIAS) at the University of Vienna laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions is studied and its applicability for selective isobar suppression in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is evaluated. The setup provides mass separated beams of negative ions with energies up to 30 keV. Negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source, mass selected and overlapped with a strong continuous wave laser beam. In order to extend the interaction time of ions and laser, the ion beam is decelerated to thermal energies in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler. For an appropriate choice of the photon energy, unwanted isobars are neutralized while the isobar of interest is unaffected and remains negatively charged. A description of the ILIAS setup and results from the commissioning phase of the RFQ cooler are presented. Up to 8% ion beam transmission could be achieved after a recent redesign of the extraction system. Furthermore first results of photodetachment experiments of 63Cu- within the RFQ cooler are presented.

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Spinal Levobupivacaine: Hyperbaric Compared with Isobaric Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimolluck Sanansilp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective, double-blinded study in 20 patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with lower abdominal incision, to investigate characteristics of intrathecal hyperbaric levobupivacaine compared with isobaric levobupivacaine. We randomly assigned them to receive 3 mL of either isobaric or hyperbaric 0.42% levobupivacaine intrathecally. We found that hyperbaric levobupivacaine, compared with isobaric levobupivacaine, spread faster to T10 level (2.8 ± 1.1 versus 6.6 ± 4.7 minutes, =0.039, reached higher sensory block levels at 5 and 15 minutes after injection (T8 versus L1, =0.011, and T4 versus T7, =0.027, resp., and had a higher peak level (T4 versus T8, =0.040. Isobaric levobupivacaine caused a wider range of peak levels (L1 to C8 compared with hyperbaric form (T7 to T2. The level of T4 or higher reached 90% in the hyperbaric group compared with 20% in the isobaric group (=0.005. Our results suggest that hyperbaric levobupivacaine was more predictable for sensory block level and more effective for surgical procedures with lower abdominal approach. Hyperbaric levobupivacaine seems to be suitable, but the optimal dosage needs further investigation.

  13. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. N., E-mail: izosimov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in {sup 6,7,8}Li, {sup 8,9,10}Be, {sup 8,10,11}B, {sup 10,11,12,13,14}C, {sup 13,14,15,16,17}N, {sup 15,16,17,19}O, and {sup 17}F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  14. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izosimov, I. N.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  15. Trends in the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCormick Marion

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric analogue states (IAS can be used to study the charge independence of the nuclear force via first order perturbation theory. In this case the IAS multiplet masses are expected to follow a quadratic form as described by the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME with coefficients accessible through experimental measurements. Higher order effects are expected to appear through cubic, or higher, polynomial terms. The current IMME coefficient trends, as based on the IAS states included in the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and NUBASE2012 are shown.

  16. Nucleons and isobars at finite density ({rho}) and temperature (T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, R. [Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy); Dey, J. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Maulana Azad Coll., Calcutta (India); Dey, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta 700 073 (India)

    2001-09-01

    The importance of studying matter at high {rho} increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high-T studies derives from heavy-ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long- and short-range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low-density, finite-T problem first, the case relevant to heavy-ion collisions, hoping to address the high-density case later. Interactions change the nucleon and isobar numbers at different {rho} and T non-trivially. (orig.)

  17. Nucleons and Isobars at finite density ($\\rho$) and temperature (T)

    CERN Document Server

    Cenni, R; Dey, M; Cenni, Rinaldo; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying matter at high $\\rho$ increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high T studies derives from heavy ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long and short range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low density, finite T problem=A0 first, the case relevant to heavy ion collisions, hoping to adresss the high density case later. Interactions change the nucleon and isobar numbers at different $\\rho$ and T non-trivially.

  18. Performance of isobaric and isotopic labeling in quantitative plant proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2012-01-01

    , and quantitation. In the present work, we have used LC-MS to compare an isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) chemical labeling technique to quantify proteins in the endosperm of Ricinus communis seeds at three developmental stages (IV, VI, and X). Endosperm proteins of each stage were trypsin-digested in...

  19. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhinen, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kopecky, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Szerypo, J; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  20. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S. E-mail: veli.kolhinen@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2003-05-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  1. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  2. Isobar channels in the production of π+π- pairs on a proton by virtual photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, V D; Mokeev, V I; Shvedunov, N V; Boluchevskii, A A; Battaglieri, M; Golovach, E N; Elouardrhiri, L; Joo, K; Isupov, E L; Ishkhanov, B S; Markov, N S; Ripani, M; Ricco, J; Sapunenko, V V; Taiuti, M; Fedotov, G V

    2007-03-01

    A new approach is developed for evaluating contributions of various isobar channels to the double charged-pion production in the reactions γ r,v p → π + π - p. This approach makes it possible to determine both respective cross sections and amplitudes for quasi-two-particle channels from a fit to data on cross sections for a three-particle final state. The diffractive anzatz, which is widely used to describe rho-meson production, is modified to meet the purpose of the description of data in the near-threshold and subthreshold regions. The cross sections for rho-meson electroproduction in the energy region of nucleon-resonance excitation are determined for the first time on the basis of the latest data of the CLAS Collaboration.

  3. Isobaric yield ratio difference and Shannon information entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wang Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shannon information entropy theory is used to explain the recently proposed isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD probe which aims to determine the nuclear symmetry energy. Theoretically, the difference between the Shannon uncertainties carried by isobars in two different reactions (ΔIn21, is found to be equivalent to the difference between the chemical potentials of protons and neutrons of the reactions [the IBD probe, IB-Δ(βμ21, with β the reverse temperature]. From the viewpoints of Shannon information entropy, the physical meaning of the above chemical potential difference is interpreted by ΔIn21 as denoting the nuclear symmetry energy or density difference between neutrons and protons in reactions more concisely than from the statistical ablation–abrasion model.

  4. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...

  5. TITAN's multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Moritz Pascal; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    At the ISAC facility located at TRIUMF exotic nuclei are produced by the ISOL method. Exotic nuclei are separated by a magnetic separator and transported to TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). TITAN is a system of multiple ion traps for high precision mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy. Although ISAC can deliver some of the highest yields for even many of the most exotic species many measurements suffer from a strong isobaric background. This background often prevents the high precision measurement of the species of interest. To overcome this limitation an additional isobar separator based on the Multiple-Reflection Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MR-TOF-MS) technique has been developed for TITAN. Mass selection is achieved using dynamic re-trapping of the species of interest after a time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Additionally the MR-TOF-MS will, on its own, enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides that are weakly produced. Being able to measure all isobars of a given mass number at the same time the MR-TOF-MS can be used for beam diagnostics or determination of beam compositions. Results from the offline commissioning showing mass resolving power and separation power will be presented.

  6. Proton resonance elastic scattering of $^{30}$Mg for single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    The single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg, which is located in the so-called “island of inversion”, will be studied through measuring Isobaric Analog Resonances (IARs) of bound states of $^{31}$Mg. They are located in the high excitation energy of $^{31}$Al. We are going to determine the spectroscopic factors and angular momenta of the parent states by measuring the excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame with around 3 MeV/nucleon $^{30}$Mg beam. The present study will reveal the shell evolution around $^{32}$Mg. In addition, the spectroscopic factor of the (7/2)$^{−}$ state which was not yet determined experimentally, may allow one to study the shape coexistence in this nucleus.

  7. Resonant proton scattering on 46Ar using the Active-Target Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J.; Ahn, T.; Ayyad Limonge, Y.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro Novo, S.; Carpenter, L.; Kuchera, M. P.; Lynch, W.; Mittig, W.; Rost, S.; Watwood, N.; Barney, J.; Datta, U.; Estee, J.; Gillibert, A.; Manfredi, J.; Morfouace, P.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Pollacco, E.; Sammut, J.; Sweany, S.

    2016-09-01

    A well-known technique for studying the single-particle properties of neutron-rich nuclei is to use resonant proton scattering on a parent nucleus to populate the isobaric analog states of the corresponding neutron-rich nucleus. The locations and amplitudes of these resonances are directly related to the structure of the nucleus of interest by isospin symmetry. We performed an experiment of this type at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory to commission the recently completed Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC). A 4.6-MeV/u radioactive beam of 46Ar was injected into the AT-TPC. The detector was filled with isobutane gas-which provided the protons for the reaction and served as the tracking medium-and placed inside a 2-T magnetic field. We will present preliminary results from this experiment and discuss the benefits of the active-target method for this type of measurement.

  8. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  9. Nucleons and Isobars at finite density ($\\rho$) and temperature (T)

    OpenAIRE

    Cenni, Rinaldo; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying matter at high $\\rho$ increases as more astrophysical data becomes available from recently launched spacecrafts. The importance of high T studies derives from heavy ion data. In this paper we set up a formalism to study the nucleons and isobars with long and short range potentials non-pertubatively, bosonizing and expanding semi-classically the Feyman integrals up to one loop. We address the low density, finite T problem=A0 first, the case relevant to heavy ion coll...

  10. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. B.; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Fry, C.; Glassman, B. E.; Langer, C.; Larson, N. R.; McNeice, E. I.; Meisel, Z.; Ong, W.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Prokop, C. J.; Schwartz, S. B.; Suchyta, S.; Thompson, P.; Walters, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Background: The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number A and isospin T can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93, 041304(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041304] of the ground-state mass of 31Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartet. The second-lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the 31S member state. Purpose: Our goal is to populate the two lowest T =3 /2 states in 31S and use the data to investigate the influence of isospin mixing on tests of the IMME in the two lowest A =31 ,T =3 /2 quartets. Methods: Using a fast 31Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge γ -ray detection array, γ rays from the 31Cl(β γ )31S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Results: Isospin mixing between the 31S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second T =3 /2 state in 31S was observed at Ex=7050.0 (8 ) keV. Calculations using both USDB and USDE predict a triplet of isospin-mixed states, including the lowest T =3 /2 state in 31P, mirroring the observed mixing in 31S, and two isospin-mixed triplets including the second-lowest T =3 /2 states in both 31S and 31P. Conclusions: Isospin mixing in 31S does not by itself explain the IMME breakdown in the lowest quartet, but it likely points to similar isospin mixing in the mirror nucleus 31P, which would result in a perturbation of the 31P IAS energy. USDB and USDE calculations both predict candidate 31P states responsible for the mixing in the energy region slightly above Ex=6400 keV. The second quartet has been completed thanks to the identification of the second 31S T

  11. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  12. Isobar gas and steam. Compressed air storage plant with heat storage; Isobares GuD. Druckluftspeicherkraftwrk mit Waermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard; Nielsen, Lasse [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    2008-07-01

    Due to the worldwide increasing energy consumption the unfavourable aspects of the today's power supply structure are strengthened continuously. There are two compressed air energy storage power stations existing. However, these power stations exhibit worse efficiencies of storage in comparison to existing pumped-storage power plants. In order to avoid this disadvantage, a concept of a isobaric gas and steam compressed air storage plant was developed at the institute for heat and fuel technology at the technical university of Braunschweig. This concept is presented in the contribution under consideration.

  13. The Oak Ridge Isobar and Isomer Separator and Spectrometer (ORISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechaczek, Andreas; Batchelder, J. C.; Carter, H. K.; Reed, C. A.; Yair, O.; Shchepunov, V.; Zganjar, E. F.; Blalock, A.; Berridge, S.; Todd, R.; Armstrong, G.; Omoumi, K.; Fleury, A. R.; Hu, Y.

    2011-04-01

    ORISS is an electrostatic high-resolution isobar and isomer spectrometer and separator to provide pure beams for decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. It consists of an RFQ, low emittance, ion cooler and buncher, a multi-pass time-of-flight spectrometer, and a time-of-flight detector to register time-of-flight spectra, or a Bradbury Nielsen (BN) gate to physically separate isobars and isomers of interest. Presently, ORISS uses an off-line ion source. Ion bunches as short as 8 ns FWHM have been produced in the buncher, and a BN gate with transition times open/closed of 15 ns was built. These results of individual component tests together with ion optical calculations predict a mass resolving power of 400,000 and transmission of 50% for the completed system. In the future, radioactive ions from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL will be injected. Results of first test measurements of the complete off-line system will be presented.

  14. Self-consistent relativistic QRPA studies of soft modes and spin-isospin resonances in unstable nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Niksic, T. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); Ring, P. [Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    The excitation phenomena in unstable nuclei are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) in the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov model (RHB) which is extended to include effective interactions with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings. The properties of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) are examined in {sup 132}Sn and within isotopic chains, showing that already at moderate proton-neutron asymmetry the PDR peak energy is located above the neutron emission threshold. A method is suggested for determining the size of the neutron skin within an isotopic chain, based on the measurement of the excitation energies of the Gamow-Teller resonance relative to the isobaric analog state. In addition, for the first time the relativistic RHB+RQRPA model, with tensor {omega} meson-nucleon couplings, is employed in calculations of {beta}-decay half-lives of nuclei of the relevance for the r-process. (orig.)

  15. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y″, a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differ- ences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  16. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y", a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  17. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  18. Isobar Suppression by Photodetachment in a Gas-Filled RF Quadrupole Ion Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Havener, Aaron; Havener, Charles; Liang, Felix

    2005-01-01

    A novel method is described for selective suppression of isobar contaminants in negative radioactive ion beams. Negative ion beams extracted from an ion source were decelerated to low energies and injected into a gas-filled radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion guide where the ions were cooled and unwanted ions were selectively removed by non-resonant photodetachment with photons of sufficient energy. Simulation studies show that the laser-ion interaction time in a 40 cm long RFQ ion guide can be on the order of milliseconds, thus, high efficiency photodetachment is possible with commercially available CW lasers. There are a number of adjacent-Z species whose negative ions are such that photodetachment can be used to suppress the unwanted negative ion species while leaving the species of interest intact. Examples of particular interest include suppressing the 56Co- component in a mixed 56Ni- + 56Co- beam and the 17O- component in a mixed 17O- + 17F- beam. In a proof-of-principle experiment a CW Nd:YAG laser at...

  19. Test the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may contain local domains in which P and CP symmetries are not preserved. When coupled with an external magnetic field, such P- and CP-odd domains will generate electric currents along the magnetic field --- a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Recently, the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC released data of charge-dependent azimuthal-angle correlators with features consistent with the CME expectation. However, the experimental observable is contaminated with significant background contributions from elliptic-flow-driven effects, which makes the interpretation of the data ambiguous. In this Letter, we show that the collisions of isobaric nuclei, $^{96}_{44}$Ru + $^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr + $^{96}_{40}$Zr, provide an ideal tool to disentangle the CME signal from the background effects. Our simulation demonstrates that the two collision types at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=200$ GeV have more than...

  20. A meson-exchange isobar model for the {pi}{sup +}d {r_reversible} pp reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, L.; Cattapan, G.; Dortmans, P.J.; Pisent, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); Svenne, J.P. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Winnipeg Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1994-10-10

    A broad set of observables are calculated for the {pi}{sup +} d {r_reversible} pp reaction with a relatively simple meson-exchange isobar model. The comparison between the calculated results and experimental data (including spin observables), shows that the model gives an overall phenomenologically acceptable description of the reaction around the {Delta} resonance. The effects due to the inclusion of Galilei invariant (pseudovector) recoil term in the {pi}NN vertex, of relativistic corrections to the {rho}-exchange component of the {Delta}N transition potential, and of NN final state interaction in the {pi}{sup +}d {yields} p+p process are also discussed. It is estimated that the model is sufficiently simple to be extended to the case of pion absorption on other light nuclei, in particular {sup 3}He (or tritium). 32 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Rapid Analysis of Isobaric Exogenous Metabolites by Differential Mobility Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Whitney B [ORNL; Schneider, Bradley B [MDS Sciex; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Corr, Jay [AB Sciex; Covey, Thomas R. [MDS Sciex; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The direct separation of isobaric glucuronide metabolites from propranolol dosed tissue extracts by differential mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) with the use of a polar gas-phase chemical modifier was demonstrated. The DMS gas-phase separation was able to resolve the isobaric metabolites with separation times on the order of ms instead of mins to hrs typically required when using pre-ionization chromatographic separation methods. Direct separation of isobaric metabolites from the complex tissue extract was validated using standards as well as implementing an HPLC separation prior to the DMS-MS analysis to pre-separate the species of interest. The ability to separate isobaric exogenous metabolites directly from a complex tissue extract is expected to facilitate the drug development process by increasing analytical throughput without the requirement for pre-ionization cleanup or separation strategies.

  2. The dependence of isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates in liquid phase on their temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhovich Y. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the thermo-physical properties of liquids gives an opportunity of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of condensed matter theory, phase transitions and critical phenomena. To forecast the thermo-dynamic properties of liquid natural hydrocarbons one must know the basic heat-physical characteristics in a wide range of condition parameters. We have researched specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates of Oposhnyanskoye, Solokhovskoye, Bukharskoye, Rybalskoye, Stavropolskoye, Schebelinskoye and Yubileinoye deposits theoretically and experimentally. These substances were in liquid phase on pseudo-critical isobar in the range of temperatures from minus 40 till 100 °C. In the article the findings of the investigation are presented. The mean relative experimental error doesn’t exceed ± 1.5 %, with reliability 0.95. The universal equation expressing specific isobaric thermal heat capacity as the function of temperature and molar mass has been obtained. It describes specific isobaric thermal heat capacity on pseudo-critical isobar for investigated natural hydrocarbons with the mean relative error, which does not exceed ± 1.65 %. The use of the equation for the calculation of specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of the substances of other deposits is recommended

  3. Successive approximation-like 4-bit full-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavousi, Alireza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Saffari, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Implementing of photonic sampling and quantizing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enable us to extract a single binary word from optical signals without need for extra electronic assisting parts. This would enormously increase the sampling and quantizing time as well as decreasing the consumed power. To this end, based on the concept of successive approximation method, a 4-bit full-optical ADC that operates using the intensity-dependent Kerr-like nonlinearity in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) platform is proposed. The Silicon (Si) nanocrystal is chosen because of the suitable nonlinear material characteristic. An optical limiter is used for the clamping and quantization of each successive levels that represent the ADC bits. In the proposal, an energy efficient optical ADC circuit is implemented by controlling the system parameters such as ring-to-waveguide coupling coefficients, the ring's nonlinear refractive index, and the ring's length. The performance of the ADC structure is verified by the simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  4. Effect of particle fluctuation on isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio of nuclear multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, S

    2016-01-01

    Isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio parameters are compared from canonical and grand canonical ensembles when applied to multifragmentation of finite nuclei. Source dependence of isoscaling parameters and source and isospin dependence of isobaric yield ratio parameters are examined in the framework of the canonical and the grand canonical models. It is found that as the nucleus fragments more, results from both the ensembles converge and observables calculated from the canonical ensemble coincide more with those obtained from the formulae derived using the grand canonical ensemble.

  5. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PC. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PC. This approach is comprised of two mass spectr...

  6. MilQuant: a free, generic software tool for isobaric tagging-based quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao; Zhao, Minzhi; Shen, Hongyan; Zhao, Xuyang; Tong, Yuanpeng; Wang, Qingsong; Wei, Shicheng; Ji, Jianguo

    2012-09-18

    Isobaric tagging techniques such as iTRAQ and TMT are widely used in quantitative proteomics and especially useful for samples that demand in vitro labeling. Due to diversity in choices of MS acquisition approaches, identification algorithms, and relative abundance deduction strategies, researchers are faced with a plethora of possibilities when it comes to data analysis. However, the lack of generic and flexible software tool often makes it cumbersome for researchers to perform the analysis entirely as desired. In this paper, we present MilQuant, mzXML-based isobaric labeling quantitator, a pipeline of freely available programs that supports native acquisition files produced by all mass spectrometer types and collection approaches currently used in isobaric tagging based MS data collection. Moreover, aside from effective normalization and abundance ratio deduction algorithms, MilQuant exports various intermediate results along each step of the pipeline, making it easy for researchers to customize the analysis. The functionality of MilQuant was demonstrated by four distinct datasets from different laboratories. The compatibility and extendibility of MilQuant makes it a generic and flexible tool that can serve as a full solution to data analysis of isobaric tagging-based quantitation.

  7. Baryonic {sup 3}P{sub 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with {delta} isobar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, T.; Tamagaki, R. [Iwate Univ., Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We study the baryonic {sup 3}P{sup 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with isobar ({delta}) degrees of freedom. After a remark on motivations of the present study, the outline of theoretical framework is briefly described, typical results of the superfluid critical temperature are shown, and the possibility of coexistence of the superfluid with charged-pion condensation is discussed. (author)

  8. Ultrasound guided single injection caudal epidural anesthesia of isobaric bupivacaine with/without dexamethasone for geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Adding dexamethasone with isobaric bupivacaine caudal anesthesia prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreased postoperative analgesic requirement in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery in comparison isobaric bupivacaine alone.

  9. Isospin Mixing Reveals $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P; Pain, S D; Prokop, C; Schatz, H; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The thermonuclear $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key $^{31}$S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the $\\beta$ decay of $^{31}$Cl, we have observed the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of a $^{31}$S state at $E_x = 6390.2(7)$ keV, with a $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S resonance energy of $E_r = 259.3(8)$ keV, in the middle of the $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state (IAS) at $E_x = 6279.0(6)$ keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of $3/2^+$ and making it an important $l = 0$ resonance for prot...

  10. Comparative study of intrathecal hyperbaric versus isobaric ropivacaine: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbaric ropivacaine produce more reliable sensory and motor block, with faster onset, better quality of muscles relaxation than isobaric ropivacaine. So, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric ropivacaine with isobaric ropivacaine in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A randomized controlled double blind study in two groups of patients. group A (n=35 received 3 ml of isobaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. Group B (n=35 received 3 ml of hyperbaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg. The onset and duration of sensory block at dermatome level T10, maximum upper and lower spread of sensory block, intensity, and duration of motor block were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Block characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Mann - Whitney U-test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results: The median time of onset of sensory block at the T10 dermatome was 4.4±1.3 min in group B and 6.0±1.03 min in group A. The median time to maximum block height was 16.7±3.7 min in group A and 12.03±1.96 min in group B. The median duration of complete motor recovery (B0 was significantly shorter in the heavy ropivacaine group (166.5±11.7 min compared with the isobaric ropivacaine group (192.9±9.6 min. Conclusions: Intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine provides more rapid, adequate, and good quality of sensory and motor block with rapid post-operative recovery as compare to isobaric ropivacaine.

  11. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the antianalog giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; Csatlós, M; Algora, A; Gulyás, J; Timár, J; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Boretzky, K; Heil, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Rossi, D; Scheidenberger, C; Simon, H; Weick, H; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Blasi, N; Camera, F; Giaz, A; Million, B; Pellegri, L; Riboldi, S; Wieland, O; Altstadt, S; Fonseca, M; Glorius, J; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Koloczek, A; Kräckmann, S; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Rastrepina, G; Reifarth, R; Schmidt, S; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Harakeh, M N; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Rigollet, C; Bagchi, S; Najafi, M A; Aumann, T; Atar, L; Heine, M; Holl, M; Movsesyan, A; Schrock, P; Volkov, V; Wamers, F; Fiori, E; Löher, B; Marganiec, J; Savaran, D; Johansson, H T; Fernández, P Diaz; Garg, U; Balabanski, D L

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutron-skin thickness (\\DeltaR_(pn)). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the \\DeltaR_(pn) value for 124Sn was deduced to be 0.18 \\pm 0.02 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The energy of the AGDR measured previously for ^(208)Pb was also used to determine the \\DeltaR_(pn) for ^(208)Pb. In this way a very precise \\DeltaR_(pn) = 0.18 \\pm 0.02 neutron-skin thickness has been obtained for 208Pb. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  12. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the $A=20$ quintet

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, B E; Wrede, C; Allen, J; Bardayan, D W; Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Chipps, K A; Febbraro, M; Fry, C; Hall, M R; Hall, O; Liddick, S N; O'Malley, P; Ong, W; Pain, S D; Schwartz, S B; Shidling, P; Sims, H; Thompson, P; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=20$, $T=2$ quintet was recently reported, presenting a challenge to modern theories of nuclear structure. In the present work, the excitation energy of the lowest $T = 2$ state in $^{20}$Na has been measured to be $6498.4 \\pm 0.2_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.4_{\\textrm{syst}}$ keV by using the superallowed $0^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$ beta decay of $^{20}$Mg to access it and an array of high-purity germanium detectors to detect its $\\gamma$-ray deexcitation. This value differs by 27 keV (1.9 standard deviations) from the recommended value of $6525 \\pm 14$ keV and is a factor of 28 more precise. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is shown to be revalidated when the new value is adopted.

  13. Metric-tensor flexible-cell algorithm for isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E

    2001-01-01

    An extended Hamiltonian approach to conduct isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations with full cell flexibility is presented. The components of the metric tensor are used as the fictitious degrees of freedom for the cell, thus avoiding the problem of spurious cell rotations and artificial symmetry breaking effects present in the original Parrinello-Rahman scheme. This is complemented by the Nose-Poincare approach for isothermal sampling. The combination of these two approaches leads to equations of motion that are Hamiltonian in structure, and which can therefore be solved numerically using recently developed powerful symplectic integrators. One such integrator, the generalised leap-frog, is employed to provide a numerical algorithm for integrating the isothermal-isobaric equations of motion obtained.

  14. Isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and fluctuational properties of 1-bromoalkanes

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkovskii, V I; Neruchev, Yu A; Goncharov, A L; Postnikov, E B

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the experimental measurements of the isobaric heat capacity for 1-bromohexane, 1-bromoheptane, 1-bromooctane, 1-bromononane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-bromododecane and 1-bromo-tetradecane at normal pressure and the speed of sound and the density for 1-bromotetradecane within the temperature range 298.15--423.15~K. These data on the isobaric heat capacity and the literature-based reference data for the density and the speed of sound were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility and the inverse reduced fluctuations. Based on the comparison of the results for pure n-alkanes and $\\alpha,\\omega$-dibromoalkanes, we discuss the influence of bromine atom on the volume fluctuations.

  15. Isobaric thermal expansivity behaviour against temperature and pressure of associating fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navia, Paloma; Troncoso, Jacobo [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Romani, Luis, E-mail: romani@uvigo.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In order to study the influence of association on the isobaric thermal expansivity, this magnitude has been experimentally determined for a set of associating fluids within the temperature and pressure intervals (278.15 to 348.15) K and (5 to 55) MPa by means of calorimetric measurements. The 1-alcohol series, from methanol to 1-decanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-pentylamine were selected. With a view on checking the quality of the experimental data, they are compared with available literature values; good coherence was obtained for most of the studied liquids. The analysis of the experimental results reveals that the association capability presents a strong influence not only on the value of the isobaric thermal expansivity itself, but also on its behaviour against temperature and pressure.

  16. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  17. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  18. A STUDY OF HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE VERSUS ISOBARIC ROPIVACAINE FOR ELECTIVE CAESAREAN DELIVERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Ramana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Is to compare the anaesthetic effects of intrathecal administration of hyperbaric Bupivacaine 10 mg with isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg for elective caesarean delivery. METHOD 100 parturients of ASA 1 and II posted for elective caesarean delivery were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each: Group A received intrathecal 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine 10 mg and Group B received intrathecal 0.75% isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg. Time of onset and regression of sensory and motor blocks, haemodynamics, time of first complaint of pain, neonatal APGAR and side-effects were evaluated. RESULTS Ropivacaine group has significantly slower onset of sensory analgesia at T6 (4.45±0.03 in Ropivacaine group as against 2.38±0.36 in Bupivacaine group, p 0.05. There was no difference in the haemodynamics and neonatal APGAR. Neither of the groups had any significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. CONCLUSION Intrathecal Isobaric Ropivacaine 15 mg provides effective spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. It has slower onset, shorter motor block, early sensory regression and similar postoperative analgesia and APGAR scores as compared to 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. The shorter duration of motor block can facilitate early ambulation and makes Ropivacaine a good alternative for elective caesarean deliveries.

  19. [Nursing Care of Lumbar Spine Fusion Surgery Using a Semi-Rigid Device (ISOBAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Shan; Su, Shu-Fen

    2016-04-01

    Aging frequently induces degenerative changes in the spine. Patients who suffer from lumbar degenerative disease tend to have lower back pain, neurological claudication, and neuropathy. Furthermore, incontinence may be an increasing issue as symptoms become severe. Lumbar spine fusion surgery is necessary if clinical symptoms continue to worsen or if the patient fails to respond to medication, physical therapy, or alternative treatments. However, this surgical procedure frequently induces adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is evidenced by the appearance of pathological changes in the upper and lower sections of the spinal surgical sites. In 1997, ISOBAR TTL dynamic rod stabilization was developed for application in spinal fusion surgery to prevent ASD-related complications. The device has proven effective in reducing pain in the lower back and legs, decreasing functional disability, improving quality of life, and retarding disc degeneration. However, the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing the incidence of ASD requires further research investigation, and relevant literature and research in Taiwan is still lacking. This article discusses lumbar degenerative disease, its indications, the contraindications of lumbar spine fusion surgery using ISOBAR, and related postoperative nursing care. We hope this article provides proper and new knowledge to clinical nurses for the care of patients undergoing lumbar spine fusion surgery with ISOBAR.

  20. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  1. Structured Analog CMOS Design

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanovic, Danica

    2008-01-01

    Structured Analog CMOS Design describes a structured analog design approach that makes it possible to simplify complex analog design problems and develop a design strategy that can be used for the design of large number of analog cells. It intentionally avoids treating the analog design as a mathematical problem, developing a design procedure based on the understanding of device physics and approximations that give insight into parameter interdependences. The proposed transistor-level design procedure is based on the EKV modeling approach and relies on the device inversion level as a fundament

  2. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  3. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

    1993-10-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

  4. JYFLTRAP: a cylindrical Penning trap for isobaric beam purification at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Kopecky, S. E-mail: kopecky@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-11

    A Penning trap has been installed for isobaric beam purification at the IGISOL-facility at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In this paper, the technical details of this new device together with results of the first tests are presented. The mass resolving power, depending on the excitation parameters and the ion species, can be as high as 145 000 and the total transmission has been determined to be 17%. In addition, it is shown that with this experimental setup it is possible to measure atomic masses up to A=120 with accuracies of approximately 50 keV.

  5. Analogy in CLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Erica

    1999-01-01

    CL A M is a proof planner, developed by the Dream group in Edinburgh,that mainly operates for inductive proofs. This paper addresses the questionhow an analogy model that I developed independently of CL A M can beapplied to CL A M and it presents analogy-driven proof plan construction as acontrol strategy of CL A M . This strategy is realized as a derivational analogythat includes the reformulation of proof plans. The analogical replay checkswhether the reformulated justifications of the sour...

  6. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  7. Analogies of Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, Amund Bauck

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis it will be tested wither analogies and metaphors would make it easier to teach the fundamental subjects of information security and hacking to people with no previous background in computer science and only basic computer skills. This will be done by conducting interview on people with no background in computer science to see what analogies work the best for different topics in information security. From the analogy getting the best response, a small game will be designed with ...

  8. Preprocessing significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity of high-resolution isobarically labeled tandem mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Quanhu; Li, Rongxia; Dai, Jie; Li, Qingrun; Su, Zhiduan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chen; Shyr, Yu; Zeng, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Isobaric labeling techniques coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry have been widely employed in proteomic workflows requiring relative quantification. For each high-resolution tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS), isobaric labeling techniques can be used not only to quantify the peptide from different samples by reporter ions, but also to identify the peptide it is derived from. Because the ions related to isobaric labeling may act as noise in database searching, the MS/MS spectrum should be preprocessed before peptide or protein identification. In this article, we demonstrate that there are a lot of high-frequency, high-abundance isobaric related ions in the MS/MS spectrum, and removing isobaric related ions combined with deisotoping and deconvolution in MS/MS preprocessing procedures significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity. The user-friendly software package TurboRaw2MGF (v2.0) has been implemented for converting raw TIC data files to mascot generic format files and can be downloaded for free from https://github.com/shengqh/RCPA.Tools/releases as part of the software suite ProteomicsTools. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000994.

  9. Isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations from first principles: Application to liquid water at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; VandeVondele, J; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M

    2004-12-02

    A series of first principles Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble were carried out for liquid water at ambient conditions (T = 298 K and p = 1 atm). The Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) pseudopotentials were employed with the CP2K simulation package to examine systems consisting of 64 water molecules. The fluctuations in the system volume encountered in simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble requires a reconsideration of the suitability of the typical charge density cutoff and the regular grid generation method previously used for the computation of the electrostatic energy in first principles simulations in the microcanonical or canonical ensembles. In particular, it is noted that a much higher cutoff is needed and that the most computationally efficient method of creating grids can result in poor simulations. Analysis of the simulation trajectories using a very large charge density cutoff at 1200 Ry and four different grid generation methods point to a substantially underestimated liquid density of about 0.85 g/cm{sup 3} resulting in a somewhat understructured liquid (with a value of about 2.7 for the height of the first peak in the oxygen/oxygen radial distribution function) for BLYP-GTH water at ambient conditions.

  10. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation for the A = 20 and 21 Multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Andreoiu, C; Bader, A; Chaudhuri, A; Chowdhury, U; Grossheim, A; Klawitter, R; Kwiatkowski, A A; Leach, K G; Lennarz, A; Macdonald, T D; Schultz, B E; Lassen, J; Heggen, H; Raeder, S; Teigelhöfer, A; Brown, B A; Magilligan, A; Holt, J D; Menéndez, J; Simonis, J; Schwenk, A; Dilling, J

    2014-01-01

    Using the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN, we performed the first direct mass measurements of 20,21Mg, isotopes that are the most proton-rich members of the A = 20 and A = 21 isospin multiplets. These measurements were possible through the use of a unique ion-guide laser ion source, a development that suppressed isobaric contamination by six orders of magnitude. Compared to the latest atomic mass evaluation, we find that the mass of 21Mg is in good agreement but that the mass of 20Mg deviates by 3{\\sigma}. These measurements reduce the uncertainties in the masses of 20,21Mg by 15 and 22 times, respectively, resulting in a significant departure from the expected behavior of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in both the A = 20 and A = 21 multiplets. This presents a challenge to shell model calculations using either the isospin non-conserving USDA/B Hamiltonians or isospin non-conserving interactions based on chiral two- and three-nucleon forces.

  11. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  12. Zr/Nb isobar separation experiment for future 93Zr AMS measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Anderson, T.; Bowers, M.; Bauder, W.; Collon, P.; Kutschera, W.; Kashiv, Y.; Lachner, J.; Martschini, M.; Ostdiek, K.; Robertson, D.; Schmitt, C.; Skulski, M.; Steier, P.

    2015-10-01

    93Zr (t1/2 = 1.6 Ma) is mostly produced by the main s-process in low-to-intermediate mass AGB stars. Large uncertainty exists in the current 92Zr(n,γ)93Zr Maxwellian Average cross section. This could have significant impact on nucleosynthesis calculations. Large amounts of 93Zr are also produced in nuclear reactors and pose long-term environmental radioactivity. Hence, measurement of 93Zr by the AMS is important for both fields above. We report here on progress in the development of AMS method to measure 93Zr. Compared with 98 MeV beam energy, Zr/Nb isobar position separation was improved using 155.2 MeV beam energy and Gas-Filled Magnet. Energy loss measurement with increased beam energy inside the detector indicates that higher beam energy can improve isobar energy loss separation. A chemical procedure to reduce the Nb content in Zr samples has been developed and tested. It reduces the 93Nb content by a factor of 1000.

  13. Evaluated experimental isobaric analogue states from T=1/2 to T=3 and associated IMME coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Isobaric multiplets can be used to provide reliable mass predictions through the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME). Isobaric Analogue States (IAS) for isospin multiplets from T=1/2 to 3 have been studied within the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME2012). Each IAS established from published experimental reaction data has been expressed in the form of a primary reaction Q-value and, when necessary, has been recalibrated. The evaluated IAS masses are provided here along with the associated IMME coefficients. Quadratic and higher order forms of the IMME have been considered, and global trends have been extracted. Particular nuclides requiring experimental investigation have been identified and discussed. This dataset is the most precise and extensive set of evaluated IAS to date.

  14. Evaluated Experimental Isobaric Analogue States from $T = 1/2$ to $T = 3$ and associated IMME coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    MacCormick, M

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric multiplets can be used to provide reliable mass predictions through the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME). Isobaric analogue states (IAS) for isospin multiplets from $T=1/2$ to $T=3$ have been studied within the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (Ame2012). Each IAS established from published experimental reaction data has been expressed in the form of a primary reaction $Q$-value, and if necessary, has been recalibrated. The evaluated IAS masses are provided here along with the associated IMME coefficients. Quadratic and higher order forms of the IMME have been considered, and global trends have been extracted. Particular nuclides, requiring experimental investigation, have been identified and discussed. This dataset is the most precise and extensive set of evaluated IAS to date.

  15. Challenges in Using Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  16. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  17. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  18. Isobaric Identification Using Gas-Filled Time-of-Flight Measurements in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-Jing; RUAN Xiang-Dong; HE Ming; WANG Hui-Juan; LI Guo-Qiang; WU Shao-Yong; DONG Ke-Jun; LIN Min; JIANG Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ A gas-filled time-of-flight (GF-TOF) detector has been built and developed to improve the ability of isobaric identification in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, and a time resolution (without gas filled)of better than 350ps is achieved. The GF-TOF detector is tested by means of measuring a standard AgCl(36Cl/Cl = 7.6 × 10-9g/g) sample with the 36Cl ion energy of 64, 49 and 33MeV, respectively. 36Cl and 36S particles were successfully separated in the TOF spectra output from the GF-TOF detector. The comparison between the gas-filled time-of-flight method and the △E - E method is described. Some results relative to the GF-TOF method are given as well.

  19. Neutron density distributions of neutron-rich nuclei studied with the isobaric yield ratio difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Bai, Xiao-Man; Yu, Jiao; Wei, Hui-Ling [Henan Normal University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Xinxiang (China)

    2014-09-15

    The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) between two reactions of similar experimental setups is found to be sensitive to nuclear density differences between projectiles. In this article, the IBD probe is used to study the density variation in neutron-rich {sup 48}Ca. By adjusting diffuseness in the neutron density distribution, three different neutron density distributions of {sup 48}Ca are obtained. The yields of fragments in the 80A MeV {sup 40,} {sup 48}Ca + {sup 12}C reactions are calculated by using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. It is found that the IBD results obtained from the prefragments are sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile, while the IBD results from the final fragments are less sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile. (orig.)

  20. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Delta isobar and large-N_c relations

    CERN Document Server

    Granados, C

    2016-01-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Delta isobars and implement relations based on the large-N_c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Delta contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguit...

  1. Geological, isothermal, and isobaric 3-D model construction in early stage of geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, M. P.; Suryantini; Catigtig, D.; Regandara, R.; Asnin, S. N.; Pratama, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    Construction of geology, thermal anomaly and pressure distribution of a geothermal system in the early stage of exploration where data is limited is described using a 3-D software, Leapfrog Geothermal. The geological 3-D model was developed from a topographic map (derived from DEM data), geological map and literature studies reported in an early geological survey. The isothermal 3-D model was constructed using reservoir temperature estimation from geothermometry calculated from chemical analyses on surface manifestations, available shallow gradient temperature hole data and the normal gradient temperature (3°C/100m) for a nonthermal area. The isobaric 3-D model was built using hydrostatic pressure where the hydrostatic pressure is determined by the product of the fluid density, acceleration due to gravity, and depth. Fluid density is given by saturated liquid density as a function of temperature. There are some constraints on the modelling result such as (1) within the predicted reservoir, the geothermal gradient is not constant but continues to increase, thus, creating an anomalously high temperature at depth, and (2) the lithology model is made by interpolating and extrapolating cross-sections whereas usually only two to three geology sections were available for this study. Hence, the modeller must understand the geology. An additional cross section was developed by the modeller which may not be as suitable as the geologist constructed sections. The results of this study can be combined with geophysical data such as gravity, geomagnetic, micro-tremor and resistivity data. The combination of geological, geochemical, isothermal, isobaric and geophysical data could be used in (1) estimating the geometry and size of the geothermal reservoir, (2) predicting the depth of top reservoir, and (3) creating well prognosis for exploration and production wells.

  2. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism under isobaric heating: New evidence from the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2014-12-01

    The Khondalite Belt within Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ) in the North China Craton (NCC) preserves evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism under ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions at ca. 1.92 Ga, associated with the subduction-collision tectonics between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Here we report a new locality in Hongsigou where cordierite- and spinel-bearing granulites record UHT metamorphism. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages in these pelitic granulites have been identified based on petrography and mineral chemistry as: Bt1 + Grt1 + Sil1 + Kfs1 + Pl1 + Ilm + Qtz1, Grt1 + Sil2 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Spl + Ilm + Qtz2 + Liq, and Crd + Grt2 + Sil3 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Ilm + Qtz2 respectively. The peak metamorphic conditions of the pelitic granulite were estimated as 930-1050 °C and 6.5-7.5 kbar based on pseudosection analysis in the system NCKFMASHTO, suggesting extreme thermal metamorphism. We report LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data from the granulite which show weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1881 ± 6.6 Ma, marking the timing of UHT metamorphism. Lu-Hf analyses of the zircons show εHf(t) values within a restricted range of -4.2 to 0.3 and together with Hf model ages, a Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic source is inferred for the detrital zircons. The estimated P-T path for the UHT granulite suggests isobaric heating followed by cooling and decompression along a clockwise trajectory, different from the anti-clockwise P-T paths defined in earlier studies for the 1.92 Ga UHT rocks from the IMSZ. The younger age and the isobaric heating trajectory suggest that the Hongsigou UHT rocks are related to heat input from underplated mafic magmas following continental collision.

  3. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  4. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  5. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  6. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.

  7. Measurements of the densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 Celsius degree with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene.

  8. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  9. FGF growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  10. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  11. Amplitude analysis of resonant production in three pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackura, Andrew [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Mikhasenko, Mikhail [Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Szczepaniak, Adam [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    We present some results on the analysis of three pion resonances. The analyses are motivated by the recent release of the largest data set on diffractively produced three pions by the COMPASS collaboration. We construct reaction amplitudes that satisfy fundamental $S$-matrix principles, which allows the use of models that have physical constraints to be used in fitting data. The models are motivated by the isobar model that satisfy unitarity constraints. The model consist of a Deck production amplitude with which final state interactions are constrained by unitarity. We employ the isobar model where two of the pions form a quasi-stable particle. The analysis is performed in the high-energy, single Regge limit. We specifically discuss the examples of the three pion $J^{PC}=2^{-+}$ resonance in the $\\rho\\pi$ and $f_2\\pi$ channels.

  12. Amplitude analysis of resonant production in three pions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackura Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on the analysis of three pion resonances. The analyses are motivated by the recent release of the largest data set on diffractively produced three pions by the COMPASS collaboration. We construct reaction amplitudes that satisfy fundamental S -matrix principles, which allows the use of models that have physical constraints to be used in fitting data. The models are motivated by the isobar model that satisfy unitarity constraints. The model consist of a Deck production amplitude with which final state interactions are constrained by unitarity. We employ the isobar model where two of the pions form a quasi-stable particle. The analysis is performed in the high-energy, single Regge limit. We specifically discuss the examples of the three pion JPC = 2−+ resonance in the ρπ and f2π channels.

  13. Amplitude analysis of resonant production in three pions

    CERN Document Server

    Jackura, Andrew; Szczepaniak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We present some results on the analysis of three pion resonances. The analyses are motivated by the recent release of the largest data set on diffractively produced three pions by the COMPASS collaboration. We construct reaction amplitudes that satisfy fundamental $S$-matrix principles, which allows the use of models that have physical constraints to be used in fitting data. The models are motivated by the isobar model that satisfy unitarity constraints. The model consist of a Deck production amplitude with which final state interactions are constrained by unitarity. We employ the isobar model where two of the pions form a quasi-stable particle. The analysis is performed in the high-energy, single Regge limit. We specifically discuss the examples of the three pion $J^{PC}=2^{-+}$ resonance in the $\\rho\\pi$ and $f_2\\pi$ channels.

  14. Amplitude analysis of resonant production in three pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackura, Andrew; Mikhasenko, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam

    2016-11-01

    We present some results on the analysis of three pion resonances. The analyses are motivated by the recent release of the largest data set on diffractively produced three pions by the COMPASS collaboration. We construct reaction amplitudes that satisfy fundamental S -matrix principles, which allows the use of models that have physical constraints to be used in fitting data. The models are motivated by the isobar model that satisfy unitarity constraints. The model consist of a Deck production amplitude with which final state interactions are constrained by unitarity. We employ the isobar model where two of the pions form a quasi-stable particle. The analysis is performed in the high-energy, single Regge limit. We specifically discuss the examples of the three pion JPC = 2-+ resonance in the ρπ and f2π channels.

  15. Sigma photoproduction in the resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, S; Debruyne, D; Van Cauteren, T

    2002-01-01

    A study of p(gamma,K)Sigma processes in an isobar model at tree level is reported. By comparing model calculations to the published SAPHIR data, we explore the possible role of different isospin I=1/2 (N*) and I=3/2 (Delta*) resonances in the reaction dynamics. In our analysis, the inclusion of the ``missing'' D_{13}(1895) resonance does only slightly improve the global description of the Sigma photoproduction data. More convincing signals for the presence of such a ``missing'' resonance emerged in the analysis of the isospin related p(gamma,K+)Lambda reaction. Various implementations of the nonresonant part of the Sigma photoproduction amplitude are presented. The sensitivity of the computed observables and extracted resonance parameters to the uncertainties inherent to the treatment of the nonresonant (background) diagrams are discussed.

  16. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  17. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  18. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  19. Analogy, explanation, and proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  20. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  1. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    psychospiritual processes. A more modern example of unclarified analogy is Freud’s (1973; reprinted from 1955) discussion of anal- eroticism , in which...299-304. Freud, S. On transformations of instinct as exemplified in anal eroticism . In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard 37 edition of the complete

  2. Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shouhong

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.

  3. Type II shell evolution in A=70 isobars from the N≥40 island of inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Morales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The level structures of 70Co and 70Ni, populated from the β decay of 70Fe, have been investigated using β-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy following in-flight fission of a 238U beam. The experimental results are compared to Monte-Carlo Shell-Model calculations including the pf+g9/2+d5/2 orbitals. The strong population of a (1+ state at 274 keV in 70Co is at variance with the expected excitation energy of ∼1 MeV from near spherical single-particle estimates. This observation indicates a dominance of prolate-deformed intruder configurations in the low-lying levels, which coexist with the normal near spherical states. It is shown that the β decay of the neutron-rich A=70 isobars from the new island of inversion to the Z=28 closed-shell regime progresses in accordance with a newly reported type of shell evolution, the so-called Type II, which involves many particle-hole excitations across energy gaps.

  4. A Triple Knockout (TKO) Proteomics Standard for Diagnosing Ion Interference in Isobaric Labeling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; O'Connell, Jeremy D.; Gygi, Steven P.

    2016-10-01

    Isobaric labeling is a powerful strategy for quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic investigations. A complication of such analyses has been the co-isolation of multiple analytes of similar mass-to-charge resulting in the distortion of relative protein abundance measurements across samples. When properly implemented, synchronous precursor selection and triple-stage mass spectrometry (SPS-MS3) can reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon, referred to as ion interference. However, no diagnostic tool is available currently to rapidly and accurately assess ion interference. To address this need, we developed a multiplexed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based standard, termed the triple knockout (TKO). This standard is comprised of three yeast proteomes in triplicate, each from a strain deficient in a highly abundant protein (Met6, Pfk2, or Ura2). The relative abundance patterns of these proteins, which can be inferred from dozens of peptide measurements can demonstrate ion interference in peptide quantification. We expect no signal in channels where the protein is knocked out, permitting maximum sensitivity for measurements of ion interference against a null background. Here, we emphasize the need to investigate further ion interference-generated ratio distortion and promote the TKO standard as a tool to investigate such issues.

  5. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  6. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Roda, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@shmu.edu.cn [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China)

    2010-01-08

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  7. Sensitivity of N/Z ratio in projectile break-up of isobaric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt fission. Recently, comparing two systems with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich system while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric systems 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment, in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size systems.

  8. Precision Test of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation in the A = 32, T = 2 Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Folden, C. M., III; Lincoln, D.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Savory, J.; Schwarz, S.

    2008-10-01

    Masses of the radionuclides ^32,33Si and ^34P and of the stable nuclide ^32S have been measured with the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Penning trap mass spectrometer. Relative mass uncertainties of 3 x 10-8 and better have been achieved. The measured mass value of ^32Si differs from the literature value [1,2] by four standard deviations. The precise mass determination of ^32Si and ^32S have been employed to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the A = 32, T= 2 isospin quintet. The experimental results indicate a significant deviation from the quadratic form. This work has been supported by Michigan State University, the NSF under contract number PHY- 0606007, and the DOE under the contract DE-FG02-00ER41144. References: 1. G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, and C. Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A729 (2003) 337 2. A. Paul, S. R"ottger, A. Zimbal, and U. Keyser, Hyperfine Interact. 132 (2001) 189

  9. Type II shell evolution in A = 70 isobars from the N ≥ 40 island of inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoybjor, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Schaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2017-02-01

    The level structures of 70Co and 70Ni, populated from the β decay of 70Fe, have been investigated using β-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy following in-flight fission of a 238U beam. The experimental results are compared to Monte-Carlo Shell-Model calculations including the pf +g9/2 +d5/2 orbitals. The strong population of a (1+) state at 274 keV in 70Co is at variance with the expected excitation energy of ∼1 MeV from near spherical single-particle estimates. This observation indicates a dominance of prolate-deformed intruder configurations in the low-lying levels, which coexist with the normal near spherical states. It is shown that the β decay of the neutron-rich A = 70 isobars from the new island of inversion to the Z = 28 closed-shell regime progresses in accordance with a newly reported type of shell evolution, the so-called Type II, which involves many particle-hole excitations across energy gaps.

  10. Phases of the Isobaric Surface Shapes in the Geostrophic State of the Atmosphere and Connection to the Polar Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of the disturbed isobaric surface shape in the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been shown that, depending on the overheat sign at the equator, the isobaric surface has the shape of an oblate or prolate geoid. If the geostrophic wind velocity is nonzero at the poles, the local pressure extrema (minima for oblate geoid and maxima for prolate geoid appear at the poles in the geostrophic state. This result correlates with the well-known polar vortex phenomenon and possibly can refine our understanding and interpretation of the phenomenon. In other words, the existence of polar minima and maxima of the pressure field can be the peculiarity of the geostrophic state of the atmosphere. It has been found that air must be colder than the surrounding atmosphere for initiation of the zonal eastward transport. For warm air mass, only easterly winds will be observed.

  11. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  12. Quantification of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Associated with Polymeric Nanoparticles Using Isobaric-Tagging and MALDI-TOF MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jasper Z. S.; Tucker, Ian G.; McDowell, Arlene

    2016-11-01

    High sensitivity quantification of the putative cell-penetrating peptide di-arginine-histidine (RRH) associated with poly (ethyl-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles was achieved without analyte separation, using a novel application of isobaric-tagging and high matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Isobaric-tagging reaction equilibrium was reached after 5 min, with 90% or greater RRH peptide successfully isobaric-tagged after 60 min. The accuracy was greater than 90%, which indicates good reliability of using isobaric-tagged RRH as an internal standard for RRH quantification. The sample intra- and inter-spot coefficients of variations were less than 11%, which indicate good repeatability. The majority of RRH peptides in the nanoparticle formulation were physically associated with the nanoparticles (46.6%), whereas only a small fraction remained unassociated (13.7%). The unrecovered RRH peptide (~40%) was assumed to be covalently associated with PECA nanoparticles.

  13. Precision spectroscopy with COMPASS and the observation of a new iso-vector resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    We report on the results of a novel partial-wave analysis based on 50 ṡ 106 events from the reaction π- + p → π-π-π+ + precoil at 190 GeV/c incoming beam momentum using the COMPASS spectrometer. A separated analysis in bins of m3π and four-momentum transfer t' reveals the interference of resonant and non-resonant particle production and allows their spectral separation. Besides well known resonances we observe a new iso-vector meson a1(1420) at a mass of 1420 MeV/c2 in the f0(980)π final state only, the origin of which is unclear. We have also examined the structure of the 0++ππ-isobar in the JPC = 0-+, 1++, 2-+ three pion waves. This clearly reveals the various 0++ππ-isobar components and its correlation to the decay of light mesons.

  14. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  15. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  16. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  17. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Δ isobar and large- N c relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C.; Weiss, C.

    2016-06-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O( M π - 1 ) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Δ isobars and implement relations based on the large- N c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Δ contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguities with higher-spin particles in the light-front time-ordered approach. We study the interplay of π N and πΔ intermediate states in the quantum-mechanical picture of the densities in a transversely polarized nucleon. We show that the correct N c -scaling of the charge and magnetization densities emerges as the result of the particular combination of currents generated by intermediate states with degenerate N and Δ. The off-shell behavior of the chiral EFT is summarized in contact terms and can be studied easily. The methods developed here can be applied to other peripheral densities and to moments of the nucleon's generalized parton distributions.

  18. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  19. Analogy among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Shian; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-10-07

    We wish to illuminate the analogous link between microfluidic-based devices, and the already established pairing of micromechanics and microelectronics to create a triangular/three-way scientific relationship as a means of interlinking familial disciplines and accomplishing two primary goals: (1) to facilitate the modeling of multidisciplinary domains; and, (2) to enable us to co-simulate the entire system within a compact circuit simulator (e.g., Cadence or SPICE). A microfluidic channel-like structure embedded in a micro-electro-mechanical resonator via our proposed CMOS-MEMS technology is used to illustrate the connections among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

  20. TOWARDS A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF ANALOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Makoto

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical theory of analogy, which should be a basis in developing analogical reasoning by a computer. The analogy is a partial identity between two sets of facts. In order to compare several analogies, we introduce an ordering of analogies, and we define two types of optimal analogies, maximal analogies and greatest ones. We show a condition under which the greatest analogy exists, and also present a top-down procedure to find the maximal analogies.

  1. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  2. TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF INTRATHECAL ISOBARIC 0.75% ROPIVACAINE WITH THE COMBINATION OF ISOBARIC 0.75% ROPIVACAINE AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN GERIATRIC HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERGOING UROLOGICAL SURGERIES : A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMISED, CONTROLLED, DOUBLE - BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerramsetti Atchyutha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Anaesthesia is the most common approach for geriatric patients undergoing urological surgeries. Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to improve quality of intraoperative analgesia and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia with haemodynamic stability and minimal sideeffects . Dexmedetomidine , the new highly selective α2 - agonist drug , is now being used as a neuraxial adjuvant . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal isobaric 0.75% Ropivacaine with the combination of isobaric 0.75% Ropivacaine and 5μg of Dexmedetomidine in Geriatric Hypertensive patients undergoing Urological surgeries . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Fifty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes II and III scheduled for Urological surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either . Group R : 1.9 ml of 0.75% isobaric Ropivacaine + 0.1 ml normal saline . Group D : 1.9 ml volume of 0. 75% isobaric ropivacaine +5 μg Dexmedetomidine (0.1ml. RESULTS : Patients in Dexmedetomidine group (D had a significantly longer sensory and motor block time than patients in Normal Saline group (R. The mean time of the two segment regression time in gro up D (115.6 ± 14.5 min was significantly higher than group R (57.4 ± 6.3 min ( P <0.001. The regression time of motor block to reach modified Bromage 0 was ( 246.4 ± 25.7 min in group D and 140.1 ± 32.3 min in group R ( P <0.001.The meantime of rescue analgesia is (425.4±18.9 min in group D when compared to group R (210.3 ± 14.2 . CONCLUSIONS : Intrathecal dexmedetomidine as a adjuvant is improved the quality of intraoperative analgesia and postoperative analgesia better , produced prolonged motor and se nsory block , hemodynamic stability , and reduced demand for rescue analgesics in 24 hours as compared to control group.

  3. Energy Harvesting Using an Analog Circuit under Multimodal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shimose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of harvesting energy from a vibrating structure using a piezoelectric transducer and a simple analog circuit is investigated experimentally. This analog circuit was originally invented for a synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI technique, which enhances the damping of mechanical vibration. In this study, the circuit is used to implement a synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI technique. A multiple degree of freedom (MDOF structure is excited by single sinusoidal forces at its resonant frequencies and by random forces. The piezoelectric transducer converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy which is harvested using a standard rectifier bridge circuit with and without our analog circuit. Experimental results show that our analog circuit makes it possible to harvest twice as much energy under both single sinusoidal and random vibration excitations.

  4. Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.

  5. Misleading measures in Vitamin D analysis: A novel LC-MS/MS assay to account for epimers and isobars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the accuracies of many commercially available immunoassays for Vitamin D have been questioned. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS has been shown to facilitate accurate separation and quantification of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25OHD2 collectively termed as 25OHD. However, among other interferents, this method may be compromised by overlapping peaks and identical masses of epimers and isobars, resulting in inaccuracies in circulating 25OHD measurements. The aim of this study was to develop a novel LC-MS/MS method that can accurately identify and quantitate 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 through chromatographic separation of 25OHD from its epimers and isobars. Methods A positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI LC-MS/MS method was used in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM mode for quantification. It involved i liquid-liquid extraction, ii tandem columns (a high resolution ZORBAX C18 coupled to an ULTRON chiral, with guard column and inlet filter, iii Stanozolol-D3 as internal standard, and iv identification via ESI and monitoring of three fragmentation transitions. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of our method, blood samples were collected from 5 healthy male Caucasian volunteers; age range 22 to 37 years and 25OHD2, 25OHD3 along with co-eluting epimers and analogues were quantified. Results The new method allowed chromatographic separation and quantification of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, along with 25OHD3 epimer 3-epi-25OHD3 and isobars 1-α-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1αOHD3, and 7-α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4. The new assay was capable of detecting 0.25 ng/mL of all analytes in serum. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method developed for the accurate detection of 25OHD (Vitamin D. The method is capable of detecting low levels of 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 together with chromatographic

  6. O-H...O versus O-H...S hydrogen bonding. 3. IR-UV double resonance study of hydrogen bonded complexes of p-cresol with diethyl ether and its sulfur analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Himansu S; Wategaonkar, Sanjay

    2010-05-20

    In this work the hydrogen bonded complexes of diethyl ether (DEE) and diethyl sulfide (DES) with p-cresol (p-CR) were investigated. Only one conformer of the p-CR.DEE complex and three conformers of the p-CR.DES complex were found to be present under the supersonic jet expansion conditions. The conformational assignments were done with the help of IR-UV double resonance studies and ab initio calculations. The red shifts in the OH stretching frequency for the O-H...O and O-H...S hydrogen bonded complexes were quite close to each other. In fact, one of the p-CR.DES conformers showed a slightly larger red shift in the OH stretch than that in the p-CR.DEE conformer, which suggests that in this case sulfur is not a weak hydrogen bond acceptor as noted previously in case of the p-CR.H(2)O and p-CR.H(2)S complexes (Biswal et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 5633). The natural bond orbital analysis also shows that the extent of overlap between sulfur lone pair orbitals (LP) and OH antibonding orbital (sigma*(OH)) was comparable to the oxygen (LP) and sigma*(OH) overlap, consistent with the similar magnitudes of the red shifts of OH stretch in the DES and DEE complexes. The computed binding energy of the p-CR.DES complex, however, was about 80% of the p-CR.DEE complex. The electron densities at the bond critical points indicated that the O-H...S interaction was weaker than the O-H...O interaction in this particular system also. The important finding of this study was that the IR red shifts in the H-bond donor X-H stretching frequency were not quite consistent with the computed binding energies and the atoms-in-molecules analysis contrary to the general understanding. Energy decomposition analysis suggests that O-H...S hydrogen bonding interaction is dispersive in nature and the dispersion contribution decreases with the increase in the length of the alkyl chain of the "S" hydrogen bond acceptor.

  7. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose-Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  8. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  9. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  10. Mathematical problem solving by analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J

    1991-05-01

    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  11. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-02-12

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  12. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  13. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  14. Musik som analogi og metafor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser......Indeholder underkapitlerne: 2.5.1 Musik som analogi 2.5.2 Musik som metafor 2.5.3 Musikkens psykologiske funktioner - en taxonomi og metaforisk lytning til fire baroksatser...

  15. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  16. Torque-mixing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losby, Joseph; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Grandmont, Dylan; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Hiebert, Wayne; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory; Thomson, Douglas; Freeman, Mark

    A universal, mechanical torque method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by induction, a signal proportional to the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured as a pure mechanical torque in broadband, frequency-swept spectroscopy. Comprehensive electron spin resonance of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature are presented to demonstrate the method. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex 3D spin textures.

  17. Distributed Episodic and Analogical Reasoning (DEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ends analysis Carbonell 1983 Modeling of Analogy Making Structure Mapping Theory (SMT) Gentner 1984 Agent based approach to analogy making...Mapping Engine (SME) Forbus 1990 Learning by analogy with larger domains Prodigy/Analogy Veloso and Carbonell 1991 Analogical Retrieval Engine MAC/FAC

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  19. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  20. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  1. LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development for AMG 900: resolution of an isobaric interference in rodent in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, Xuhai; Moore, Earl S; Zhao, Zhiyang; Wells, Mary C

    2013-02-23

    AMG 900 is an orally available small molecule that is a highly potent and selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of advanced human cancers. A co-eluting, isobaric interference was discovered in preliminary LC-MS/MS analyses of rodent in vivo pharmacokinetic samples during preclinical evaluation of AMG 900. The interference was identified as a major circulating N-oxide metabolite which partially converted to an [M+H-O](+) ion under the conditions of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. A selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of AMG 900 and its N-oxide metabolite in plasma was developed and successfully applied for the bioanalysis of discovery stage preclinical rodent pharmacokinetic studies.

  2. Study of the Effect of Reduced Iron Temperature Rising on Total Carbon Formation in Iron Reactor Isobaric and Cooling Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Alamsari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented the mathematical model in the iron reactor. The model was limited to Isobaric Zone and Cooling Zone termed as IZ and CZ, respectively. The simulation was done by adapting the heat and mass transfer equations. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the temperature increasing effect of reduced-iron on sponge-iron quality. The calculations are solved using Finite Element Method (FEM. The results showed that the temperature and concentration values from the simulation have high similarity to the reference data with Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE about 0.7. The formation of total-carbon in the both zones decreased metallization degree until 1.72%. The increase in reduced-iron temperature higher than 1200 K produces total-carbon higher than 3%. Thus the increase in reduced-iron temperature more than 1200 K is not recommended because it can decrease metallization degree.

  3. The separation and analysis of symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine and other hydrophilic isobaric compounds using aqueous normal phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyksa, Maria T; Modereger, Brent; Hasbun, Alejandra; Phan, Vy T; Mehr, Zahra; Guzman, Mariano; Watanable, Seiichiro

    2016-04-01

    Two biologically important compounds with clinical relevance, asymmetric dimethylarginine and symmetric dimethylarginine, are analyzed using aqueous normal phase chromatography on silica hydride-based columns. Two different stationary phases were tested, a commercially available Diamond Hydride™ and a 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid experimental column. Two types of analytical protocols were investigated: analysis of the compounds when separation was achieved and analysis of the compounds with partial chromatographic separation. Urine samples from tuberculosis patients were tested for levels of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine. The mass spectrometric technique of in-source fragmentation that can provide data similar to a tandem mass analyzer was evaluated as a means of identification and quantitation of the two compounds when complete separation is not achieved. This same protocol was also evaluated for two other isobaric compounds, glucose-1 and glucose-6 phohsphate, and leucine and isoleucine.

  4. Comparison of analog and digital transceiver systems for MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We critically evaluated analog and digital transceivers for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems under identical experimental conditions to identify and compare their advantages and disadvantages. MR imaging experiments were performed using a 4.74-tesla vertical-bore superconducting magnet and a high sensitivity gradient coil probe. We acquired 3-dimensional spin echo images of a kumquat with and without using a gain-stepping scan technique to extend the dynamic range of the receiver systems. The acquired MR images clearly demonstrated nearly identical image quality for both transceiver systems, but DC and ghosting artifacts were obtained for the analog transceiver system. We therefore concluded that digital transceivers have several advantages over the analog transceivers.

  5. Analog computing using reflective plasmonic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent renewed interest in compact analog computing using light and metasurfaces (Silva, A. et al., Science 2014, 343, 160-163), we suggest a practical approach to its realization that involves reflective metasurfaces consisting of arrayed gold nanobricks atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances. Using well established numerical routines, we demonstrate that these metasurfaces enable independent control of the light phase and amplitude, and design differentiator and integrator metasurfaces featuring realistic system parameters. Proof-of-principle experiments are reported along with the successful realization of a high-quality poor-man's integrator metasurface operating at the wavelength of 800 nm.

  6. Proteomic Identification and Quantification of S-glutathionylation in Mouse Macrophages Using Resin-Assisted Enrichment and Isobaric Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Guo, Jia; Hatchell, Kayla E.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Wu, Si; Purvine, Samuel O.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Thrall, Brian D.; Qian, Weijun

    2014-02-11

    Protein S-glutathionylation (SSG) is an important regulatory posttranslational modification of protein cysteine (Cys) thiol redox switches, yet the role of specific cysteine residues as targets of modification is poorly understood. We report a novel quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic method for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation across different conditions. Briefly, this approach consists of initial blocking of free thiols by alkylation, selective reduction of glutathionylated thiols and enrichment using thiol affinity resins, followed by on-resin tryptic digestion and isobaric labeling with iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) for MS-based identification and quantification. The overall approach was validated by application to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with different doses of diamide to induce glutathionylation. A total of 1071 Cys-sites from 690 proteins were identified in response to diamide treatment, with ~90% of the sites displaying >2-fold increases in SSG-modification compared to controls.. This approach was extended to identify potential SSG modified Cys-sites in response to H2O2, an endogenous oxidant produced by activated macrophages and many pathophysiological stimuli. The results revealed 364 Cys-sites from 265 proteins that were sensitive to S-glutathionylation in response to H2O2 treatment. These proteins covered a range of molecular types and molecular functions with free radical scavenging, and cell death and survival included as the most significantly enriched functional categories. Overall the results demonstrate that our approach is effective for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylated proteins. The analytical strategy also provides a unique approach to determining the major pathways and cell processes most susceptible to glutathionylation at a proteome-wide scale.

  7. Molecular dynamics in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble: the requirement of a "shell" molecule. III. Discontinuous potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uline, Mark J; Corti, David S

    2008-07-07

    Based on the approach of Gruhn and Monson [Phys. Rev. E 63, 061106 (2001)], we present a new method for deriving the collisions dynamics for particles that interact via discontinuous potentials. By invoking the conservation of the extended Hamiltonian, we generate molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for simulating the hard-sphere and square-well fluids within the isothermal-isobaric (NpT) ensemble. Consistent with the recent rigorous reformulation of the NpT ensemble partition function, the equations of motion impose a constant external pressure via the introduction of a shell particle of known mass [M. J. Uline and D. S. Corti, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 164101 (2005); 123, 164102 (2005)], which serves to define uniquely the volume of the system. The particles are also connected to a temperature reservoir through the use of a chain of Nose-Hoover thermostats, the properties of which are not affected by a hard-sphere or square-well collision. By using the Liouville operator formalism and the Trotter expansion theorem to integrate the equations of motion, the update of the thermostat variables can be decoupled from the update of the positions of the particles and the momentum changes upon a collision. Hence, once the appropriate collision dynamics for the isobaric-isenthalpic (NpH) equations of motion is known, the adaptation of the algorithm to the NpT ensemble is straightforward. Results of MD simulations for the pure component square-well fluid are presented and serve to validate our algorithm. Finally, since the mass of the shell particle is known, the system itself, and not a piston of arbitrary mass, controls the time scales for internal pressure and volume fluctuations. We therefore consider the influence of the shell particle algorithm on the dynamics of the square-well fluid.

  8. Isobaric Heat Capacities of Micelle Formation by 1-Methyl-4-n-dodecylpyridinium Iodide in Aqueous Solution; Effects of Added Urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, Willem; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Bijma, Koos; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Over the temperature range from 303 to 333 K, the enthalpy of micelle formation by 1-methyl-4-n-dodecylpyridinium iodide in aqueous solution is exothermic, characterised by an isobaric heat capacity of micelle formation equal to -439 ± 10 J K-1 mol-1. At 303 K, the critical micellar concentration (2

  9. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Almeida Filho, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU). PMID:24455330

  10. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU.

  11. Halo structure of isobaric analogue states in A = 21 and 17 mirror nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Shu Hua

    2002-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) radii of the last nucleons in the 2s sub 1 sub / sub 2 states of sup 2 sup 1 Ne, sup 2 sup 1 Na, sup 1 sup 7 O and sup 1 sup 7 F are found to be 4.4 +- 0.5, 5.2 +- 0.6, 4.3 +- 0.5 and 5.0 +- 0.6 fm, respectively, from transfer reaction data. The results show that the 2s sub 1 sub / sub 2 states of sup 2 sup 1 Na and sup 1 sup 7 F are proton halo states, while the analogous states in their mirror nuclei sup 2 sup 1 Ne and sup 1 sup 7 O can be considered as neutron skin states. Comparisons among the rms radii of these states lead authors to expect that a neutron halo nucleus has a proton halo mirror partner, and the Coulomb barrier is a determinant factor limiting the extension of the rms radius of the loosely bound proton

  12. Analog CMOS contrastive Hebbian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Card, Howard

    1992-09-01

    CMOS VLSI circuits implementing an analog neural network with on-chip contrastive Hebbian learning and capacitive synaptic weight storage have been designed and fabricated. Weights are refreshed by periodic repetition of the training data. To evaluate circuit performance in a medium-sized system, these circuits were used to build a 132 synapse neural network. An adaptive neural system, such as the one described in this paper, can compensate for imperfections in the components from which it is constructed, and thus it is possible to build this type of system using simple, silicon area-efficient analog circuits. Because these analog VLSI circuits are far more compact than their digital counterparts, analog VLSI neural network implementations are potentially more efficient than digital ones.

  13. Solving a problem by analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  14. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  15. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  16. Evidence for a Missing Nucleon Resonance in Kaon Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2000-01-01

    New SAPHIR p(gamma,K+)Lambda total cross section data show a resonance structure at a total c.m. energy around 1900 MeV. We investigate this feature with an isobar model and find that the structure can be well explained by including a new D_{13} resonance at 1895 MeV. Such a state has been predicted by a relativistic quark model at 1960 MeV with significant gamma-N and K-Lambda branching ratios. We demonstrate how the measurement of the photon asymmetry can be used to further study this resonance. In addition, verification of the predicted large decay widths into the eta-N and eta'-N channels would allow distinguishing between other nearby D_{13} states.

  17. Analog electronic neural network circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.P.; Jackel, L.D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The large interconnectivity and moderate precision required in neural network models present new opportunities for analog computing. This paper discusses analog circuits for a variety of problems such as pattern matching, optimization, and learning. Most of the circuits build so far are relatively small, exploratory designs. The most mature circuits are those for template matching. Chips performing this function are now being applied to pattern recognition problems.

  18. JYFLTRAP: a penning trap for precision mass spectroscopy and isobaric purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Elomaa, V.V.; Gorelov, D.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.D.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Szerypo, J.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this article a comprehensive description and performance of the double Penning-trap setup JYFLTRAP will be detailed. The setup is designed for atomic mass measurements of both radioactive and stable ions and additionally serves as a very high-resolution mass separator. The setup is coupled to the IGISOL facility at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The trap has been online since 2003 and it was shut down in the summer of 2010 for relocation to the upgraded IGISOL facility. Numerous atomic mass and decay energy measurements have been performed using the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance technique. The trap has also been used in several decay spectroscopy experiments as a high-resolution mass filter. (orig.)

  19. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  20. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  1. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  2. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  3. Construction and characterization of an azurin analog for the purple copper site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, M; Richards, J. H.; Lu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A protein analog of a purple copper center has been constructed from a recombinant blue copper protein (Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin) by replacing the loop containing the three ligands to the blue copper center with the corresponding loop of the CuA center in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Paracoccus denitrificans. The electronic absorption in the UV and visible region (UV-vis) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of this analog are remarkably similar to those of the native CuA...

  4. All-optical analog comparator

    OpenAIRE

    Pu Li; Xiaogang Yi; Xianglian Liu; Dongliang Zhao; Yongpeng Zhao; Yuncai Wang

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical device...

  5. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for sulfolane with toluene, ethylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene at 101.33 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhengrong; Huang Lei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xia Shuqian, E-mail: shuqianxia@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma Peisheng [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of State Education Ministry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > The VLE data of toluene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene with sulfolane were measured. > Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models can fit the experimental data well. > The new group interaction parameters of UNIFAC were regressed from the VLE data. > The estimated result shows that the group interaction parameters are reliable. - Abstract: Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data have been measured for the (toluene + sulfolane), (ethylbenzene + sulfolane), and (isopropylbenzene + sulfolane) binary systems with a modified Rose-Williams still at 101.33 kPa. The experimental data of binary systems were well correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) and universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models for the liquid phase. All the experimental results passed the thermodynamic consistency test by the Herington method. Furthermore, the model UNIFAC (Do) group contribution method was used. Sulfolane is treated as a group (TMS), the new group interaction parameters for CH{sub 2}-TMS, ACH-TMS and ACCH{sub 2}-TMS were regressed from the VLE data of (toluene + sulfolane) and (ethylbenzene + sulfolane) binary systems. Then these group interaction parameters were used to estimate phase equilibrium data of the (isopropylbenzene + sulfolane) binary system. The results showed that the estimated data were in good agreement with the experimental values. The maximum and average absolute deviations of the temperature were 4.50 K and 2.39 K, respectively. The maximum and average absolute deviations for the vapour phase compositions of isopropylbenzene were 0.0237 and 0.0137, respectively.

  6. Measurement and correlation of isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for the binary system of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran (THF system were measured at 101.3 kPa by using an equilibrium still. Thermodynamic consistency of the experimental data was confirmed by means of the Herington method. The experimental data were correlated and calculated by the Margules, Van Laar and Wilson activity-coefficient models, respectively. The Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models are better than the Margules activity-coefficient model based on the average absolute deviations of temperature and the vapor-phase composition. For the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models the average absolute deviations between the experimental and the calculated values were 0.24 K and 0.23 K for the boiling point, and 0.0040 for vapor-phase composition, respectively. These agree well with the experimental data. Therefore, it was shown that the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models satisfactorily correlate the experimental results of the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran system.

  7. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, E., E-mail: minaya@ipno.in2p3.fr [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cam, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Chauveau, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Daudin, L. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Dupré, P. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Lunney, D. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); Metz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Perrot, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 10{sup 5} ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 10{sup 5} is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  8. Mathematical Analogy and Metaphorical Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the power of certain literary metaphors? The author argues that the apprehension of good metaphors is importantly similar to the apprehension of fruitful mathematical analogies: both involve a structural realignment of vision. The author then explores consequences of this claim, drawing conceptually significant parallels…

  9. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  10. Schema Training in Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Shani; Mayer, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 93, 97, and 86 college students, respectively, learned how to solve 20 verbal analogy problems and took transfer and memory tests. Results are inconsistent with active responding theory and further indicate that schema induction is maximized when the schemas are made salient and the cognitive system is not overloaded. (SLD)

  11. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  12. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  13. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichard, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  14. Photothermal resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates to an ap......The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates...... to an apparatus for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a sample....

  15. Nucleon Resonance Excitation with Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Tiator, L

    2007-01-01

    The unitary isobar model MAID is used for a partial wave analysis of pion photoproduction and electroproduction data on the nucleon. In particular we have taken emphasis on the region of the Delta(1232) resonance and have separated the resonance and background amplitudes with the K-matrix approach. This leads to electromagnetic properties of the dressed Delta resonance, where all multipole amplitudes become purely imaginary and all form factors and helicity amplitudes become purely real at the K-matrix pole of W=M_Delta=1232 MeV. The REM=E2/M1 and RSM=C2/M1 ratios of the quadrupole excitation are compared to recent data analysis of different groups. The REM ratio of MAID2005 agrees very well with the data and has a linear behavior over the whole experimentally explored Q^2 region with a small positive slope that predicts a zero crossing around 3.5 GeV^2. The recent RSM data for Q^2 < 0.2 GeV^2 indicate a qualitative change in the shape of the ratio which can be explained by the impact of the Siegert theore...

  16. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  17. Are Hyperon Resonances Required in the Elementary K +Λ Photoproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, T.; Nurhadiansyah, N.

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the role of hyperon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process, γ p → K +Λ, by using a covariant isobar model. To this end, new experimental data are used in the fitting process, whereas the old SAPHIR 1998 data are also used for comparison. The result indicates that the Λ(1600) P 01 and Λ(1810) P 01 hyperon resonances can significantly reduce the χ2 and, simultaneously, can increase the hadronic form factor cut-off in the background terms. This finding is different from the result of the previous studies, which showed that the Λ(1800) S 01 was important for this purpose, instead of the Λ(1600) P 01.

  18. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  19. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  20. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF 0.5% AND 0.75% ISOBARIC ROPIVACAINE IN SPINAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridip Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to compare the differences in the onset, duration of action and complications of intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine 0.5% (Group I and intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine 0.75% (Group II in elective lower limb surgeries. METHODS We enrolled 60 patients of ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grade I-II scheduled for lower limb surgeries under spinal anaesthesia for this prospective randomized control trial. The patients were randomized to receive either 15 mg of 0.5% isobaric ropivacaine or 22.5 mg of 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine intrathecally. The time of onset of sensory and motor block, haemodynamic status, time for regression of sensory level to T10 dermatome, time of first request of analgesics and adverse effects were compared in both the groups. RESULTS The time of onset of sensory and motor block was significantly longer in Group-I than Group-II (P0.05. The onset of analgesia was faster in Group II (2.13±0.50 mins. than Group I (2.6±0.93 mins.. The time for regression of sensory level to T10 dermatome (Group-I 150±28.9 minutes and Group-II 180±32.07 were statistically longer in Group II (P<0.001. The time of first request of analgesics by the patient in Group-I was 197±31.20 minutes and in Group II was 219±31.66 minutes, which was statistically significant (P<0.001. The onset of motor block was quicker (P˂0.05 and the total duration of motor block was longer (P˂0.05 in Group II. No unexpected adverse events were registered. CONCLUSION The subarachnoid injection of glucose-free isobaric ropivacaine 0.5% and 0.75% solutions results in a variable spread of analgesia, accompanied by a good quality of motor block. Ropivacaine 0.75% produces a better quality of analgesia and longer duration of analgesia than the 0.5% solution.

  2. Holism and nonseparability by analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arageorgis, Aristidis

    2013-08-01

    This paper explores the issues of holism and nonseparability in relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) by focusing on an analog of the typical model featuring in many discussions of holism and nonseparability in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is argued that the quantum field theoretic model does exhibit holism in a metaphysical sense and that there are plausible grounds to view QFT holistic in an epistemological sense. However, the complexities arising from the fact that quantum fields have infinite degrees of freedom prohibit the exploitation of the elaborated analogy toward demonstrating that the QFT model exhibits the kind of state nonseparability familiar from ordinary quantum mechanics. Still, it is argued that the QFT model does satisfy a rather weak epistemological criterion for state nonseparability.

  3. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties.

  4. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  5. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  6. Low Power CMOS Analog Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Sachan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Low power low voltage CMOS analog multiplier circuit is proposed. It is based on flipped voltage follower. It consists of four voltage adders and a multiplier core. The circuit is analyzed and designed in 0.18um CMOS process model and simulation results have shown that, under single 0.9V supply voltage, and it consumes only 31.8µW quiescent power and 110MHZ bandwidth.

  7. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Koju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  8. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  9. A global analog of Cheshire charge

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, P

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  10. Investigating visual analogies for visual insight problems

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Sas; Eric Luchian; Linden Ball

    2010-01-01

    Much research has focused on the impact of analogies in insight problem solving, but less work has investigated how the visual analogies for insight are actually constructed. Thus, it appears that in the search for their facilitative impact on the incubation effect, the understanding of what makes good visual analogies has somehow been lost. This paper presents preliminary work of constructing a set of 6 visual analogies and evaluating their impact on solving the visual problem of eight coins...

  11. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  12. Analogical Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.; Siojo, Luis T.

    The mathematical and philosophical origins of "analogy" are described and their influence on the thinking of intelligence theorists is traced. Theories of intelligence and cognition bearing on analogical reasoning are examined, specifically those of Spearman, Thorndike, Guilford and Piaget. The analogy test item is shown to be a paradigm…

  13. Reasoning by Analogy in Constructing Mathematical Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    A powerful way of understanding something new is by analogy with something already known. An analogy is defined as a mapping from one structure, which is already known (the base or source), to another structure that is to be inferred or discovered (the target). The research community has given considerable attention to analogical reasoning in the…

  14. Spin Densities in Flavin Analogs within a Flavoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jesús Ignacio; Frago, Susana; Lans, Isaías; Alonso, Pablo Javier; García-Rubio, Inés; Medina, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Characterization by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques of several variants of Anabaena flavodoxin, where the naturally occurring FMN cofactor is substituted by different analogs, makes it possible to improve the details of the spin distribution map in the isoallosazine ring in its semiquinone state. The analyzed variants were selected to monitor the effects of intrinsic changes in the flavin ring electronic structure, as well as perturbations in the apoflavodoxin-flavin interaction, on the spin populations. When these effects were analyzed together with the functional properties of the different flavodoxin variants, a relationship between spin population and biochemical parameters, as the reduction potential, could be envisaged. PMID:26840722

  15. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  16. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  17. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  18. Transfer Between Analogies: How Solving One Analogy Problem Helps to Solve Another

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Mark T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer between analogies; with what people acquire from one analogy problem-solving episode that can be re-applied to a subsequent analogy, problem-solving episode. This issue must be resolved if we are to understand the nature of expertise and the appropriate use of analogy in education. There are two main explanations of what subjects acquire from an analogy problem-solving episode. The schema-induction hypothesis maintains that subjects acquire an abs...

  19. Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, S R K; Maes, B; Janssen, O T A; Vecchi, G; Rivas, J Gomez

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of bright and dark Surface Lattice Resonances (SLRs), which are collective Fano resonances in 2D plasmonic crystals. As a result of this coupling, a frequency stop-gap in the dispersion relation of SLRs is observed. The different field symmetries of the low and high frequency SLR bands lead to pronounced differences in their coupling to free space radiation. Standing waves of very narrow spectral width compared to localized surface plasmon resonances are formed at the high frequency band edge, while subradiant damping onsets at the low frequency band edge leading the resonance into darkness. We introduce a coupled oscillator analog to the plasmonic crystal, which serves to elucidate the physics of the coupled plasmonic resonances and to estimate very high quality factors (Q>700) for SLRs, which are the highest known for any 2D plasmonic crystal.

  20. Isobar separation of 93Zr and 93Nb at 24 MeV with a new multi-anode ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschini, Martin; Buchriegler, Josef; Collon, Philippe; Kutschera, Walter; Lachner, Johannes; Lu, Wenting; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    93Zr with a half-life of 1.6 Ma is produced with high yield in nuclear fission, and thus should be present as a natural or anthropogenic trace isotope in all compartments of the general environment. Sensitive measurements of this isotope would immediately find numerous applications, however, its detection at sufficiently low levels has not yet been achieved. AMS measurements of 93Zr suffer from the interference of the stable isobar 93Nb. At the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator VERA a new multi-anode ionization chamber was built. It is optimized for isobar separation in the medium mass range and is based on the experience from AMS experiments of 36Cl at our 3-MV tandem accelerator facility. The design provides high flexibility in anode configuration and detector geometry. After validating the excellent energy resolution of the detector with 36S, it was recently used to study iron-nickel and zirconium-niobium-molybdenum isobar separation. To our surprise, the separation of 94Zr (Z = 40) from 94Mo (Z = 42) was found to be much better than that of 58Fe (Z = 26) from 58Ni (Z = 28), despite the significantly larger ΔZ/Z of the latter pair. This clearly contradicts results from SRIM-simulations and suggests that differences in the stopping behavior may unexpectedly favor identification of 93Zr. At 24 MeV particle energy, a 93Nb (Z = 41) suppression factor of 1000 is expected based on a synthetic 93Zr spectrum obtained by interpolation between experimental spectra from the two neighboring stable isotopes 92Zr and 94Zr. Assuming realistic numbers for chemical niobium reduction, a detection level of 93Zr/Zr below 10-9 seems feasible.

  1. Isobar separation of {sup 93}Zr and {sup 93}Nb at 24 MeV with a new multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martschini, Martin, E-mail: martin.martschini@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics – Isotope Research, VERA Laboratory, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Buchriegler, Josef [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics – Isotope Research, VERA Laboratory, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Collon, Philippe [Nuclear Science Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46628 (United States); Kutschera, Walter; Lachner, Johannes [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics – Isotope Research, VERA Laboratory, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lu, Wenting [Nuclear Science Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46628 (United States); Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics – Isotope Research, VERA Laboratory, Währinger Straße 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    {sup 93}Zr with a half-life of 1.6 Ma is produced with high yield in nuclear fission, and thus should be present as a natural or anthropogenic trace isotope in all compartments of the general environment. Sensitive measurements of this isotope would immediately find numerous applications, however, its detection at sufficiently low levels has not yet been achieved. AMS measurements of {sup 93}Zr suffer from the interference of the stable isobar {sup 93}Nb. At the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator VERA a new multi-anode ionization chamber was built. It is optimized for isobar separation in the medium mass range and is based on the experience from AMS experiments of {sup 36}Cl at our 3-MV tandem accelerator facility. The design provides high flexibility in anode configuration and detector geometry. After validating the excellent energy resolution of the detector with {sup 36}S, it was recently used to study iron–nickel and zirconium–niobium–molybdenum isobar separation. To our surprise, the separation of {sup 94}Zr (Z = 40) from {sup 94}Mo (Z = 42) was found to be much better than that of {sup 58}Fe (Z = 26) from {sup 58}Ni (Z = 28), despite the significantly larger ΔZ/Z of the latter pair. This clearly contradicts results from SRIM-simulations and suggests that differences in the stopping behavior may unexpectedly favor identification of {sup 93}Zr. At 24 MeV particle energy, a {sup 93}Nb (Z = 41) suppression factor of 1000 is expected based on a synthetic {sup 93}Zr spectrum obtained by interpolation between experimental spectra from the two neighboring stable isotopes {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr. Assuming realistic numbers for chemical niobium reduction, a detection level of {sup 93}Zr/Zr below 10{sup −9} seems feasible.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  3. Measurement and isobar-model analysis of the doubly differential cross section for the. pi. /sup +/ produced in. pi. /sup -/p. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, D.M.

    1981-11-01

    The doubly differential cross section d/sup 2/sigma/d..cap omega..dT for ..pi../sup +/ mesons produced in the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/n was measured at 203, 230, 256, and 358 MeV with a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. A set of five previous measurements at 254, 280, 292, 331, and 356 MeV was reanalyzed with the new measurements. Integrated cross sections were calculated for the combined data set with unprecedented accuracy for this energy range. The chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter was determined to be epsilon = -0.03 +- 0.26 by extrapolating the mean square modulus of the matrix element to threshold and comparing the threshold matrix element with the prediction of soft-pion theory. This value of epsilon is consistent with zero as required by the Weinberg Lagrangian. Measurements at the three highest energies were compared with the results of an isobar-model analysis of bubble-chamber events by an LBL-SLAC collaboration. After allowing for an overall normalization difference, the measurements at 331 and 358 MeV were in excellent agreement with the results of their analysis. The measurement at 292 MeV required variation of the PS11(epsilonN) amplitude, as well as the overall normalization, which could be due to the limited number of bubble-chamber events available for the LBL-SLAC analysis at this energy. A partial-wave analysis of the measurements was also carried out with the VPI isobar model. Within this model, the matrix element contains a background term calculated from a phenomenological ..pi..N Lagrangian that is consistent with the hypotheses of current algebra and PCAC. The reaction was found to be dominated by the initial P11 wave. Production of the ..delta.. isobar from initial D waves was found to be significant at the two highest energies.

  4. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  5. First-principles calculations for $c$-coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation in the $1p0f$ shell

    CERN Document Server

    Ormand, W E; Jensen, M Hjorth

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculations for the $c$-coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation (IMME) for nuclei from $A=42$ to $A=54$ based on input from several realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. We show that there is clear dependence on the short-ranged charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) part of the strong interaction. There is a significant variation in the CSB part between the commonly used CD-Bonn, N$^3$LO and Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon interactions. All of them give a CSB contribution that is too large when compared to experiment.

  6. Evidence for a breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation: A study of the A=35, T=3/2 isospin quartet

    CERN Document Server

    Yazidjian, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; George, S; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L

    2007-01-01

    Mass measurements on radionuclides along the potassium isotope chain have been performed with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. For 35K T1/2=178ms) to 46K (T1/2=105s) relative mass uncertainties of 2x10-8 and better have been achieved. The accurate mass determination of 35K (dm=0.54keV) has been exploited to test the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME) for the A=35, T=3/2 isospinquartet. The experimental results indicate a deviation from the generally adopted quadratic form.

  7. Effect of isobaric breathing gas shifts from air to heliox mixtures on resolution of air bubbles in lipid and aqueous tissues of recompressed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegaard, Ole; Kerem, Dikla; Melamed, Y

    2011-01-01

    Deep tissue isobaric counterdiffusion that may cause unwanted bubble formation or transient bubble growth has been referred to in theoretical models and demonstrated by intravascular gas formation in animals, when changing inert breathing gas from nitrogen to helium after hyperbaric air breathing...... breathing. No such bubble growth was observed in spinal white matter, skeletal muscle or tendon. In spinal white matter, an immediate breathing gas shift after the hyperbaric air exposure from air to both (80:20) and (50:50) heliox, coincident with recompression to either 285 or 405 kPa, caused consistent...

  8. Multiquark resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  9. Multiquark Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties has been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  10. Resonating Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... of an IT project in a Danish local government spans a two-year time period and demonstrates a double-loop legitimization process. First, resonating statements are produced to localize a national IT initiative to support the specificity of a local government discourse. Second, the resonating statements are used...

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL HYPERBARIC 0.5% BUPIVACAINE VERSUS INTRATHECAL 0.5% ISOBARIC LEVOBUPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmanadh K

    2016-09-01

    received 3.0 mL volume of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine intrathecally. Routine preanaesthetic checkup of all the patients was done to exclude coexisting medical conditions and to assess airway and spine. Routine investigations like haemoglobin%, blood group and typing, urine examination, etc. were done. RESULTS The mean time of onset of sensory blockade in group B is 1.78±0.708 mins. and in group L is 2.5±0.863 mins. There is no clinical significance between group B and L regarding mean time for onset of sensory blockade. Five out of 50 in group B, twelve out of 50 in group L attained level T4 of sensory blockade. Nineteen out of 50 in group B and fourteen out of 50 in group L attained T6, nineteen out of 50 and seventeen out of 50 attained level T8. Five out of 50 and seven out of 50 attained T9 level of sensory blockade. Two out of 50 in group B and none from group L attained T10 level of sensory blockade. The mean time taken for attaining maximum sensory blockade is 8.98±1.477 mins. in Group B and 8.08±1.70 mins. in group L. There is no clinical significant difference between group B and L regarding the mean time for attaining maximum sensory blockade. The mean time taken for regression of sensory blockade by two segments is 86.3±6.22 mins. in group B and 86.0±6.08 mins. in group L. The mean duration of analgesia for group B is 161.0±12.66 mins. and group L is 164.20±9.55 mins. The mean duration of sensory regression to S1 in group B is 201.2±12.59 mins. and in group L is 200.7±12.25 mins. The mean time taken for the onset of motor blockade is 1.98±0.55 mins. in group B and in group L is 2.08±0.70 mins. The mean time taken for attaining maximum motor blockade in group B is 6.56±0.97 mins. and in group L is 6.26±0.92 mins. The mean duration of motor blockade for group B is 280.8±27.09 mins. and for group L is 279.0±18.10 mins. Changes in systolic diastolic and mean blood pressures along with changes in heart rate with time were depicted in (Table 2, 3

  12. Precision spectroscopy with COMPASS and the observation of a new iso-vector resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results of a novel partial-wave analysis based on 50 ⋅ 106 events from the reaction π− + p → π−π−π+ + precoil at 190 GeV/c incoming beam momentum using the COMPASS spectrometer. A separated analysis in bins of m3π and four-momentum transfer t′ reveals the interference of resonant and non-resonant particle production and allows their spectral separation. Besides well known resonances we observe a new iso-vector meson a1(1420 at a mass of 1420 MeV/c2 in the f0(980π final state only, the origin of which is unclear. We have also examined the structure of the 0++ππ-isobar in the JPC = 0−+, 1++, 2−+ three pion waves. This clearly reveals the various 0++ππ-isobar components and its correlation to the decay of light mesons.

  13. Photonic analog-to-digital converter via asynchronous oversampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Spencer; Reeves, Erin; Siahmakoun, Azad; Granieri, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid opto-electronic asynchronous delta-sigma modulator, implemented in the form of a fiber-optic Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). This architecture was chosen for its independence of an external clock and ease of demodulation through a single low-pass filter stage. The fiber-optic prototype consists of an input laser (wavelength λ1) which is modulated with an input RF signal, a high-speed comparator circuit working as bi-stable quantizer, and a fiber-optic loop that includes a SOA and a band-pass filter that act as a leaky integrator. The fiber-optic loop acts as a fiber-ring resonator (FRR), and defines the resonance wavelength λ2 of the system. The gain within this loop is modified through cross-gain modulation (XGM) by the input wavelength λ1, and thus achieves the desired modulation effect. The proposed architecture has been constructed and characterized at a sampling rate of 15.4 MS/s processing input analog signals in the range of dc-3 MHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 36 dB and an effective number of bits of 5.7.

  14. Baryon Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Sun, Bao Xi; Vacas, M J Vicente; Ramos, A; Gonzalez, P; Vijande, J; Torres, A Martinez; Khemchandani, K

    2009-01-01

    In this talk I show recent results on how many excited baryon resonances appear as systems of one meson and one baryon, or two mesons and one baryon, with the mesons being either pseudoscalar or vectors. Connection with experiment is made including a discussion on old predictions and recent results for the photoproduction of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonance, as well as the prediction of one $1/2^+$ baryon state around 1920 MeV which might have been seen in the $\\gamma p \\to K^+ \\Lambda$ reaction.

  15. Baryon Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oset, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sarkar, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sun Baoxi [Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez, P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Vijande, J. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Martinez Torres, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Khemchandani, K. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    In this talk I show recent results on how many excited baryon resonances appear as systems of one meson and one baryon, or two mesons and one baryon, with the mesons being either pseudoscalar or vectors. Connection with experiment is made including a discussion on old predictions and recent results for the photoproduction of the {lambda}(1405) resonance, as well as the prediction of one 1/2{sup +} baryon state around 1920 MeV which might have been seen in the {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}{lambda} reaction.

  16. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    sessions are achieved via adaptive action-analyzed activities. These interactive virtual environments are designed to empower patients’ creative and/or playful expressions via digital feedback stimuli. Unconscious self- pushing of limits result from innate distractive mechanisms offered by the alternative...... the unencumbered motion-to-computer-generated activities - ‘Music Making’, ‘Painting’, ‘Robotic’ and ‘Video Game’ control. A focus of this position paper is to highlight how Aesthetic Resonance, in this context, relates to the growing body of research on Neuroaesthetics to evolve Neuroaesthetic Resonance....

  17. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  18. Manifestation of the $P$-wave diproton resonance in single-pion production in $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Platonova, M N

    2016-01-01

    It is demonstrated that many important features of single-pion production in $pp$ collisions at intermediate energies ($T_p \\simeq 400$-$800$ MeV) can naturally be explained by supposing excitation of intermediate diproton resonances in $pp$ channels ${}^1D_2$, ${}^3F_3$ and ${}^3P_2$, in addition to conventional mechanisms involving an intermediate $\\Delta$-isobar. We predict for the first time the crucial role of the ${}^3P_2$ diproton resonance, found in recent experiments on the single-pion production reaction $pp \\to pp({}^1S_0) \\pi^0$, in reproducing the proper behavior of spin-correlation parameters in the reaction $pp \\to d \\pi^+$ which were poorly described by conventional meson-exchange models to date. The possible quark structure of the $P$-wave diproton resonances is also discussed.

  19. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  20. T-forbidden excitation of isobaric analogue states in the 37Cl(p, α0)34S reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnjakovic, B.; Leun, C. van der

    1966-01-01

    The analogues of the two lowest levels of 38Cl, with Jπ=3- and 5-, were excited in the T-forbidden reaction 37Cl(p, αo)34S. The Jπ=3- analogue state is split into several components which form a micro-giant resonance.

  1. Autostereogram resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  2. Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Analog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    34010010" �" �" �" �" �" �" �±" N3 N2 N± P1 P2 P3 * Current sources $RR = 1; *Ramp Rate (slope of the...2008/12/12/31e83bac-500f-4182- acca -4d360295fd9c.pdf, Analog Devices, Analog Dialogue 39-06, June 2005. [15] D. A. Johns, K. Martin "Analog Integrated

  3. Isobaric yield ratio difference between the 140 $A$ MeV $^{58, 64}$Ni + $^{9}$Be reactions studied by antisymmetric molecular dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, C Y; Ma, C W; Zhang, Y L; Wang, S S

    2015-01-01

    \\item[Background] The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) method is found to be sensitive to the density difference of neutron-rich nucleus induced reaction around the Fermi energy. \\item[Purpose] An investigation is performed to study the IBD results in the transport model. \\item[Methods] The antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model plus the sequential decay model GEMINI are adopted to simulate the 140$A$ MeV $^{58, 64}$Ni + $^{9}$Be reactions. A relative small coalescence radius R$_c =$ 2.5 fm is used for the phase space at $t =$ 500 fm/c to form the hot fragment. Two limitations on the impact parameter ($b1 = 0 - 2$ fm and $b2 = 0 - 9$ fm) are used to study the effect of central collisions in IBD. \\item[Results] The isobaric yield ratios (IYRs) for the large--$A$ fragments are found to be suppressed in the symmetric reaction. The IBD results for fragments with neutron-excess $I = $ 0 and 1 are obtained. A small difference is found in the IBDs with the $b1$ and $b2$ limitations in the AMD simulated re...

  4. Excitation of the Delta(1232) isobar in deuteron charge exchange on hydrogen at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.3 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mchedlishvili, D; Carbonell, J; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Dzyuba, A; Engels, R; Gebel, R; Glagolev, V; Grigoryev, K; Goslawski, P; Hartmann, M; Imambekov, O; Kacharava, A; Kamerdzhiev, V; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Lehrach, A; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Macharashvili, G; Maier, R; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychyants, M; Mikirtychyants, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Papenbrock, M; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Seyfarth, H; Stein, H J; Steffens, E; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Trusov, S; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C

    2013-01-01

    The charge-exchange break-up of polarised deuterons pol{d}p -> {pp}n, where the final {pp} diproton system has a very low excitation energy and hence is mainly in the 1S0 state, is a powerful tool to probe the spin-flip terms in the proton-neutron charge-exchange scattering. Recent measurements with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.27 GeV have extended these studies into the pion-production regime in order to investigate the mechanism for the excitation of the Delta(1232) isobar in the pol{d}p -> {pp}X reaction. Values of the differential cross section and two deuteron tensor analysing powers, A_{xx} and A_{yy}, have been extracted in terms of the momentum transfer to the diproton or the invariant mass Mx of the unobserved system X. The unpolarised cross section in the high Mx region is well described in a model that includes only direct excitation of the Delta isobar through undistorted one pion exchange. However, the cross section is grossly underestimated for low Mx, even w...

  5. Extensive Peptide Fractionation and y1 Ion-Based Interference Detection Method for Enabling Accurate Quantification by Isobaric Labeling and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingming; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kodali, Kiran; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; High, Anthony A; Wang, Hong; Wu, Zhiping; Li, Yuxin; Bi, Wenjian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xusheng; Zou, Wei; Peng, Junmin

    2017-02-22

    Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ∼20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10 000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.

  6. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects...... of the test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices...

  7. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  8. Fermilab accelerator control system: Analog monitoring facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1987-10-01

    Thousands of analog signals are monitored in different areas of the Fermilab accelerator complex. For general purposes, analog signals are sent over coaxial or twinaxial cables with varying lengths, collected at fan-in boxes and digitized with 12 bit multiplexed ADCs. For higher resolution requirements, analog signals are digitized at sources and are serially sent to the control system. This paper surveys ADC subsystems that are used with the accelerator control systems and discusses practical problems and solutions, and it describes how analog data are presented on the console system.

  9. Design and the Use of High Efficient (Low Temperature) Isobaric Ammonia Recovery Device%联合高效(低温)等压氨回收装置的设计及使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军

    2013-01-01

      针对传统等压氨回收和冰机制冷氨回收及无动力氨回收存在的缺点,在第二代等压氨回收装置的基础上,开发了第三代等压氨回收装置,运行表明,效果良好。%  Based on the faults of traditional isobaric ammonia recovery , ice machine refrigeration ammonia recovery and unpowered ammonia recovery , and based on the second generation of isobaric ammonia recovery device , the third generation of isobaric ammonia recovery device has been developed successfully and the running shows good results .

  10. $\\eta$ MAID-2015: update with new data and new resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Kashevarov, V L; Ostrick, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent data for $\\eta$ and $\\eta\\prime$ photoproduction on protons obtained by the A2 Collaboration at MAMI are presented. The total cross section for $\\eta$ photoproduction demonstrates a cusp at the energy corresponding to the $\\eta\\prime$ threshold. The new data and existing data from GRAAL, CBELSA/TAPS, and CLAS collaborations have been analyzed by an expansion in terms of associated Legendre polynomials. %A Legendre decomposition shows the sensitivity to small partial-wave contributions. The isobar model $\\eta$MAID updated with $\\eta \\prime$ channel and new resonances have been used to fit the new data. The new solution $\\eta$MAID-2015 reasonably good describes the data in the photon beam energy region up to 3.7 GeV.

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  12. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...... the algorithm to students. The analogy suggests a possible extension of the fuzzy membership assignment equation....

  13. PEMETAAN ANALOGI PADA KONSEP ABSTRAK FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoto Suseno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research of any where founded majority students have common difficulties in abstract physics concept. The result of observation, lecturers have problem  in teaching implementation of abstract concepts on physics learning. The objective of this research is to find out the ways how to overcome this problem. The research place of  physics education programs and senior high school. The data are colected by quetionere, observation and interview. The lecturer behavior to making out this case is use of analogy to make concrete a abstract concept. This action is true, because the analogies are dynamic tools that facilitate understanding, rather than representations of the correct and static explanations. Using analogies not only promoted profound understanding of abstract concept, but also helped students overcome their misconceptions. However used analogy in teaching not yet planed with seriousness, analogy used spontanously with the result that less optimal. By planing and selecting right analogy, the role of analogy can be achieved the optimal result. Therefore, it is important to maping analogies of abstract consepts on physics learning.

  14. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  15. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  16. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  17. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  18. Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Eldar, Yonina C

    2008-01-01

    A traditional assumption underlying most data converters is that the signal should be sampled at a rate which exceeds twice the highest frequency. This statement is based on a worst-case scenario in which the signal occupies the entire available bandwidth. In practice, many signals posses a sparse structure so that a large part of the bandwidth is not exploited. In this paper, we consider a framework for utilizing this sparsity in order to sample such analog signals at a low rate. More specifically, we consider continuous-time signals that lie in a shift-invariant (SI) space generated by m kernels, so that any signal in the space can be expressed as an infinite linear combination of the shifted kernels. If the period of the underlying SI space is equal to T, then such signals can be perfectly reconstructed from samples at a rate of m/T. Here we treat the case in which only k out of the m generators are active, meaning that the signal actually lies in a lower dimensional space spanned by k generators. However,...

  19. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  20. An optical analog signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudzita, K.; Itida, T.; Tanaka, Kh.

    1984-01-11

    An optical laser analog signal transmitter employing an amplitude modulated subcarrier is patented; this transmitter performs stable and high quality transmission of information signals over great distances. A feature of the proposed transmitter is a special transmitter operational mode in which the light emission reflected off the connection point to the fiber optic conduit is sent back to the laser diode in a transient period. As a result, the critical mode of the generated emission is not influenced by the reflected signal. The transmitter consists of a laser diode with biasing near the cutoff point, an amplitude modulator with a subcarrier frequency oscillator, a section of flexible fiber-optic cable of length L, which connects the laser diode to the primary optical fiber conduit, and the connector itself. The subcarrier frequency may vary over wide ranges to establish the necessary correlation between the length of the light conduit section L and the return propagation time of the reflected light signal from the connection point to the laser diode. The difference between the lasing time of the light signal and the return time to the laser diode of the signal reflected off the connector is determined by the relation tau equals 2nL/c - mtauc, where L is the length of the connecting section; n is the refractivity of the optical fiber; c is the velocity of light; tauc is the period of the high frequency subcarrier signal; and m is an integer.

  1. Demonstrative and non-demonstrative reasoning by analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    The paper analizes a set of issues related to analogy and analogical reasoning, namely: 1) The problem of analogy and its duplicity; 2) The role of analogy in demonstrative reasoning; 3) The role of analogy in non-demonstrative reasoning; 4) The limits of analogy; 5) The convergence, particularly in multiple analogical reasoning, of these two apparently distinct aspects and its methodological and philosophical consequences. The paper, using example from number theory, argues for an heuristc c...

  2. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  3. Posterior Isobar non-fusion internal fixation system in repair of lumbar disc herniation:more advantages in restoring range of motion of lumbar spine%后路Isobar非融合内固定系统修复腰椎间盘突出症:恢复腰椎活动度更具优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦斌; 付强

    2015-01-01

    method in treatment of lumbar disc herniation. METHODS:From September 2011 to September 2012, 40 patients with lumbar disc herniation who were treated in the Department of Orthopedic, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medial University of Chinese PLA were enrol ed in this study. They were equal y assigned to the Isobar non-fusion internal fixation system group (Isobar group) and the traditional intervertebral fusion nail rod system internal fixation group (rigid internal fixation group) and subjected to corresponding treatments. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Surgery was successful y completed in patients of the two groups. These patients received at least 2 years of fol ow-up, no drop out. Compared with pre-fixation, low back pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were improved significantly after fixation in both groups. Compared with the rigid internal fixation group, range of motion of lumbar spine was larger in the Isobar group. Low back pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were similar between the two groups. These results indicated that posterior Isolbar non-fusion internal fixation obtained identical outcomes as traditional treatment, and showed more advantages in range of motion of lumbar spine.

  4. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  5. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  6. Namibian Analogs To Titan Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Stofan, E.; Farr, T.; Van der Ploeg, P.; Lorenz, R.; Radebaugh, J.

    2009-09-01

    Titan's equatorial dunes, observed in Cassini SAR, have been described as longitudinal, similar to longitudinal dunes in the Namib sand sea in southern Africa. Their "Y” junctions and the way they divert around topography are used as evidence of equatorial wind flow direction. In two instances of such diversion they exhibit overlying or crosshatched patterns in two distinct directions that have been interpreted as a transition to transverse dunes. Here we describe field observations of the Namibian dunes and these comparisons, we present images of the dunes from terrestrial SAR missions, and we discuss implications to both the Titan dunes and the wind regime that created them. Selected portions of the Namibian dunes resemble Titan's dunes in peak-to-peak distance and length. They are morphologically similar to Titan, and specific superficial analogs are common, but they also differ. For example, when Titan dunes encounter topography they either terminate abruptly, "climb” the upslope, or divert around; only the latter behavior is seen in remote sensing images of Namibia. Namib linear dunes do transition to transverse as they divert, but at considerably smaller wavelength, while at Titan the wavelengths are of the same scale. Crosshatching of similar-wavelength dunes does occur in Namibia, but not near obstacles. Many additional aeolian features that are seen at Namibia such as star dunes, serpentine ridges and scours have not been detected on Titan, although they might be below the Cassini SAR's 300-m resolution. These similarities and differences allow us to explore mechanisms of Titan dune formation, in some cases giving us clues as to what larger scale evidence to look for in SAR images. Viewed at similar resolution, they provide interesting comparisons with the Titan dunes, both in likeness and differences. A part of this work was carried out at JPL under contract with NASA.

  7. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  8. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  9. First Online Mass Measurements of Isobar Chains via Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph Coupled with GARIS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, P; Ito, Y; Kaji, D; Soderstrom, P-A; Takamine, A; Arai, F; Haba, H; Jeong, S; Kimura, S; Koura, H; Miyatake, H; Morimoto, K; Morita, K; Ozawa, A; Reponen, M; Sonoda, T; Tanaka, T; Wollnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Using a mulit-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF-MS) located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several heavy nuclei have been directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectile-like and target-like particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po, 206Fr-206Rn-206At and 201Rn-201At-201Po-201Bi, were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for 205,206Fr, 201At, and 201Po.

  10. First online multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements of isobar chains produced by fusion-evaporation reactions: Toward identification of superheavy elements via mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Ito, Y.; Kaji, D.; Arai, F.; MacCormick, M.; Murray, I.; Haba, H.; Jeong, S.; Kimura, S.; Koura, H.; Miyatake, H.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Ozawa, A.; Rosenbusch, M.; Reponen, M.; Söderström, P.-A.; Takamine, A.; Tanaka, T.; Wollnik, H.

    2017-01-01

    Using a multireflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several α -decaying heavy nuclei were directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectilelike and targetlike particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 204Fr-204Rn-204At-204Po , 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po-205Bi , and 206Fr-206Rn-206At , were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for Fr-206204, Rn,205204, and At,205204. Identifications of 205Bi, Po,205204, 206Rn, and 206At were made with N ≲10 detected ions, representing the next step toward use of mass spectrometry to identify exceedingly low-yield species such as superheavy element ions.

  11. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  12. Excitation of the Δ(1232) isobar in deuteron charge exchange on hydrogen at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.3 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mchedlishvili, D. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, GE-0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barsov, S. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chiladze, D. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, GE-0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dymov, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Physikalisches Institut II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dzyuba, A. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Engels, R.; Gebel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Glagolev, V. [Laboratory of High Energies, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-10-07

    The charge-exchange break-up of polarised deuterons d{sup →}p→{pp}{sub s}n, where the final {pp}{sub s} diproton system has a very low excitation energy and hence is mainly in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state, is a powerful tool to probe the spin-flip terms in the proton–neutron charge-exchange scattering. Recent measurements with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.27 GeV have extended these studies into the pion-production regime in order to investigate the mechanism for the excitation of the Δ(1232) isobar in the d{sup →}p→{pp}{sub s}X reaction. Values of the differential cross section and two deuteron tensor analysing powers, A{sub xx} and A{sub yy}, have been extracted as functions of the momentum transfer to the diproton or the invariant mass M{sub X} of the unobserved system X. The unpolarised cross section in the high M{sub X} region is well described in a model that includes only direct excitation of the Δ isobar through undistorted one pion exchange. However, the cross section is grossly underestimated for low M{sub X}, even when Δ excitation in the projectile deuteron is included in the calculation. Furthermore, direct Δ production through one pion exchange only reproduces the angular dependence of the difference between the two tensor analysing powers.

  13. A computational model of analogical reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵沁平

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of analogical reasoning is presented, which divides analogical reasoning process into four subprocesses, i.e. reminding, elaboration, matching and transfer. For each subprocess, its role and the principles it follows are given. The model is discussed in detail, including salient feature-based reminding, relevance-directed elaboration, an improved matching model and a transfer model. And the advantages of this model are summarized based on the results of BHARS, which is an analogical reasoning system implemented by this model.

  14. Analogies in science education: contributions and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Duarte

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is a comparison between domains of knowledge that have similarities at the levels of characteristics and relationships. Several authors highlight the importance of this tool in the teaching and learning of difficult scientific concepts. Nevertheless, some problems associated to the use of analogies have been found. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the use of analogies in science education, by means of a review of the state of art regarding this matter. It will take into account its contribution to science education as well as the challenges to further research

  15. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  16. Dissociable neural systems for analogy and metaphor: implications for the neuroscience of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin

    2012-08-01

    Two recent reviews of the neuroimaging literature on creativity have pointed to inconsistent findings across studies, calling into question the usefulness of the theoretical constructs motivating the search for its neural bases. However, it is argued that consistent patterns of neural activation do emerge when the cognitive process and the neuroimaging method are kept uniform across studies. To demonstrate this empirically, the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was used to conduct quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments of analogy and metaphor - two processes related to creativity and included in the recent reviews. The results demonstrated that analogy and metaphor reliably activate consistent but dissociable brain regions across fMRI studies. The implications of the findings for cognitive theories of analogy and metaphor are discussed. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that to the extent that creativity has heterogeneous sources, its neural instantiation will vary as a function of the underlying cognitive processes.

  17. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  18. Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Valentin V

    2014-01-01

    Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.

  19. Slow-light plasmonic metamaterial based on dressed-state analog of electromagnetically-induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple configuration for realizing one-dimensional slow-light metamaterials with large bandwidth-delay products using stub-shaped Fabry-Perot resonators as building blocks. Each metaatom gives rise to large group indices due to a classical analog of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically-induced transparency. By connecting up to eight metaatoms, we find bandwidth-delay products over unity and group indices approaching 100. Our approach is quite general and can be applied to any type of Fabry-Perot resonators and tuned to different operating wavelengths.

  20. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  1. Use of analogy in learning scientific concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C M; McDaniel, M A

    1993-07-01

    Four experiments compared learning of scientific concepts as expressed in either traditional literal form or through an analogy. Comprehension of basic-level details and inferential implications was measured through multiple-choice testing. In Experiment 1, literal or analogical renditions were presented in textual form only. In Experiment 2, text was accompanied by a dynamic video. In Experiment 3, the video and text literal rendition was compared with a text-only analogical rendition. In Experiment 4, subjects read only about a familiar domain. Subjects consistently answered basic-level questions most accurately when concepts were expressed literally, but answered inferential questions most accurately when concepts were expressed analogically. Analysis of individual differences (Experiment 2) indicated that this interaction strongly characterized the conceptual learning of science novices. The results are discussed within the framework of schema induction.

  2. Identifying Solar Analogs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andrew; Preston, Heather L.

    2014-06-01

    Since human beings live on a planet orbiting a G2 V star, to us perhaps the most intrinsically interesting category of stars about which planets have been discovered is solar analogs. While Kepler has observed more than 26000 targets which have effective temperatures within 100K of the Sun, many of these are not true solar analogs due to activity, surface gravity, metallicity, or other considerations. Here we combine ground-based measurements of effective temperature and metallicity with data on rotational periods and surface gravities derived from 16 quarters of Kepler observations to produce a near-complete sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field. We then compare the statistical distribution of stellar physical parameters, including activity level, for subsets of solar analogs consisting of KOIs and those with no detected exoplanets. Finally, we produce a list of potential solar twins in the Kepler field.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  4. Analogy betwen dislocation creep and relativistic cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Montemayor-Aldrete; J.D. Muñoz-Andrade; Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Varela, A.

    2005-01-01

    A formal, physical analogy between plastic deformation, mainly dislocation creep, and Relativistic Cosmology is presented. The physical analogy between eight expressions for dislocation creep and Relativistic Cosmology have been obtained. By comparing the mathematical expressions and by using a physical analysis, two new equations have been obtained for dislocation creep. Also, four new expressions have been obtained for Relativistic Cosmology. From these four new equations, one may determine...

  5. The analogy between stereo depth and brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, A; Stevens, K A

    1989-01-01

    Apparent depth in stereograms exhibits various simultaneous-contrast and induction effects analogous to those reported in the luminance domain. This behavior suggests that stereo depth, like brightness, is reconstructed, ie recovered from higher-order spatial derivatives or differences of the original signal. The extent to which depth is analogous to brightness is examined. There are similarities in terms of contrast effects but dissimilarities in terms of the lateral inhibition effects traditionally attributed to underlying spatial-differentiation operators.

  6. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao-Te; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P T P; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  7. Protein Structure Prediction with Visuospatial Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jim; Glasgow, Janice; Kuo, Tony

    We show that visuospatial representations and reasoning techniques can be used as a similarity metric for analogical protein structure prediction. Our system retrieves pairs of α-helices based on contact map similarity, then transfers and adapts the structure information to an unknown helix pair, showing that similar protein contact maps predict similar 3D protein structure. The success of this method provides support for the notion that changing representations can enable similarity metrics in analogy.

  8. Analog baseband circuits for sensor systems

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is composed of six publications and an overview of the research topic, which also summarizes the work. The research presented in this thesis focuses on research into analog baseband circuits for sensor systems. The research is divided into three different topics: the integration of analog baseband circuits into a radio receiver for sensor applications; the integration of an ΔΣ modulator A/D converter into a GSM/WCDMA radio receiver for mobile phones, and the integration of algorit...

  9. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  10. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  11. Learning Domain Theories via Analogical Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Shive & Weber 1982). In the linear kinematics section of the textbook used for this study ( Giancoli 1991), there are eight worked out examples...is analogous to the dynamics of linear motion” (p. 197, Giancoli 1991). This is common practice in textbooks, and analogies between domains form the...and Worked Solution All problems and worked solutions used in this work were taken from the same physics textbook ( Giancoli 1991). Problems are

  12. Analogical Learning and Automated Rule Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周哈阳

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments of analogical learning and automated rule construction.The present investigation focuses on knowledge acquisition,learning by analyogy,and knowledge retention.The developed system initially learns from scratch,gradually acquires knowledge from its environment through trial-and-error interaction,incrementally augments its knowledge base,and analogically solves new tasks in a more efficient and direct manner.

  13. Are hyperon resonances required in the elementary $K^+\\Lambda$ photoproduction?

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T; 10.1007/s00601-012-0497-9

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the role of hyperon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process, $\\gamma p\\to K^+\\Lambda$, by using a covariant isobar model. To this end, new experimental data are used in the fitting process, whereas the old SAPHIR 1998 data are also used for comparison. The result indicates that the $\\Lambda(1600)P_{01}$ and $\\Lambda(1810)P_{01}$ hyperon resonances can significantly reduce the $\\chi^2$ and, simultaneously, can increase the hadronic form factor cut-off in the background terms. This finding is different from the result of the previous studies, which showed that the $\\Lambda(1800)S_{01}$ was important for this purpose, instead of the $\\Lambda(1600)P_{01}$.

  14. Development of analogical problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O

    1984-12-01

    3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.

  15. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  16. A New Resonance in $K^{+}\\Lambda$ Electroproduction the $D_{13}(1895)$ and its Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Bennhold, C; Mart, T

    1999-01-01

    New SAPHIR p(gamma,K+)Lambda total cross section data show a resonance structure at a total c.m. energy around 1900 MeV. We investigate this feature with an isobar model and find that the structure can be well explained by including a new D_{13} resonance at 1895 MeV. Such a state has been predicted by a relativistic quark model at 1960 MeV with significant gamma-N and K-Lambda branching ratios. We demonstrate how the measurement of single and double polarization observables can be used to obtain additional information on this resonance. Using recent (e,e'K+) JLab data from Hall C we extract the electromagnetic form factors of this state.

  17. Three-Body Nature of N* and Δ* Resonances from Sequential Decay Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A.; Sokhoyan, V.; Gutz, E.; van Pee, H.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Fuchs, M.; Funke, Ch.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Horn, I.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lugert, S.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Metsch, B.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L.; Pfeiffer, M.; Piontek, D.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Shende, S.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Wilson, A.; Cbelsa/Taps Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The N π0π0 decays of positive-parity N* and Δ* resonances at about 2 GeV are studied at ELSA by photoproduction of two neutral pions off protons. The data reveal clear evidence for several intermediate resonances: Δ (1232 ) , N (1520 )3 /2- , and N (1680 )5 /2+ , with spin parities JP=3 /2+ , 3 /2- , and 5 /2+. The partial wave analysis (within the Bonn-Gatchina approach) identifies N (1440 )1 /2+ and the N (π π )S wave (abbreviated as N σ here) as further isobars and assigns the final states to the formation of nucleon and Δ resonances and to nonresonant contributions. We observe the known Δ (1232 )π decays of Δ (1910 )1 /2+ , Δ (1920 )3 /2+, Δ (1905 )5 /2+, Δ (1950 )7 /2+, and of the corresponding spin-parity series in the nucleon sector, N (1880 )1 /2+, N (1900 )3 /2+, N (2000 )5 /2+, and N (1990 )7 /2+ . For the nucleon resonances, these decay modes are reported here for the first time. Further new decay modes proceed via N (1440 )1 /2+π , N (1520 )3 /2-π , N (1680 )5 /2+π , and N σ . The latter decay modes are observed in the decay of N* resonances and at most weakly in Δ* decays. It is argued that these decay modes provide evidence for a 3-quark nature of N* resonances rather than a quark-diquark structure.

  18. Neural underpinnings of divergent production of rules in numerical analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Jung, Rex E; Zhang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    Creativity plays an important role in numerical problem solving. Although the neural underpinnings of creativity have been studied over decades, very little is known about neural mechanisms of the creative process that relates to numerical problem solving. In the present study, we employed a numerical analogical reasoning task with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of divergent production of rules in numerical analogical reasoning. Participants performed two tasks: a multiple solution analogical reasoning task and a single solution analogical reasoning task. Results revealed that divergent production of rules involves significant activations at Brodmann area (BA) 10 in the right middle frontal cortex, BA 40 in the left inferior parietal lobule, and BA 8 in the superior frontal cortex. The results suggest that right BA 10 and left BA 40 are involved in the generation of novel rules, and BA 8 is associated with the inhibition of initial rules in numerical analogical reasoning. The findings shed light on the neural mechanisms of creativity in numerical processing.

  19. Digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    We propose a digital-analog quantum simulation of generalized Dicke models with superconducting circuits, including Fermi- Bose condensates, biased and pulsed Dicke models, for all regimes of light-matter coupling. We encode these classes of problems in a set of superconducting qubits coupled with a bosonic mode implemented by a transmission line resonator. Via digital-analog techniques, an efficient quantum simulation can be performed in state-of-the-art circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms, by suitable decomposition into analog qubit-bosonic blocks and collective single-qubit pulses through digital steps. Moreover, just a single global analog block would be needed during the whole protocol in most of the cases, superimposed with fast periodic pulses to rotate and detune the qubits. Therefore, a large number of digital steps may be attained with this approach, providing a reduced digital error. Additionally, the number of gates per digital step does not grow with the number of qubits, rendering the simulation efficient. This strategy paves the way for the scalable digital-analog quantum simulation of many-body dynamics involving bosonic modes and spin degrees of freedom with superconducting circuits. PMID:28256559

  20. Fabry-Perot resonance of water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Guo, Qiuchen; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-10-01

    We show that significant water wave amplification is obtained in a water resonator consisting of two spatially separated patches of small-amplitude sinusoidal corrugations on an otherwise flat seabed. The corrugations reflect the incident waves according to the so-called Bragg reflection mechanism, and the distance between the two sets controls whether the trapped reflected waves experience constructive or destructive interference within the resonator. The resulting amplification or suppression is enhanced with increasing number of ripples and is most effective for specific resonator lengths and at the Bragg frequency, which is determined by the corrugation period. Our analysis draws on the analogous mechanism that occurs between two partially reflecting mirrors in optics, a phenomenon named after its discoverers Charles Fabry and Alfred Perot.

  1. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  2. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  3. Nonclassical mechanical states in an optomechanical micromaser analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P. D.

    2013-11-01

    Here we show that quantum states of a mechanical oscillator can be generated in an optomechanical analog of the micromaser in the absence of any atomlike subsystem, thus exhibiting single-atom masing effects in a system composed solely of oscillator components. In the regime where the single-photon coupling strength is on the order of the cavity decay rate, a cavity mode with at most a single-excitation present gives rise to sub-Poissonian oscillator limit-cycles that generate quantum features in the steady state just above the renormalized cavity resonance frequency and mechanical sidebands. The merger of multiple stable limit-cycles markedly reduces these nonclassical signatures. Varying the cavity-resonator coupling strength, corresponding to the micromaser pump parameter, reveals transitions for the oscillator phonon number that are the hallmark of a micromaser. The connection to the micromaser allows for a physical understanding of how nonclassical states arise in this system and how best to maximize these signatures for experimental observation.

  4. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  5. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  6. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  7. Isobaric heating and cooling path of the lower crust of a Variscan exotic unit: evidences from P -T estimates in NW Iberian metapelitic granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampi, A.; Gomez Barreiro, J.; Alvarez Valero, A.; Castiñeiras, P.

    2012-12-01

    Allochthonous complexes (AC) in NW Iberia consist of a pile of exotic units characterized by distinct tectonothermal evolution and lithological association, and separated from each other by tectonic contacts, either thrust or extensional detachments. In the Órdenes AC, three groups of units are recognized from bottom to top in the pile: Basal, Ophiolitic and Upper units. Upper units comprise an ensemble of arc-related rocks with a lower section that underwent a high-P and high-T (HP-HT) evolution, and an upper section with an intermediate - pressure (IP) evolution. Extensional detachments have been commonly identifying at the boundary between HP-HT and IP Upper units, like the Fornás and Corredoiras detachments. Pelitic granulites from one IP upper unit, the O Pino unit, have been investigated. Petrologic studies reveal an isobaric tectono-metamorphic crustal evolution throughout a multidisciplinary integration of: (i) detailed microstructural analysis; (ii) EMP mineral chemistry; (iii) mass-balance of the key and representative chemical reactions observed in the microstructures and subsequent interpretation of the reaction sequence; (iv) P-T estimates and paths from phase diagram modeling. Results in the NCKFMASHT system describe an isobaric (c. 7 kbar) continuous heating (and later cooling) evolution ranging from c. 620 to 680 C crossing into the melt-bearing stability fields. These achieved anatectic conditions are evidenced by the presence of both leucosomes (quartz, plagioclase and muscovite) and glass inclusions, mainly in local garnet cores through the dehydration/melting reactions of muscovite first and biotite later. Chemically distinct generations of garnet and plagioclase are evident and stoichiometrically balance each other in continuous reactions. They are consistent with the observations of both a garnet overgrowth and large patches of plagioclase which host euhedral, smaller garnets. In the cooling episode, the newly-grown garnet reacted with melt

  8. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  9. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  10. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  11. Magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Salabert, D

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest results on the solar-stellar connection by studying 18 solar analogs that we identified among the Kepler seismic sample (Salabert et al., 2016a). We measured their magnetic activity properties using observations collected by the Kepler satellite and the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S) magnetic activity proxies of these seismic solar analogs are compared in relation to solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is actually comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs. Furthermore, we report on the discovery of temporal variability in the acoustic frequencies of the young (1 Gyr-old) solar analog KIC10644253 with a modulation of about 1.5 years, which agrees with the derived photospheric activity (Salabert et al., 2016b). It could actually be the signature of the short-period modulation, or quasi-biennal oscillation, of its magnetic activity as observed in the Sun and the 1-Gyr-old solar analog HD30495. In...

  12. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  13. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  14. Controller for Driving a Piezoelectric Actuator at Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu

    2008-01-01

    A digital control system based partly on an extremum-seeking control algorithm tracks the changing resonance frequency of a piezoelectric actuator or an electrically similar electromechanical device that is driven by a sinusoidal excitation signal and is required to be maintained at or near resonance in the presence of uncertain, changing external loads and disturbances. Somewhat more specifically, on the basis of measurements of the performance of the actuator, this system repeatedly estimates the resonance frequency and alters the excitation frequency as needed to keep it at or near the resonance frequency. In the original application for which this controller was developed, the piezoelectric actuator is part of an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer. Going beyond this application, the underlying principles of design and operation are generally applicable to tracking changing resonance frequencies of heavily perturbed harmonic oscillators. Resonance-frequency-tracking analog electronic circuits are commercially available, but are not adequate for the present purpose for several reasons: The input/output characteristics of analog circuits tend to drift, often necessitating recalibration, especially whenever the same controller is used in driving a different resonator. In the case of an actuator in a system that has multiple modes characterized by different resonance frequencies, an analog controller can tune erroneously to one of the higher-frequency modes. The lack of programmability of analog controllers is problematic when faults occur, and is especially problematic for preventing tuning to a higher-frequency mode. In contrast, a digital controller can be programmed to restrict itself to a specified frequency range and to maintain stability even when the affected resonator is driven at high power and subjected to uncertain disturbances and variable loads. The present digital control system (see figure) is implemented by means of an algorithm that comprises three main

  15. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  16. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  17. Value and Limitations of Analogs in Teaching Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.

    Analogical reasoning is frequently used in acquisition of mathematical concepts. Concrete representations used to teach mathematics are essentially analogs of mathematical concepts, and it is argued that analogies enter into mathematical concept acquisition in numerous other ways as well. According to Gentner's theory, analogies entail a…

  18. Analog Forecasting with Dynamics-Adapted Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Analog forecasting is a non-parametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems and kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning. The first improvement is to augment the dimension of the initial data using Takens' delay-coordinate maps to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations. Then, instead of using Euclidean distances between the states, weighted ensembles of analogs are constructed according to similarity kernels in delay-coordinate space, featuring an explicit dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions ...

  19. On Lovelock analogs of the Riemann tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camanho, Xian O. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is possible to define an analog of the Riemann tensor for Nth order Lovelock gravity, its characterizing property being that the trace of its Bianchi derivative yields the corresponding analog of the Einstein tensor. Interestingly there exist two parallel but distinct such analogs and the main purpose of this note is to reconcile both formulations. In addition we will introduce a simple tensor identity and use it to show that any pure Lovelock vacuum in odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions is Lovelock flat, i.e. any vacuum solution of the theory has vanishing Lovelock-Riemann tensor. Further, in the presence of cosmological constant it is the Lovelock-Weyl tensor that vanishes. (orig.)

  20. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known......Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...

  1. Analog Module Placement Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel genetic algorithm for analog module placement based on ageneralization of the two-dimensional bin packing problem. The genetic encoding and operators assure that allproblem constraints are always satisfied. Thus the potential problems of adding penalty terms to the costfunction are eliminated so that the search configuration space is drastically decreased. The dedicated costfunction is based on the special requirements of analog integrated circuits. A fractional factorial experimentwas conducted using an orthogonal array to study the algorithm parameters. A meta GA was applied todetermine the optimal parameter values. The algorithm was tested with several local benchmark circuits. Theexperimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than the simulated annealing approachwith satisfactory results comparable to manual placement. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of thegenetic algorithm in the analog module placement problem. The algorithm has been successfully used in alayout synthesis tool.

  2. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  3. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  4. Words, Concepts, and the Geometry of Analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McGregor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geometric approach to the problem of modelling the relationship between words and concepts, focusing in particular on analogical phenomena in language and cognition. Grounded in recent theories regarding geometric conceptual spaces, we begin with an analysis of existing static distributional semantic models and move on to an exploration of a dynamic approach to using high dimensional spaces of word meaning to project subspaces where analogies can potentially be solved in an online, contextualised way. The crucial element of this analysis is the positioning of statistics in a geometric environment replete with opportunities for interpretation.

  5. Landauer bound for analog computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  6. Fungitoxicity of chemical analogs with heartwood toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, B M; Kunz, B

    1998-07-01

    Trans-stilbene and tropolone as chemical analogs with naturally occurring fungitoxic heartwood compounds were studied with respect to their fungitoxic potency. While stilbene showed no fungitoxic activity towards the fungi Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum, Penicillium glabrum, and Trichoderma harzianum in the concentrations tested, the minimal inhibiting concentration of tropolone was 10(-3) M for Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma harzianum, and 10(-5) M for Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum. In all cases, the effect of tropolone was a fungistatic one. Using chemical analogs for assessing the chemical basis of the fungitoxicity of tropolone, this substance proved to be the only compound tested which possesses fungitoxic properties.

  7. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is tested by designing an integrated active RC filter in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  8. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  9. Analysis of Recurrent Analog Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an original rigorous analysis of recurrent analog neural networks, which are built from opamp neurons, is presented. The analysis, which comes from the approximate model of the operational amplifier, reveals causes of possible non-stable states and enables to determine convergence properties of the network. Results of the analysis are discussed in order to enable development of original robust and fast analog networks. In the analysis, the special attention is turned to the examination of the influence of real circuit elements and of the statistical parameters of processed signals to the parameters of the network.

  10. Discrete analog computing with rotor-routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, James

    2010-09-01

    Rotor-routing is a procedure for routing tokens through a network that can implement certain kinds of computation. These computations are inherently asynchronous (the order in which tokens are routed makes no difference) and distributed (information is spread throughout the system). It is also possible to efficiently check that a computation has been carried out correctly in less time than the computation itself required, provided one has a certificate that can itself be computed by the rotor-router network. Rotor-router networks can be viewed as both discrete analogs of continuous linear systems and deterministic analogs of stochastic processes.

  11. Analog circuit design for communication SOC

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Steve Hung-Lung

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides several state-of-the-art analog circuit design techniques. It presents both empirical and theoretical materials for system-on-a-chip (SOC) circuit design. Fundamental communication concepts are used to explain a variety of topics including data conversion (ADC, DAC, S-? oversampling data converters), clock data recovery, phase-locked loops for system timing synthesis, supply voltage regulation, power amplifier design, and mixer design. This is an excellent reference book for both circuit designers and researchers who are interested in the field of design of analog communic

  12. Implementing neural architectures using analog VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Mary Ann C.; Deweerth, Stephen P.; Mahowald, Misha A.; Mead, Carver A.

    1989-05-01

    Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) technology can be used not only to study and simulate biological systems, but also to emulate them in designing artificial sensory systems. A methodology for building these systems in CMOS VLSI technology has been developed using analog micropower circuit elements that can be hierarchically combined. Using this methodology, experimental VLSI chips of visual and motor subsystems have been designed and fabricated. These chips exhibit behavior similar to that of biological systems, and perform computations useful for artificial sensory systems.

  13. Analogies between a Meniscus and a Cantilever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Systematic and quantitative analyses of exact analogies between a meniscus and an elastica are performed. It is shown that the two governing equations take the same style after coordinate translation and scale transformation. The morphologies of the liquid bridge and the cantilever are calculated in terms of elliptic integrations, which can be reduced to the same shape,after converting the boundary conditions. The present analyses can make us grasp the nature of this physical phenomenon deeply and show some inspiration for designing the analogy experiments. Moreover, the calculated results are helpful to engineering applications, such as design and fabrication of MEMS, and micro-manipulations in micro/nano- technology.

  14. ENHANCING THE SYMBOLIC ANALYSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A new symbollc-method is introduced to enhance the calculation of symbolic expressions of analog circults. First, the analog circuit is transformed to a nullor equivalent circuit. Second, a new method is introduced to the formulation of a compact system of equations (CSES. Third, a new method is introduced to the solution of theCSES, by avoiding multiplications by zero to Improve the evaluation of determlnants. Flnally, two eXamples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods to calculate fully symbolic transfer functions.

  15. An Optical Analog of a Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Royston, A; Royston, Andrew; Gass, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Using media with extremely low group velocities one can create an optical analog of a curved space-time. Leonhardt and Piwnicki have proposed that a vortex flow will act as an optical black hole. We show that although the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow has an orbit of no return and an infinite red-shift surface, it is not a true black hole since it lacks a null hypersurface. However a radial flow will produce a true optical black hole that has a Hawking temperature and obeys the first law of black hole mechanics. By combining the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow with a radial flow we obtain the analog of the Kerr black hole.

  16. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1975-01-01

    HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum...... and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test program. Patch instructions are printed by HAPS. The article describes the principles of HAPS...

  17. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  18. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog filte

  19. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Patent and Constricted Ductus Arteriosus Tissues Confirms the Systemic Regulation of Ductus Arteriosus Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haifa; Ye, Lincai; Chen, Huiwen; Xia, Yu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Jinfen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate global changes in protein expression associated with patency by undertaking proteomic analysis of human constricted and patent ductus arteriosus (DA). Ten constricted and 10 patent human DAs were excised from infants with ductal-dependent heart disease during surgery. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomics, 132 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of 132 proteins, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.3 (SCN3A), myosin 1d (Myo1d), Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26), and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) were selected for validation by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Significant upregulation of SCN3A, Myo1d, and RP1 messenger RNA, and protein levels was observed in the patent DA group (all P ≤ 0.048). ARHGAP26 messenger RNA and protein levels were decreased in patent DA tissue (both P ≤ 0.018). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Myo1d, ARHGAP26, and RP1 were specifically expressed in the subendothelial region of constricted DAs; however, diffuse expression of these proteins was noted in the patent group. Proteomic analysis revealed global changes in the expression of proteins that regulate oxygen sensing, ion channels, smooth muscle cell migration, nervous system, immune system, and metabolism, suggesting a basis for the systemic regulation of DA patency by diverse signaling pathways, which will be confirmed in further studies.

  20. Applying partial correlation method to analyzing the correlation between ionospheric NmF2 and height of isobaric level in the lower atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a multiple linear regression model performed for ionospheric NmF2, partial correlation method is first applied to investigating the relation between NmF2 and h (the height of isobaric level) in the lower atmosphere over Wuhan, China during 1957―2004. The results show that partial correlation method can eliminate the influences of solar and geomagnetic activities as well as the seasonal variation factors and reveal the true correlation between NmF2 and h in the lower atmosphere. A weak positive correlation between NmF2 and h is found in the middle stratosphere. In addition, by comparing the partial correlation coefficients between NmF2 and its influence factors, we find that NmF2 is mainly affected by solar activity and the seasonal variation factors, and weakly affected by geomagnetic activity, but hardly affected by h in the lower atmosphere. The study suggests that partial correlation method is a helpful tool for investigating the correlation between ionospheric parameter and its influence factors.

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum from pregnant women carrying a fetus with conotruncal heart defect using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD fetus, using proteomic analysis.The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14-18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

  2. Study of resonant reactions with radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Galindo-Uribarri, A; Chavez, E; Gomez-Del Campo, J; Gross, C J; Huerta, A; Liang, J F; Ortiz, M E; Padilla, E; Pascual, S; Paul, S D; Shapira, D; Stracener, D W; Varner, R L

    2000-01-01

    A fast and efficient method to study (p,p) and (p,alpha) resonances with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is described. It is based on the use of thick targets and large area double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) to detect the recoiling light-charged particles and to determine precisely their scattering angle. The first nuclear physics experiments with the technique have been performed recently at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge with stable beams of sup 1 sup 7 O and radioactive beams of sup 1 sup 7 F. The high-quality resonance measurements obtained demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Pure sup 1 sup 7 F beams from HRIBF were produced by fully stripping the ions and separating the interfering and more abundant sup 1 sup 7 O ions by the beam transport system. The removal of interfering isobars is one of the various common challenges to both accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production. Experiments done with RIBs will ben...

  3. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losby, Joseph; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Grandmont, Dylan T.; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob A.; Compton, Shawn R.; Hiebert, Wayne K.; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory E.; Thomson, Douglas J.; Freeman, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    An optomechanical platform for magnetic resonance spectroscopy will be presented. The method relies on frequency mixing of orthogonal RF fields to yield a torque amplitude (arising from the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment, in analogy to magnetic resonance detection by electromagnetic induction) on a miniaturized resonant mechanical torsion sensor. In contrast to induction, the method is fully broadband and allows for simultaneous observation of the equilibrium net magnetic moment alongside the associated magnetization dynamics. To illustrate the method, comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a mesoscopic, single-crystal YIG disk at room temperature will be presented, along with situations where torque spectroscopy can offer complimentary information to existing magnetic resonance detection techniques. The authors are very grateful for support from NSERC, CRC, AITF, and NINT. Reference: Science 350, 798 (2015).

  4. Analogies and Reconstruction of Mathematical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gerald R.

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of utilizing analogies to effect conceptual change in mathematics. Forty-one high school seniors participated in a knowledge reconstruction process regarding their beliefs about everyday probability situations such as sports events or lotteries. These mathematics students were given…

  5. Analogy and mathematical reasoning : a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C. D. F.

    1983-01-01

    We survey the literature of Artificial Intelligence, and other related work, pertaining to the modelling of mathematical reasoning and its relationship with the use of analogy. In particular, we discuss the contribution of Lenat's program AM to models of mathematical discovery and concept-formation. We consider the use of similarity measures to structure a knowledge space and their role in concept acquisition.

  6. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  7. An iconic, analogical approach to grammaticalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.; Conradie, C.J.; Johl, R.; Beukes, M.; Fischer, O.; Ljungberg, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of problems connected with the ‘apparatus’ used in grammaticalization theory. It will be argued that we get a better grip on what happens in processes of grammaticalization (and its ‘opposite’, lexicalization) if the process is viewed in terms of analogical processes, w

  8. Generating Analog IC Layouts with LAYGEN II

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo M F; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for the automatic generation of analog integrated circuits (ICs) layout, based on template descriptions and on evolutionary computational techniques. A design automation tool, LAYGEN II, was implemented to validate the proposed approach giving special emphasis to reusability of expert design knowledge and to efficiency on retargeting operations.

  9. CMOS circuits for analog signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Design choices in CMOS analog signal processing circuits are presented. Special attention is focussed on continuous-time filter technologies. The basics of MOSFET-C continuous-time filters and CMOS Square Law Circuits are explained at the hand of a graphical MOST characteristics representation.

  10. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  11. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  12. C4913 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course C4913 Analog and Digital Filters...

  13. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  14. Analog of Superradiance effect in BEC

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, S

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of phase oscillation of Bose-Einstein Condensate by a 'draining of bathtub' type fluid motion. We derive a relation between the reflection and transmission coefficients which exhibits existence of analog of 'Superradiance effect' in BEC vortex with sink.

  15. Classical Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Alzar, C L G; Nussenzveig, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a classical analog for Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). In a system of just two coupled harmonic oscillators subject to a harmonic driving force we can reproduce the phenomenology observed in EIT. We describe a simple experiment performed with two linearly coupled RLC circuits which can be taught in an undergraduate laboratory class.

  16. Analogy between thermal convective and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdmanis, Ya.Ya.; Kukainis, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of the analogy between thermo-convective instability and instability produced by various electromagnetic forces both in steady and alternating thermal and electromagnetic fields. An example is given for calculating an assumed bubble instability which could occur in an alternating magnetic field. 17 references.

  17. Online characterization of isomeric/isobaric components in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke by tunable synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and photoionization efficiency curve simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Jian; Ye, Lili; Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2013-12-17

    A newly developed, qualitative and quantitative method based on tunable synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SR-VUV-PI-TOFMS) and photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve simulation was applied for the online analysis of isomers and isobaric compounds in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. After blocking the particulate phase components by the Cambridge filter pad, a puff of fresh gas-phase cigarette smoke was immediately introduced into a vacuum ionization chamber through a heated capillary, then was photoionized, and analyzed by a TOF mass spectrometer. The PIE curves for the mass peaks up to m/z = 106 were measured between 8.0 and 10.7 eV. Some components could be directly identified by their discriminated ionization energies (IEs) on the PIE curve. By simulating the PIE curve with the sum of scaled absolute photoionization cross sections (PICSs), complex isomeric/isobaric compounds along with their mole fractions could be obtained when the best-fitting was realized between experimental and simulated PIE curves. A series of reported toxic compounds for quantification, such as 1,3-butadiene (m/z = 54), 1,3-cyclopentadiene (m/z = 66), benzene (m/z = 78), xylene (m/z = 106), 2-propenal (m/z = 56), acetone and propanal (m/z = 58), crotonaldehyde (m/z = 70), furan and isoprene (m/z = 68), were all found to have other isomers and/or isobaric compounds with considerable abundances. Some isomers have never been reported previously in cigarette smoke, like C5H6 isomers 1-penten-3-yne, 3-penten-1-yne, and 1-penten-4-yne at m/z = 66. Isomeric/isobaric compounds characterization for the mass peaks and mole fraction calculations were discussed in detail below 10.7 eV, an energy value covering several conventional used VUV light sources.

  18. Modeling of the non isothermal and non isobaric transformations kinetics. Application to the kaolinite de-hydroxylation and to the tri-uranium octo-oxide reduction by hydrogen; Modelisation de la cinetique de transformations non isothermes et (ou) non isobares. Application a la deshydroxylation de la kaolinite et a la reduction de l'octooxyde de triuranium par l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, St

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work is to be able to describe transformations, occurring when solids and gases are in non isothermal and non isobaric conditions, with kinetic models. A methodology has been used. Two essential processes have to be taken into account: the germination and the growth. The germs are supposed to be formed (at constant temperature and pressure) in the grains surface with a constant velocity by surface unit, (gamma), called germination surface frequency (number of germs.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The growth velocity is characterized by a growth surface reactivity, (phi) (in mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}). With an appropriate transformation model, it is possible to obtain the variations of (gamma) and (phi) in terms of the temperature and pressure which are then used in the calculation of the velocity in non isothermal and non isobaric conditions. In order to validate the developed method, two reactions have been studied. For the first one, the kaolinite de-hydroxylation, an anisotropic germination-growth model, where the step limiting the growth is a diffusion step, has been developed in order to explain the experimental kinetic curves. Nevertheless the velocity curves calculated from this model do not allow to describe the reaction for some temperature variations. This result shows the difficulty to precisely determine the germination surface frequency what induces an important approximation on the kinetic curves. The second reaction is the tri-uranium octo-oxide reduction by hydrogen. It has been shown that this reaction occurs according to three successive transformations. A kinetic model has been developed for each of these reactions considering germination as instantaneous. At last, in comparing this model with the experimental velocity curves, a very good agreement has been verified as well as for a temperature variation than for a hydrogen partial pressure change during the reaction. (O.M.)

  19. Photoproduction of \\eta mesons on protons in the resonance region:the background problem and the third S_11 resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Tryasuchev, V A

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed an isobar model for the $\\eta$-photoproduction on the proton in the energy region up to the photon lab energy $K_0 = 3$ GeV. The data base involved into the fitting procedure includes precise results for the cross section and for the $T$-asymmetry of the process $\\gamma p\\to\\eta p$ near threshold obtained at MAMI and ELSA as well as recent results for the $\\Sigma$-asymmetry and for the angular distribution measured at higher energies in Grenoble and also more late measurements performed at JLab for the photon energies up to 2 GeV. The model includes twelve nucleon resonances: $S_{11}(1535)$, $S_{11}(1650) $, $S_{11}(1825)$, $P_{11}(1440)$,$P_{13}(1720)$, $D_{13}(1520)$, $D_ {15}(1675)$, $F_{15}(1680)$, $F_{17}(1990)$,$G_{17}(2190)$, $G_{19} (2250)$, $H_{19}(2220)$, and the background consisting of the nucleon pole term and the vector meson exchange in the $t$-channel. To explain the observed energy dependence of the integrated cross section, two $s$ -wave resonances, $S_{11}(1650)$ and $S_...

  20. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  1. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  2. Resonance and Neck Length for a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Corning

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neck length of a spherical resonator and its period of fundamental resonance was investigated. This was done by measuring the frequency of fundamental resonance of the resonator at 6 different neck lengths. It was found that its resonance resembled Helmholtz resonance but was not that of ideal Helmholtz resonance.

  3. Study of the interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of biphenyldicarboxylate by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Yin, Yujing [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Afficiated Hospiatal of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Xie, Yuanzhe; Ge, Baoyu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhen; Shi, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of Biphenyldicarboxylate was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet–vis absorbance, resonance light-scattering spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra at pH 7.40. The quenching mechanism and binding constants were determined by the quenching of bovine hemoglobin fluorescence in presence of analogs. Results showed that the nature of the quenching was of static type. Both the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding played a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance between donor and acceptors was obtained to be 2.11–2.25 nm according to Förster's theory. The influence of analogs on the conformation of bovine hemoglobin was investigated. -- Highlights: • The interactions between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of DDB have been investigated. • Results reveal that DDB has the strongest affinity for hemoglobin among four compounds. • The van der Waals and hydrogen bonding play major role in the binding process. • The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects has been investigated.

  4. Integral resonator gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  5. Feedback control of acoustic musical instruments: collocated control using physical analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Edgar; Smith, Julius O; Niemeyer, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the average professional musician has owned numerous acoustic musical instruments, many of them having distinctive acoustic qualities. However, a modern musician could prefer to have a single musical instrument whose acoustics are programmable by feedback control, where acoustic variables are estimated from sensor measurements in real time and then fed back in order to influence the controlled variables. In this paper, theory is presented that describes stable feedback control of an acoustic musical instrument. The presentation should be accessible to members of the musical acoustics community who may have limited or no experience with feedback control. First, the only control strategy guaranteed to be stable subject to any musical instrument mobility is described: the sensors and actuators must be collocated, and the controller must emulate a physical analog system. Next, the most fundamental feedback controllers and the corresponding physical analog systems are presented. The effects that these controllers have on acoustic musical instruments are described. Finally, practical design challenges are discussed. A proof explains why changing the resonance frequency of a musical resonance requires much more control power than changing the decay time of the resonance.

  6. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  7. Equation of state of a dense plasma by orbital-free and quantum molecular dynamics: examination of two isothermal-isobaric mixing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, J-F; Kazandjian, L

    2015-01-01

    We test two isothermal-isobaric mixing rules, respectively based on excess-pressure and total-pressure equilibration, applied to the equation of state of a dense plasma. While the equation of state is generally known for pure species, that of arbitrary mixtures is not available so that the validation of accurate mixing rules, that implies resorting to first-principles simulations, is very useful. Here we consider the case of a plastic with composition C(2)H(3) and we implement two complementary ab initio approaches adapted to the dense plasma domain: quantum molecular dynamics, limited to low temperature by its computational cost, and orbital-free molecular dynamics, that can be implemented at high temperature. The temperature and density range considered is 1-10 eV and 0.6-10 g/cm(3) for quantum molecular dynamics, and 5-1000 eV and 1-10 g/cm(3) for orbital-free molecular dynamics. Simulations for the full C(2)H(3) mixture are the benchmark against which to assess the mixing rules, and both pressure and internal energy are compared. We find that the mixing rule based on excess-pressure equilibration is overall more accurate than that based on total-pressure equilibration; except for quantum molecular dynamics and a thermodynamic domain characterized by very low or negative excess pressures, it gives pressures which are generally within statistical error or within 1% of the exact ones. Besides, its superiority is amplified in the calculation of a principal Hugoniot.

  8. A Novel Function for Arabidopsis CYCLASE1 in Programmed Cell Death Revealed by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah J; Kroon, Johan T M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R; Chivasa, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death is essential for plant development and stress adaptation. A detailed understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate plant programmed cell death requires identification of the underpinning protein networks. Here, we have used a protagonist and antagonist of programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin B1 as probes to identify key cell death regulatory proteins in Arabidopsis. Our hypothesis was that changes in the abundance of cell death-regulatory proteins induced by the protagonist should be blocked or attenuated by concurrent treatment with the antagonist. We focused on proteins present in the mobile phase of the extracellular matrix on the basis that they are important for cell-cell communications during growth and stress-adaptive responses. Salicylic acid, a plant hormone that promotes programmed cell death, and exogenous ATP, which can block fumonisin B1-induced cell death, were used to treat Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures prior to isobaric-tagged relative and absolute quantitation analysis of secreted proteins. A total of 33 proteins, whose response to salicylic acid was suppressed by ATP, were identified as putative cell death-regulatory proteins. Among these was CYCLASE1, which was selected for further analysis using reverse genetics. Plants in which CYCLASE1 gene expression was knocked out by insertion of a transfer-DNA sequence manifested dramatically increased cell death when exposed to fumonisin B1 or a bacterial pathogen that triggers the defensive hypersensitive cell death. Although pathogen inoculation altered CYCLASE1 gene expression, multiplication of bacterial pathogens was indistinguishable between wild type and CYCLASE1 knockout plants. However, remarkably severe chlorosis symptoms developed on gene knockout plants in response to inoculation with either a virulent bacterial pathogen or a disabled mutant that is incapable of causing disease in wild type plants. These results show that CYCLASE1, which

  9. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture.

  10. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  11. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible.

  12. A new program on digitizing analog seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maofa; Jiang, Qigang; Liu, Qingjie; Huang, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Historical seismograms contain a great variety of useful information which can be used in the study of earthquakes. It is necessary for researchers to digitize analog records and extract the information just as modern computing analysis requires. Firstly, an algorithm based on color scene filed method is presented in order to digitize analog seismograms. Secondly, an interactive software program using C# has been developed to digitize seismogram traces from raster files quickly and accurately. The program can deal with gray-scale images stored in a suitable file format and it offers two different methods: manual digitization and automatic digitization. The test result of the program shows that the methods presented in this paper can lead to good performance.

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of Desmethyl Azumamide Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex

    the azumamide analogs; however, removal of the methyl group had a significant impact relative to the natural products. To understand this effect, the NMR structure was solved with the assistance from Casper Hoeck and Charlotte H. Gotfredsen and docked conformations were obtained from Niels J. Christensen...... and Peter Fristrup. Compared to the natural compounds, the 3Dstructure of the scaffold in the azumamide analogs were similar. Although a conclusion was not found, the preliminary docking results indicated favorable lipophilic interaction with the methyl group in the azumamides. Largazole is another...... macrocylic natural product with HDAC inhibitory activity. The compound has a thioester functionality in the side chain, which is hydrolyzed before interaction with the enzymes. In the attempt to mimic the prodrug nature of largazole, compounds containing a thiol group were designed, as it was hypothesized...

  14. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Interference Alignment with Analog Channel State Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Ayach, Omar El

    2010-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) is a multiplexing gain optimal transmission strategy for the interference channel with an arbitrary number of users. While the achieved sum rate with IA is much higher than previously thought possible, the improvement comes at the cost of requiring network channel state information at the transmitters. This can be achieved by explicit feedback, a flexible yet costly approach that incurs large overhead and limits throughput. We propose using analog feedback as an alternative to limited feedback or reciprocity based alignment. We show that the full multiplexing gain observed with perfect channel knowledge is preserved by analog feedback and the mean loss in sum rate is bounded by a constant when signal-to-noise ratio is comparable in both forward and feedback channels. When such feedback quality is not quite possible, a fraction of the degrees of freedom is achieved. We consider the overhead of training and feedback and use this framework to optimize the system's effective throughput...

  16. Quantum Electric Circuits Analogous to Ballistic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The conductance steps in a constricted two-dimensional electron gas and the minimum conductivity in graphene are related to a new uncertainty relation between electric charge and conductance in a quantized electric circuit that mimics the electric transport in mesoscopic systems. This uncertainty relation makes specific use of the discreteness of electric charge. Quantum electric circuits analogous to both constricted two-dimensional electron gas and graphene are introduced. In the latter cas...

  17. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  18. Analog of landau Levels to Electric Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, L R; Nascimento, J R; Furtado, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss the analogy between the dynamics of a neutral particle with an electric dipole, in the presence of configuration of magnetic field, with Landau level quantization for charged particle. We analyze this quantization based on the He-Mckelar-Wilkens interaction developed of similar way that Ericsson and Sj\\"oqvist[Phys Rev. A {\\bf 65} 013607 (2001)] was analyzed the Landau-Aharonov-Casher effect. The energy level and eingenfuctions and eigenvalues are obtained.

  19. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mihali, Troco K; Moffitt, Michelle C.; Neilan, Brett A.; Maria Wiese; D’Agostino, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes) and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes), which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified...

  20. Analog-digital codesign using coarse quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkeler, Andre Bernardus Joseph

    With regards to electronic systems, two important trends can be observed. The first trend is generally known as Moore's law: the digital processing capacity per chip is increasing a factor two every 18 months. Another part of the first trend is that the performance increase of integrated linear or analog processing is slow, a factor two every 4.7 years. The second trend is that the rate of data exchange between electronic systems is increasing rapidly. Because of these high data rates especially the design of data converters from analog to digital (ADCs) is demanding. For a specific set of applications, the requirements for the ADC can be relaxed by reducing the resolution of the conversion from analog to digital. Within these specific applications, signal characteristics rather than instantaneous values of the signal are determined. Reducing the resolution to an extreme extend is called 'coarse quantization'. The design of mixed signal systems is guided by a Y-chart design methodology. Analog-Digital Codesign, guided by the Y-chart approach, leads to mixed-signal systems with reduced costs compared to systems designed with the traditional methodology. The Y-chart approach also enables the use of coarse quantization as an additional design parameter to further reduce costs. This is illustrated by two case studies. The first case study concentrates on the design of a digital predistorter for Power Amplifiers (PAs) in telecommunication transmitters. In the second case study, we reconsider the design of a part of a Radio Telescope, used for Radio Astronomy. This part is called the Tied Array Adder and it sums signals from different telescopes. Both case studies show that coarse quantization can lead to mixed-signal systems with lower costs but system parameters will change. The explicit reconsideration of functional specifications, facilitated by the Y-chart approach, is therefore essential for the introduction of coarse quantization.

  1. HOW TO USE ANALOGIES FOR BREAKTHROUGH INNOVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CORNELIUS HERSTATT; KATHARINA KALOGERAKIS

    2005-01-01

    Analogies can trigger breakthrough ideas in new product development. Numerous examples demonstrate that substantial innovations often result from transferring problem solutions from one industry or domain to another. For instance, the designers of the new running show generation of Nike, "Nike SHOX", use the same suspension concept like the technologies applied for formula 1 racing cars, or the biological Lotus-effect leading to the evelopment of various self-cleaning surfaces. Academic resea...

  2. How to use analogies for breakthrough innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Schild, Katharina; Herstatt, Cornelius; Lüthje, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Analogies can trigger breakthrough ideas in new product development. Numerous examples demonstrate that substantial innovations often result from transferring problem solutions from one industry or domain to another. For instance, the designers of the new running shoe generation of Nike, “Nike SHOX”, use the same suspension concept like the technologies applied for Formula 1 racing cars, or the biological Lotus-effect led to the development of various self-cleaning surfaces. Academic resea...

  3. Transition State Analog Inhibitors for Esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-02

    Propanones." SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL SUPPORTED BY THIS PROJECT AND DEGREES AWARDED DURING THIS REPORTING PERIOD Dr. Alan Dafforn Dr. Antoon Brouwer Dr. John P...294, Raven Press, New York. 11. Hansch, C. and Leo , A., (1979) "Substituent Constants for Correlation Analysis in Chemistry and Biology," pp. 69-70...BORONIC ACIDS AS 1INSITION STATE ANALOG INHIBITORS OF ACTYLCHOLINESTERASE by Alan Dafforn and Antoon C. Brouwer Department of Chemistry Bowling Green

  4. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  5. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2003-10-01

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (∂ px/∂ x) T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this leads to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed.

  6. Using Analogs for Chemistry Problem Solving: Does It Increase Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Arthur W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the effectiveness of using analogies in chemistry instruction. Students' mathematics anxiety, spatial visualization skill, and proportional reasoning ability were found to be important aptitudes for determining chemistry achievement. The relationship between analogs and algorithms is described. (KR)

  7. Creative Analogy Use in a Heterogeneous Design Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    the design dialogue derived from team members with highly disparate educational backgrounds. Our analyses revealed that analogies that matched (versus mismatched) educational backgrounds were generated and revisited more frequently, presumably because they were more accessible. Matching analogies were also...

  8. Detection of plutonium isotopes at lowest quantities using in-source resonance ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S; Hakimi, A; Stöbener, N; Trautmann, N; Wendt, K

    2012-11-01

    The in-source resonance ionization mass spectrometry technique was applied for quantification of ultratrace amounts of plutonium isotopes as a proof of principle study. In addition to an overall detection limit of 10(4) to 10(5) atoms, this method enables the unambiguous identification and individual quantification of the plutonium isotopes (238)Pu and (241)Pu which are of relevance for dating of radiogenic samples. Due to the element-selective ionization process, these isotopes can be measured even under a high surplus of isobaric contaminations from (238)U or (241)Am, which considerably simplifies chemical preparation. The technique was developed, tested, and characterized on a variety of synthetic and calibration samples and is presently applied to analyze environmental samples.

  9. A Reasoning System using Inductive Inference of Analogical Union

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Tetsuhiro

    1988-01-01

    Analogical reasoning derives a new fact based on the analogous facts previously known. Inductive inference is a process of gaining a general rule from examples. We propose a new reasoning system using inductive inference and analogical reasoning. which is applicable to intellectual information processing and we characterize its power. Given an enumeration of paired examples. this system inductively infers a program representing the paring and constructs an analogical union. It reasons by anal...

  10. Spin coupling and resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The resonating block localize wave function (RBLW) method is introduced, a resonating modification of the block localized wave functions introduced by Mo et al. [Mo, Y.; Peyerimhoff, S. D. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 109, 1687].This approach allows the evaluation of resonance energies following Pauling’s r

  11. Controlling Parametric Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2012-01-01

    Parametric resonance is a resonant phenomenon which takes place in systems characterized by periodic variations of some parameters. While seen as a threatening condition, whose onset can drive a system into instability, this chapter advocates that parametric resonance may become an advantage if t...

  12. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  13. The Role of Causal Models in Analogical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Computational models of analogy have assumed that the strength of an inductive inference about the target is based directly on similarity of the analogs and in particular on shared higher order relations. In contrast, work in philosophy of science suggests that analogical inference is also guided by causal models of the source and target. In 3…

  14. Analogy Use in Eighth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Holyoak, Keith J.; Stigler, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has long been believed to play a central role in mathematics learning and problem solving (see Genter, Holyoak, & Kokinov, 2001); however, little is known about how analogy is used in everyday instructional contexts. This article examines analogies produced in naturally occurring U.S. mathematics lessons to explore…

  15. Analogical Instruction in Statistics: Implications for Social Work Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of analogies in statistics instruction. Much has been written about the difficulty social work students have with statistics. To address this concern, Glisson and Fischer (1987) called for the use of analogies. Understanding of analogical problem solving has surged in the last few decades with the integration of…

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-05

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself.

  17. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  18. Investigating and Theorizing Discourse during Analogy Writing in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of the role of analogies in learning science at a cognitive level are made in terms of creating bridges between new information and students' prior knowledge. In this empirical study of learning with analogies in an 11th grade chemistry class, we explore an alternative explanation at the "social" level where analogy shapes…

  19. Planar Reflective Phaser and Synthesis for Radio Analog Signal Processing (R-ASP)

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Lianfeng; Caloz, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A planar reflective phaser based on an open-ended edge-coupled-line structure is proposed. This phaser is the first reported phaser that combines the benefits of high resolution, inherent to cross-coupled resonator reflective phasers, and of compactness, inherent to planar circuits. A 4-ns swing 4.9-5.5 GHz quadratic phase (linear group delay) 4th-order microstrip phaser is synthesized and experimentally demonstrated. Given its advantages, this phaser may find vast applications in Radio Analog Signal Processing (R-ASP) systems.

  20. Electromagnetic scattering by spherical negative-refractive-index particles: Low-frequency resonance and localization parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Lin, Zhifang; Chui, S T

    2004-01-01

    The Mie scattering of electromagnetic waves of wave vector k by spherical negative-refractive-index particles of radius a exhibits an unusual resonance at ka-->0. The scattering enhancement from the ka-->0 resonance is insensitive to the size of scatterers, distinct from the Mie scattering resonances from positive-refractive-index particles. For media consisting of a collection of the negative-refractive-index particles, the unusual resonance results in a significant reduction of the localization parameter, providing a possibility to reach the light localization transition by reducing the wave vector k, in analogy to electronic systems.

  1. Baryon resonances in the mean field approach and a simple explanation of the Theta+ pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    We suggest to classify baryon resonances as single-quark states in a mean field, and/or as its collective excitations. Identifying the Roper resonance N(1440), the nucleon resonance N(1535), and the singlet hyperon Lambda(1405) as single-quark excitations, we find that there must be an exotic S=+1 baryon resonance Theta+ (the "pentaquark") with a mass about 1440+1535-1405=1570 MeV and spin-parity one-half-plus. We argue that Theta+ is an analog of the Gamov--Teller excitation long known in nuclear physics.

  2. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  3. Nonlinearly Coupled Superconducting Lumped Element Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodo, Michele C.; Potočnik, Anton; Rubio Abadal, Antonio; Mondal, Mintu; Oppliger, Markus; Wallraff, Andreas

    We study SQUID-mediated tunable coupling between two superconducting on-chip resonators in the microwave frequency range. In this circuit QED implementation, we employ lumped-element type resonators, which consist of Nb thin film structured into interdigitated finger shunt capacitors and meander inductors. A SQUID, functioning as flux dependent and intrinsically nonlinear inductor, is placed as a coupling element together with an interdigitated capacitor between the two resonators (cf. A. Baust et al., Phys Rev. B 91 014515 (2015)). We perform a spectroscopic measurement in a dilution refrigerator and find the linear photon hopping rate between the resonators to be widely tunable as well as suppressible for an appropriate choice of parameters, which is made possible due to the interplay of inductively and capacitively mediated coupling. Vanishing linear coupling promotes nonlinear effects ranging from onsite- to cross-Kerr interaction. A dominating cross-Kerr interaction related to this configuration is notable, as it induces a unique quantum state. In the course of analog quantum simulations, such elementary building blocks can serve as a precursor for more complex geometries and thus pave the way to a number of novel quantum phases of light

  4. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  5. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference.

  6. SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) at NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley was founded in 2013 to act as a virtual institute that provides interdisciplinary research centered on the goals of its supporting directorates: NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).Primary research goals of the Institute revolve around the integration of science and exploration to gain knowledge required for the future of human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI intends to leverage existing JSC1A regolith simulant resources into the creation of a regolith simulant testbed facility. The purpose of this testbed concept is to provide the planetary exploration community with a readily available capability to test hardware and conduct research in a large simulant environment.SSERVI's goals include supporting planetary researchers within NASA, other government agencies; private sector and hardware developers; competitors in focused prize design competitions; and academic sector researchers.SSERVI provides opportunities for research scientists and engineers to study the effects of regolith analog testbed research in the planetary exploration field. This capability is essential to help to understand the basic effects of continued long-term exposure to a simulated analog test environment.The current facility houses approximately eight tons of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant in a test bin consisting of a 4 meter by 4 meter area, including dust mitigation and safety oversight.Facility hardware and environment testing scenarios could include, Lunar surface mobility, Dust exposure and mitigation, Regolith handling and excavation, Solar-like illumination, Lunar surface compaction profile, Lofted dust, Mechanical properties of lunar regolith, Surface features (i.e. grades and rocks)Numerous benefits vary from easy access to a controlled analog regolith simulant testbed, and

  7. Micromechanical resonator array for an implantable bionic ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Mark; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Xu, Tao; Li, G-P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on a multi-resonant transducer that may be used to replace a traditional speech processor in cochlear implant applications. The transducer, made from an array of micro-machined polymer resonators, is capable of passively splitting sound into its frequency sub-bands without the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital processing. Since all bands are mechanically filtered in parallel, there is low latency in the output signals. The simplicity of the device, high channel capability, low power requirements, and small form factor (less than 1 cm) make it a good candidate for a completely implantable bionic ear device.

  8. Integrated Analogic Filter Tuning System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of integrated analog filters can vary due to temperatu-re change, IC process variation and therefore they should have dedicated tuning circuits that compensate these imperfections. A method is proposed that speeds up switched resistor bank design while taking into account the required tuning range and step size. A novel counter structure is used in the tuning circuit that is ba-sed on successive approximation approach. The proposed swit-ched resistor design method and tuning circuit are designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology and verified. Results are compared to existing tuning circuit designs.

  9. Reconfiguration of Analog Electronics for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Guo, Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of adaptive reconfiguration as a technique to expand the operational envelope of analog electronics for extreme environments (EE). On a reconfigurable device, although component parameters change in EE, as long as devices still operate, albeit degraded, a new circuit design, suitable for new parameter values, may be mapped into the reconfigurable structure to recover the initial circuit function. Laboratory demonstrations of this technique were performed by JPL in several independent experiments in which bulk CMOS reconfgurable devices were exposed to, and degraded by, high temperatures (approx.300 C) or radiation (300kRad TID), and then recovered by adaptive reconfiguration using evolutionary search algorithms.

  10. An Analog VLSI Saccadic Eye Movement System

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to understand saccadic eye movements and their relation to visual attention and other forms of eye movements, we - in collaboration with a number of other laboratories - are carrying out a large-scale effort to design and build a complete primate oculomotor system using analog CMOS VLSI technology. Using this technology, a low power, compact, multi-chip system has been built which works in real-time using real-world visual inputs. We describe in this paper the performance of a...

  11. Microstore: the Stanford analog memory unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.T.; Chae, S.I.; Shapiro, S.; Larsen, R.S.

    1984-11-01

    An NMOS device has been developed which provides high speed analog signal storage and readout for time expansion of transient signals. This device takes advantage of HMOS-1 VLSI technology to implement an array of 256 storage cells. Sequential samples of an input waveform can be taken every 5 ns while providing an effective sampling aperture time of less than 1 ns. The design signal-to-noise ratio is 1 part in 2000. Digital control circuitry is provided on the chip for controlling the read-in and read-out processes. A reference circuit is incorporated in the chip for first order compensation of leakage drifts, sampling pedestals, and temperature effects.

  12. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...... by employing a feedback loop. The gate oxide will not be subject to voltages exceeding the supply voltage difference.Realistic switches have been simulated with HSPICE. The simulations show that the switch circuits operate very well, even when the supply voltage approaches the technology's threshold voltage....

  13. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose......-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, BXL-01-126, in vitro. A xenograft model of AML was developed using U937 AML cells injected into NSG-immunodeficient mice. Administration of vitamin D3 compounds to these mice resulted in substantial levels of CAMP...

  14. An optical analog of quantum optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Lara, B M

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional array of nearest-neighbor coupled waveguides that is the optical analog of a quantum optomechanical system. We show that the quantum model predicts the appearance of effective column isolation, diagonal-coupling and other non-trivial couplings in the two-dimensional photonic lattice under a standard approximation from ion-trap cavity electrodynamics. We provide an approximate impulse function for the case of effective column isolation and compare it with exact numerical propagation in the photonic lattice.

  15. Analogic China map constructed by DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Lulu; HE Lin; WANG Ying; ZHANG Zhao; ZHAO Jian; PAN Dun; ZHANG Yi; LIU Qiang; FAN Chunhai; HU Jun

    2006-01-01

    In this research, a nanoscale DNA structure of analogic China map is created. The nanostructure of roughly 150 nm in diameter with a spatial resolution of 6 nm is purely constructed by folding DNA. The picture observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is almost identical with the designed shape. The DNA origami technology invented by Rothemund in 2006 is employed in the construction of this shape, which has proved the capability of constructing almost any complicated shape enabled by DNA origami, and provides new bottom-up method for constructing nanostructures.

  16. Analogies as categorization phenomena: Studies from scientific discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie Jill

    Studies on the role of analogies in science classrooms have tended to focus on analogies that come from the teacher or curriculum, and not the analogies that students generate. Such studies are derivative of an educational system that values content knowledge over scientific creativity, and derivative of a model of teaching in which the teacher's role is to convey content knowledge. This dissertation begins with the contention that science classrooms should encourage scientific thinking and one role of the teacher is to model that behavior and identify and encourage it in her students. One element of scientific thinking is analogy. This dissertation focuses on student-generated analogies in science, and offers a model for understanding these. I provide evidence that generated analogies are assertions of categorization, and the base of an analogy is the constructed prototype of an ad hoc category. Drawing from research on categorization, I argue that generated analogies are based in schemas and cognitive models. This model allows for a clear distinction between analogy and literal similarity; prior to this research analogy has been considered to exist on a spectrum of similarity, differing from literal similarity to the degree that structural relations hold but features do not. I argue for a definition in which generated analogies are an assertion of an unexpected categorization: that is, they are asserted as contradictions to an expected schema.

  17. Analogies in medicine: valuable for learning, reasoning, remembering and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, José de Souza

    2010-10-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to explain a knowledge to be achieved (the target), with pieces of information already familiar to the learner (the source), keeping in mind the constraints of similarity, structure and purpose. The purpose of this essay is to examine the use of analogies in medicine. We provide a brief review of the theoretical basis of analogical reasoning. This theoretical background is discussed in the light of actual examples of analogies retrieved from medical literature. In medicine, analogies have long been used to explain several physiologic and pathologic processes. Besides deeper structural relations, superficial attribute similarity is extensively used in many medical specialties. These attribute similarities are important in naming, categorizing and classifying, and play a role as learning and memorizing tools. Analogies also serve as basis for medical nomenclature. The choice of the source of analogies is highly dependent on cultural background, and may derive from ancient or diverse cultures. Learning by analogies may thus require research on culture diversity in order to establish an adequate justification and to comprehend the purpose of an analogy.

  18. Unconscious violinists and the use of analogies in moral argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiland, E

    2000-12-01

    Analogies are the stuff out of which normative moral philosophy is made. Certainly one of the most famous analogies constructed by a philosopher in order to argue for a specific controversial moral conclusion is the one involving Judith Thomson's unconscious violinist. Reflection upon this analogy is meant to show us that abortion is generally not immoral even if the prenatal have the same moral status as the postnatal. This was and still is a controversial conclusion, and yet the analogy does seem to reveal in a very vivid way what makes abortion a reasonable response to a terrible situation. But Thomson's example has frequently been attacked on all sides for not being truly analogous to abortion. Here I develop a brand new analogy that sheds light on the issue with which Thomson was concerned, while at the same time avoiding most of the more serious objections made to her analogy.

  19. Continuous-time analog filter in CMOS nanoscale era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschirotto, A.; De Matteis, M.; Pezzotta, A.; D'Amico, S.

    2014-04-01

    Analog filters are key blocks in analog signal processing. They are widely employed in many systems, like wireless transceivers, detectors read-out, sensors interfaces, etc. The IC technology choice for such systems is mainly dictated by the requirements of high speed and low power consumption of digital circuits. This pushed an impressive movement towards scaled technology and this has important consequences on the analog circuits design. The impact of technology scaling down to nanometre scale on analog filters design is here investigated. For instance, supply voltage reduction in analog filters limits circuits design solutions and could result in higher power consumption. Moreover, at the same time, innovative systems push analog filters to get higher and higher operation frequencies, due to the increasing bandwidth/speed requirements. Recent solutions for efficient low-voltage and high frequency analog filters in nanometre technology are described.

  20. Use of analogy in learning physics: The role of representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that analogies can promote student learning in physics and can be productively taught to students to support their learning, under certain conditions. We build on these studies to explore the use of analogy by students in a large introductory college physics course. In the first large-scale study of its kind, we demonstrate that different analogies can lead to varied student reasoning. When different analogies were used to teach electromagnetic (EM waves, we found that students explicitly mapped characteristics either of waves on strings or sound waves to EM waves, depending upon which analogy students were taught. We extend these results by investigating how students use analogies. Our findings suggest that representational format plays a key role in the use of analogy.

  1. 不同浓度配比硼酸溶液比定压热容的实验测量%Experimental measurement of isobaric heat capacity of boric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋星佑; 苏超; 刘向阳; 何茂刚

    2015-01-01

    采用高精度的流动型量热法测量了温度在303~396 K、压力在0.1~0.5 MPa时,质量摩尔浓度分别为0.648、3.700(无杂质)和3.700(含杂质)mol/kg 三种配比硼酸溶液的比定压热容。实验系统的温度、压力、比定压热容的测量不确定度分别小于0.05 K、18 kPa、0.28%。为了验证实验系统的测量精度和可靠性,测量了温度为296~396 K、压力为0.1~6.0 MPa内纯水的比定压热容,与 NIST 值相比的相对偏差绝对平均值为0.41%。%Isobaric heat capacities of boric acid solution at the concentrations of 0.648,3.700 (no impurities)and 3.700 mol/kg (containing impurities) were measured using high accuracy flow calorimeter at temperatures of 303-396 K and pressures of 0.1-0.5 MPa.The uncertainties of temperature,pressure,and isobaric haet capacity were less than ±0.05 K,±18 kPa and ±0.28 %, respectively.In order to evaluate the reliability of the experimental system,isobaric heat capacities of pure water at temperatures of 296-396 K and pressures from atmosphere to 6.0 MPa were measured, and the measured average relative deviation from the NIST literature values is within 0.41%.

  2. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M

    2012-01-01

    -DE analysis (P flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2......The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4......-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex component E2 (OGDC-E2)], apoptosis (galectin-1) and regulatory role in the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (annexin A6). Even though the overlap in significantly changing proteins was relatively low between iTRAQ and 2-DE analysis, certain proteins predicted to have...

  3. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium of binary mixtures (1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol) at isobaric conditions[(Vapour+liquid) equilibrium; Cyclic ethers; Butanols; ASOG; UNIFAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Antonio; Lafuente, Carlos; Minones, Jose; Kragl, Udo; Royo, Felix M. E-mail: femer@posta.unizar.es

    2004-02-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of (1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol) at 40.0 kPa and 101.3 kPa has been studied with a dynamic recirculating still. The experimental VLE data are thermodynamically consistent. From these data, activity coefficients were calculated and correlated with the Margules, van Laar, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations. The VLE results have been compared with the predictions by the UNIFAC and ASOG methods.

  4. 丁酮-DMF体系与甲苯-DMF体系的常减压气液平衡数据的测定%The Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Butanone-DMF and Toluene-DMF at Reduced Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 王丽华; 何潮洪; 叶向群

    2006-01-01

    The isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data of butanone(1)-N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)(2) at 100.92kPa, 93.32kPa, and 79.99kPa and of toluene(1)-DMF(2) at 100.92kPa were measured using a modified Rose-Williams still. The above data met the thermodynamic consistency test and were correlated with the Wilson,NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. These data can be used in the analysis and design of the process that involves separating DMF from butanone and toluene in the leather synthesis industry.

  5. Effects of. Delta. -isobar degrees of freedom on the reactions sup 3 He(n,. gamma. ) sup 4 He and sup 3 He(p,e sup +. nu. sub e ) sup 4 He at low-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, R.

    1991-01-01

    The cross sections of the radiative {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and weak {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He capture reactions at thermal neutron and keV proton energies have been calculated with the Variational Monte Carlo method. The ground state and low-energy continuum wave functions have been determined variationally from a realistic Hamiltonian, and include both nucleon and {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom. The electroweak transition operator contains one- and two-body components in the N + {Delta} Hilbert space.

  6. Effects of {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom on the reactions {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He at low-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, R.

    1991-12-31

    The cross sections of the radiative {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and weak {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He capture reactions at thermal neutron and keV proton energies have been calculated with the Variational Monte Carlo method. The ground state and low-energy continuum wave functions have been determined variationally from a realistic Hamiltonian, and include both nucleon and {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom. The electroweak transition operator contains one- and two-body components in the N + {Delta} Hilbert space.

  7. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  8. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occurs only after degradation. It is found that the conjugate containing 1%–2% NIR dye can be used as a normal optical imaging agent, while bioactivable imaging agents are formed at 6% to 17% dye loading. It was determined that the conjugation of dye to HA with different loading percentages does not impact HA biodegradation by hyaluronidase (Hyal. The feasibility of using these two NIR fluorescent hyaluronan analogs for HA investigation was evaluated in vivo with optical imaging. The data demonstrates that the 1% dye loaded fluorescent HA can be used to monitor the behavior of HA and its fragments, whereas bioactivatable HA imaging agent (17% dye in HA is more suitable for detecting HA fragments.

  9. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  10. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  11. Amygdalin analogs for the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Juan J

    2013-05-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune-mediated illness worldwide. The disease can still only be managed rather than cured, so treatments are aimed at clearing skin lesions and preventing their recurrence. Several treatments are available depending on the extent of the psoriatic lesion. Among the topical treatments corticostereoids, vitamin D3 analogs and retinoids are commonly used. However, these treatments may have adverse effects in the long term. Conversely, systemic conventional treatments include immunosuppresors such as cyclosporin or methotrexate associated with high toxicity levels. Biologicals are alternative therapeutical agents introduced in the last 10 years. These include fusion proteins or monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit the action of specific cytokines or to prevent T-lymphocyte activation. However, due to recent knowledge on the etiology of the disease, diverse new small molecules have appeared as promising alternatives for the treatment of psoriasis. Among them, inhibitors of JAK3, inhibitors of PDE 4 and amygdalin analogs. The latter are promising small molecules presently in preclinical studies which are the object of the present report.

  12. Efficient Analog Circuits for Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xunzhao; Varga, Melinda; Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Efficient solutions to NP-complete problems would significantly benefit both science and industry. However, such problems are intractable on digital computers based on the von Neumann architecture, thus creating the need for alternative solutions to tackle such problems. Recently, a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system (CTDS) was proposed (Nature Physics, 7(12), 966 (2011)) to solve a representative NP-complete problem, Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). This solver shows polynomial analog time-complexity on even the hardest benchmark $k$-SAT ($k \\geq 3$) formulas, but at an energy cost through exponentially driven auxiliary variables. With some modifications to the CTDS equations, here we present a novel analog hardware SAT solver, AC-SAT, implementing the CTDS. AC-SAT is intended to be used as a co-processor, and with its modular design can be readily extended to different problem sizes. The circuit is designed and simulated based on a 32nm CMOS technology. SPICE simulation results show speedup factor...

  13. Analog IC reliability in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Maricau, Elie

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modeling, simulation and analysis of analog circuit aging. First, all important nanometer CMOS physical effects resulting in circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor aging compact models for circuit simulation are discussed and several methods for efficient circuit reliability simulation are explained and compared. Ultimately, the impact of transistor aging on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are identified and the impact of technology scaling is discussed.   The models and simulation techniques described in the book are intended as an aid for device engineers, circuit designers and the EDA community to understand and to mitigate the impact of aging effects on nanometer CMOS ICs.   ·         Enables readers to understand long-term reliability of an integrated circuit; ·         Reviews CMOS unreliability effects, with focus on those that will emerge in future CMOS nodes; ·         Provides overview of models for...

  14. C-Glycosyl Analogs of Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzeilles, Boris; Urban, Dominique; Doisneau, Gilles; Beau, Jean-Marie

    This chapter covers the synthesis of a large collection of "C-oligosaccharides ", synthetic analogs of naturally occurring oligosaccharides in which a carbon atom replaces the anomeric, interglycosidic oxygen atom. These non-natural constructs are stable to chemical and enzymatic degradation, and are primarily devised to probe carbohydrate-based biological processes. These mainly target carbohydrate-protein interactions such as the modulation of glycoenzyme (glycosylhydrolases and transferases) activities or the design of ligands for lectin Carbohydrate Recognition Domains. The discussion is based on the key carbon-carbon bond assembling steps on carbohydrate templates: ionic (anionic and cationic chemistries, sigmatropic rearrangements) or radical assemblage, and olefin metathesis. Synthetic schemes in which at least one of the monosaccharide units is constructed by total synthesis or by cyclization of acyclic chiral chains are presented separately in a "partial de novo synthesis" section. The review also provides comments, when they are known, on the conformational and binding properties of these synthetic analogs, as well as their biological behavior when tested.

  15. Photonic analog-to-digital converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reviews over 30 years of work on photonic analog-to-digital converters. The review is limited to systems in which the input is a radio-frequency (RF) signal in the electronic domain and the output is a digital version of that signal also in the electronic domain, and thus the review excludes photonic systems directed towards digitizing images or optical communication signals. The state of the art in electronic ADCs, basic properties of ADCs and properties of analog optical links, which are found in many photonic ADCs, are reviewed as background information for understanding photonic ADCs. Then four classes of photonic ADCs are reviewed: 1) photonic assisted ADC in which a photonic device is added to an electronic ADC to improve performance, 2) photonic sampling and electronic quantizing ADC, 3) electronic sampling and photonic quantizing ADC, and 4) photonic sampling and quantizing ADC. It is noted, however, that all 4 classes of “photonic ADC” require some electronic sampling and quantization. After reviewing all known photonic ADCs in the four classes, the review concludes with a discussion of the potential for photonic ADCs in the future.

  16. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. The exoplanets analogy to the Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a Mutiverse is controversial, although it is a natural possible solution to particle physics and cosmological fine-tuning problems (FTPs). Here I explore the analogy between the Multiverse proposal and the proposal that there exist an infinite number of stellar systems with planets in a flat Universe, the Multiplanetverse. Although the measure problem is present in this scenario, the idea of a Multiplanetverse has predictive power, even in the absence of direct evidence for exoplanets that appeared since the 90s. We argue that the fine-tuning of Earth to life (and not only the fine-tuning of life to Earth) could predict with certainty the existence of exoplanets decades or even centuries before that direct evidence. Several other predictions can be made by studying only the Earth and the Sun, without any information about stars. The analogy also shows that theories that defend that the Earth is the unique existing planet and that, at the same time, is fine-tuned to life by pure chance (or pure phy...

  18. Isolation and characterization of soybean NBS analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Isolation of plant resistance genes is greatly helpful to crop resistance breeding and the insight of resistance mechanism. The cloned plant resistance genes are classified into four classes according to their putative structural domain, of which the majority possesses nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain that consists of P-loop, kinase2a and kinase3a. The conservation of this domain affords the potential possibility of cloning the plant resistance genes, which is homology-based cloning technique. In the present study, the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the tobacco N and Arabidopsis RPS2, and 358 clones were isolated from the genomic DNA of resistance soybean cultivar Kefeng1, resistant to soybean mosaic virus, and 4 open-reading NBS analogs were finally characterized and designated as KNBS1, KNBS2, KNBS3 and KNBS4. Southern hybridization suggested that they were present with multicopy in the soybean genome; KNBS4 was mapped to F linkage group and KNBS2 co-located J linkage group with the SCAR marker of Rsa resistant to soybean mosaic virus by RFLP analysis. Northern analysis suggested that KNBS2- related sequence was low and constitutively expressed in the root, stem and leaves of soybean. The detailed characterization of NBS analogs is very helpful to ultimately cloning the soybean resistance gene.

  19. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  20. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  1. Martian hillside gullies and icelandic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Sigurdsson, Freysteinn

    2003-04-01

    We report observations of Icelandic hillside gully systems that are near duplicates of gullies observed on high-latitude martian hillsides. The best Icelandic analogs involve basaltic talus slopes at the angle of repose, with gully formation by debris flows initiated by ground water saturation, and/or by drainage of water from upslope cliffs. We report not only the existence of Mars analog gullies, but also an erosional sequence of morphologic forms, found both on Mars and in Iceland. The observations support hypotheses calling for creation of martian gullies by aqueous processes. Issues remain whether the water in each case comes only from surficial sources, such as melting of ground ice or snow, or from underground sources such as aquifers that gain surface access in hillsides. Iceland has many examples of the former, but the latter mechanism is not ruled out. Our observations are consistent with the martian debris flow mechanism of F. Costard et al. (2001c, Science295, 110-113), except that classic debris flows begin at midslope more frequently than on Mars. From morphologic observations, we suggest that some martian hillside gully systems not only involve significant evolution by extended erosive activity, but gully formation may occur in episodes, and the time interval since the last episode is considerably less than the time interval needed to erase the gully through normal martian obliteration processes.

  2. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  3. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    vehicle and system capabilities are required to support the activities? How will the crew and the Earth-based mission control team interact? During the initial phases of manned planetary exploration, one challenge in particular is virtually the same as during the Apollo program: How can scientific return be maximized during a relatively short surface mission? Today, NASA is investigating solutions to these challenges by conducting analog missions. These Earth-based missions possess characteristics that are analogous to missions on the Moon or Mars. These missions are excellent for testing operational concepts, and the design, configuration, and functionality of spacesuits, robots, rovers, and habitats. Analog mission crews test specific techniques and procedures for surface field geology, biological sample collection, and planetary protection. The process of actually working an analog mission reveals a myriad of small details, which either contribute to or impede efficient operations, many of which would never have been thought about otherwise. It also helps to define the suite of tools, containers, and other small equipment that surface explorers will use. This paper focuses on how analog missions have addressed selected operational considerations for future planetary missions.

  4. Analog models of computations \\& Effective Church Turing Thesis: Efficient simulation of Turing machines by the General Purpose Analog Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Pouly, Amaury; Graça, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    \\emph{Are analog models of computations more powerful than classical models of computations?} From a series of recent papers, it is now clear that many realistic analog models of computations are provably equivalent to classical digital models of computations from a \\emph{computability} point of view. Take, for example, the probably most realistic model of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) model from Claude Shannon, a model for Differential Analyzers, which are analog machines used from 1930s to early 1960s to solve various problems. It is now known that functions computable by Turing machines are provably exactly those that are computable by GPAC. This paper is about next step: understanding if this equivalence also holds at the \\emph{complexity} level. In this paper we show that the realistic models of analog computation -- namely the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) -- can simulate Turing machines in a computationally efficient manner. More concretely we show that, modulo...

  5. The resonant body transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A

    2010-04-14

    This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor directly into the resonator body. Combining the benefits of FET sensing with the frequency scaling capabilities and high quality factors (Q) of internal dielectrically transduced bar resonators, the resonant body transistor achieves >10 GHz frequencies and can be integrated into a standard CMOS process for on-chip clock generation, high-Q microwave circuits, fundamental quantum-state preparation and observation, and high-sensitivity measurements. An 11.7 GHz bulk-mode RBT is demonstrated with a quality factor Q of 1830, marking the highest frequency acoustic resonance measured to date on a silicon wafer.

  6. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  7. Dynamically generated resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Sarkar, S; Sun, Bao Xi; Vacas, M J Vicente; González, P; Vijande, J; Jido, D; Sekihara, T; Torres, A Martinez; Khemchandani, K

    2009-01-01

    In this talk I report on recent work related to the dynamical generation of baryonic resonances, some made up from pseudoscalar meson-baryon, others from vector meson-baryon and a third type from two meson-one baryon systems. We can establish a correspondence with known baryonic resonances, reinforcing conclusions previously drawn and bringing new light on the nature of some baryonic resonances of higher mass.

  8. Design and activity of a cyclic mini-β-defensin analog: a novel antimicrobial tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiero, Olga; Nigro, Ersilia; Cantisani, Marco; Colavita, Irene; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Pessi, Antonello; Daniele, Aurora; Salvatore, Francesco; Galdiero, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a cyclic 17-amino acid β-defensin analog featuring a single disulfide bond. This analog, designated "AMC" (ie, antimicrobial cyclic peptide), combines the internal hydrophobic domain of hBD1 and the C-terminal charged region of hBD3. The novel peptide was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as against herpes simplex virus type 1 were analyzed. The cytotoxicity and serum stability were assessed. Nuclear magnetic resonance of AMC in aqueous solution suggests that the structure of the hBD1 region, although not identical, is preserved. Like the parent defensins, AMC is not cytotoxic for CaCo-2 cells. Interestingly, AMC retains the antibacterial activity of the parent hBD1 and hBD3 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli, and exerts dose-dependent activity against herpes simplex virus type 1. Moreover, while the antibacterial and antiviral activities of the oxidized and reduced forms of the parent defensins are similar, those of AMC are significantly different, and oxidized AMC is also considerably more stable in human serum. Taken together, our data also suggest that this novel peptide may be added to the arsenal of tools available to combat antibiotic-resistant infectious diseases, particularly because of its potential for encapsulation in a nanomedicine vector.

  9. An Effective Hamiltonian for Symmetric Diarylmethanes from a Series of Analogous Quantum Chemical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Seth

    2012-01-01

    We propose a single effective Hamiltonian to describe the low-energy electronic structure of a series of symmetric cationic diarylmethanes, which are all bridge-substituted derivatives of Michler's Hydrol Blue. Three-state diabatic Hamiltonians for the dyes are calculated using four-electron three-orbital state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field and multi-state multi-reference perturbation theory models. The approach takes advantage of an isolobal analogy that can be established between the orbitals spanning the active spaces of the different substituted dyes. The solutions of the chemical problem are expressed in a diabatic Hilbert space that is analogous to classical resonance models. The effective Hamiltonians for all dyes can be fit to a single functional form that depends on the mixing angle between a bridge-charged diabatic state and a superposition representing the canonical resonance. We find that the structure of the bridge-charged state changes in a regular fashion across the serie...

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  11. Three-body nature of N(*) and Δ(*) resonances from sequential decay chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Sokhoyan, V; Gutz, E; van Pee, H; Anisovich, A V; Bacelar, J C S; Bantes, B; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Yu; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Frommberger, F; Fuchs, M; Funke, Ch; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, Ph; Horn, I; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Kammer, S; Kleber, V; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E; Kotulla, M; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I; Lugert, S; Mertens, T; Messchendorp, J G; Metag, V; Metsch, B; Nanova, M; Nikonov, V; Novinski, D; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L; Pfeiffer, M; Piontek, D; Roy, A; Sarantsev, A V; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Shende, S; Süle, A; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Thoma, U; Trnka, D; Varma, R; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wilson, A

    2015-03-06

    The Nπ^{0}π^{0} decays of positive-parity N^{*} and Δ^{*} resonances at about 2 GeV are studied at ELSA by photoproduction of two neutral pions off protons. The data reveal clear evidence for several intermediate resonances: Δ(1232), N(1520)3/2^{-}, and N(1680)5/2^{+}, with spin parities J^{P}=3/2^{+}, 3/2^{-}, and 5/2^{+}. The partial wave analysis (within the Bonn-Gatchina approach) identifies N(1440)1/2^{+} and the N(ππ)_{S wave} (abbreviated as Nσ here) as further isobars and assigns the final states to the formation of nucleon and Δ resonances and to nonresonant contributions. We observe the known Δ(1232)π decays of Δ(1910)1/2^{+}, Δ(1920)3/2^{+}, Δ(1905)5/2^{+}, Δ(1950)7/2^{+}, and of the corresponding spin-parity series in the nucleon sector, N(1880)1/2^{+}, N(1900)3/2^{+}, N(2000)5/2^{+}, and N(1990)7/2^{+}. For the nucleon resonances, these decay modes are reported here for the first time. Further new decay modes proceed via N(1440)1/2^{+}π, N(1520)3/2^{-}π, N(1680)5/2^{+}π, and Nσ. The latter decay modes are observed in the decay of N^{*} resonances and at most weakly in Δ^{*} decays. It is argued that these decay modes provide evidence for a 3-quark nature of N^{*} resonances rather than a quark-diquark structure.

  12. Split ring resonator resonance assisted terahertz antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Galal, Hossam; Vitiello, Miriam S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the computational development of novel architectures of low impedance broadband antennas, for efficient detection of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived Split Ring Resonator Resonance Assisted (SRR RA) antennas are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme, exploiting a 200 Ohm and 400 Ohm impedance, respectively. Moreover, the impedance is tunable by varying the coupling parameters in the exploited geometry, allowing for better matching with the detector circuit for maximum power extraction. Our simulation results have been obtained by assuming a 1.5 THz operation frequency.

  13. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  14. Ultra Low-Power Analog Median Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diaz-Sanchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of three analog median filter topologies, whose transistors operate in the deep weak-inversion region, is described. The first topology is a differential pairs array, in which drain currents are driven into two nodes in a differential fashion, while the second topology is based on a wide range OTA, which is used to maximize the dynamic range. Finally, the third topology uses three range-extended OTAs. The proposed weak-inversion filters were designed and fabricated in ON Semiconductor 0.5 micrometer technology through MOSIS. Experimental results of three-input fabricated prototypes for all three topologies are show, where power consumptions of 90nW in the first case, and 270nW in the other two cases can be noticed. A dual power supply +/-1.5 Volts were used.

  15. Atwood and Poggendorff: an insightful analogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho, Ricardo; Borges, Paulo; Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    - librium provide us with the solution for a compound Atwood machine with the same bodies. This analogy is pedagogically useful because it illustrates a common strategy to transform a dynamic in a static situation improving stu- dents’ comprehension of Newton’s laws and equilibrium.......Atwood’s treatise, in which the Atwood machine appears, was published in 1784. About 70 years later, Poggendorff showed experimentally that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. In the present paper, a twofold connection between this experiment and the Atwood...... machine is established. Firstly, if the Poggendorff apparatus is taken as an ideal one, the equations of motion of the apparatus coincide with the equations of motion of the compound Atwood machine. Secondly, if the Poggendorff apparatus, which works as a lever, is rebalanced, the equations of this equi...

  16. Atwood and Poggendorff: an insightful analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, R. L.; Borges, P. F.; Karam, R.

    2016-11-01

    Atwood’s treatise, in which the Atwood machine appears, was published in 1784. About 70 years later, Poggendorff showed experimentally that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. In the present paper, a twofold connection between this experiment and the Atwood machine is established. Firstly, if the Poggendorff apparatus is taken as an ideal one, the equations of motion of the apparatus coincide with the equations of motion of the compound Atwood machine. Secondly, if the Poggendorff apparatus, which works as a lever, is rebalanced, the equations of this equilibrium provide us with the solution for a compound Atwood machine with the same bodies. This analogy is pedagogically useful because it illustrates a common strategy to transform a dynamic in a static situation improving students’ comprehension of Newton’s laws and equilibrium.

  17. Four-gate transistor analog multiplier circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A differential output analog multiplier circuit utilizing four G.sup.4-FETs, each source connected to a current source. The four G.sup.4-FETs may be grouped into two pairs of two G.sup.4-FETs each, where one pair has its drains connected to a load, and the other par has its drains connected to another load. The differential output voltage is taken at the two loads. In one embodiment, for each G.sup.4-FET, the first and second junction gates are each connected together, where a first input voltage is applied to the front gates of each pair, and a second input voltage is applied to the first junction gates of each pair. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  18. On analog implementations of discrete neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Moore, K.R.

    1998-12-01

    The paper will show that in order to obtain minimum size neural networks (i.e., size-optimal) for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the neutrons has to be the identity function. The authors shall shortly present many results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, and detail several bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions they will show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity nonlinear function. It follows that size-optimal solutions can be obtained only using analog circuitry. Conclusions, and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated nicotine analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.M.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Marten, D.F.; Sadek, S.; Magarian, R.A.; Grunder, J.R.; Ice, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reported previously on the synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated 5-iodonicotine. In their continuous effort to search for a potential brain as well as adrenal medulla imaging agent, the authors synthesized four radioiodinated nicotine analogs. The labeled compounds were prepared by brominating nicotinic acid, and reacting the acylated product with the appropriate amines to give the respective amides which were then reduced with diborane to the amines. I-125 labeling was done by halogen exchange. Biodistribution studies performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that all these compounds were taken up rapidly by the brain and the adrenal. The highest uptake of all these compounds in both organs occurred at 2 minutes after tail vein injections. The organ:blood ratios at 2 minutes and the T/sub 1/3/ (min.) of radioactivity in these organs were compared.

  20. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  1. Z~+(4430) and Analogous Heavy Flavor States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Gui-jun

    2009-01-01

    We have studied Z~+ (4430)as a D~* D_1 molecule from the quark model,state mixing effect is considered by solving the coupled channel Schr(o)dinger equation numerically.More precise measurements of Z~+ (4430)mass and width,partial wave analysis are helpful to understand its structure.If it lies below the D~* D_1 threshold,molecule interpretation with J~P=1~- is favored,and JP =0~- can not be ruled out.Otherwise Z~+ (4430)may be a virtual state with J~P=2~-.The analogous heavy flavor mesons Z~+_(bb) and Z~(++)_(bc) are considered as well,and the masses predicted in our model are in agreement with the predictions from the potential model and QCD sum rule.

  2. A Probabilistic Approach to Pronunciation by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Kujala, Janne V

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between written and spoken words is convoluted in languages with a deep orthography such as English and therefore it is difficult to devise explicit rules for generating the pronunciations for unseen words. Pronunciation by analogy (PbA) is a data-driven method of constructing pronunciations for novel words from concatenated segments of known words and their pronunciations. PbA performs relatively well with English and outperforms several other proposed methods. However, the best published word accuracy of 65.5% (for the 20,000 word NETtalk corpus) suggests there is much room for improvement in it. Previous PbA algorithms have used several different scoring strategies such as the product of the frequencies of the component pronunciations of the segments, or the number of different segmentations that yield the same pronunciation, and different combinations of these methods, to evaluate the candidate pronunciations. In this article, we instead propose to use a probabilistically justified scorin...

  3. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  4. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  5. Analog model for an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurtner, S E C

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years numerous papers concerning analog models for gravity have been published. It was shown that the dynamical equation of several systems (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensates with a sink or a vortex) have the same wave equation as light in a curved-space (e.g. black holes). In the last few months several papers were released which deal with simulations of the universe. In this article the de-Sitter universe will be compared with a freely expanding three-dimensional spherical Bose-Einstein condensate. Initially the condensate is in a harmonic trap, which suddenly will be switched off. At the same time a small perturbation will be injected in the center of the condensate cloud. The motion of the perturbation in the expanding condensate will be discussed, and after some transformations the similarity to an expanding universe will be shown.

  6. Analogies and metaphors in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-02-01

    Medicine is traditionally known as an 'art', and not an exact 'science'. Medical images of clinical signs and pathology were communicated through 'metaphors' in the 19th and early 20th centuries to make recognition easier in anticipation of the clinical counterpart when encountered in medical practice. They have served as teaching aids, enhancing memory retention for medical students, nurses and doctors and have withstood the test of time. Standard medical textbooks contain metaphors that have become entrenched in teaching, learning and examining in medical schools and hospitals worldwide. The continued use of metaphors has given rise to an ongoing debate, particularly in Africa, due to the usage of inappropriate or unfamiliar metaphors which are not locally or culturally relevant. Despite this, medical analogies will no doubt continue to be useful for medical education, clinical practice and 'aide memoirs' for examinations, and bring light humour, for a long time to come.

  7. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sekhwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs, as resistance (R gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens’ resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed.

  8. Analog VLSI neural network integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kub, F. J.; Moon, K. K.; Just, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two analog very large scale integration (VLSI) vector matrix multiplier integrated circuit chips were designed, fabricated, and partially tested. They can perform both vector-matrix and matrix-matrix multiplication operations at high speeds. The 32 by 32 vector-matrix multiplier chip and the 128 by 64 vector-matrix multiplier chip were designed to perform 300 million and 3 billion multiplications per second, respectively. An additional circuit that has been developed is a continuous-time adaptive learning circuit. The performance achieved thus far for this circuit is an adaptivity of 28 dB at 300 KHz and 11 dB at 15 MHz. This circuit has demonstrated greater than two orders of magnitude higher frequency of operation than any previous adaptive learning circuit.

  9. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  10. Scattering by interstellar graphite dust analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gazi A.; Gogoi, Ankur

    2014-10-01

    The analysis of optical scattering data of interstellar carbonaceous graphite dust analog at 543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm laser wavelengths by using an original laboratory light scattering setup is presented. The setup primarily consisted of a laser source, optical units, aerosol sprayer, data acquisition system and associated instrumentation. The instrument measured scattered light signals from 10° to 170° in steps of 1°. The results of the measurements of the volume scattering function β(θ) and degree of linear polarization P(θ) of the carbonaceous graphite dust particles that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer were subsequently compared with theoretically generated Mie plots with estimated parameters.

  11. A QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Holdom, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure could also be similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  12. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  13. Positons: slowly diminishing analogs of solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Matveev, V B

    2002-01-01

    The introduction to the theory of positons is presented. The positons are the remote-acting analogues of solitons and represent slowly diminishing and oscillating solitons of the nonlinear integrated equations of KdV type. The positon and soliton-positon solutions of the KdV equation were for the first time obtained and analyzed about 10 years ago and thereafter designed for a number of other models: mKdV, Toda chains, NSch, sn-Gordon equation and its lattice analog. By the proper selection of the scattering data the single positon and multipositon potentials are characterized by the remarkable property: the corresponding reflection coefficient is equal to zero and the transition coefficient is equal to one (the latter property, as it is known, has no place for the standard short-acting nonreflection potentials

  14. The production of body analogs for use in radiation physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, P E; Hoban, P W; Harper, N R; Murray, D C; Round, W H

    1990-09-01

    Bone, muscle and lung analog materials have been produced in-house, and dosimetry phantoms have been produced. A method using computed tomography (CT) has been developed to check that the analogs produced match the radiation properties of body tissues. The relative electron densities and ratio of electron cross sections are calculated from elemental compositions of the analogs. Using these data the theoretical CT numbers are calculated and these numbers are compared with experimental CT numbers for the analogs produced. The experimental CT numbers are found by scanning the samples on a Siemens DRH CT scanner. Results show the maximum difference between theoretical and experimental CT numbers for the analogs is 18 Hounsfield units, which relates to a delta NCT of less than 1%. Comparison of analog CT numbers with CT numbers for the related patient tissues also shows a close match.

  15. 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Makinwa, Kofi

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, serving as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.    • Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing; • Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; • Presents material in a tutorial-based format.

  16. [Analogies between the thymus and epidermis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, G

    1990-11-01

    In this paper, similarities between epidermis and thymus are reviewed. Both epidermis and thymus deal with an epithelial stroma harbouring dendritic cells, which are bone-marrow derived. Both epithelia are keratinized, and a map can be constructed illustrating histo-topographic and antigenic similarities between thymic epithelial cells distributed in various thymic zones (i.e. subcapsular cortex, outer cortex, inner cortex, medulla, outer layers of Hassall's bodies, inner layers of Hassall's bodies) and keratinocytes of different epidermal layers. By contrast, a possible similarity between thymocytes and Langerhans cells is not so easy to demonstrate, although both cell types are CD1 positive. Rather, in our opinion a comparison is preferable of thymocytes to Thy-1 positive dendritic epidermal cells, due to morphological, antigenic, functional and especially lineage similarities. Similarities between thymus and epidermis are clearly important dealing with analogous molecular interactions, namely, thymic epithelial cells/thymocytes versus keratinocytes/T-lymphocytes. Indeed, our recent investigations demonstrated that a subset of keratinocytes is ICAM-1 positive, and the whole keratinocyte population is LFA-3 positive. Since the interaction thymic epithelial cells (ICAM-1 and LFA-3 positive)/thymocytes (LFA-1 and CD2 positive) has been shown to be necessary for promotion of activation and maturation of thymocytes, the interaction keratinocytes (ICAM-1 and LFA-3 positive, as we demonstrated)/T-lymphocytes (LFA-1 and CD2 positive as well) might be, by analogy, important not only for the "homing" of T-lymphocytes within the epidermis, but also for the epidermis being considered a peripheral inductive site for T-cell activation and maturation.

  17. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanchuk, Vincent L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting the intensity of an unknown optical signal (B) into an electrical signal in digital form utilizes two elongated optical attenuators (11, 13), one for the unknown optical signal from a source (10) and one for a known optical signal (A) from a variable source (12), a plurality of photodetectors (e.g., 17, 18) along each attenuator for detecting the intensity of the optical signals, and a plurality of comparators (e.g., 21) connected to the photodetectors in pairs to determine at what points being compared the attenuated known signal equals the attenuated unknown signal. The intensity of the unknown relative to the known is thus determined by the output of a particular comparator. That output is automatically encoded to a relative intensity value in digital form through a balancing feedback control (24) and encoder (23). The digital value may be converted to analog form in a D-to-A converter (27) and used to vary the source of the known signal so that the attenuated intensity of the known signal at a predetermined point (comparator 16) equals the attenuated intensity of the unknown signal at the predetermined point of comparison. If the known signal is then equal to the unknown, there is verification of the analog-to-digital conversion being complete. Otherwise the output of the comparator indicating equality at some other point along the attenuators will provide an output which is encoded and added, through an accumulator comprised of a register (25) and an adder (26), to a previous relative intensity value thereby to further vary the intensity of the known signal source. The steps are repeated until full conversion is verified.

  18. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  19. 非等压醇烷化工艺技术在合成氨厂的应用%Application of non-isobaric methanolizing-methanation process in ammonia plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊兰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了合成气净化的几种方法并进行了比较,重点介绍了非等压醇烷化工艺在合成氨厂的应用情况.采用非等压醇烷化工艺对氨合成的补充气进行精制,可以制得高纯度合成气,满足氨合成需要,同时副产甲醇.应用结果表明,该工艺能降低消耗,提高企业经济效益,是一种性价比较高的净化气精制工艺,适合用于合成技术改造.%Several processes for synthesis gas purification are presented and compared. The application of non-isobaric methanol-izing-methanation process in ammonia plant is described with emphasis. The refinement of supplemental gas in ammonia synthesis using the non-isobaric methanolizing-methanation technology can obtain high purity synthesis gas for the ammonia synthesis and co-produce methanol. The results of application indicate that the process is a high performance-price ratio technology which can reduce consump-tion, increase enterprise economic benefits and is suitable for ammonia synthesis technical transformation.

  20. An analysis of the contribution of isospin two /ππ resonant states in the n¯p-- >π+π+π- annihilation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBELIX Collaboration; Filippi, A.; Agnello, M.; Astrua, M.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Calvo, D.; Costa, S.; D'Isep, F.; Feliciello, A.; Iazzi, F.; Marcello, S.; Minetti, B.; Mirfakhraee, N.; Balestra, F.; Busso, L.; Denisov, O.; Ferrero, L.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; Maggiora, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Panzieri, D.; Tosello, F.; Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Cannata, F.; Capponi, M.; De Castro, S.; Donà, R.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Massa, I.; Piccinini, M.; Poli, M.; Semprini Cesari, N.; Spighi, R.; Vagnoni, V.; Vecchi, S.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bussa, M. P.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zenoni, A.; Cicalò, C.; De Falco, A.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Usai, G.; Gorchakov, O. E.; Prakhov, S. N.; Rozhdestvensky, A. M.; Tretyak, V. I.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Petrascu, C.; Filippini, V.; Fontana, A.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Tessaro, S.

    2000-12-01

    The results of a search for a possible evidence of a π+π+ resonant state in the n¯p-->π+π+π- annihilation reaction with data collected by the OBELIX Experiment are presented. The study has been performed by means of a partial wave analysis in the frame of the isobar model. Production fractions for a possible π+π+ resonance have been evaluated. The observed effects at the π+π+ threshold may be described reasonably well by the contributions of f2(1270), f0(1500), f2(1565) and /ρ(1450) states and their interferences, but a meaningful statistical indication for a π+π+ scalar state at about 1400 MeV emerges from the analysis.