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Sample records for analog resonances isobaric

  1. Decay Properties Of The Dipole Isobaric Analog Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, M L; Urin, M H

    2006-01-01

    A continuum-RPA-based approach is applied to describe the decay properties of isolated dipole isobaric analog resonances in nuclei having not-too-large neutron excess. Calculated for a few resonances in 90Zr the elastic E1-radiative width and partial proton widths for decay into one-hole states of 89Y are compared with available experimental data.

  2. Study of $^{13}$Be through isobaric analog resonances in the Maya active target

    CERN Multimedia

    Riisager, K; Orr, N A; Jonson, B N G; Raabe, R; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T

    We propose to perform an experiment with a $^{12}$Be beam and the Maya active target. We intend to study the ground state of $^{13}$Be through the population of its isobaric analog resonance in $^{13}$B. The resonance will be identified detecting its proton- and neutron-decay channels.

  3. Isobaric analog states of neutron-rich nuclei. Doppler shift as a measurement tool for resonance excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new approach for the measurement of resonance excitation functions of neutron-rich nuclei using Doppler shift information. Preliminary data from the first application of the method is presented in the spectroscopy studies of 7He isobaric analog states in 7Li. (orig.)

  4. An investigation of the influence of the pairing correlations on the properties of the isobar analog resonances in = 208 nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Küçükbursa; D I Salamov; T Babacan; H A Aygör

    2004-11-01

    Within the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA), the method of the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction which restores a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian is given. The effect of the pairing correlations between nucleons on the following quantities were investigated for the = 208 nuclei: energies of the isobar analog 0+ states, the isospin admixtures in the ground state of the even–even nuclei, and the differential cross-section for the 208Pb(3He,)208Bi reaction at E(3He) = 450 MeV. Both couplings of the excitation branches with z = 0 ± 1, and the analog state with isovector monopole resonance (IVMR) in the quasi-particle representation were taken into account in our calculations. As a result of these calculations, it was seen that the pairing correlations between nucleons have no considerable effect on the = 23 isospin admixture in the ground state of the 208Pb nucleus, and they cause partially an increase in the isospin impurity of the isobar analog resonance (IAR). It was also established that these correlations have changed the isospin structure of the IAR states, and shifted the energies of the IVMR states to the higher values.

  5. Elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons from lead-206 and lead-208 near isobaric analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions have been measured for elastic scattering of polarized protons from 206Pb and 208Pb, and for inelastic scattering to collective states in 206Pb (2+, 0.8033 MeV; 3-, 2.647 MeV) and 208Pb (3-, 2.6145 MeV). Both differential cross sections and analyzing powers were measured at theta/sub lab/ = 1200, 1350, 1500, and 1650, for E/sub p/ = 14.25 to 18 MeV. Fits to the excitation-function data were obtained using scattering amplitudes consisting of sums of resonant and non-resonant parts. The resonances are the isobaric analogs (IARs) of 7 low-lying states in 209Pb and 35 in 207Pb. The fits to the elastic-scattering data are excellent; for the inelastic scattering the fit is very good for the 2+ state but only fair for the 3- states. For each IAR, the energy, the total width, and the partial width and mixing phase in each channel were obtained. Also, new spin assignments were made for a number of parent states in 207Pb. The theory of Bund and Blair was used to find the spectroscopic amplitudes, which provide information on the wave functions for the parent states in 207Pb and 209Pb and for the 3- states in 206Pb and 208Pb. These spectroscopic amplitudes were then checked for internal consistency and compared with the results of other experiments and with theoretical predictions

  6. Survey of Evaluated Isobaric Analog States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2014-06-15

    Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration.

  7. Widths of the isobaric analog state of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both escape and spreading widths are evaluated microscopically in a consistent framework for the isobaric analog of the 206Pb ground state. A TDA Green function is obtained within the space of discretized J=0+ proton-particle neutron-hole configurations using the Skyrme interaction. Couplings of these configurations with continuum and more complicated configurations are included into TDA matrix elements with a form of energy dependent terms. The energy and the widths of the isobaric analog resonance are obtained as a result of the matrix diagonalization. Comparison is made of the results with the former theoretical calculations as well as experimental data. (orig.)

  8. The isospin admixture of the ground state and the properties of the isobar analog resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D I Salmov; T Babacan; A Kücükbursa; S Ünlü; İ Maraṣ

    2006-06-01

    Within the framework of quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), Pyatov–Salamov method [23] for the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction strength parameter, restoring a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian, is used. The isospin admixtures in the ground state of the parent nucleus, and the isospin structure of the isobar analog resonance (IAR) state were investigated with the inclusion of the pairing correlations between nucleons for the medium and heavy mass regions: 80 < < 90, 102 < < 124, and 204 < < 214. It was determined that the influence of the pairing interaction between nucleons on the isospin admixtures in the ground state and the isospin structure of the IAR state is more pronounced for the light isotopes ( ≈ ) of the investigated nuclei.

  9. Anomalous isobaric analogue resonance in 71As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 G. M. Temmer et al., reported observing five anomalous substructures in a spin 1/2+ isobaric analogue resonance in 71As at E/sub p/ = 5.05 MeV. They suggested that these substructures could be interpreted as ''hallway states'' coupling a ''doorway state'' to compound nuclear states. Although doorway states are well established interpretations of isobaric analogue resonances, hallway states have no such acreditation. The case investigated in this paper was the first reported evidence suggesting the existence of hallway states in an isobaric analogue resonance. In this work the validity of the hallway state interpretation was ascertained for two of the five substructures. The spin and parity of these two substructures were determined to be 5/2+; therefore, their interpretation as hallway states is incorrect since it would not conserve angular momentum. The spins and parities of all the substructures were determined by measuring the analyzing power of the elastic reaction 70Ge(p(pol),p0) from an energy E/sub p/ = 4.92 MeV to an energy E/sub p/ = 5.23 MeV in 10 keV steps. The analyzing power was then remeasured over the last two substructures at E = 5.05 MeV and E = 5.14 MeV in 5 keV steps. These last two substructures also decayed strongly to the 2+ first excited state in 70Ge. The angular correlation between the first inelastic proton and the subsequently emitted gamma ray was measured in the Goldfarb--Seyler geometry and was then expanded in terms of cosine functions. The expansion coefficients implied that the spins of these two resonances were greater than or equal to 5/2, in agreement with the analyzing power measurements

  10. Symmetry Energy from Systematic of Isobaric Analog States

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Excitation energies to isobaric states, that are analogs of ground states, are dominated by contributions from the symmetry energy. This opens up a possibility of investigating the symmetry energy on nucleus-by-nucleus basis. Upon correcting energies of measured nuclear levels for shell and pairing effects, we find that the lowest energies for a given isospin rise in proportion to the square of isospin, allowing for an interpretation of the coefficient of proportionality in terms of a symmetry coefficient for a given nucleus. In the (A,Z) regions where there are enough data, we demonstrate a Z-independence of that coefficient. We further concentrate on the A-dependence of the coefficient, in order to learn about the density dependence of symmetry energy in uniform matter, given the changes of the density in the surface region. In parallel to the analysis of data, we carry out an analysis of the coefficient for nuclei calculated within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, with known symmetry energy for unif...

  11. Possible enhancement of magnetic dipole transitions between Gamow-Teller and isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new decay scheme between Gamow-Teller (GT) resonances and isobaric analog states (IAS) by magnetic dipole transitions is studied. The sum rule of M1 transitions between IAS and GT states is found to be significantly enhanced compared to the non-energy-weighted sum rule of the parent state. Calculated enhancement factors can be as large as ∼2.5 for 48Sc and 90Nb, and 1.5 for 208Bi. Transition strengths between specific states are calculated in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The interest of measuring M1 transitions between IAS and GT states to obtain information on the spin-isospin response in finite nuclei is stressed. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  12. Population and particle decay of isobaric analog states in medium heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic features of proton stripping and neutron pickup reactions to Isobaric Analog States in medium heavy nuclei are presented. The (3He, d) reaction investigated at high incident energy is shown to selectively excite high-spin particle-analog states. Similarly the (3He, α) reaction populates hole-analog states. The recent results related to such highly excited states in a wide range of nuclei (48Ca to 208Pb) are discussed in the framework of the DWBA theory of direct reactions with special emphasis on the treatment of unbound proton states or deeply-bound neutron hole states. The particle decay of Isobaric Analog States are investigated using the (3He, d p tilde) and (3He, α p tilde) sequential processes. The experimental method developed at Orsay (00 detection) for particle-particle angular correlations is presented. The advantage and the limits of such approach are illustrated by typical exemples of particle decays: core-excited states, neutron particle-hole multiplets and the first observation of the proton emission of hole-analog levels. In conclusion new experimental approaches such as asymmetry measurements for analog states observed in transfer reactions or possible population of double analog states in heavy nuclei are discussed. (author)

  13. Halo Structure of the Isobaric Analog States in Some Mirror Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using ANC method the rms radius of the last nucleon in the 2s1/2 isobaric analog states of 21Ne/2lNa and 17O / 17F is extracted from transfer reaction data. The results are summarized in Tab. 1. The 2s1/2 single proton states in 21Na and 17O have the rms radii almost twice as large as that for their core nuclei (2.88 fin for 20Ne and 2.71 fm for 16O) and are proton halo states, while their isobaric analog states in 2INe and I7O can be considered as neutron skin states, because the neutrons in these states have one third of the probability staying out of the nuclear interaction range. The obvious difference in the rms radii between a mirror pair indicates the binding energy difference between the

  14. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Self consistent and covariant propagation of pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in cold nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Korpa, C. L.; Lutz, M. F. M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate the in-medium spectral functions for pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in a self consistent and covariant manner. The calculations are based on a recently developed formulation which leads to predictions in terms of the pion-nucleon scattering phase shifts and a set of Migdal parameters describing important short range correlation effects. We do not observe significant softening of pion modes if we insist on reasonable isobar resonance properties but predict a considerable broa...

  16. Effects of level inversion on the Coulomb displacement energies of the Ar-K isobaric analog state pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zaijun; Xu, Renli

    2016-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the neutron-rich Ar-K isobaric analog state pairs with mass number $A=35-47$ are calculated within the relativistic mean field model and the effects of level inversion on the Coulomb displacement energies of the Ar-K isobaric analog state pairs are studied. The calculations are carried out in two cases, with and without consideration of the possible $2s_{1/2}$ and $1d_{3/2}$ proton level inversion of the neutron-rich Ar isotopes. Results show that the $2s_{1/2}$ and $1d_{3/2}$ level inversion of the neutron-rich Ar isotopes may reduce the Coulomb displacement energy by 0.06$\\sim$0.17 MeV for the Ar-K isobaric analog state pairs. The results may provide a reference for experimental investigations of nuclear level inversion and a new test of the relativistic mean field model.

  17. Self consistent and covariant propagation of pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in cold nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the in-medium spectral functions for pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in a self consistent and covariant manner. The calculations are based on a recently developed formulation which leads to predictions in terms of the pion-nucleon scattering phase shifts and a set of Migdal parameters describing important short range correlation effects. We do not observe any significant softening of pion modes if we insist on reasonable isobar resonance properties but predict a considerable broadening of the N(1440) and N(1520) resonances in nuclear matter. (orig.)

  18. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  19. A study of Gamow-Teller mixing: Coupling to delta (1232) and isobaric analogue resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of missing Gamow-Teller strength is examined in two calculations. The mixing between nucleonic Gamow-Teller states and those containing a delta(1232) resonance in calcium-48, zirconium-90 and tin-132 is studied as a function of the excitation energy of a delta in the nucleus in a shell-model calculation. It is found that mixing is large enough at the experimentally observed nucleon-delta separation to warrant treating the nucleon and the delta resonance on similar footing in intermediate energy nuclear physics. In a second calculation, the coupled channels impulse approximation is used to examine the effect on the Gamow-Teller cross section of coupling to the isobaric analogue state. This is done for incident proton energies of 140 and 175 MeV on a calcium-48 target. Effects on the cross-section of the separation between the isobaric analogue and Gamow-Teller states are also studied. It is found that coupling to the isobaric analogue state has little effect on either the Gamow-Teller or the isobaric analogue cross section.

  20. Isobaric analogue resonances in the 56Fe(rho,γ)57Co reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation function for the reaction 56Fe(rho,γ)57Co has been measured from 1200-3000 KeV proton energy using enriched 56Fe targets. The resonance strength, ωsub(γ), has been determined for the studied resonances. The absence of the isobaric analogue resonance corresponding to the ground state in 57Fe is discussed as a result of the present study. A coulomb displacement energy for 57Co-57Fe of 8876 +- 6 KeV is deduced from these measurements. (author)

  1. Structure of isobaric analog states in 91Nb populated by the 90Zr(a,t) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Molen, H K T; Van den Berg, A M; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Harakeh, M N; Ihara, F; Inomato, T; Ishibashi, K; Jänecke, J; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Laurent, H; Lhenry, I; O'Donnell, T W; Rodin, V A; Tamii, A; Toyokawa, H; Urin, M H; Yoshida, H; Yosoi, M

    2001-01-01

    Decay via proton emission of isobaric analog states (IAS's) in $^{91}{Nb}$ was studied using the $^{90}{Zr}(\\alpha,t)$ reaction at $E_\\alpha$=180 MeV. This study provides information about the damping mechanism of these states. Decay to the ground state and low-lying phonon states in $^{90}{Zr}$ was observed. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions wherein the IAS `single-particle' proton escape widths are calculated in a continuum RPA approach. The branching ratios for decay to the phonon states are explained using a simple model.

  2. Study of nuclear reactions and analog isobar states in the system He8 + p for low energy with the help of MAYA active target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the resent improvements in the field of exotics beams, and specially with the SPIRAL facility at GANIL, we were able to study He9 shell inversion already known for Be11 and Li10, which are two members of the N=7 family. A new detector was developed and also the software tools for the data analysis. This detector is at the same time the target (active-target) and is called MAYA. The He9 was studied by determining the properties of its isobaric analogue states in Li9. The characteristics of the IAS (isomeric analog state) states were determined by an analysis of the resonances in the elastic scattering cross section for He8 + p from 2 up to 3.9 MeV/n. A study of (p,d) and (p,t) reactions was done too, in this domain of energy. By comparing the experimental results with calculations, an assignation of spin and parity for two states in He9 was possible. (author)

  3. Folding model study of the isobaric analog excitation: isovector density dependence, Lane potential and nuclear symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Cuong, Do Cong

    2007-01-01

    A consistent folding model analysis of the ($\\Delta S=0, \\Delta T=1$) charge exchange \\pn reaction measured with $^{48}$Ca, $^{90}$Zr, $^{120}$Sn and $^{208}$Pb targets at the proton energies of 35 and 45 MeV is done within a two-channel coupling formalism. The nuclear ground state densities given by the Hartree-Fock-Bogoljubov formalism and the density dependent CDM3Y6 interaction were used as inputs for the folding calculation of the nucleon optical potential and \\pn form factor. To have an accurate isospin dependence of the interaction, a complex isovector density dependence of the CDM3Y6 interaction has been carefully calibrated against the microscopic Brueckner-Hatree-Fock calculation by Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux before being used as folding input. Since the isovector coupling was used to explicitly link the isovector part of the nucleon optical potential to the cross section of \\pn reaction exciting the 0$^+$ isobaric analog states in $^{48}$Sc, $^{90}$Nb, $^{120}$Sb and $^{208}$Bi, the newly paramet...

  4. The Lamda-N - Sigma-N Interaction with Isobar Coupling and Six-Quark Resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, W. R.; Lomon, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range $\\Lambda N-\\Sigma N$ interaction is modeled by a configuration space meson-exchange potential matrix coupling to channels with $\\Delta$ and $\\Sigma(1385)$ isobars. An inner boundary condition, based on $R$-matrix theory, replaces form factors for short-range effects and includes the effects of free quark configurations. An excellent fit is obtained to the available data, with only the energy-independent boundary conditions as free parameters. The effect of isobar thresholds is ...

  5. Nuclear structure beyond the neutron drip line: The lowest energy states in 9He via their T=5/2 isobaric analogs in 9Li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uberseder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The level structure of the very neutron rich and unbound 9He nucleus has been the subject of significant experimental and theoretical study. Many recent works have claimed that the two lowest energy 9He states exist with spins Jπ=1/2+ and Jπ=1/2− and widths on the order of 100–200 keV. These findings cannot be reconciled with our contemporary understanding of nuclear structure. The present work is the first high-resolution study with low statistical uncertainty of the relevant excitation energy range in the 8He+n system, performed via a search for the T=5/2 isobaric analog states in 9Li populated through 8He+p elastic scattering. The present data show no indication of any narrow structures. Instead, we find evidence for a broad Jπ=1/2+ state in 9He located approximately 3 MeV above the neutron decay threshold.

  6. Nuclear structure beyond the neutron drip line: the lowest energy states in $^9$He via their T=5/2 isobaric analogs in $^9$Li

    CERN Document Server

    Uberseder, E; Goldberg, V Z; Koshchiy, E; Roeder, B T; Alcorta, M; Chubarian, G; Davids, B; Fu, C; Hooker, J; Jayatissa, H; Melconian, D; Tribble, R E

    2015-01-01

    The level structure of the very neutron rich and unbound $^9$He nucleus has been the subject of significant experimental and theoretical study. Many recent works have claimed that the two lowest energy $^9$He states exist with spins $J^\\pi=1/2^+$ and $J^\\pi=1/2^-$ and widths on the order of hundreds of keV. These findings cannot be reconciled with our contemporary understanding of nuclear structure. The present work is the first high-resolution study with low statistical uncertainty of the relevant excitation energy range in the $^8$He$+n$ system, performed via a search for the T=5/2 isobaric analog states in $^9$Li populated through $^8$He+p elastic scattering. The present data show no indication of any narrow structures. Instead, we find evidence for a broad $J^{\\pi}=1/2^+$ state in $^9$He located approximately 3 MeV above the neutron decay threshold.

  7. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  8. Analog implementation of an integral resonant control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral resonant control (IRC) has been introduced as a high performance controller design methodology for flexible structures with collocated actuator–sensor pairs. IRC has a simple structure and is capable of achieving significant damping, over several modes, while guaranteeing closed-loop stability of the system in the presence of unmodeled out-of-bandwidth dynamics. IRC can be an ideal controller for various industrial damping applications, if packaged in a simple easy-to-implement electronic module. This work proposes an analog implementation of the IRC scheme using a single Op-Amp circuit. The objective is to show that with simple analog realization of the modified IRC scheme, it is possible to damp a large number of vibration modes. A brief discussion about the modeling, circuit considerations, implementation and experimental results is presented in order to validate the usefulness and practicality of the proposed analog IRC implementation. (technical note)

  9. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in 112-124Sb and isospin admixture in 100-124Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in 112-124Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in 100-124Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the 100-124Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral JF for the Sn(3He,t)Sb reactions at E(3He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the 100Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 ± 5 MeV fm3). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the (3He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N ∼ Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations

  10. Level width of giant resonances and hole analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widths of giant resonances and hole analog states are evaluated from the linear response function which is proportional to the imaginary part of Green's function. The Hartree Fock hamiltonian obtained by using the Skyrme interactions is diagonalized with harmonic oscillator basis. The resulting single particle states are all bound, and the continuum wave functions are constructed to be orthogonal to the bound states. Using these bases the energy matrix is calculated, where the self-energy is added to the particle or hole energy. The imaginary part of the self-energy consists of two parts, one corresponds to decay into more complicated states and other corresponds to decay into the continuum. The matrix is inverted and Green's function is obtained. The calculations are carried out for monopole states in 40Ca and hole analog states in 207Pb. The latter results are compared with the experimental data. (author)

  11. Present status of isobar models for elementary kaon photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic properties of isobar models are demonstrated and discussed on examples of the Saclay-Lyon and Kaon-MAID models. Predictions of these models are compared with experimental data for various processes and kinematical regions. Results of the isobar models are also compared with the Regge-isobar hybrid model, Regge-plus-resonance. (author)

  12. Present status of isobar models for elementary kaon photoproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bydzovsky, Petr; Skoupil, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Some basic properties of isobar models are demonstrated and discussed on examples of the Saclay-Lyon and Kaon-MAID models. Predictions of these models are compared with experimental data for various processes and kinematical regions. Results of the isobar models are also compared with the Regge-isobar hybrid model, Regge-plus-resonance.

  13. Constraints on the Neutron Skin and the Symmetry Energy from the Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, L G; Colo', G; Sagawa, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the neutron-skin thickness Delta(R) on the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR), E(AGDR), and the isobaric analog state (IAS), E(IAS), in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb. For guidance, we first develop a simple and analytic, yet physical, approach based on the Droplet Model that linearly connects the energy difference E(AGDR)-E(IAS) with Delta(R). To test this correlation on more fundamental grounds, we employ a family of systematically varied Skyrme energy density functionals where variations on the value of the symmetry energy at saturation density J are explored. The calculations have been performed within the fully self consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus charge-exchange random phase approximation (RPA) framework. We confirm the linear correlation within our microscopic apporach and, by comparing our results with available experimental data in 208Pb, we find that our analysis is consistent with Delta(R) = 0.204 \\pm 0.009 fm, J = 31.4 \\pm 0.5 MeV ...

  14. Unitary Isobar Model - MAID2007

    OpenAIRE

    Drechsel, D.; Kamalov, S. S.; Tiator, L.

    2007-01-01

    The unitary isobar model MAID2007 has been developed to analyze the world data of pion photo- and electroproduction. The model contains both a common background and several resonance terms. The background is unitarized according to the K-matrix prescription, and the 13 four-star resonances with masses below 2 GeV are described by appropriately unitarized Breit-Wigner forms. The data have been analyzed by both single-energy and global fits, and the transverse and longitudinal helicity amplitud...

  15. Isobar excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the following aspects of isobar excitations in nuclei: Nuclear spin response; Electromagnetic probes; Pion-nuclear reactions; Baryon charge exchange reactions; Charge exchange reactions on nuclei; and Exclusive spectra

  16. A test of the theory of resonant scattering between analog nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that strong resonances might be found in scattering between analog nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier. The authors have begun a study of such scattering for 7Be on 7Li using a 7Be beam produced with the OSU-LLNL radioactive ion beam facility. The resulting excitation function can be used to limit a combination of the strength and the width of any possible resonances

  17. Demonstration of a 3-bit optical digital-to-analog converter based on silicon microring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Qiaoshan; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Fanfan; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    We propose an N-bit optical digital-to-analog converter based on silicon microring resonators (MRRs), which can transform an N-bit electrical digital signal to an optical analog signal. A 3-bit optical digital-to-analog convertor is fabricated as proof of concept through a CMOS-compatible process on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The silicon MRRs are modulated through the electric-field-induced carrier injection in forward biased PN junctions embedded in the ring waveguides. The electro-optical 3-dB bandwidths of the silicon MRRs are approximately 800 MHz. The device works well at a speed of 500  MSample/s under driving voltage swings of 0.75 V. PMID:25360972

  18. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  19. Escape and spreading properties of charge-exchange resonances in 208Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of charge-exchange excitations of 208Pb with ΔL = 0, i.e., the isobaric analog and Gamow-Teller resonances, are studied within a self-consistent model making use of an effective force of the Skyrme type. The well-known isobaric analog case is used to assess the reliability of the model. The calculated properties of the Gamow-Teller resonance are compared with recent experimental measurements with the aim of better understanding the microscopic structure of this mode. (authors). 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  20. An isobar-surfaces approach to multidimensional outlier-proneness.

    OpenAIRE

    Barme-Delcroix, Marie-Francoise; Gather, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and investigate outlier-proneness for multivariate distributions. This is done by using a concept of ordering multivariate data based on isobar-surfaces, which yields an utmost analogy of the results to the univariate case.

  1. Isobar Model for Photoproduction of K+Sigma0 and K0Sigma+ on the Proton

    OpenAIRE

    Mart, T.

    2005-01-01

    Kaon photoproductions on the proton gamma p --> K+Sigma0 and gamma p --> K0Sigma+ have been simultaneously analyzed by using isobar models and new SAPHIR data. The result shows that isobar models such as KAON MAID require more resonances in order to explain the data.

  2. Optical Analog-to-digital Conversion Scheme Based on Tunable Fabry-Perot Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Proposed is an interference type of optical analog-to-digital conversion(ADC). The refractive index of Fabry-Perot cavity changes with different voltages. The Fabry-Perot resonator converts electronic intensity into light wavelength through selecting lights of different wavelengthes. The parameters of the scheme are acquired with the transmission matrix of optical element and the time of steady-state light field. The maximum sampling speedes of 4-bit, 6-bit, 7-bit, 8-bit and 9-bit(ADC) are 1.695×1010 count/s, 4.33×109 count/s, 2.38×109 count/s, 1.24×109 count/s and 5.9×108 count/s, respectively.

  3. Anti-analog giant dipole resonances and the neutron skin of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine a method to determine the neutron-skin thickness of nuclei using data on the charge-exchange anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR). Calculations performed using the relativistic proton–neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) reproduce the isotopic trend of the excitation energies of the AGDR, as well as that of the spin-flip giant dipole resonances (IVSGDR), in comparison to available data for the even–even isotopes 112–124Sn. It is shown that the excitation energies of the AGDR, obtained using a set of density-dependent effective interactions which span a range of the symmetry energy at saturation density, supplemented with the experimental values, provide a stringent constraint on value of the neutron-skin thickness. For 124Sn, in particular, we determine the value ΔRpn=0.21±0.05 fm. The result of the present study shows that a measurement of the excitation energy of the AGDR in (p,n) reactions using rare-isotope beams in inverse kinematics, provides a valuable method for the determination of neutron-skin thickness in exotic nuclei

  4. Mesonic and isobar modes in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with heavy ion collisions, like the ones performed at the GSI, are a tool to gain insight in the structure of matter. One key point needed to understand the experimental data is the theoretical description of the in medium properties of mesons and baryons. In this thesis we first developed a self-consistent description for the light vector mesons, ρ and ω, and the pion at finite temperature and in a baryon free environment. A generalisation of these calculations towards finite densities mandatorily needs a reliable description for the pion and the Δ(1232) resonance. Here we extended the approaches discussed in literature by the inclusion of vertex corrections and a selfconsistent and completely relativistic description. Within these models we were able to show that even at high temperatures the ρ-meson properties are not changed dramatically when temperature effects are considered only. In contrast to this the behaviour of the pion and the Δ-isobar is dramatically changed a finite density. The isobar mass-shift is given by an appropriate choice of the mean-fields. Therefore we can not draw a final conclusion about such shifts within our model. In order to do so more calculations, especially of the photo absorption on the nucleus, have to be performed. A further aspect of the calculations presented is that due to a consistent consideration of vertex corrections we were able to achieve a description of the Δ-resonance without the usually used soft formfactor. This is especially important for the in-medium calculations because only in this way we can guarantee that soft modes of the spectrum are treated consistently. The techniques developed within this thesis allow for a straight forward generalisation of the presented models with respect to the consideration of more resonances or couplings. Doing so the here obtained description of the in-medium properties of the considered particles can be refined. (orig.)

  5. Mesonic and isobar modes in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riek, Felix C.

    2007-07-01

    Experiments with heavy ion collisions, like the ones performed at the GSI, are a tool to gain insight in the structure of matter. One key point needed to understand the experimental data is the theoretical description of the in medium properties of mesons and baryons. In this thesis we first developed a self-consistent description for the light vector mesons, {rho} and {omega}, and the pion at finite temperature and in a baryon free environment. A generalisation of these calculations towards finite densities mandatorily needs a reliable description for the pion and the {delta}(1232) resonance. Here we extended the approaches discussed in literature by the inclusion of vertex corrections and a selfconsistent and completely relativistic description. Within these models we were able to show that even at high temperatures the {rho}-meson properties are not changed dramatically when temperature effects are considered only. In contrast to this the behaviour of the pion and the {delta}-isobar is dramatically changed a finite density. The isobar mass-shift is given by an appropriate choice of the mean-fields. Therefore we can not draw a final conclusion about such shifts within our model. In order to do so more calculations, especially of the photo absorption on the nucleus, have to be performed. A further aspect of the calculations presented is that due to a consistent consideration of vertex corrections we were able to achieve a description of the {delta}-resonance without the usually used soft formfactor. This is especially important for the in-medium calculations because only in this way we can guarantee that soft modes of the spectrum are treated consistently. The techniques developed within this thesis allow for a straight forward generalisation of the presented models with respect to the consideration of more resonances or couplings. Doing so the here obtained description of the in-medium properties of the considered particles can be refined. (orig.)

  6. Isobar Electroproduction as a Background from Interaction of Beams with Residual Gas at $\\phi$-Factories

    OpenAIRE

    Achasov, M. N.; Achasov, N. N.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that when beams interact with a residual gas at $\\phi$-factories the reaction of the electroproduction of the $\\Delta (1232)$ isobar proceeds vigorously. The isobar decay gives $\\sim 10^7$ pions during an effective year of $10^7$ s per meter of a residual gas. These pions are emitted largely across the beam axis and have a resonance energy distribution with a peak nearby 265 MeV of a width close to 120 MeV in the isobar rest system. There are presented formulae for the distributio...

  7. Neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb from the energy of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; Vretenar, D; Harakeh, M N

    2013-01-01

    The energy of the charge-exchange Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance (AGDR) has been calculated for the 208Pb isotope using the state-of-the-art fully self-consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. It is shown that the AGDR centroid energy is very sensitively related to the corresponding neutron-skin thickness. The neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb has been determined very precisely by comparing the theoretical results with the available experimental data on E(AGDR). The result DR(pn)= 0.161(42) agrees nicely with the previous experimental results.

  8. Application of minicomputer Mera-400 to analog data acquisition from pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minicomputer Mera-400 based analog signal data acquisition system is described. The peripherical controlers of the computer and the operating system SOM-3 are used. The analog signal is first digitized and stored in 1024 words of 8 bit buffer memory of the transient recorder and then transferred into the minicomputer memory for averaging. 1 k words of the computer memory can be shown on a CRT of a simple graphic display or registered on a X-Y recorder. A detail description of the hardware and of the software written in the assembler is also presented. (author)

  9. Isobars and the efficient market hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanková, Kristýna

    2010-01-01

    Isobar surfaces, a method for describing the overall shape of multidimensional data, are estimated by nonparametric regression and used to evaluate the efficiency of selected markets based on returns of their stock market indices.

  10. An isobar model for eta photo- and electroproduction on the nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Wen-Tai; Yang, Shin Nan; Tiator, Lothar; Drechsel, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Eta photo- and electroproduction on the nucleon is studied using an isobar model. The model contains Born terms, and contributions from vector meson exchanges and nucleon resonances. Our results are compared with recent eta photoproduction data for differential and total cross sections, beam asymmetry, and target asymmetry, as well as electroproduction data. Besides the dominant S11(1535) resonance, we show that the second S11 resonance, S11(1650), is also necessary to be included in order to...

  11. Multipole Amplitudes of Pion Photoproduction on Nucleons up to 2GeV within Dispersion Relations and Unitary Isobar Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aznauryan, I. G.

    2002-01-01

    Two approaches for analysis of pion photo- and electroproduction on nucleons in the resonance energy region are checked at $Q^2=0$ using the results of GWU(VPI) partial-wave analysis of photoproduction data. The approaches are based on dispersion relations and unitary isobar model. Within dispersion relations good description of photoproduction multipoles is obtained up to $W=1.8 GeV$. Within unitary isobar model, modified with increasing energy by incorporation of Regge poles, and with unifi...

  12. Application of isobars to stock market indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanková, Kristýna

    České Budějovice : University of South Bohemia, 2010 - (Houda, M.; Friebelová, J.), s. 296-301 ISBN 978-80-7394-218-2. [Mathematical Methods in Economics. Ceske Budejovice (CZ), 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : isobars * efficient market hypothesis * nonparametric regression * extreme value theory Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/ivankova-application of isobars to stock market indices.pdf

  13. Does it make any sense to talk about a Delta-isobar?

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefeld, F.

    2002-01-01

    It is shortly investigated, on what basis an experimentally observed resonance like the Delta(1232)-isobar can be embedded into the framework of Quantum Theory (QT), i.e. Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). After a short discussion of the particle concept in the context of the "bootstrap" idea of G. Chew and S. Mandelstam we will focus on the theoretical formalism being necessary to describe resonances in the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulation of QT.

  14. Does it make any sense to talk about a Delta-isobar?

    CERN Document Server

    Kleefeld, F

    2003-01-01

    It is shortly investigated, on what basis an experimentally observed resonance like the Delta(1232)-isobar can be embedded into the framework of Quantum Theory (QT), i.e. Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). After a short discussion of the particle concept in the context of the "bootstrap" idea of G. Chew and S. Mandelstam we will focus on the theoretical formalism being necessary to describe resonances in the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulation of QT.

  15. Finite size effects in isobaric ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, S R

    2011-01-01

    The properties of isobaric ratios, between nuclei produced in the same reaction, are investigated using the canonical and grand-canonical statistical ensembles. Although the grand-canonical for- mulae furnish a means to correlate the ratios with the liquid drop parameters, finite size effects make it difficult to obtain their actual values from fitting nuclear collision data.

  16. Isobaric-spin relationships between nuclear spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, J.B.

    1961-01-01

    The simple fact that a one-body energy describes the interaction of a nucleon with a closed neutron subshell is used to establish sets of equations connecting the spectra of nuclei which are related by isobaric-spin when described by means of the nuclear shell model. Certain formal questions about i

  17. Isobar separator for radioactive nuclear beams project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    In order to produce pure beams of radioactive products emanating from the production target/ion source system, both mass and isobar separation is required. A preliminary mass separation with a resolution {triangle}M/M of approximately 10{sup -3} will select the proper mass beam. An isobar separator is needed because the masses of adjacent isobars are usually quite close, especially for beams near stability. In general, a mass resolution of 5 x 10{sup -5} is needed for isobar separation in the A < 120 region, while a resolution of 3 x 10{sup -5} or better is needed for heavier masses. Magnets are used to obtain mass separation. However, in addition to having mass dispersion properties, magnets also have an equal energy dispersion. This means that an energy variation in the beam cannot be distinguished from a mass difference. This is important because ions emerge from the ion source having a small ({approximately} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4}) energy spread. In order to make the system respond only to mass differences, it must be made energy dispersion. This is normally accomplished by using a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The most convenient way of doing this is to use an electric deflection following the magnet separator. A preliminary isobar separator which achieves a mass resolution of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} is shown in Figure I-38. It uses two large 60{degrees} bending magnets to obtain a mass dispersion of 140 mm/%, and four electric dipoles with bending angles of 39{degrees} to cancel the energy dispersion. Sextupole and octupole correction elements are used to reduce the geometrical aberrations.

  18. Isobar width effects in the coupling of nucleon to isobar channels

    OpenAIRE

    González Marhuenda, Pedro; Lomon, Earle L.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of the effects of isobar coupling to two-nucleon channels has been extended to include additional physical features. A new code discretizes the mass distribution of the isobar widths and treats each mass as a separate channel. This allows the treatment of width in the presence of coupling by transition potentials, in addition to the previously permitted boundary coupling. It also produces the S-matrix components required to describe the many-body final-state distributions. W...

  19. Momentum distribution of Delta- isobar in closed shell nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachenko, A. N.

    2005-01-01

    One Delta- isobar components of the wave function in closed shell nuclei are considered within the framework of the harmonic oscillator model. Conventional transition potential is the pi- and rho- exchange potential. On the basis of the Delta- isobar configuration wave function, the momentum distribution of the Delta- isobar is calculated for the light nuclei $^4 He$,$^{16}O$,$^{12}C$

  20. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation at A=53, T=3/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Su

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The T=3/2 isobaric analog state (IAS in 53Co is firmly established through a comprehensive measurement of β-delayed γ and proton decay of 53Ni. The determined excitation energy of 53Co IAS combined with the mass of 53Co generates a precise mass excess of −38333.6(27 keV for the 53Co IAS, which is 70(18 keV lower than the previously adopted value. The new result solves a problem raised by incorrect assignments of the 53Co IAS of unexpected deviation from the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME at A=53, T=3/2.

  1. Gamow-Teller Transition Strength - Isospin Symmetry In A = 26 Isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the assumption that isospin is a good quantum number, isospin symmetry is expected for the Tz = ±1 → 0 isobaric analogous transitions in A = 26 isobar triplet, where Tz is the z component of isospin T and is defined by Tz = (N - Z) / 2. The isospin symmetric Tz = -1 → 0 Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions can be determined in the 26Si β decay. Assuming this symmetry it is possible to study the GT transition strengths for high excited states in 26Al induced by the (3He, t) charge-exchange (CE) reaction at intermediate energies (> 100 MeV/nucleon) and at forward scattering angles including 0o, where Tz = +1 → 0 GT transitions from the Jπ = 0+ ground state of 26Mg to the Jπ = 1+ excited states in 26Al were extended to the excitation energy (Ex) of 9 MeV. (author)

  2. Isobar contributions to the imaginary part of the optical-model potential for finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed non-relativistic method for calculating the nucleon optical-model potential has been employed to evaluate the contributions from isobaric degrees of freedom to the imaginary part of the nucleon optical-model potential. To evaluate the imaginary part of the optical-model potential, the authors include the contributions from terms to second order in the Brueckner G-matrix with and without the inclusion of isobars Δ. Results for 16O are presented in this work. The contributions to the imaginary part are given by the two-particle-one-hole (2p1h) and three-particle-two-hole (3p2h) diagrams. The latter contributes at negative energies only and the contribution from isobar intermediate states is rather small. The 2p1h receives significant contributions from isobars at energies near the resonance and above the threshold for the excitation of ΔΔ states. In particular, the importance of ΔΔ configurations is rather sensitive to the treatment of short-range correlations. The parameterization of the self-energy in terms of local potentials is discussed. The depletion of the occupation of the single-particle orbits due to nucleon-nucleon correlations and Δ excitations is evaluated. 49 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  3. MRI analysis of the ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs: a comparison with rigid internal fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jun; Zhao, Weihua; Zhang, Xi; Nong, Luming; Zhou, Dong; Lv, Zhengxiang; Sheng, Yonghua; Wu, Xingbiao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the efficacy of the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs, with particular emphasis on its effects on degenerative intervertebral disc disease. Methods We retrospectively compared the MRIs of 54 patients who had previously undergone either rigid internal fixation of the lumbar spine or ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis....

  4. Delta(1232) isobar excitations and the ground state of nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, T; Kaiser, S.; Müther, Herbert; Polls Martí, Artur; Entem, D R; Machleidt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of $\\Delta$ isobar components on the ground state properties of nuclear systems is investigated for nuclear matter as well as finite nuclei. Many-body wave functions, including isobar configurations, and binding energies are evaluated employing the framework of the coupled-cluster theory. It is demonstrated that the effect of isobar configurations depends in a rather sensitive way on the model used for the baryon-baryon interaction. As examples for realistic baryon-baryon intera...

  5. Delta-isobar magnetic form factor in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V M

    1993-01-01

    We consider the QCD sum rules approach for Delta-isobar magnetic form factor in the infra-red region $0isobar magnetic moment.

  6. Isobar Separators for Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D; Wollnik, H

    1998-10-05

    A radioactive ion beam facility - in short a RIB facility - produces ions of short-lived nuclei and accelerates them to energies of 0.1...10 MeV per nucleon or even higher. In this process it is important that the resulting RIB beams are free from nuclei of neighboring isobars or of neighboring elements. This task requires the production and ionization of the nuclei of interest as well as separating them from all others with a high-mass resolving power and small-mass cross contaminations. When constructing such a facility it also is very important to find ways that allow the accelerated ions to be provided to different experiments at least quasi simultaneously.

  7. Isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=31$ $T = 3/2$ quartets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P D; Pain, S D; Prokop, C J; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The observed mass excesses of analog nuclear states with the same mass number $A$ and isospin $T$ can be used to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), which has, in most cases, been validated to a high degree of precision. A recent measurement [Kankainen et al., Phys. Rev. C 93 041304(R) (2016)] of the ground-state mass of $^{31}$Cl led to a substantial breakdown of the IMME for the lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet. The second-lowest $A = 31, T = 3/2$ quartet is not complete, due to uncertainties associated with the identity of the $^{31}$S member state. Using a fast $^{31}$Cl beam implanted into a plastic scintillator and a high-purity Ge $\\gamma$-ray detection array, $\\gamma$ rays from the $^{31}$Cl$(\\beta\\gamma)$$^{31}$S sequence were measured. Shell-model calculations using USDB and the recently-developed USDE interactions were performed for comparison. Isospin mixing between the $^{31}$S isobaric analog state (IAS) at 6279.0(6) keV and a nearby state at 6390.2(7) keV was observed. The second ...

  8. Method of Measurement Isobaric Heat Capacity of the Organic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Neruchev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for measuring the heat capacity of liquids on modernized authors the installation of IT-Cp-400 is considered. The results of measurements the isobaric heat capacity of some bromosubstituted n-alkanes is presented.

  9. Resonance structure of /sup 32/S + n from transmission and differential elastic scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmann, C.R.; Weigmann, H. (Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements); Mewissen, L.; Poortmans, F. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)); Cornels, E. (Rijksuniversitair Centrum te Antwerpen (Belgium)); Theobald, J.P. (Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1982-09-27

    Neutron transmission experiments were performed on /sup 32/S between 0.18 MeV and 19 MeV and differential elastic scattering experiments up to 2 MeV. The resonance parameters, including spin and parity, were determined up to 1.7 MeV. The distribution of neutron strength was determined for ssub(1/2), psub(1/2), psub(3/2), dsub(3/2), dsub(5/2) and f-wave levels, and is compared to recent model calculations. The isotopic purity of some possible T = 3/2 isobaric analog states was deduced from their neutron widths.

  10. Isobar configurations: $\\Delta N$ correlations versus the independent particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Glavanakov, I. V.; Tabachenko, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis of two models for the $A( {\\gamma,\\,\\pi N})B$ reaction, which take into account the isobar configurations in the ground state of the nuclei: the $\\Delta N$ correlation model and the quasifree pion photoproduction model. The considered models differ in their descriptions of the nucleus states. The $\\Delta N$ correlation model takes into account the dynamic correlations of the nucleon and isobar formed in the virtual transition $NN \\to \\Delta N$, and in the qua...

  11. Sampling the isothermal-isobaric ensemble by Langevin dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xingyu; Fang, Jun; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of conducting molecular dynamics simulation in isothermal-isobaric ensemble based on Langevin equations of motion. The stochastic coupling to all particle and cell degrees of freedoms is introduced in a correct way, in the sense that the stationary configurational distribution is proved to be in consistent with that of the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. In order to apply the proposed method in computer simulations, a second order symmetric numerical integration scheme i...

  12. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by laser photodetachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Oliver; Andersson, Pontus; Hanstorp, Dag; Lahner, Johannes; Martschini, Martin; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Laser photodetachment is the process when the extra electron of a negative ion is removed by means of laser radiation. This can happen only if the photon energy is larger than the electron affinity of the ion. The process can be used in mass spectrometry to selectively suppress unwanted isobars, provided that the electron affinity of the unwanted isobar is lower than that of the isobar under investigation. At the Ion Laser InterAction Setup (ILIAS) at the University of Vienna laser photodetachment of negative atomic and molecular ions is studied and its applicability for selective isobar suppression in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is evaluated. The setup provides mass separated beams of negative ions with energies up to 30 keV. Negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source, mass selected and overlapped with a strong continuous wave laser beam. In order to extend the interaction time of ions and laser, the ion beam is decelerated to thermal energies in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler. For an appropriate choice of the photon energy, unwanted isobars are neutralized while the isobar of interest is unaffected and remains negatively charged. A description of the ILIAS setup and results from the commissioning phase of the RFQ cooler are presented. Up to 8% ion beam transmission could be achieved after a recent redesign of the extraction system. Furthermore first results of photodetachment experiments of 63Cu- within the RFQ cooler are presented.

  13. Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Effect for Two Nano/Micro-mechanical Resonators Coupled With Spin Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yue; Sun, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    We study a hybrid nano-mechanical system coupled to a spin ensemble as a quantum simulator to favor a quantum interference effect, the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This system consists of two nano-mechanical resonators (NAMRs), each of which coupled to a nuclear spin ensemble. It could be regarded as a crucial element in the quantum network of NAMR arrays coupled to spin ensembles. Here, the nuclear spin ensembles behave as a long-lived transducer to store and transfer the ...

  14. Synthesis of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based probe containing a tricyclic nucleoside analog for single nucleotide polymorphism typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayai, Aya; Maeda, Yusuke; Ueno, Yoshihito

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. The probe contains a fluorescent tricyclic base, 8-amino-3-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)imidazo[4',5':5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine, as a donor molecule and 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carboxylic acid as an acceptor molecule. FRET was observed between the donor and acceptor molecules on the probe. The identity of the target bases on DNA and RNA strands could be determined using the probe. PMID:27329795

  15. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one

  16. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izosimov, I. N., E-mail: izosimov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in {sup 6,7,8}Li, {sup 8,9,10}Be, {sup 8,10,11}B, {sup 10,11,12,13,14}C, {sup 13,14,15,16,17}N, {sup 15,16,17,19}O, and {sup 17}F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  17. Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given

  18. Reply to ''Comment on '(p,n) and (n,p) reactions as probes of isovector giant monopole resonances' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of medium corrections in isovector excitations induced by the (p,n) reaction near 120 MeV is examined in light of the preceding Comment by Bauhoff which addresses the issue of making reliable estimates of the sizes of (p,n) cross sections for exciting isovector monopole resonances. To establish confidence in such estimates it is important to examine in parallel the much better understood isobaric analog of the ground state and the relative importance of medium modifications on these monopole transitions. Our examination using both density-independent and density-dependent transition operators supports the assertion of Bauhoff

  19. An analogy between the thermal equilibration of a gas mixture and transverse relaxation in magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Packwood, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    We study a gas containing two components, a small component P and a large component Q. P is selectively heated to a high temperature and then returns to equilibrium via collisions with Q. This thermal equilibration process is analysed in a new way. We divide the kinetic energy space of the molecules of P into two regions F and D, and show that the molecules of P randomly switch (`oscillate') between the two states as time proceeds due to collisions with the molecules of Q. Initially, the molecules of P are all in the state D, however because each molecule in P collides with the molecules of Q at different times, the oscillations occur out of step with each other. There is a net destructive interference between the oscillations, and so they are not observed when monitoring the average kinetic energy of the molecules of P as a function of time. We will explain the similarities and differences between this observation and transverse relaxation processes that occur in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This study e...

  20. Experiments of analog states on Lead 206 and 207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis aims at verifying hypotheses according to which the spread of analog states decreases as much as nuclei are far from a double magic nucleus, under some conditions. Therefore, analog states of lead 207 and 208 have been studied by proton scattering on targets in lead 206 and 207. Some theoretical aspects of analog states of isobaric spin are presented. An experimental method of determination of excitation functions is described. Results obtained for analog states in bismuth 207-208 are discussed. Results obtained on four steady lead isotopes in different laboratories are compared

  1. Trends in the isobaric multiplet mass equation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobaric analogue states (IAS) can be used to study the charge independence of the nuclear force via first order perturbation theory. In this case the IAS multiplet masses are expected to follow a quadratic form as described by the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME) with coefficients accessible through experimental measurements. Higher order effects are expected to appear through cubic, or higher, polynomial terms. The current IMME coefficient trends, as based on the IAS states included in the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and NUBASE2012 are shown. (authors)

  2. Trends in the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCormick Marion

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric analogue states (IAS can be used to study the charge independence of the nuclear force via first order perturbation theory. In this case the IAS multiplet masses are expected to follow a quadratic form as described by the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME with coefficients accessible through experimental measurements. Higher order effects are expected to appear through cubic, or higher, polynomial terms. The current IMME coefficient trends, as based on the IAS states included in the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and NUBASE2012 are shown.

  3. Isobar model analysis of pi0-eta photoproduction on protons

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, A.; Kashevarov, V.L.; Lee, A.; Ostrick, M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoproduction of pi0-eta on protons in the energy range from threshold to 1.4 GeV is discussed. The data for representative angular distributions recently obtained at MAMI C are analyzed using an isobar model. The isobars considered are Delta(1232) and S11(1535) for pi0-p and eta-p states, respectively. In accordance with the results of earlier works the main features of the reaction are explained through the dominance of the D33 wave with a relatively small admixture of positive parity res...

  4. Four-nucleon system with $\\Delta$-isobar excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A.; Fonseca, A.C.; Sauer, P. U.

    2008-01-01

    The four-nucleon bound state and scattering below three-body breakup threshold are described based on the realistic coupled-channel potential CD Bonn + $\\Delta$ which allows the excitation of a single nucleon to a $\\Delta$ isobar. The Coulomb repulsion between protons is included. In the four-nucleon system the two-baryon coupled-channel potential yields effective two-, three- and four-nucleon forces, mediated by the $\\Delta$ isobar and consistent with each other and with the underlying two-n...

  5. Performance of isobaric and isotopic labeling in quantitative plant proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2012-01-01

    quantitation. In the present work, we have used LC-MS to compare an isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) chemical labeling technique to quantify proteins in the endosperm of Ricinus communis seeds at three developmental stages (IV, VI, and X). Endosperm proteins of each stage were trypsin-digested in...

  6. Study of different components of potential in Isobaric pair collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction potential in heavy ion collision (HIC) is essential in order to understand the role of different components of potential in the reaction dynamics. In the present work, we try to understand the importance of different components of potential in isobaric pair collisions having different proton and neutron content

  7. Delta-Isobar Production in Antiproton Annihilation on the Deuteron

    OpenAIRE

    Lykasov, G. I.; Bussa, M. P.; Valacca, L.

    1997-01-01

    The annihilation of antiprotons on deuterons at rest are investigated for the case when pion-nucleon and pion-delta-isobar pairs are produced. The two-step mechanism is investigated by analysing these processes when either neutral particles and charged ones are produced. Some predictions for the branching ratios are presented.

  8. Redundance of $\\Delta$-isobar Parameters in Effective Field Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hua-Bin; Ellis, Paul J.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the off-shell parameters in the interaction Lagrangian of pions, nucleons, and $\\Delta$-isobars are redundant in the framework of effective field theories. Our results also suggest the necessity of including the $\\Delta$ as an explicit dynamical degree of freedom.

  9. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Eleonora; Bansal, Ruchi

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  10. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; Bansal, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  11. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Sebastian; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. PMID:24689577

  12. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raeder@fys.kuleuven.be; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Heggen, Henning, E-mail: heggen@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lassen, Jens, E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Teigelhöfer, Andrea [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  13. Possible enhancement of magnetic dipole transition strength between Gamow-Teller and isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-energy weighted sum rule of M1 transitions between IAS and GT states is found to be significantly enhanced compared to the sum rule of parent nucleus. Mechanism of this enhancement is explained. Transition strengths between specific states in 48Sc, 90Nb and 208Bi are calculated to investigate whether the enhancement of the sum rule is reflected in these transitions. Measurement of M1 transitions between IAS and GT states is recommended to obtain more information on the spin-isospin response in medium and heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  14. Remarks on the occasion of the 25. anniversary of the discovery of isobaric-analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roughly 25 years ago, John Anderson, the late Calvin Wong, John McClure, and Stewart Bloom made an interesting discovery. John and his colleagues had set out to measure the systematics of nuclear temperatures. They were to look at the spectra of evaporated neutrons from compound nuclei created by proton bombardment of various targets. The evaporation spectra should be smooth functions of energy. The smooth functions were there, but there was a sharp peak superimposed. No known physical phenomenon could produce the sharp peak, so it had to be an artifact of the electronics. However, John and his colleagues convinced themselves that the time-to-pulse-height converters were working right. Well then, it had to be a contaminant in the target. Sharp peaks had been seen for isospin mirror transitions, but this target, 2351V28, had five excess neutrons, so there could not be a mirror transition. The prevailing dogma was that isotopic spin, as it was then called, was a bad quantum number because the Coulomb force was so strong. Well, John and his colleagues set about to calculate the Z of the contaminant mirror transition that would put the sharp peak at the observed energy. They found Z = 23, that of the vanadium target ! They had discovered the existence of sharp isospin multiplet states in nonmirror nuclei. Dogmas are forced to change, and jargon changes. We now accept the idea that Fermi transition strength is concentrated in a sharp state, the IAS. CVC and PCAC are good buzz acronyms that get you accelerator time from PACs. But the discovery made by Anderson, Wong, McClure, and Bloom still stands as the most important finding in nuclear structure in over a quarter of a century

  15. Quark Substructure and Isobar Effects on Deuteron Form-Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lomon, E.

    2000-01-01

    Elastic ed scattering, with deuteron polarization, up to high momentum transfer provides detailed information on the deuteron wave function. This determines the range dependence of the orbital and spin components of the one- and two-body currents, restricting contributions of isobar and meson-exchange currents and of quark/gluon degrees of freedom, as well as the nucleon component. The R-matrix boundary condition model combines all these effects, predicting nucleon-nucleon reactions and the d...

  16. The ILIAS project for selective isobar suppression by Laser photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the VERA Laboratory of the University of Vienna a facility for studying selective isobar suppression of negative ions by Laser photodetachment is currently under construction. The ILIAS (Ion Laser InterAction Setup) setup consists of a negative ion spectrometer providing mass separated beams of negatively charged atomic or molecular ions with energies up to 30 keV. The negative ions are produced in a Middleton type cesium sputter ion source. After mass selection the ions are stopped in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole cooler where they overlap with a strong continuous wave Laser beam. By careful selection of the photon energy unwanted isobars are neutralized while the ions of interest remain intact. With this scheme a selective suppression of isobars can be achieved. After a description of the setup and a status report of the commissioning of the negative ion spectrometer, the progress of the construction of the RFQ cooler will be presented. As an outlook the first photodetachment experiments with the RFQ cooler and a possible scheme for application of this new method to a 3 MV AMS facility will be described. (author)

  17. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to...... realize theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall...

  18. Proton resonance elastic scattering of $^{30}$Mg for single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    The single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg, which is located in the so-called “island of inversion”, will be studied through measuring Isobaric Analog Resonances (IARs) of bound states of $^{31}$Mg. They are located in the high excitation energy of $^{31}$Al. We are going to determine the spectroscopic factors and angular momenta of the parent states by measuring the excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame with around 3 MeV/nucleon $^{30}$Mg beam. The present study will reveal the shell evolution around $^{32}$Mg. In addition, the spectroscopic factor of the (7/2)$^{−}$ state which was not yet determined experimentally, may allow one to study the shape coexistence in this nucleus.

  19. Pion charge-exchange reactions: The analog state transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general features of pion charge-exchange reactions leading to nuclear-isobaric-analog states (IAS) and double-isobaric-analog states (DIAS), as they have emerged from studies over the past ten years, are reviewed. The energy range investigated is 20 to 550 MeV for IAS transitions and 20 to 300 MeV for DIAS transitions. These data are seen to play an important role in characterizing the pion optical potential, in determining the Δ-N interaction in nuclei, and in the study of nucleon correlations in nuclei. Recent progress achieved in understanding the role of such correlations in double-charge-exchange reactions is reviewed. 55 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  1. Improvement of non-isobaric model for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, improved relations of total fuel energy, fuel gain, hot-spot radius and total areal density in a non-isobaric model of fuel assembly have been derived and compared with the numerical results of [J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010); S. Atzeni, A. Marocchino, A. Schiavi, G. Schurtz, New J. Phys. 15, 045004 (2013)] and several simulations performed by MULTI-1D radiation hydrodynamic code for shock ignition scenario. Our calculations indicate that the approximations made by [M.D. Rosen, J.D. Lindl, A.R. Thiessen, LLNL Laser Program Annual Report, UCRL-50021-83, pp. 3-5 (1983); J. Schmitt, J.W. Bates, S.P. Obenschain, S.T. Zalesak, D.E. Fyfe, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042701 (2010)] for the calculation of burn-up fraction are not accurate enough to give results consistent with simulations. Therefore, we have introduced more appropriate approximations for the burn-up fraction and total areal density of the fuel that are in more agreement with simulation results of shock ignition. Meanwhile, it is shown that the related formulas of the non-isobaric model for total fuel energy, fuel gain and also hot-spot radius cannot determine the model parameters independently, but improved model choose a better selection and less restrictions on determination of the parameters for the non-isobaric model. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and burn-up fraction of the fuel in shock ignition scenario. (authors)

  2. Effects of consistent and inconsistent isobar coupling in the nuclear medium

    OpenAIRE

    Korpa, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate effects of consistent (conserving the number of degrees of freedom) and inconsistent pion-nucleon-isobar couplings on the isobar propagator in vacuum and in nuclear medium. Using the consistent coupling in conjunction with a convenient basis leads to significant simplification of the isobar vacuum and in-medium self energy and dressed propagator compared to the case of inconsistent interaction. The higher-derivative nature of the consistent interaction requires a suitable compe...

  3. Covariant and self consistent vertex corrections for pions and isobars in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Korpa, C. L.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Riek, F.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the pion and isobar propagators in cold nuclear matter self consistently applying a covariant form of the isobar-hole model. Migdal's vertex correction effects are considered systematically in the absence of phenomenological soft form factors. Saturated nuclear matter is modeled by scalar and vector mean fields for the nucleon. It is shown that the short-range dressing of the pi N Delta vertex has a significant effect on the pion and isobar properties. Using realistic parameters s...

  4. Sensitive dependence of isotope and isobar distribution of limiting temperatures on symmetry energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Li; Liu, Min; Li, Zhuxia

    2013-01-01

    The mass, isotope, and isobar distributions of limiting temperatures for finite nuclei are investigated by using a thermodynamics approach together with the Skyrme energy density functional. The relationship between the width of the isotope (isobar) distribution of limiting temperatures and the stiffness of the density dependence of the symmetry energy clearly is observed. The nuclear symmetry energy with smaller slope parameter $L_{\\rm{sym}}$ causes a wider the isotope (isobar) distribution ...

  5. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is {sup 96}Ru + {sup 96}Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  6. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is 96Ru + 96Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  7. QCD sum rules for $\\Delta$ isobar in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xuemin

    1994-01-01

    The self-energies of $\\Delta$ isobar propagating in nuclear matter are calculated using the finite-density QCD sum-rule methods. The calculations show that the Lorentz vector self-energy for the $\\Delta$ is significantly smaller than the nucleon vector self-energy. The magnitude of the $\\Delta$ scalar self-energy is larger than the corresponding value for the nucleon, which suggests a strong attractive net self-energy for the $\\Delta$; however, the prediction for the scalar self-energy is ver...

  8. Constraints on the relativistic mean field of $\\Delta$-isobar in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov, D. S.; C. Fuchs; Martemyanov, B. V.; Faessler, Amand

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the presence of $\\Delta$-isobars in nuclear matter are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The existence of stable nuclei at saturation density imposes constraints on the $\\Delta$-isobar self-energy and thereby on the mean-field coupling constants of the scalar and vector mesons with $\\Delta$-isobars. The range of possible values for the scalar and vector coupling constants of $\\Delta$-isobars with respect to the nucleon coupling is investigated and comp...

  9. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y″, a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differ- ences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  10. Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ++Δ- is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ+Δ0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ++Δ- and Δ+Δ0 channels to be similar.

  11. Nested sampling of isobaric phase space for the direct evaluation of the isothermal-isobaric partition function of atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nested Sampling (NS) is a powerful athermal statistical mechanical sampling technique that directly calculates the partition function, and hence gives access to all thermodynamic quantities in absolute terms, including absolute free energies and absolute entropies. NS has been used predominately to compute the canonical (NVT) partition function. Although NS has recently been used to obtain the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) partition function of the hard sphere model, a general approach to the computation of the NPT partition function has yet to be developed. Here, we describe an isobaric NS (IBNS) method which allows for the computation of the NPT partition function of any atomic system. We demonstrate IBNS on two finite Lennard-Jones systems and confirm the results through comparison to parallel tempering Monte Carlo. Temperature-entropy plots are constructed as well as a simple pressure-temperature phase diagram for each system. We further demonstrate IBNS by computing part of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of a Lennard-Jones system under periodic boundary conditions

  12. Nested sampling of isobaric phase space for the direct evaluation of the isothermal-isobaric partition function of atomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake A; Gelb, Lev D; Nielsen, Steven O

    2015-10-21

    Nested Sampling (NS) is a powerful athermal statistical mechanical sampling technique that directly calculates the partition function, and hence gives access to all thermodynamic quantities in absolute terms, including absolute free energies and absolute entropies. NS has been used predominately to compute the canonical (NVT) partition function. Although NS has recently been used to obtain the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) partition function of the hard sphere model, a general approach to the computation of the NPT partition function has yet to be developed. Here, we describe an isobaric NS (IBNS) method which allows for the computation of the NPT partition function of any atomic system. We demonstrate IBNS on two finite Lennard-Jones systems and confirm the results through comparison to parallel tempering Monte Carlo. Temperature-entropy plots are constructed as well as a simple pressure-temperature phase diagram for each system. We further demonstrate IBNS by computing part of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of a Lennard-Jones system under periodic boundary conditions. PMID:26493898

  13. Nested sampling of isobaric phase space for the direct evaluation of the isothermal-isobaric partition function of atomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Blake A.; Nielsen, Steven O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Gelb, Lev D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Nested Sampling (NS) is a powerful athermal statistical mechanical sampling technique that directly calculates the partition function, and hence gives access to all thermodynamic quantities in absolute terms, including absolute free energies and absolute entropies. NS has been used predominately to compute the canonical (NVT) partition function. Although NS has recently been used to obtain the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) partition function of the hard sphere model, a general approach to the computation of the NPT partition function has yet to be developed. Here, we describe an isobaric NS (IBNS) method which allows for the computation of the NPT partition function of any atomic system. We demonstrate IBNS on two finite Lennard-Jones systems and confirm the results through comparison to parallel tempering Monte Carlo. Temperature-entropy plots are constructed as well as a simple pressure-temperature phase diagram for each system. We further demonstrate IBNS by computing part of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of a Lennard-Jones system under periodic boundary conditions.

  14. TWO SUPER-EARTHS ORBITING THE SOLAR ANALOG HD 41248 ON THE EDGE OF A 7:5 MEAN MOTION RESONANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile); Tuomi, M. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Brasser, R. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ivanyuk, O. [Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotnoho, Kyiv 127 03680 (Ukraine); Murgas, F., E-mail: jjenkins@das.uchile.cl [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    There are a growing number of multi-planet systems known to be orbiting their host stars with orbital periods that place them in mean motion resonances (MMRs). These systems are generally in first-order resonances and dynamical studies have focused their efforts on understanding the origin and evolution of such dynamically resonant commensurabilities. Here we report the discovery of two super-Earths that are close to a second-order dynamical resonance orbiting the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -0.43 dex) and inactive G2V star HD 41428. We analyzed 62 HARPS archival radial velocities for this star that, until now, exhibited no evidence for planetary companions. Using our new Bayesian Doppler signal detection algorithm, we find two significant signals in the data, with periods of 18.357 days and 25.648 days, indicating they could be part of a 7:5 second-order MMR. Both semi-amplitudes are below 3 m s{sup -1} and the minimum masses of the pair are 12.3 and 8.6 M{sub Circled-Plus }, respectively. Our simulations found that apsidal alignment stabilizes the system, and even though libration of the resonant angles was not seen, the system is affected by the presence of the resonance and could still occupy the 7:5 commensurability, which would be the first planetary configuration in such a dynamical resonance. Given the multitude of low-mass multi-planet systems that will be discovered in the coming years, we expect that more of these second-order resonant configurations will emerge from the data, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the dynamical interactions between forming planetesimals.

  15. Fast separation of isobars on ISOL facility collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatility of Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, some rare earth elements, Ra, Ac and Th, implantated in a tantalum collector with 45 keV energy is investigated. The collector heating during 180 s in vacuum results in the separation of implantated elements. Separation coefficients are as follows: sup(α)Sr/Rb=14/1390 K/, sup(α)Y/Sr=28/1680 K/, sup(α)La/Ba=8/1590 K/, sup(α)Sm/Eu=3/1470 K/, sup(α)Gd/Eu=22/1620 K/, sup(α)Tm/Yb=8/1600 K/, sup(α)Lu/Yb=38/1700 K/ and sup(α)Ac/Ra=sup(α)Th/Ra=030/1650 K/. The contributions of diffusion and desorption to the volatility process of implantated elements and prospects for application of the proposed method for separation of isobars on ISOL Facility collector are discussed

  16. The isobaric multiplet mass equation for A≤71 revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate mass determination of short-lived nuclides by Penning-trap spectrometers and progress in the spectroscopy of proton-rich nuclei have triggered renewed interest in the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME). The energy levels of the members of T=1/2,1,3/2, and 2 multiplets and the coefficients of the IMME are tabulated for A≤71. The new compilation is based on the most recent mass evaluation (AME2011) and it includes the experimental results on energies of the states evaluated up to end of 2011. Taking into account the error bars, a significant deviation from the quadratic form of the IMME for the A=9,35 quartets and the A=32 quintet is observed

  17. Electromagnetic properties of the nucleon and Delta(1232)-isobar in chiral EFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent lattice QCD and baryon chiral perturbation theory results show some discrepancies, e.g. in the nucleon iso-vector Pauli- and Dirac-radii. In this talk we discuss present progress in the study of the pion-mass and volume dependence of nucleon and Delta(1232)-isobar electromagnetic observables, namely: the nucleon iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment, Dirac- and Pauli-radii and the Delta(1232)-isobar electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole and magnetic octupole moments. In the case of the Delta(1232)-isobar we confront the situation of unstable particles in an external electromagnetic field.

  18. Biosynthesis of Fluorinated Analogs of Drugs Using Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Followed by Deoxyfluorination and Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Improve Metabolic Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obach, R Scott; Walker, Gregory S; Brodney, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Replacement of hydrogen with fluorine is a useful drug design strategy when decreases in cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolic lability are needed. In this paper, a facile two-step method of inserting fluorine into metabolically labile sites of drug molecules is described that utilizes less than 1 mg of starting material and quantitative NMR spectroscopy to ascertain the structures and concentrations of products. In the first step, hydroxyl metabolites are biosynthesized using human P450 enzymes, and in the second step these metabolites are subjected to deoxyfluorination using diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST). The method is demonstrated using midazolam, celecoxib, ramelteon, and risperidone as examples and CYP3A5, 2C9, 1A2, and 2D6 to catalyze the hydroxylations. The drugs and their fluoro analogs were tested for metabolic lability. 9-Fluororisperidone and 4'-fluorocelecoxib were 16 and 4 times more metabolically stable than risperidone and celecoxib, respectively, and 2-fluororamelteon and ramelteon were metabolized at the same rate. 1'-Fluoromidazolam was metabolized at the same rate as midazolam by CYP3A4 but was more stable in CYP3A5 incubations. The P450-catalyzed sites of metabolism of the fluorine-containing analogs were determined. Some of the metabolites arose via metabolism at the fluorine-substituted carbon, wherein the fluorine was lost to yield aldehydes. In summary, this method offers an approach whereby fluorine can be substituted in metabolically labile sites, and the products can be tested to determine whether an enhancement in metabolic stability was obtained. PMID:26921388

  19. Analog model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to devices for modelling the space-dependent kinetics of a nuclear reactor. It can be advantageously used in studying the dynamics of the neutron field in the core to determine the effect of the control rods on the power distribution in the core, for training purposes. The proposed analog model of a nuclear reactor comprises operational amplifiers and a grid of resistors simulating neutron diffusion. Connected to the grid nodes are supply resistors modelling absorption and multiplication of neutrons. This is achieved by that, in the proposed model, all resistors through which power is supplied to the grid nodes are interconnected by their other leads and coupled to the output of the amplifier unit common for all nodes. Therewith, the amlifier unit models the transfer function of a ''point'' reactor. Connected to the input of this unit which includes two to four amplifiers are resistors for addition of signals with a grid node. Coupled to the grid nodes via additional resistors are voltage sources simulating reactivity

  20. Test the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Ma, Guo-Liang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may contain local domains in which P and CP symmetries are not preserved. When coupled with an external magnetic field, such P- and CP-odd domains will generate electric currents along the magnetic field --- a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Recently, the STAR Collaboration at RHIC and the ALICE Collaboration at the LHC released data of charge-dependent azimuthal-angle correlators with features consistent with the CME expectation. However, the experimental observable is contaminated with significant background contributions from elliptic-flow-driven effects, which makes the interpretation of the data ambiguous. In this Letter, we show that the collisions of isobaric nuclei, $^{96}_{44}$Ru + $^{96}_{44}$Ru and $^{96}_{40}$Zr + $^{96}_{40}$Zr, provide an ideal tool to disentangle the CME signal from the background effects. Our simulation demonstrates that the two collision types at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=200$ GeV have more than...

  1. Theoretical estimation of the isobaric heat capacity cp of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on theory of equation of state and residual function method, a theoretical development for estimating the isobaric heat capacity cp of refrigerant is carried out. Regarding cp as a derived thermodynamic property, then according to the general relation of the thermodynamics, two formulas for calculating cp of real fluid are derived from cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state (P-REoS) and modificatory Martin-Hou equation of state (M-H81EoS). Ten pure refrigerants and four mixed refrigerants are chosen to make detailed numerical calculation and theoretical analysis. A wide comparison with experimental data is made, a conclusion can be drawn that in vapor-phase region, the estimation precision is about 3% for both equation modelings; while in liquid-phase region, M-H81EoS modeling has predominance with an estimation precision of less than 10%. Moreover, comparison of cp values between estimated ones and that derived from popular REFPROP software is also conducted, the distribution of cp along with temperature are investigated for vapor and liquid phase respectively. The results show that all cp values present a monotonically increasing trend with temperature

  2. The three-nucleon bound state with isobaric and pionic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wave function components containing a single Δ-isobar are included in the calculation of the three-nucleon bound states. The two-nucleon interaction acts in all partial waves up to total angular momentum I=2. The presence of a Δ-isobar increases the three-nucleon binding energy by about 0.3 MeV, 0.6 MeV repulsion being a dispersive two-body effect, 0.9 MeV attraction arising from the three-nucleon force with intermediate Δ-isobar. The effect of the Δ on the three-nucleon charge and magnetic form factors is investigated. The possibility of treating the Δ-isobar as a dynamic pion-nucleon system in nuclear structure and nuclear-structure corrections beyond single Δ excitation in the coupled channel approach are also discussed

  3. Significance of isobaric interferences in Hf isotopic analyses of geological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    - : I C P Information Newsletter, Inc, 2005. W51-W51. [European Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry WINTER 2005. 30.01.2005-03.02.2005, Budapest] Keywords : isobaric interferences * Hf isotopes * analytical uncertainties Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  4. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nesenchuk; A. Begliak; T. Ryzhova; D. Shklovchik; V. Begliak; A. Аbrazovsky

    2014-01-01

    The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  5. On the polarization effects in (p,n) reactions between the A=48 isobarical states

    OpenAIRE

    Isakov, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopical dependence of spin-orbit splitting discovered by us in spectra of heavy nuclei close to doubly magic ones is checked in polarization effects arising in charge exchange (p,n) reaction between the A=48 isobarical states.

  6. Undesirable charge-enhancement of isobaric tagged phosphopeptides leads to reduced identification efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Kjeldsen, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    labeling of proteins and peptides for in vitro cell culture systems (stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture, SILAC) or isobaric peptide labels such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tags (TMT) for both in vitro and in vivo systems. These...... quantitation strategies have also been successfully applied to phosphoproteomics studies for the investigation of signal transduction pathways. Here we describe major drawbacks associated with isobaric labeling for the identification and quantitation of phosphopeptides using electrospray tandem mass...... spectrometry. Phosphopeptide derivatization with isobaric tags results in significantly greater charging in electrospray ionization. This reduces phosphopeptide identification efficiency with multistage activation and HCD MS/MS by more than 50% and may contribute to the discrepancy observed between...

  7. Isobaric expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to quantum size effects (QSEs), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility well defined for macroscopic systems are invalid for finite-size systems. The two parameters are redefined and calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas confined in a rectangular container. It is found that the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are generally anisotropic, i.e., they are generally different in different directions. Moreover, it is found the thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions under the condition that the pressures in all directions are kept constant. - Highlights: • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal compressibility are redefined. • The two parameters are calculated for a finite-size ideal Fermi gas. • The two parameters are generally anisotropic for a finite-size system. • Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient may be negative in some directions

  8. Successive approximation-like 4-bit full-optical analog-to-digital converter based on Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavousi, Alireza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Saffari, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Implementing of photonic sampling and quantizing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enable us to extract a single binary word from optical signals without need for extra electronic assisting parts. This would enormously increase the sampling and quantizing time as well as decreasing the consumed power. To this end, based on the concept of successive approximation method, a 4-bit full-optical ADC that operates using the intensity-dependent Kerr-like nonlinearity in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) platform is proposed. The Silicon (Si) nanocrystal is chosen because of the suitable nonlinear material characteristic. An optical limiter is used for the clamping and quantization of each successive levels that represent the ADC bits. In the proposal, an energy efficient optical ADC circuit is implemented by controlling the system parameters such as ring-to-waveguide coupling coefficients, the ring's nonlinear refractive index, and the ring's length. The performance of the ADC structure is verified by the simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  9. Trinucleon photonuclear reactions with $\\Delta$-isobar excitation: Processes below pion-production threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A.; Yuan, L. P.; Adam Jr., J.; Fonseca, A.C.; Sauer, P. U.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative nucleon-deuteron capture and two- and three-body photo disintegration of the three-nucleon bound state are described. The description uses the purely nucleonic charge-dependent CD-Bonn potential and its coupled-channel extension CD Bonn + $\\Delta$. The $\\Delta$-isobar excitation yields an effective three-nucleon force and effective two- and three-nucleon currents besides other $\\Delta$-isobar effects; they are mutually consistent. Exact solutions of three-particle equations are empl...

  10. Photoproduction of $\\pi^+p$ Pairs on the $^{16}$O Nucleus and Isobar Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Glavanakov, I.; Grabmayer, P.; Krechetov, Yu.; Tabachenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    The yield of the $^{16}$O$(\\gamma ,\\pi^{+} p)$ reaction has been measured in the region of the excitation of the $\\Delta(1232)$ isobar at high momentum transfers to the residual nuclear system. The experimental data are interpreted within the model taking into account of isobar configurations in the ground state of the $^{16}$O nucleus. Direct and exchange mechanisms of the production of pions with emission of one and two nucleons, which follow from the structures of the density matrices for ...

  11. MS3 eliminates ratio distortion in isobaric labeling-based multiplexed quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Lily; Rad, Ramin; Gygi, Steven P.; Haas, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics is highly versatile, but not easily multiplexed. Isobaric labeling strategies allow mass spectrometry-based multiplexed proteome quantification; however, ratio distortion due to protein quantification interference is a common effect. We present a multi-proteome model (mixture of human and yeast proteins) in a 6-plex isobaric labeling system to fully document the interference effect, and we report that a multistage MS3-based approach almost compl...

  12. The dependence of isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates in liquid phase on their temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhovich Y. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the thermo-physical properties of liquids gives an opportunity of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of condensed matter theory, phase transitions and critical phenomena. To forecast the thermo-dynamic properties of liquid natural hydrocarbons one must know the basic heat-physical characteristics in a wide range of condition parameters. We have researched specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of gas condensates of Oposhnyanskoye, Solokhovskoye, Bukharskoye, Rybalskoye, Stavropolskoye, Schebelinskoye and Yubileinoye deposits theoretically and experimentally. These substances were in liquid phase on pseudo-critical isobar in the range of temperatures from minus 40 till 100 °C. In the article the findings of the investigation are presented. The mean relative experimental error doesn’t exceed ± 1.5 %, with reliability 0.95. The universal equation expressing specific isobaric thermal heat capacity as the function of temperature and molar mass has been obtained. It describes specific isobaric thermal heat capacity on pseudo-critical isobar for investigated natural hydrocarbons with the mean relative error, which does not exceed ± 1.65 %. The use of the equation for the calculation of specific isobaric thermal heat capacity of the substances of other deposits is recommended

  13. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  14. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  15. The gas-filled magnet: An isobar separator for accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most difficult problem for accelerator mass spectrometry is the rejection of stable atomic isobars. The intensity of isobaric interference is expected to become a problem for 36Cl measurements with the use of new high-intensity ion sources. Although better chemical separation may be possible through improved sample preparation, the device expected to help most with this problem is the gas-filled magnet. We tested a gas-filled Enge split-pole spectrograph combined with a multi-plate gas ionization detector for the separation of 36S from 36Cl and obtained an isobar separation of about two orders of magnitude better than that possible with the detector alone. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Calculation of the saturation properties of symmetrical nuclear matter with inclusion of & Delta -isobar

    OpenAIRE

    Bordbar, G. H.

    2001-01-01

      One of the most interesting application of the many-body methods to the nuclear physics is the calculation of the properties of the nuclear matter, especially its binding energy. In this paper, we have studied the influence of Δ -isobar on the properties of the symmetrical nuclear matter using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the V28 potential. It is shown that the inclusion of Δ- isobar substantially affect the saturation properties of the symmetrical nuclear mat...

  17. Effect of particle fluctuation on isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio of nuclear multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, S

    2016-01-01

    Isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio parameters are compared from canonical and grand canonical ensembles when applied to multifragmentation of finite nuclei. Source dependence of isoscaling parameters and source and isospin dependence of isobaric yield ratio parameters are examined in the framework of the canonical and the grand canonical models. It is found that as the nucleus fragments more, results from both the ensembles converge and observables calculated from the canonical ensemble coincide more with those obtained from the formulae derived using the grand canonical ensemble.

  18. Superconducting circuit probe for analog quantum simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang-Hui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Analog quantum simulators can be used to study quantum correlation in novel many-body systems by emulating the Hamiltonian of these systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is to probe the properties of an emulated many-body system. Here we present a circuit QED scheme for probing such properties by measuring the spectrum of a superconducting resonator coupled to a quantum simulator. We first study a general framework of this approach and show that the spectrum of the resonator is directly related to the correlation function of the coupling operator between the resonator and the simulator. We then apply this scheme to a simulator of the transverse field Ising model implemented with superconducting qubits, where the resonance peaks in the resonator spectrum correspond to the frequencies of the elementary excitations. The effects of resonator damping, qubit decoherence, and resonator backaction are also discussed. This setup can be used to probe a broad range of many-body models.

  19. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  20. Isospin Mixing Reveals $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Resonance Influencing Nova Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Liddick, S N; Pérez-Loureiro, D; Bardayan, D W; Chen, A A; Chipps, K A; Fry, C; Glassman, B E; Langer, C; Larson, N R; McNeice, E I; Meisel, Z; Ong, W; O'Malley, P; Pain, S D; Prokop, C; Schatz, H; Schwartz, S B; Suchyta, S; Thompson, P; Walters, M; Xu, X

    2016-01-01

    The thermonuclear $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final elemental and isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, which affect the calibration of proposed nova thermometers and the identification of presolar nova grains, respectively. Unfortunately, the rate of this reaction is essentially unconstrained experimentally, because the strengths of key $^{31}$S proton capture resonance states are not known, largely due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using the $\\beta$ decay of $^{31}$Cl, we have observed the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$ decay of a $^{31}$S state at $E_x = 6390.2(7)$ keV, with a $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S resonance energy of $E_r = 259.3(8)$ keV, in the middle of the $^{30}$P($p,\\gamma$)$^{31}$S Gamow window for peak nova temperatures. This state exhibits isospin mixing with the nearby isobaric analog state (IAS) at $E_x = 6279.0(6)$ keV, giving it an unambiguous spin and parity of $3/2^+$ and making it an important $l = 0$ resonance for prot...

  1. Masses and mean-square charge radii of isobaric 4p-quintet members with 36≤A≤64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formulaes which allowed to calculate masses and mean-square charge radii of the members of isobaric 4p-quintets with 36≤A≤64 are derived on the basis of the rule of the equidistance of isobaric multiplet member separation (fission) energies

  2. Charge-exchange resonances and restoration of the Wigner SU(4)-symmetry in heavy and superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lutostansky, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    Energies of the giant Gamow-Teller and analog resonances - $E_{\\rm G}$ and $E_{\\rm A}$, are presented, calculated using the microscopic theory of finite Fermi system. The calculated differences $\\Delta E_{\\rm G-A}=E_{\\rm G}-E_{\\rm A}$ go to zero in heavier nuclei indicating the restoration of Wigner SU(4)-symmetry. The calculated $\\Delta E_{\\rm G-A}$ values are in good agreement with the experimental data. The average deviation is 0.30 MeV for the 33 considered nuclei for which experimental data is available. The $\\Delta E_{\\rm G-A}$ values were calculated for heavy and superheavy nuclei up to the mass number $A $= 290. Using the experimental data for the analog resonances energies, the isotopic dependence of the difference of the Coulomb energies of neighboring nuclei isobars analyzed within the SU(4)-approach for more than 400 nuclei in the mass number range of $A$ = 3 - 244. The Wigner SU(4)-symmetry restoration for heavy and superheavy nuclei is confirmed. It is shown that the restoration of SU(4)-symmetr...

  3. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  4. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  5. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2016-01-01

    divided into Experimental group and Control group, 60 patients in each group. The patients of Experimental group were treated using bidirectional isobaric drainage radical resection, i.e., moving internal orifice of the fistula up and making another opening at top end of fistula penetrating to the rectal...

  6. Nuclear charge and isobar separation in a gas-filled enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sepration technique is based on the fact that charge-changing processes of an ion in a gas, if they occur frequently enough in a magnetic field region, lead to trajectories determined by the average charge state of the ion in the gas. The technique has been used to separate isobaric 58Ni and 58Fe ions. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Improved Thermometer from Intermediate Mass Fragments in Heavy-Ion Collisions with Isobaric Yield Ratio Difference

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Qiao, Chun-Yuan; Cao, Xi-Guang

    2015-01-01

    \\item[Background] Temperature is an important parameter in studying many important questions in heavy-ion collisions. A thermometer based on the isobaric yield ratio (IYR) has been proposed [Ma \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. C \\textbf{86}, 054611 (2012) and Ma \\textit{et al.}, \\textit{ibid.}, Phys. Rev. C \\textbf{88}, 014609 (2013)]. \\item[Purpose] An improved thermometer ($T_{IB}$) is proposed based on the difference between IYRs. $T_{IB}$ obtained from isobars in different reactions will be compared. \\item[Methods] The yields of three isobars are employed in $T_{IB}$. The residual free energy of the three isobars are replaced by that of the binding energy. No secondary decay modification for odd $A$ fragment is used in $T_{IB}$. \\item[Results] The measured fragment yields in the 140$A$ MeV $^{40, 48}$Ca + $^{9}$Be ($^{181}$Ta) and $^{58, 64}$Ni + $^9$Be ($^{181}$Ta), the 1$A$ GeV $^{124, 136}$Xe + Pb, and the $^{112,124}$Sn + $^{112,124}$Sn reactions have been analyzed to obtain $T_{IB}$ from IMFs. $T_{IB}$ fr...

  8. Differential quantification of isobaric phosphopeptides using data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, Simone; Fujiwara, Rina; Kulej, Katarzyna; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-07-19

    Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) fundamental for processes such as signal transduction and enzyme activity. We propose to apply data-independent acquisition (DIA) using mass spectrometry (MS) to determine unexplored phosphorylation events on isobarically modified peptides. Such peptides are commonly not quantitatively discriminated in phosphoproteomics due to their identical mass. PMID:27301801

  9. Strategies for differentiation of isobaric flavonoids using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Mikael E; Sjöberg, Per J R

    2014-07-01

    Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites existing in great variety in nature. Due to this variety, identification can be difficult, especially as overlapping compounds in both chromatographic separations and mass spectrometric detection are common. Methods for distinguishing isobaric flavonoids using MS(2) and MS(3) have been developed. Chromatographic separation of various plant extracts was done with RP-HPLC and detected with positive ESI-MS operated in information-dependent acquisition (IDA) mode. Two methods for the determination of flavonoid identity and substitution pattern, both featuring IDA criteria, were used together with the HPLC equipment. A third method where the collision energy was ramped utilized direct infusion. With the developed strategies, it is possible to differentiate between many isobaric flavonoids. Various classes of flavonoids were found in all of the plant extracts, in the red onion extract 45 components were detected and for 29 of them the aglycone was characterized, while the substituents were tentatively identified for 31 of them. For the strawberry extract, those numbers were 66, 30 and 60, and for the cherry extract 99, 56 and 71. The great variety of flavonoids, several of them isobaric, found in each of the extracts highlights the need for reliable methods for flavonoid characterization. Methods capable of differentiating between most of the isobars analyzed have been developed. PMID:25044850

  10. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  11. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the antianalog giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; Csatlós, M; Algora, A; Gulyás, J; Timár, J; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Boretzky, K; Heil, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Rossi, D; Scheidenberger, C; Simon, H; Weick, H; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Blasi, N; Camera, F; Giaz, A; Million, B; Pellegri, L; Riboldi, S; Wieland, O; Altstadt, S; Fonseca, M; Glorius, J; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Koloczek, A; Kräckmann, S; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Rastrepina, G; Reifarth, R; Schmidt, S; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Harakeh, M N; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Rigollet, C; Bagchi, S; Najafi, M A; Aumann, T; Atar, L; Heine, M; Holl, M; Movsesyan, A; Schrock, P; Volkov, V; Wamers, F; Fiori, E; Löher, B; Marganiec, J; Savaran, D; Johansson, H T; Fernández, P Diaz; Garg, U; Balabanski, D L

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutron-skin thickness (\\DeltaR_(pn)). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the \\DeltaR_(pn) value for 124Sn was deduced to be 0.18 \\pm 0.02 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The energy of the AGDR measured previously for ^(208)Pb was also used to determine the \\DeltaR_(pn) for ^(208)Pb. In this way a very precise \\DeltaR_(pn) = 0.18 \\pm 0.02 neutron-skin thickness has been obtained for 208Pb. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  12. Applications of resonance ionization spectroscopy to ultralow-level counting and mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to directly detect a daughter atom, using resonance ionization spectroscopy, in delayed time coincidence with the decay of a parent species promises to drastically reduce the background in low-level counting experiments. Resonance ionization can also be used as an ion source for a mass spectrometer system that is capable of discriminating between isobars

  13. The Dynamical Structure of the Delta-Resonance and its Effect on Two- and Three-Nucleon Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kortemeyer, G.; Pena, M. T.; Sauer, P. U.; Stadler, A.

    1996-01-01

    The pion-nucleon interaction in the P33 partial wave is assumed to proceed simultaneously through the excitation of the Delta-isobar and through a phenomenologically introduced non-resonant background potential. The introduction of the background potential allows a more realistic parameterization of the pion-nucleon-Delta vertex compared with the previously used one without background. It also modifies the propagation of the Delta-isobar in the nuclear medium and gives rise to novel effective...

  14. Insulin analogs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSciacca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, insulin analogs are used in millions of diabetic patients. Insulin analogs have been developed to achieve more physiological insulin replacement in terms of time course of the effect. Modifications in the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the analogs in respect to human insulin. However, these changes can also modify the molecular and biological effects of the analogs. The rapid-acting insulin analogs, lispro, aspart and glulisine, have a rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir have a protracted duration of action and a relatively smooth serum concentration profile. Insulin and its analogs may function as growth factors and therefore have a theoretical potential to promote tumor proliferation. A major question is whether analogs have an increased mitogenic activity in respect to insulin. These ligands can promote cell proliferation through many mechanisms like the prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R, prevalent activation of the ERK rather than the AKT intracellular post-receptor pathways. Studies on in vitro models indicate that short-acting analogs elicit molecular and biological effects that are similar to those of insulin. In contrast, long-acting analogs behave differently. Although not all data are homogeneous, both glargine and detemir have been found to have a decreased binding to IR but an increased binding to IGF-1R, a prevalent activation of the ERK pathway, and an increased mitogenic effect in respect to insulin. Recent retrospective epidemiological clinical studies have suggested that treatment with long-acting analogs (specifically glargine may increase the relative risk for cancer. Results are controversial and methodologically weak. Therefore prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the possible tumor growth-promoting effects of these insulin

  15. The Analogical Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Holyoak, Keith J.; Thagard, P.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the use of analogy in human thinking from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory, which postulates three basic types of constraints: similarity, structure and purpose. The operation of these constraints is apparent in both laboratory experiments on analogy and in naturalistic settings, including politics, psychotherapy, and scientific research. We sketch how the multiconstraint theory can be implemented in detailed computational simulations of the analogical human mind.

  16. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  17. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  18. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the $A=20$ quintet

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, B E; Wrede, C; Allen, J; Bardayan, D W; Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Chipps, K A; Febbraro, M; Fry, C; Hall, M R; Hall, O; Liddick, S N; O'Malley, P; Ong, W; Pain, S D; Schwartz, S B; Shidling, P; Sims, H; Thompson, P; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=20$, $T=2$ quintet was recently reported, presenting a challenge to modern theories of nuclear structure. In the present work, the excitation energy of the lowest $T = 2$ state in $^{20}$Na has been measured to be $6498.4 \\pm 0.2_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.4_{\\textrm{syst}}$ keV by using the superallowed $0^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$ beta decay of $^{20}$Mg to access it and an array of high-purity germanium detectors to detect its $\\gamma$-ray deexcitation. This value differs by 27 keV (1.9 standard deviations) from the recommended value of $6525 \\pm 14$ keV and is a factor of 28 more precise. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is shown to be revalidated when the new value is adopted.

  19. Metric-tensor flexible-cell algorithm for isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E

    2001-01-01

    An extended Hamiltonian approach to conduct isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations with full cell flexibility is presented. The components of the metric tensor are used as the fictitious degrees of freedom for the cell, thus avoiding the problem of spurious cell rotations and artificial symmetry breaking effects present in the original Parrinello-Rahman scheme. This is complemented by the Nose-Poincare approach for isothermal sampling. The combination of these two approaches leads to equations of motion that are Hamiltonian in structure, and which can therefore be solved numerically using recently developed powerful symplectic integrators. One such integrator, the generalised leap-frog, is employed to provide a numerical algorithm for integrating the isothermal-isobaric equations of motion obtained.

  20. Calculation of the saturation properties of symmetrical nuclear matter with inclusion of & Delta -isobar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Bordbar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   One of the most interesting application of the many-body methods to the nuclear physics is the calculation of the properties of the nuclear matter, especially its binding energy. In this paper, we have studied the influence of Δ -isobar on the properties of the symmetrical nuclear matter using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV method with the V28 potential. It is shown that the inclusion of Δ- isobar substantially affect the saturation properties of the symmetrical nuclear matter. We have shown that, at low (high densities, the saturation curve of nuclear matter is shifted downward (upward. This is due to the fact that the repulsive effect of the V28 potential increases by increasing density. It is seen that the equation of state of nuclear matter with the V28 potential is much harder than those with the A V14 potential.

  1. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation as An Effect of the Isospin-Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, J M; Gu, J Z

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of the quadratic form of isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME), presents a long-standing challenge to the existing theoretical models. In particular, recent high-precision nuclear mass measurements have indicated a dramatic failure of the IMME for several isobaric multiplets. We propose a new mechanism that the isospin-projection $T_z$ dependence of the 1st-order symmetry energy coefficient (SEC) drives a significant breakdown of the IMME, where the 1st-order SEC is primarily induced by the isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) of strong nuclear force. Completely different from the existing knowledge, the deviation from the IMME cannot be measured simply by the high-order terms such as cubic term $dT_{z}^3$.

  2. Quantitation of protein post-translational modifications using isobaric tandem mass tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui-Chung; Lahert, Emma; Pike, Ian; Ward, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are known to modulate many cellular processes and their qualitative and quantitative evaluation is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of biological events. Over the past decade, improvements in sample preparation techniques and enrichment strategies, the development of quantitative labeling strategies, the launch of a new generation of mass spectrometers and the creation of bioinformatics tools for the interrogation of ever larger datasets has established MS-based quantitative proteomics as a powerful workflow for global proteomics, PTM analysis and the elucidation of key biological mechanisms. With the advantage of their multiplexing capacity and the flexibility of an ever-growing family of different peptide-reactive groups, isobaric tandem mass tags facilitate quantitative proteomics and PTM experiments and enable higher sample throughput. In this review, we focus on the technical concept and utility of the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling approach to PTM analysis, including phosphorylation, glycosylation and S-nitrosylation. PMID:25697195

  3. Isobaric Heat Capacity, Isothermal Compressibility and Fluctuational Properties of 1-Bromoalkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkovskii, V. I.; Ryshkova, O. S.; Neruchev, Yu. A.; Goncharov, A. L.; Postnikov, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of the experimental measurements of the isobaric heat capacity for 1-bromohexane, 1-bromoheptane, 1-bromooctane, 1-bromononane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-bromododecane and 1-bromotetradecane at normal pressure and the speed of sound and the density for 1-bromotetradecane within the temperature range 298.15-423.15 K. These data on the isobaric heat capacity and the literature-based reference data for the density and the speed of sound were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility and the inverse reduced fluctuations. Based on the comparison of the results for pure n-alkanes and α ,ω -dibromoalkanes, we discuss the influence of bromine atom on the volume fluctuations.

  4. Isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and fluctuational properties of 1-bromoalkanes

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkovskii, V I; Neruchev, Yu A; Goncharov, A L; Postnikov, E B

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the experimental measurements of the isobaric heat capacity for 1-bromohexane, 1-bromoheptane, 1-bromooctane, 1-bromononane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-bromododecane and 1-bromo-tetradecane at normal pressure and the speed of sound and the density for 1-bromotetradecane within the temperature range 298.15--423.15~K. These data on the isobaric heat capacity and the literature-based reference data for the density and the speed of sound were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility and the inverse reduced fluctuations. Based on the comparison of the results for pure n-alkanes and $\\alpha,\\omega$-dibromoalkanes, we discuss the influence of bromine atom on the volume fluctuations.

  5. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic abundance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is a relatively new laser-based technique for the determination of isotopic abundances. The resonance ionization process depends upon the stepwise absorption of photons from the laser, promoting atoms of the element of interest through progressively higher electronic states until an ion is formed. Sensitivity arises from the efficiency of the resonant absorption process when coupled with the power available from commercial laser sources. Selectivity derives naturally from the distinct electronic structure of different elements. This isobaric discrimination has provided the major impetus for development of the technique. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry was used for analysis of the isotopic abundances of the rare earth lutetium. Isobaric interferences from ytterbium severely effect the ability to measure small amounts of the neutron-deficient Lu isotopes by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Resonance ionization for lutetium is performed using a continuous-wave laser operating at 452 nm, through a sequential two-photon process, with one photon exciting the intermediate resonance and the second photon causing ionization. Ion yields for microgram-sized quantities of lutetium lie between 10(6) and 10(7) ions per second, at overall ionization efficiencies approaching 10(-4). Discrimination factors against ytterbium greater than 10(6) have been measured. Resonance ionization for technetium is also being explored, again in response to an isobaric interference, molybdenum. Because of the relatively high ionization potential for Tc, three-photon, two-color RIMS processes are being developed.

  6. A regression model for calculating the boiling point isobars of tetrachloromethane-based binary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobrazhenskii, M. P.; Rudakov, O. B.

    2016-01-01

    A regression model for calculating the boiling point isobars of tetrachloromethane-organic solvent binary homogeneous systems is proposed. The parameters of the model proposed were calculated for a series of solutions. The correlation between the nonadditivity parameter of the regression model and the hydrophobicity criterion of the organic solvent is established. The parameter value of the proposed model is shown to allow prediction of the potential formation of azeotropic mixtures of solvents with tetrachloromethane.

  7. Strategies for differentiation of isobaric flavonoids using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Fridén, Mikael E; Sjöberg, Per J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites existing in great variety in nature. Due to this variety, identification can be difficult, especially as overlapping compounds in both chromatographic separations and mass spectrometric detection are common. Methods for distinguishing isobaric flavonoids using MS2 and MS3 have been developed. Chromatographic separation of various plant extracts was done with RP-HPLC and detected with positive ESI-MS operated in information-dependent acquis...

  8. Transverse electron scattering response function of $^3$He with $\\Delta$-isobar degrees of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Luping; Efros, Victor D.; Leidemann, Winfried; Tomusiak, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    A calculation of the $^3$He transverse $(e,e')$ inclusive response function, $R_T$, which includes $\\Delta$ degrees of freedom is performed using the Lorentz integral transform method. The resulting coupled equations are treated in impulse approximation, where the $NNN$ and $NN\\Delta$ channels are solved separately. As NN and NNN potentials we use the Argonne V18 and UrbanaIX models respectively. Electromagnetic currents include the $\\Delta$-isobar currents, one-body N-currents with relativis...

  9. Delta-isobar relativistic meson exchange currents in quasielastic electron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Molinari, A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the role of the $\\Delta$-isobar current on the response functions for high energy inclusive quasielastic electron scattering from nuclei. We consider a general Lagrangian which is compatible with contact invariance and perform a fully relativistic calculation in first-order perturbation theory for one-particle emission. The dependence of the responses upon off-shell parametrizations is analyzed and found to be mild. A discussion of scaling behaviour and a comparison with various non-...

  10. Delta(1232) isobar excitations in nuclear many-body systems from varios NN interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, T; Kaiser, S.; Müther, Herbert; Polls Martí, Artur

    2001-01-01

    $\\Delta$ isobar components in the nuclear many-body wave function are investigated for the deuteron, light nuclei (${}^{16}O$) and infinite nuclear matter within the framework of the coupled-cluster theory. The predictions derived for various realistic models of the baryon-baryon interaction are compared to each other. These include local ($V28$) and non-local meson exchange potentials (Bonn$_{2000}$) but also a model recently derived by the Salamanca group accounting for quark degrees of fre...

  11. Study of $\\Delta(1232)$ isobar electroproduction at VEPP-2M $e^+e^-$ collider

    OpenAIRE

    Achasov, M. N.; Bozhenok, A. V.; Bukin, A.D.; Bukin, D. A.; Burdin, S. V.; Dimova, T. V.; Dolinsky, S. I.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Gaponenko, I. A.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.(Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia); Korol, A.A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Lysenko, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    Results from the Spherical Nonmagnetic Detector (SND) on $\\Delta (1232)$ isobar electroproduction in the collisions of beam electrons (positrons) and residual gas nuclei in the VEPP-2M $e^+e^-$ collider are presented. On the basis of the obtained data the expected counting rate of this process in future high luminosity $e^+e^-$ colliders (~$\\phi$-, $c$-$\\tau$- and $b$-factories) was estimated.

  12. Densities, viscosities, and isobaric heat capacities of the system (1-butanol + cyclohexane) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The densities of cyclohexane and its mixtures with 1-butanol were measured. • The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated. • The viscosities were measured at atmospheric pressure. • The isobaric heat capacities were measured at p = (0.1 to 25) MPa at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K. • A positive deviation from the ideal behavior is observed. - Abstract: The cyclohexane and the system of 1-butanol + cyclohexane have been characterized using densities, viscosities and isobaric heat capacities measurements. For that, the densities were measured in a high-pressure vibrating tube densimeter at five temperatures from (293.15 to 333.15) K and pressures up to 100 MPa. The measurements were correlated with the empirical Tamman–Tait equation. Moreover, the isobaric heat capacities of the binary system were measured in a high-pressure automated flow calorimeter at T = (293.15 and 313.15) K and pressures up to 25 MPa for pure cyclohexane and in admixture with 1-butanol. The excess molar heat capacities were assessed for the mixture and a positive deviation from the ideality was obtained, except for a small part in the region rich in alkanol. The viscosity measurements were carried out, at the calorimeter conditions, for correcting the experimental values of isobaric heat capacities due to friction along the tube. The viscosity was measured at atmospheric pressure in a Stabinger Anton Paar SVM 3000 viscometer in the temperature range of (293.15 to 333.15) K for cyclohexane and the mixtures. At high pressure, the viscosities were estimated using Lucas method

  13. Analysis of Meson Exchange and Isobar Currents in (e,e'p) Reactions from O-16

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, J. E.; Lallena, A. M.; Caballero, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of meson exchange and isobar currents in exclusive (e,e'p) processes from O-16 under quasi-free kinematics is presented. A model that has probed its feasibility for inclusive quasi-elastic (e,e') processes is considered. Sensitivity to final state interactions between the outgoing proton and the residual nucleus is discussed by comparing the results obtained with phenomenological optical potentials and a continuum nuclear shell-model calculation. The contribution of...

  14. The role of the Delta isobar in chiral perturbation theory and hedgehog soliton models

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Thomas D.; Broniowski, Wojciech

    1992-01-01

    Hedgehog model predictions for the leading nonanalytic behavior (in $m^{2}_{\\pi }$) of certain observables are shown to agree with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory up to an overall factor which depends on the operator. This factor can be understood in terms of contributions of the $\\Delta$ isobar in chiral loops. These physically motivated contributions are analyzed in an expansion in which both $m_{\\pi}$ and $M_{\\Delta}-M_N$ are taken as small parameters, and are shown to yield ...

  15. Analysis of $\\Delta^{+}(1232)$ Isobar Observables, with Improved Quark Distribution Amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanis, N. G.; Bergmann, M.

    1992-01-01

    A model distribution amplitude for the $\\Delta^{+}(1232)$ isobar is proposed, derived on the basis of the QCD sum-rule calculations of Farrar et al. combined with those of Carlson and Poor. The transition form factor $\\gamma p\\Delta^{+}$ is calculated modeling the proton by selected distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, predictions are made for some exclusive charmonium decays into $\\Delta\\bar{\\Delta}$. The obtained results are compared with other theoretical models and with the available data.

  16. Isobar of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Imtak; Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble, for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulae for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures which reveal an N^{-1/3} or N^{-1/4} power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation,...

  17. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  18. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  19. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  20. Fermion resonance in quantum field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gonchar, M. O.; Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    We derive accurately the fermion resonance propagator by means of Dyson summation of the self-energy contribution. It turns out that the relativistic fermion resonance differs essentially from its boson analog.

  1. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  2. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  3. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  4. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  5. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  6. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  7. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  8. Determination of isobar composition and yields of 239Pu fission-products by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the research nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP Uz AS by means of mass-spectrometer the heavy fission-products of 239Pu nuclei induced by thermal neutrons are measured in ranges of mass Ai = 125 -157, kinetic energies Ek = 45 - 87 MeV and effective ionic charges z* = 18 - 30. 102 isobar nuclei in composition of the measured fission-products, also the partial yields of the each element giving the contribution to formation of a total yield of heavy fission-product with mass Ai are defined. (authors)

  9. Three-pion exchange nucleon-nucleon potentials with virtual $\\Delta$-isobar excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2015-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction arising from the exchange of three pions and the excitation of $\\Delta(1232)$-isobars in intermediate states is studied. Approximating the $\\Delta$-propagator by the inverse $\\Delta$N mass-splitting, analytical expressions are derived for the spectral-functions of the isoscalar and isovector central, spin-spin and tensor NN-potentials in momentum-space. A trans- lation of the spectral-functions into coordinate-space potentials reveals that the main effect of these specific exchange and excitation mechanisms is a repulsive isoscalar central NN-potential.

  10. Photoproduction of the $\\pi N$ pair on nuclei and isobar configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Glavanakov, I. V.; Tabachenko, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    A model of $\\pi N$ pair photoproduction on nuclei at high momentum transfer is presented. The $A(\\gamma,\\pi N)B$ reaction amplitude is obtained by means of an extended impulse approximation, according to which the nuclear wavefunction includes delta-isobar components in addition to nucleon components. A one-particle transition operator is defined in terms of the two-body $\\gamma N\\to\\pi N$ and $\\gamma \\Delta\\to\\pi N$ photoproduction amplitudes. Direct and exchange mechanisms of the nuclear ph...

  11. The Nuclear Response in Delta-Isobar Region in the ($^3\\!$He,t) Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, V. F.

    1992-01-01

    The excitation of a $\\Delta$-isobar in a finite nucleus in charge--exchange ($^3\\!$He,t) reaction is discussed in terms of a nuclear response function. The medium effects modifying a $\\Delta$- and a pion propagation were considered for a finite size nucleus. The Glauber approach has been used for distortion of a $^3\\!$He and a triton in the initial and the final states. The effects determining the peak positions and its width are discussed. Large displacement width for the $\\Delta$ - h excita...

  12. An Isobar Model of e+ e- --> pi+ pi- pi0 pi0

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, John F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, several calculations of the matrix elements for processes that may contribute to e+ e- --> pi+ pi- pi0 pi0 using the isobar model and the Lorentz invariant amplitude method are presented. The formulas may be used to determine the electromagnetic form factors of the rho meson if e+ e- --> rho+ rho- contributes to e+ e- --> pi+ pi- pi0 pi0 The electromagnetic form factors of the rho meson are predicted by QCD calculations. The formulas in this paper may be used to study the a_1 m...

  13. Effects of Δ-isobar degrees of freedom on low-energy electroweak transitions in few-body nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variational wave functions with Δ-isobar components are used to study trinucleon magnetic moments, the Gamow-Teller matrix element of tritium β decay, thermal neutron radiative capture on 3He, and low-energy proton weak capture on 3He. The Δ-isobar components are generated by transition correlation operators acting on realistic nuclear wave functions. These correlations are obtained from a fit to exact two-body ground-state and low-energy scattering solutions for the Argonne v28 and v28Q interaction models, which include Δ-isobar degrees of freedom. Contributions of Δ isobars to electroweak current operators appear at the one-body level in this formalism. Their effect on low-energy electroweak transitions is significantly smaller than that obtained in perturbation theory analyses, where Δ-isobar effects are commonly subsumed into effective two-body current operators. The resulting theoretical cross section for thermal neutron radiative capture on 3He is ∼86 μb, compared to an experimental value of 55±3 μb; the astrophysical S factor for proton weak capture on 3He is predicted to be in the range (1.4--3.2)x10-23 MeV b

  14. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  15. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  16. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  17. Isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations from first principles: Application to liquid water at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; VandeVondele, J; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M

    2004-12-02

    A series of first principles Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble were carried out for liquid water at ambient conditions (T = 298 K and p = 1 atm). The Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) pseudopotentials were employed with the CP2K simulation package to examine systems consisting of 64 water molecules. The fluctuations in the system volume encountered in simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble requires a reconsideration of the suitability of the typical charge density cutoff and the regular grid generation method previously used for the computation of the electrostatic energy in first principles simulations in the microcanonical or canonical ensembles. In particular, it is noted that a much higher cutoff is needed and that the most computationally efficient method of creating grids can result in poor simulations. Analysis of the simulation trajectories using a very large charge density cutoff at 1200 Ry and four different grid generation methods point to a substantially underestimated liquid density of about 0.85 g/cm{sup 3} resulting in a somewhat understructured liquid (with a value of about 2.7 for the height of the first peak in the oxygen/oxygen radial distribution function) for BLYP-GTH water at ambient conditions.

  18. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  19. The MR-TOF-MS isobar separator for the TITAN facility at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesch, Christian; Dickel, Timo, E-mail: t.dickel@gsi.de; Plaß, Wolfgang R. [Justus-Liebig-University (Germany); Short, Devin [Simon Fraser University (Canada); Ayet San Andres, Samuel [Justus-Liebig-University (Germany); Dilling, Jens [TRIUMF (Canada); Geissel, Hans; Greiner, Florian; Lang, Johannes [Justus-Liebig-University (Germany); Leach, Kyle G. [Simon Fraser University (Canada); Lippert, Wayne; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-University (Germany); Yavor, Mikhail I. [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    At TRIUMF’s Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN) a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) will extend TITAN’s capabilities and facilitate mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei that so far have not been possible due to strong isobaric contamination. This MR-TOF-MS will also enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides (half-life > 1 ms) that are produced in very low quantities (a few detected ions overall). In order to allow the installation of an MR-TOF-MS in the restricted space on the platform, on which the TITAN facility is located, novel mass spectrometric methods have been developed. Transport, cooling and distribution of the ions inside the device is done using a buffer gas-filled RFQ-based ion beam switchyard. Mass selection is achieved using a dynamic retrapping technique after time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Only due to the combination of these novel methods the realization of an MR-TOF-MS based isobar separator at TITAN has become possible. The device has been built, commissioned off-line and is currently under installation at TITAN.

  20. The MR-TOF-MS isobar separator for the TITAN facility at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At TRIUMF’s Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN) a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) will extend TITAN’s capabilities and facilitate mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei that so far have not been possible due to strong isobaric contamination. This MR-TOF-MS will also enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides (half-life > 1 ms) that are produced in very low quantities (a few detected ions overall). In order to allow the installation of an MR-TOF-MS in the restricted space on the platform, on which the TITAN facility is located, novel mass spectrometric methods have been developed. Transport, cooling and distribution of the ions inside the device is done using a buffer gas-filled RFQ-based ion beam switchyard. Mass selection is achieved using a dynamic retrapping technique after time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Only due to the combination of these novel methods the realization of an MR-TOF-MS based isobar separator at TITAN has become possible. The device has been built, commissioned off-line and is currently under installation at TITAN

  1. RFQ Reaction Cells for Isobar Separation in AMS: Evolution and Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mass spectrometry of cations, such as Inductively Coupled Plasma-, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-, or Electro-spray-Mass Spectrometry, ion-gas reactions have provided a powerful tool for the elimination of isobars and other unwanted species. The energies usually used in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), even at the injection stage, and the fragility of the anions themselves have presented considerable challenges to using this technique for AMS. Nevertheless, work on a demonstration radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) system at the IsoTrace Laboratory in which the anions are decelerated to energies of several eV before entering the reaction cell has shown isobar suppression factors ranging between 10-4 and 10-7, while, in most cases, retaining reasonable transmission of the analyte anion. This seminar will begin with a review of the influences and ideas leading to the design and building of this prototype and a description of its functionality. A summary of the results obtained using this system, including recent ones which open up new applications for AMS, will follow, along with an outline of the design considerations for a pre-commercial system which is being installed on a second injection line at the Lalonde Laboratory. (author)

  2. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation for the A = 20 and 21 Multiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Andreoiu, C; Bader, A; Chaudhuri, A; Chowdhury, U; Grossheim, A; Klawitter, R; Kwiatkowski, A A; Leach, K G; Lennarz, A; Macdonald, T D; Schultz, B E; Lassen, J; Heggen, H; Raeder, S; Teigelhöfer, A; Brown, B A; Magilligan, A; Holt, J D; Menéndez, J; Simonis, J; Schwenk, A; Dilling, J

    2014-01-01

    Using the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN, we performed the first direct mass measurements of 20,21Mg, isotopes that are the most proton-rich members of the A = 20 and A = 21 isospin multiplets. These measurements were possible through the use of a unique ion-guide laser ion source, a development that suppressed isobaric contamination by six orders of magnitude. Compared to the latest atomic mass evaluation, we find that the mass of 21Mg is in good agreement but that the mass of 20Mg deviates by 3{\\sigma}. These measurements reduce the uncertainties in the masses of 20,21Mg by 15 and 22 times, respectively, resulting in a significant departure from the expected behavior of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in both the A = 20 and A = 21 multiplets. This presents a challenge to shell model calculations using either the isospin non-conserving USDA/B Hamiltonians or isospin non-conserving interactions based on chiral two- and three-nucleon forces.

  3. Evaluated experimental isobaric analogue states from T=1/2 to T=3 and associated IMME coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Isobaric multiplets can be used to provide reliable mass predictions through the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME). Isobaric Analogue States (IAS) for isospin multiplets from T=1/2 to 3 have been studied within the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME2012). Each IAS established from published experimental reaction data has been expressed in the form of a primary reaction Q-value and, when necessary, has been recalibrated. The evaluated IAS masses are provided here along with the associated IMME coefficients. Quadratic and higher order forms of the IMME have been considered, and global trends have been extracted. Particular nuclides requiring experimental investigation have been identified and discussed. This dataset is the most precise and extensive set of evaluated IAS to date.

  4. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  5. Towards analogy in toponyms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Pavel

    Cluj : Mega, 2013 - (Felecan, O.), s. 379-383 ISBN 978-606-543-343-4. [Name and Naming /2./ Onomastics in Contemporary Public Space. Baia Mare (RO), 09.05.2013-11.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P600 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : onomastics * toponyms * analogy Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  6. Polymorphs of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7): Isothermal compression versus isobaric heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Z. A.; Tao, Y.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2013-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to examine polymorphic changes in 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) single crystals under: isothermal compression to 15 GPa and isobaric heating to 500 K. Changes in the Raman spectra were observed at ˜2.0 and ˜4.5 GPa, and at ˜390 K and ˜450 K. These onsets are in general accord with previously reported onsets from IR measurements under isothermal compression and from X-ray diffraction measurements under isobaric heating, respectively. In contrast to recent suggestions, we show that the high pressure polymorphs have different vibrational structures, and likely different crystal structures, than the high temperature polymorphs.

  7. PIPERADE: A Penning-trap isobar separator for the DESIR low-energy facility of SPIRAL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Penning-trap isobar separator is currently under construction at CENBG (Bordeaux, France and MPIK (Heidelberg, Germany for a future installation at the SPIRAL2/DESIR facility. This device aims at purifying the radioactive ion beams from undesired species, in order to deliver highly pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different set-ups which will be installed in the DESIR hall. The present manuscript describes the context and the motivations to build such a system, the targeted characteristics, and the studies to find an efficient purification method for large samples of isobaric species.

  8. Resonances in subatomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Balmer-like mass formula was applied for systematic analysis of gross structure of all known hadronic resonances. The accuracy of the mass formula is surprisingly hugh. It is demonstrated that the dimension analysis, the principles of similitude and automodelity, the methods of analogy can put some bridge between the different branches of physics

  9. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  10. Isobaric Identification Using Gas-Filled Time-of-Flight Measurements in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-Jing; RUAN Xiang-Dong; HE Ming; WANG Hui-Juan; LI Guo-Qiang; WU Shao-Yong; DONG Ke-Jun; LIN Min; JIANG Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ A gas-filled time-of-flight (GF-TOF) detector has been built and developed to improve the ability of isobaric identification in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, and a time resolution (without gas filled)of better than 350ps is achieved. The GF-TOF detector is tested by means of measuring a standard AgCl(36Cl/Cl = 7.6 × 10-9g/g) sample with the 36Cl ion energy of 64, 49 and 33MeV, respectively. 36Cl and 36S particles were successfully separated in the TOF spectra output from the GF-TOF detector. The comparison between the gas-filled time-of-flight method and the △E - E method is described. Some results relative to the GF-TOF method are given as well.

  11. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Delta isobar and large-N_c relations

    CERN Document Server

    Granados, C

    2016-01-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Delta isobars and implement relations based on the large-N_c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Delta contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguit...

  12. Two-proton decay of the isobaric analogue state of 31Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, I.; Axelsson, L.; Äystö, J.; Bergmann, U. C.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshøj, P.; Jading, Y.; Jonson, B.; Jokinen, A.; Martel, I.; Oinonen, M.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Petersen, B.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M. H.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F.; Isolde Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    We have studied several two proton branches in the β-decay of 31Ar, the most intensive ones proceeding through the isobaric analogue state (IAS) in 31Cl. The energy and angular correlations of the two protons originating from the IAS have been measured. An indication of non-isotropic emission has been observed in the p+p+ 29P branch. The energy spectra of protons from the IAS 2p-branches seem to be continuous, which is difficult to explain by a sequential emission through a few intermediate levels in 30S. The model of non-sequential or democratic three-particle decay gives the best fit to the present data favoring the IAS spin-parity {5}/{2 +}.

  13. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  14. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  15. ADSL Analog Front End

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Nino

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) analog front end (AFE) designs are described and compared. AFE is the part of ADSL modems most responsible for quality signal transmission over phone wires. It can be divided into the transmitting path (TX) circuitry, the receiving path (RX) circuitry and the hybrid network and transformer. The operations and realizations of each functional block are presented. There are the D/A converter, the filter and the line driver in the TX pat...

  16. Analog Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Caloz, Christophe; Gupta, Shulabh; Zhang, Qingfeng; Nikfal, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Analog signal processing (ASP) is presented as a systematic approach to address future challenges in high speed and high frequency microwave applications. The general concept of ASP is explained with the help of examples emphasizing basic ASP effects, such as time spreading and compression, chirping and frequency discrimination. Phasers, which represent the core of ASP systems, are explained to be elements exhibiting a frequency-dependent group delay response, and hence a nonlinear phase resp...

  17. Lateral Distribution of NBD-PC Fluorescent Lipid Analogs in Membranes Probed by Molecular Dynamics-Assisted Analysis of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Fluorescence Quenching

    OpenAIRE

    Luís M. S. Loura

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool used for many problems in membrane biophysics, including characterization of the lateral distribution of lipid components and other species of interest. However, quantitative analysis of FRET data with a topological model requires adequate choices for the values of several input parameters, some of which are difficult to obtain experimentally in an independent manner. For this purpose, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simul...

  18. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  19. Measurements of the densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene in large liquid scintillator detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 Celsius degree with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene.

  20. Isobaric, isothermal theoretical investigation and examination of different prediction equations on some physicochemical properties in PEG liquid polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Measuring densities, viscosities and refractive index of PEG + ethanol binary system. • Examination of the excess molar volume with PFP and ERAS models. • Deducing excess expansion and other thermodynamic parameters. • Correlation of viscosity and refractive index data with various prediction equations. -- Abstract: Densities, viscosities and refractive indices of the {poly(ethylene glycol) 200 + ethanol} binary liquid system were determined at three temperatures of (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. From the experimental results, the excess molar volume was obtained and correlated with the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) and Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) models. Several isobaric and isothermal properties consisting of the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient, excess molar isobaric expansion, excess molar isobaric heat capacity, isothermal coefficient of excess molar enthalpy, activation energy of flow, electron polarizibility, and Gibbs energy of activation were calculated from the experimental measurements. Moreover, the viscosity and refractive index values were correlated and predicted with different semi-empirical equations. To assess the validity of these proposed equations, comparisons were made between the experimental and predicted values

  1. Spiral structure in galaxies: analogies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The vortex analogy to galactic spiral structures is considered. Caution against carrying the analogy past its region of applicability is noted; and some experiments with vorticities are mentioned. (JFP)

  2. The Age of Analog Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiussi, Claudio; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Marbach, Daniel; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Dürr, Peter; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Floreano, Dario; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

    2008-01-01

    A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamical devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems which include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different timescales. When tackled b...

  3. A superconducting circuit probe for analog quantum simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liang-Hui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Analog quantum simulators can be used to study quantum correlation in novel many-body systems by emulating the Hamiltonian of these systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is to probe the properties of an emulated many-body system. Here we present a circuit QED scheme for probing such properties by measuring the spectrum of a superconducting resonator coupled to a quantum simulator. We first study a general framework of this approach, and show that the spectrum of the resonator ...

  4. Proposal for a digital converter of analog magnetic signals

    OpenAIRE

    Ertler, Christian; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    A device which converts analog magnetic signals directly into digital information is proposed. The device concept is based on the monostable-bistable transition logic element, which consists of two resonant tunneling diodes (load and driver) connected in series and employs the monostable to bistable working point transition of the circuit. Using a magnetic resonant tunneling diode as the driver allows to control the resulting working point of the bistable region by an external magnetic field ...

  5. Modal analysis of Bragg onion resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Liang, Wei; Yariv, Amnon; Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-01-01

    From analysis of the high Q modes in a Bragg onion resonator with an omnidirectional reflector cladding, we establish a close analogy between such a resonator and a spherical hollow cavity in perfect metal. We demonstrate that onion resonators are ideal for applications that require a large spontaneous-emission factor ß, such as thresholdless lasers and single-photon devices.

  6. Applications of resonance ionization spectroscopy to ultralow-level counting and mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is shown that the ability to directly detect a daughter atom, using resonance ionization spectroscopy, in delayed time coincidence with the decay of a parent species promises to drastically reduce the background in low-level counting experiments. In addition, resonance ionization can also be used as an ion source for a mass spectrometer system that is capable of discriminating between isobars

  7. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  8. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  9. An analog electronic cochlea

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Richard F.; Mead, Carver

    1988-01-01

    An engineered system that hears, such as a speech recognizer, can be designed by modeling the cochlea, or inner ear, and higher levels of the auditory nervous system. To be useful in such a system, a model of the cochlea should incorporate a variety of known effects, such as an asymmetric low-pass/bandpass response at each output channel, a short ringing time, and active adaptation to a wide range of input signal levels. An analog electronic cochlea has been built in CMOS VLSI technolog...

  10. Energy Harvesting Using an Analog Circuit under Multimodal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shimose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of harvesting energy from a vibrating structure using a piezoelectric transducer and a simple analog circuit is investigated experimentally. This analog circuit was originally invented for a synchronized switch damping on inductor (SSDI technique, which enhances the damping of mechanical vibration. In this study, the circuit is used to implement a synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI technique. A multiple degree of freedom (MDOF structure is excited by single sinusoidal forces at its resonant frequencies and by random forces. The piezoelectric transducer converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy which is harvested using a standard rectifier bridge circuit with and without our analog circuit. Experimental results show that our analog circuit makes it possible to harvest twice as much energy under both single sinusoidal and random vibration excitations.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry determination of morphine and its isobaric glucuronide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Theresa A; Strickland, Erin C; Hitchcock, Jennifer; McIntire, Gregory; Colyer, Christa L

    2015-02-01

    The determination of morphine and its isobaric metabolites morphine-3-beta-d-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-beta-d-glucuronide (M6G) is useful for therapeutic drug monitoring and forensic identification of drug use. In particular, capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) represents an attractive tool for opioid analysis. Whereas volatile background electrolytes in CE often improve electrospray ionization for coupled MS detection, such electrolytes may reduce CE separation efficiency and resolution. To better understand the effects of background electrolyte (BGE) composition on separation efficiency and detection sensitivity, this work compares and contrasts method development for both volatile (ammonium formate and acetate) and nonvolatile (ammonium phosphate and borate) buffers. Peak efficiencies and migration times for morphine and morphine metabolites were optimal with a 25mM ammonium borate buffer (pH=9.5) although greater sensitivities were achieved in the ammonium formate buffer. Optimized CE methods allowed for the resolution of the isobaric morphine metabolites prior to high mass accuracy, electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QTOF) MS detection applicable to the analysis of urine samples in under seven minutes. Urine sample preparation required only a 10-fold dilution with BGE prior to analysis. Limits of detection (LOD) in normal human urine were found to be 1.0μg/mL for morphine and 2.5μg/mL for each of M3G and M6G by CE-ESI-QTOF-MS. These LODs were comparable to those for CE-UV analysis of opioid standards in buffer, whereas CE-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of opioid standards in buffer yielded LODs an order of magnitude lower. Patient urine samples (N=12) were analyzed by this new CE-ESI-QTOF-MS method and no significant difference in total morphine content relative to prior liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) results was found as per a paired-t test at the 99% confidence level. Whereas the LC-MS method applied

  12. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  13. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  14. Differentiating Isobaric Steroid Hormone Metabolites Using Multi-Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmon, Lauren; Barnes, Jeremy S.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2013-03-01

    Steroid hormones and their metabolites are currently undergoing clinical trials as potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI). To support this work, it is necessary to develop improved procedures for differentiating isobaric species in this compound class. Equilin sulfate (E-S), estrone sulfate (E1-S), 17α-dihydroequilin sulfate (ADHE-S), and 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate (BDHE-S) are primary constituents in hormone replacement therapies, such as Premarin, which are among pharmaceuticals being investigated for TBI treatment. The latter three compounds are isomers and can be difficult to differentiate in trace analytical determinations. In this work, a systematic study of the fragmentation of ADHE-S, BDHE-S, E1-S, and E-S under different stages of higher order tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) and variation of collision energy, allowed optimization of conditions for distinguishing the isomeric structures. For epimeric variants (e.g., ADHE-S versus BDHE-S; α- versus β-stereoisomerization in the C-17 position), differentiation was achieved at MS4 and fragmentation was demonstrated through MS5. Computational analysis was performed to further explore differences in the fragmentation pathways due to changes in stereochemistry.

  15. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  16. The manometric sorptomat—an innovative volumetric instrument for sorption measurements performed under isobaric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz

    2016-03-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of measuring the process of sorption by means of the volumetric method, developed in such a way as to allow measurements performed under isobaric conditions. On the basis of the concept in question, a prototype of a sorption instrument was built: the manometric sorptomat. The paper provides a detailed description of the idea of the instrument, and of the way it works. In order to evaluate the usefulness of the device in sorption measurements carried out under laboratory conditions, comparative studies were conducted, during which the results of sorption measurements obtained with the developed instrument were compared with the results Mateusz obtained with a reference device. The objects of comparison were the sorption capacities of hard coal samples, calculated on the basis of the established courses of the methane sorption process. The results were regarded as compatible if the compared values fell within the range of the measurement uncertainty of the two devices. For the sake of the comparative studies, fifteen granular samples of hard coal—representing the 0.20-0.25 mm grain fraction and coming from various mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin—were used. After comparing the results obtained with the original manometric sorptomat with the results obtained with the gravimetric reference device, it was observed that the compatibility of measurements of sorption capacities was over 90%, based on the defined criterion of the measurement compatibility.

  17. Sensitivity of N/Z ratio in projectile break-up of isobaric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary break-up of projectile-like fragments in non central heavy-ion collisions follows different decay patterns, from equilibrated emission towards dynamical (prompt fission. Recently, comparing two systems with different N/Z in the entrance channel, it has been shown that the dynamical emission cross-section is enhanced for the most neutron rich system while the statistical emission cross-section is independent from the isotopic composition. In order to understand this dependence and disentangle it from the initial size of the nuclei, we have studied the two isobaric systems 124Xe+64 Zn and 124Xe+64 Ni at 35 A MeV (InKiIsSy experiment, in comparison with the previous studied reactions (124Sn +64 Ni and 112Sn +58 Ni at the same bombarding energy. We present the first results evidencing a striking similar effect in the dynamical decay as a function of the N/Z of the target for equal size systems.

  18. A Triple Knockout (TKO) Proteomics Standard for Diagnosing Ion Interference in Isobaric Labeling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Isobaric labeling is a powerful strategy for quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic investigations. A complication of such analyses has been the co-isolation of multiple analytes of similar mass-to-charge resulting in the distortion of relative protein abundance measurements across samples. When properly implemented, synchronous precursor selection and triple-stage mass spectrometry (SPS-MS3) can reduce the occurrence of this phenomenon, referred to as ion interference. However, no diagnostic tool is available currently to rapidly and accurately assess ion interference. To address this need, we developed a multiplexed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based standard, termed the triple knockout (TKO). This standard is comprised of three yeast proteomes in triplicate, each from a strain deficient in a highly abundant protein (Met6, Pfk2, or Ura2). The relative abundance patterns of these proteins, which can be inferred from dozens of peptide measurements can demonstrate ion interference in peptide quantification. We expect no signal in channels where the protein is knocked out, permitting maximum sensitivity for measurements of ion interference against a null background. Here, we emphasize the need to investigate further ion interference-generated ratio distortion and promote the TKO standard as a tool to investigate such issues.

  19. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Roda, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@shmu.edu.cn [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China)

    2010-01-08

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  20. Acute Aortic Dissection Biomarkers Identified Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziya; Xue, Yuan; Yao, Chenling; Gu, Guorong; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fan; Luan, Xiao; Deng, Zhi; Tao, Zhengang; Song, Zhen-Ju; Tong, Chaoyang; Wang, Haojun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of potential serum biomarkers for acute aortic dissection (AAD) that were identified by isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) approaches. Serum samples from 20 AAD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed using iTRAQ technology. Protein validation was performed using samples from 120 patients with chest pain. A total of 355 proteins were identified with the iTRAQ approach; 164 proteins reached the strict quantitative standard, and 125 proteins were increased or decreased more than 1.2-fold (64 and 61 proteins were up- and downregulated, resp.). Lumican, C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and D-dimer were selected as candidate biomarkers for the validation tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that Lumican and D-dimer have diagnostic value (area under the curves [AUCs] 0.895 and 0.891, P values for D-dimer were 93.33% and 68.33%. For Lumican and D-dimer AAD combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.33% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, Lumican has good specificity and D-dimer has good sensitivity for the diagnosis of AAD, while the combined detection of D-dimer and Lumican has better diagnostic value. PMID:27403433

  1. Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation with Isobaric-Isothermal and Gibbs-NPT Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shouhong

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents Monte Carlo methods for simulations of phase behaviors of Lennard-Jones fluids. The isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble and Gibbs-NPT ensemble are introduced in detail. NPT ensemble is employed to determine the phase diagram of pure component. The reduced simulation results are verified by comparison with the equation of state by by Johnson et al. and results with L-J parameters of methane agree considerably with the experiment measurements. We adopt the blocking method for variance estimation and error analysis of the simulation results. The relationship between variance and number of Monte Carlo cycles, error propagation and Random Number Generator performance are also investigated. We review the Gibbs-NPT ensemble employed for phase equilibrium of binary mixture. The phase equilibrium is achieved by performing three types of trial move: particle displacement, volume rearrangement and particle transfer. The simulation models and the simulation details are introduced. The simulation results of phase coexistence for methane and ethane are reported with comparison of the experimental data. Good agreement is found for a wide range of pressures. The contribution of this thesis work lies in the study of the error analysis with respect to the Monte Carlo cycles and number of particles in some interesting aspects.

  2. Correlation of structural and Johari-Goldstein relaxations in systems vitrifying along isobaric and isothermal paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaccioli, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Kessairi, K [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Prevosto, D [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Lucchesi, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Rolla, P A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-23

    The effect of isobaric cooling (over the range 190-350 K) and isothermal compression (up to 700 MPa) on structural {alpha}- and secondary {beta}-relaxations has been studied for low molecular weight glass-forming systems. The shape of the {alpha}-loss peak was found to change with temperature T and pressure P but to be constant for a combination of T and P giving the same {tau}{sub {alpha}}(T,P). The invariance of shape at constant {tau}{sub {alpha}}(T,P) involved also the excess wing, i.e. the process showing up at the high-frequency tail of the {alpha}-loss peak in systems with no well-resolved {beta}-process. Likewise, systems where the excess wing evolved to a well-resolved {beta}-peak showed that the timescale of the {beta}-process was strongly related to that of the {alpha}-peak. Also in this case, once a given value {tau}{sub {alpha}}(T,P) was fixed, a corresponding value {tau}{sub {beta}}(T,P) was found for different T and P. Same results were found also for a binary mixture of a polar rigid molecule dissolved in an apolar solvent, i.e. a model system for Johari-Goldstein intermolecular relaxation. These evidences imply that a strong correlation exists between structural {alpha}- and Johari-Goldstein relaxation over a wide interval of temperature and density.

  3. Selective isobar suppression for accelerator mass spectrometry and radioactive ion-beam science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of selective isobar suppression by photodetachment in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion cooler is being developed at HRIBF with a twofold purpose: (1) increasing the AMS sensitivity for certain isotopes of interest and (2) purifying radioactive ion beams for nuclear science. The potential of suppressing the 36S contaminants in a 36Cl beam using this method has been explored with stable S- and Cl- ions and a Nd:YLF laser. In the study, the laser beam was directed along the experiment's beam line and through a RF quadrupole ion cooler. Negative 32S and 35Cl ions produced by a Cs sputter ion source were focused into the ion cooler where they were slowed by collisions with He buffer gas; this increased the interaction time between the negative-ion beam and the laser beam. As a result, suppression of S- by a factor of 3000 was obtained with about 2.5 W average laser power in the cooler while no reduction in Cl- current was observed.

  4. Mass of astrophysically relevant $^{31}$Cl and the breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Koponen, J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Voss, A; Äystö, J

    2015-01-01

    The mass of $^{31}$Cl has been measured with the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer at the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The determined mass-excess value, -7034.7(34) keV, is 15 times more precise than in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012. The quadratic form of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the T=3/2 quartet at A=31 fails ($\\chi^2_n$=11.6) and a non-zero cubic term, d=-3.49(44) keV, is obtained when the new mass value is adopted. $^{31}$Cl has been found to be less proton-bound with a proton separation energy of $S_p$=265(4) keV. Energies for the excited states in $^{31}$Cl and the photodisintegration rate on $^{31}$Cl have been determined with significantly improved precision using the new $S_p$ value. The improved photodisintegration rate helps to constrain astrophysical conditions where $^{30}$S can act as a waiting point in the rapid proton capture process in type I x-ray bursts.

  5. Volume crossover in deeply supercooled water adiabatically freezing under isobaric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Francesco; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Pochylski, Mikolaj; Ponterio, Rosina C.; Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Vasi, Cirino

    2013-05-01

    The irreversible return of a supercooled liquid to stable thermodynamic equilibrium often begins as a fast process which adiabatically drives the system to solid-liquid coexistence. Only at a later stage will solidification proceed with the expected exchange of thermal energy with the external bath. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the adiabatic freezing of metastable water at constant pressure. In particular, we investigated the thermal behavior of the isobaric gap between the molar volume of supercooled water and that of the warmer ice-water mixture which eventually forms at equilibrium. The available experimental data at ambient pressure, extrapolated into the metastable region within the scheme provided by the reference IAPWS-95 formulation, show that water ordinarily expands upon (partially) freezing under isenthalpic conditions. However, the same scheme also suggests that, for increasing undercoolings, the volume gap is gradually reduced and eventually vanishes at a temperature close to the currently estimated homogeneous ice nucleation temperature. This behavior is contrasted with that of substances which do not display a volumetric anomaly. The effect of increasing pressures on the alleged volume crossover from an expanded to a contracted ice-water mixture is also discussed.

  6. Correlation of structural and Johari-Goldstein relaxations in systems vitrifying along isobaric and isothermal paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of isobaric cooling (over the range 190-350 K) and isothermal compression (up to 700 MPa) on structural α- and secondary β-relaxations has been studied for low molecular weight glass-forming systems. The shape of the α-loss peak was found to change with temperature T and pressure P but to be constant for a combination of T and P giving the same τα(T,P). The invariance of shape at constant τα(T,P) involved also the excess wing, i.e. the process showing up at the high-frequency tail of the α-loss peak in systems with no well-resolved β-process. Likewise, systems where the excess wing evolved to a well-resolved β-peak showed that the timescale of the β-process was strongly related to that of the α-peak. Also in this case, once a given value τα(T,P) was fixed, a corresponding value τβ(T,P) was found for different T and P. Same results were found also for a binary mixture of a polar rigid molecule dissolved in an apolar solvent, i.e. a model system for Johari-Goldstein intermolecular relaxation. These evidences imply that a strong correlation exists between structural α- and Johari-Goldstein relaxation over a wide interval of temperature and density

  7. Analogy-Based Expectation Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Jehiel, P

    2001-01-01

    It is assumed that players bundle nodes in which other players must move into analogy classes, and players only have expectations about the average behavior in every class. A solution concept is proposed for multi-stage games with perfect information: at every node players choose best-responses to their analogy-based expectations, and expectations are correct on average over those various nodes pooled together into the same analogy classes. The approach is applied to a variety of games. It is...

  8. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  9. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  10. jTraqX: a free, platform independent tool for isobaric tag quantitation at the protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Thilo; Keller, Daniela; Puetz, Stephanie Michaela; Martens, Lennart; Sickmann, Albert; Boehm, Andreas M

    2010-03-01

    Many proteomic studies focus on quantitative aspects, using different stable isotope labeling techniques that require specialized software to analyze the generated data. Here we present jTraqX, an easy-to-use tool for processing and visualizing protein quantification data. jTraqX is platform independent and is compatible with all available 4-plex isobaric tags. jTraqX can be freely downloaded at http://sourceforge.net/projects/protms. PMID:20058250

  11. PIPERADE: A Penning-trap isobar separator for the DESIR low-energy facility of SPIRAL2

    OpenAIRE

    Ascher P.; Blank B.; Blaum K.; Dupré P.; Gerbaux M.; Grévy S.; Guérin H.; Heck M.; Lunney D.; Naimi S.; de Roubin A.

    2014-01-01

    A Penning-trap isobar separator is currently under construction at CENBG (Bordeaux, France) and MPIK (Heidelberg, Germany) for a future installation at the SPIRAL2/DESIR facility. This device aims at purifying the radioactive ion beams from undesired species, in order to deliver highly pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different set-ups which will be installed in the DESIR hall. The present manuscript describes the context and the motivations to build such a system, the targeted characteri...

  12. Quaternary isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the system (water + ethanol + cyclohexane + heptane) at 101.3 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Water-ethanol-cyclohexane-heptane and water-cyclohexane-heptane isobaric VLLE. → Isobaric experimental data were determined at 101.3 kPa. → A dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used. → The quaternary system does not present quaternary azeotropes. - Abstract: Experimental isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary system {water (1) + cyclohexane (2) + heptane (3)} and the quaternary system {water (1) + ethanol (2) + cyclohexane (3) + heptane (4)} were measured at 101.3 kPa. An all-glass, dynamic recirculating still equipped with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used to determine the VLLE. The results obtained show that the system does not present quaternary azeotropes. The point-by-point method by Wisniak for testing the thermodynamic consistency of isobaric measurements was used to test the equilibrium data.

  13. Quaternary isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) equilibrium and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the system (water + ethanol + cyclohexane + heptane) at 101.3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pequenin, Ana; Asensi, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Gomis, Vicente, E-mail: vgomis@ua.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Water-ethanol-cyclohexane-heptane and water-cyclohexane-heptane isobaric VLLE. > Isobaric experimental data were determined at 101.3 kPa. > A dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used. > The quaternary system does not present quaternary azeotropes. - Abstract: Experimental isobaric (vapor + liquid + liquid) and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary system {l_brace}water (1) + cyclohexane (2) + heptane (3){r_brace} and the quaternary system {l_brace}water (1) + ethanol (2) + cyclohexane (3) + heptane (4){r_brace} were measured at 101.3 kPa. An all-glass, dynamic recirculating still equipped with an ultrasonic homogenizer was used to determine the VLLE. The results obtained show that the system does not present quaternary azeotropes. The point-by-point method by Wisniak for testing the thermodynamic consistency of isobaric measurements was used to test the equilibrium data.

  14. Influence of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile and the isobaric point in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror

    2015-05-01

    Light reflectance and transmission from soft tissue has been utilized in noninvasive clinical measurement devices such as the photoplethysmograph (PPG) and reflectance pulse oximeter. Incident light on the skin travels into the underlying layers and is in part reflected back to the surface, in part transferred and in part absorbed. Most methods of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy focus on the volume reflectance from a semi-infinite sample, while very few measure transmission. We have previously shown that examining the full scattering profile (angular distribution of exiting photons) provides more comprehensive information when measuring from a cylindrical tissue. Furthermore, an isobaric point was found which is not dependent on changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. The angle corresponding to this isobaric point depends on the tissue diameter. We investigated the role of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile of a cylindrical tissue. First, we define the range in which multiple scattering occurs for different tissue diameters. Next, we examine the role of the absorption coefficient in the attenuation of the full scattering profile. We demonstrate that the absorption linearly influences the intensity at each angle of the full scattering profile and, more importantly, the absorption does not change the position of the isobaric point. The findings of this work demonstrate a realistic model for optical tissue measurements such as NIR spectroscopy, PPG, and pulse oximetery.

  15. Lateral Distribution of NBD-PC Fluorescent Lipid Analogs in Membranes Probed by Molecular Dynamics-Assisted Analysis of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and Fluorescence Quenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M. S. Loura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET is a powerful tool used for many problems in membrane biophysics, including characterization of the lateral distribution of lipid components and other species of interest. However, quantitative analysis of FRET data with a topological model requires adequate choices for the values of several input parameters, some of which are difficult to obtain experimentally in an independent manner. For this purpose, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations can be potentially useful as they provide direct detailed information on transverse probe localization, relative probe orientation, and membrane surface area, all of which are required for analysis of FRET data. This is illustrated here for the FRET pairs involving 1,6-diphenylhexatriene (DPH as donor and either 1-palmitoyl,2-(6-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino] hexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C6-NBD-PC or 1-palmitoyl,2-(12-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]dodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C12-NBD-PC as acceptors, in fluid vesicles of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-glycerophosphocholine (DPPC, 50 °C. Incorporation of results from MD simulations improves the statistical quality of model fitting to the experimental FRET data. Furthermore, the decay of DPH in the presence of moderate amounts of C12-NBD-PC (>0.4 mol% is consistent with non-random lateral distribution of the latter, at variance with C6-NBD-PC, for which aggregation is ruled out up to 2.5 mol% concentration. These conclusions are supported by analysis of NBD-PC fluorescence self-quenching. Implications regarding the relative utility of these probes in membrane studies are discussed.

  16. Lateral distribution of NBD-PC fluorescent lipid analogs in membranes probed by molecular dynamics-assisted analysis of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loura, Luís M S

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool used for many problems in membrane biophysics, including characterization of the lateral distribution of lipid components and other species of interest. However, quantitative analysis of FRET data with a topological model requires adequate choices for the values of several input parameters, some of which are difficult to obtain experimentally in an independent manner. For this purpose, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be potentially useful as they provide direct detailed information on transverse probe localization, relative probe orientation, and membrane surface area, all of which are required for analysis of FRET data. This is illustrated here for the FRET pairs involving 1,6-diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as donor and either 1-palmitoyl,2-(6-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino] hexanoyl)- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C6-NBD-PC) or 1-palmitoyl,2-(12-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C12-NBD-PC) as acceptors, in fluid vesicles of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-glycerophosphocholine (DPPC, 50 °C). Incorporation of results from MD simulations improves the statistical quality of model fitting to the experimental FRET data. Furthermore, the decay of DPH in the presence of moderate amounts of C12-NBD-PC (>0.4 mol%) is consistent with non-random lateral distribution of the latter, at variance with C6-NBD-PC, for which aggregation is ruled out up to 2.5 mol% concentration. These conclusions are supported by analysis of NBD-PC fluorescence self-quenching. Implications regarding the relative utility of these probes in membrane studies are discussed. PMID:23203080

  17. Feshbach Resonance Induced Fano Interference in Photoassociation

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Bimalendu

    2009-01-01

    We consider photoassociation from a state of two free atoms when the continuum state is close to a magnetic field induced Feshbach resonance and demonstrate the possibility of Fano interference in photoassociation. We introduce an analog of Fano asymmetry parameter which characterizes the minimum in photoassociation profiles. We further show a nonlinear analog of Fano effect, which was recently observed in quantum dots.

  18. A randomized controlled study comparing intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture and isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture in common urological procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudan Upadya; Neeta, S.; Jesni Joseph Manissery; Nigel Kuriakose; Rakesh Raushan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Bupivacaine is available in isobaric and hyperbaric forms for intrathecal use and opioids are used as additives to modify their effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and haemodynamic effect of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture and hyperbaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture in common urological procedures. Methods: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing urological procedures were rando...

  19. Resonances and resonance widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances

  20. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  1. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  2. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical extraction technique for estimating the biologically available fraction of nonessential trace elements in soils has been developed. This procedure has been used in evaluating the uptake of naturally occurring transuranic analog elements from soils into several foodstuffs. The availability of the natural elements has been compared with the availability of their analog transuranics which have been derived from global fallout

  3. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  4. Measurements of the 6He+p resonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the p(6He,p) elastic scattering excitation function have been performed in the RIBRAS system using a 6He secondary beam and a CH2 polyethylene thick target. The motivation is to observe states of the compound nucleus 7Li in the excitation energy range of Eexc7Li = 10.8-11.8MeV, where the isobaric analog state of 7He ground state lies. Excitation functions have been obtained at three laboratory angles θlab = 0°, 20°, and 25° which correspond to θc.m = 180°, 140°, and 130°

  5. Isobaric specific heat capacity of typical lithium chloride liquid desiccants using scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Typical lithium chloride liquid desiccants were concerned. • Up to date heat capacity data of high quality were measured. • Scanning calorimetry technology was applied. • A universal empirical formula was correlated for the heat capacity of solutions. -- Abstract: Three kinds of lithium chloride desiccants were selected, which are considered to be potential and interesting working fluids for a desiccant/dehumidification or absorption refrigeration system, and their isobaric specific heat capacities were determined in this context. Experiments were conducted at a high accuracy twin-cell scanning calorimeter. The temperature accuracy and heat flux resolution of the calorimeter are ±0.05 K and 0.1 μW respectively. The data of lithium chloride + water and lithium chloride + triethylene glycol (TEG)/propylene glycol (PG) + water systems were achieved at temperatures from 308.15 K to 343.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The mass fraction of LiCl ranged from 15% to 45% in the LiCl + H2O system, and the mass fraction of LiCl and glycol ranged from 10% to 23.3% and 20% to 46.7% in the ternary systems respectively. Based on the experimental heat capacity data, a universal empirical formula was correlated as a function of temperature and solute mass fraction. In the experimental mass fractions and temperatures range, the average absolute deviation (AAD) between experiment results and calculated values is no more than 0.15%, and maximum absolute deviation (MAD) is within 0.38%. These thermodynamic data of lithium chloride solutions can be effectively used for analysis and design of desiccant/dehumidification systems and absorption refrigeration systems in both refrigeration and chemical industry

  6. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics with Δ isobar and large- N c relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C.; Weiss, C.

    2016-06-01

    Transverse densities describe the spatial distribution of electromagnetic current in the nucleon at fixed light-front time. At peripheral distances b = O( M π - 1 ) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). Recent work has shown that the EFT results can be represented in first-quantized form, as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions describing the transition of the nucleon to soft-pion-nucleon intermediate states, resulting in a quantum-mechanical picture of the peripheral transverse densities. We now extend this representation to include intermediate states with Δ isobars and implement relations based on the large- N c limit of QCD. We derive the wave function overlap formulas for the Δ contributions to the peripheral transverse densities by way of a three-dimensional reduction of relativistic chiral EFT expressions. Our procedure effectively maintains rotational invariance and avoids the ambiguities with higher-spin particles in the light-front time-ordered approach. We study the interplay of π N and πΔ intermediate states in the quantum-mechanical picture of the densities in a transversely polarized nucleon. We show that the correct N c -scaling of the charge and magnetization densities emerges as the result of the particular combination of currents generated by intermediate states with degenerate N and Δ. The off-shell behavior of the chiral EFT is summarized in contact terms and can be studied easily. The methods developed here can be applied to other peripheral densities and to moments of the nucleon's generalized parton distributions.

  7. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  8. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  9. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  10. Analog computing using reflective plasmonic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent renewed interest in compact analog computing using light and metasurfaces (Silva, A. et al., Science 2014, 343, 160-163), we suggest a practical approach to its realization that involves reflective metasurfaces consisting of arrayed gold nanobricks atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances. Using well established numerical routines, we demonstrate that these metasurfaces enable independent control of the light phase and amplitude, and design differentiator and integrator metasurfaces featuring realistic system parameters. Proof-of-principle experiments are reported along with the successful realization of a high-quality poor-man's integrator metasurface operating at the wavelength of 800 nm.

  11. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  12. Towards power centric analog design

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Power consumption of analog systems is poorly understoodtoday, in contrast to the very well developed analysis of digitalpower consumption. We show that there is good opportunity todevelop also the analog power understanding to a similar levelas the digital. Such an understanding will have a large impact inthe design of future electronic systems, where low power consumptionwill be crucial. Eventually we may reach a power centricanalog design methodology.

  13. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU.

  14. Mie scattering analog in graphene: Lensing, particle confinement, and depletion of Klein tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, R. L.; Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.

    2013-04-01

    Guided by the analogy to Mie scattering of light on small particles, we show that the propagation of a Dirac-electron wave in graphene can be manipulated by a circular gated region acting as a quantum dot. Large dots enable electron lensing, while for smaller dots resonant scattering entails electron confinement in quasibound states. Forward scattering and Klein tunneling can be almost switched off for small dots by a Fano resonance arising from the interference between resonant scattering and the background partition.

  15. Mie scattering analog in graphene: lensing, particle confinement, and depletion of Klein tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Heinisch, R. L.; Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the analogy to Mie scattering of light on small particles we show that the propagation of a Dirac-electron wave in graphene can be manipulated by a circular gated region acting as a quatum dot. Large dots enable electron lensing, while for smaller dots resonant scattering entails electron confinement in quasibound states. Forward scattering and Klein tunneling can be almost switched off for small dots by a Fano resonance arising from the interference between resonant scattering and ...

  16. Isobaric Thermal Expansion and Isothermal Compression of Powdered NiFe Based Alloys Studied by In-Situ EDXRD

    OpenAIRE

    Olekšáková, D.; J. Füzer; Kollár, P.; Bednarčík, J.; Lathe, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the isothermal compression and isobaric thermal expansion behaviour of ball-milled NiFe (81 wt.% of Ni) and NiFeMo (79 wt.% of Ni, 16 wt.% of Fe) alloy and follow its phase evolution when exposed to high pressure and temperature. In-situ pressure-temperature energy dispersive X-ray (EDXRD) diffraction experiments were performed at the MAX80 instrument (beamline F2.1). The compressibility of NiFe alloy at 400 °C was evaluated for pressure values of up t...

  17. Hf isotope ratio analysis using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an evaluation of isobaric interference corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, N-C.; Taylor, R N; Chavagnac, V.; Nesbitt, R.W.; Boella, R.M.; Milton, J.A.; German, C.R.; Bayon, G.; Burton, K

    2002-01-01

    From measurements of Hf–Yb mixtures, we have found that the correction of isobaric interferences involving accepted Yb isotope ratios and reasonable estimates of mass bias result in a significantly under-corrected 176Hf, which is proportional to the amount of Yb added. This can be explained by (1) a significant difference in the instrumental mass bias between Hf and Yb, and (2) that the accepted values for isotopic ratios within the Yb and/or Hf systems are incorrect. We have evaluated these ...

  18. Electron scattering from light nuclei in the regions of quasi-elastic peak and Δ-isobar excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections of the (e, e') reaction on nuclei are considered in the identical form for the quasi-elastic electron scattering and the quasi-free pion electroproduction. The cross sections on single nucleon in the Δ-isobar excitation region are obtained using the dispersion relations being in good agreement with the experiment. A consistent set of parameters for the shell model with the oscillator potentials is obtained for Li, Be, C, Mg, Al and Si nuclei. The mean square radii of the nuclei charge distribution calculated with the use of these parameters agree with the rms obtained from the electron-nuclei elastic scattering experiments

  19. Polarized deuteron charge-exchange reaction $dp->{pp}_sN\\pi$ in the Delta-isobar region

    OpenAIRE

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.; Wilkin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of the charge exchange reaction $dp\\to \\{pp\\}_{\\!s} N\\pi$, where $\\{pp\\}_{\\!s}$ is a two-proton system at low excitation energy, are studied at beam energies 1 -- 2 GeV and for invariant masses $M_X$ of the final $N\\pi $ system that correspond to the formation of the $\\Delta(1232)$ isobar. The direct mechanism, where the initial proton is excited into the $\\Delta(1232)$, dominates and explains the existing data on the unpolarized differential cross section and spherical tensor anal...

  20. Misleading measures in Vitamin D analysis: A novel LC-MS/MS assay to account for epimers and isobars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the accuracies of many commercially available immunoassays for Vitamin D have been questioned. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS has been shown to facilitate accurate separation and quantification of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25OHD2 collectively termed as 25OHD. However, among other interferents, this method may be compromised by overlapping peaks and identical masses of epimers and isobars, resulting in inaccuracies in circulating 25OHD measurements. The aim of this study was to develop a novel LC-MS/MS method that can accurately identify and quantitate 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 through chromatographic separation of 25OHD from its epimers and isobars. Methods A positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI LC-MS/MS method was used in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM mode for quantification. It involved i liquid-liquid extraction, ii tandem columns (a high resolution ZORBAX C18 coupled to an ULTRON chiral, with guard column and inlet filter, iii Stanozolol-D3 as internal standard, and iv identification via ESI and monitoring of three fragmentation transitions. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of our method, blood samples were collected from 5 healthy male Caucasian volunteers; age range 22 to 37 years and 25OHD2, 25OHD3 along with co-eluting epimers and analogues were quantified. Results The new method allowed chromatographic separation and quantification of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, along with 25OHD3 epimer 3-epi-25OHD3 and isobars 1-α-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1αOHD3, and 7-α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4. The new assay was capable of detecting 0.25 ng/mL of all analytes in serum. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method developed for the accurate detection of 25OHD (Vitamin D. The method is capable of detecting low levels of 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 together with chromatographic

  1. Study of nucleon resonances in the $\\gamma p \\to \\phi K^+ \\Lambda$ reaction near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Xie, Ju-Jun; Chen, Xu-Rong; Li, De-Min

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the $\\gamma p \\to \\phi K^+ \\Lambda$ reaction near threshold within an effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model. Various nucleon resonances due to the $\\pi$ and $\\eta$ mesons exchanges and background contributions are considered. It is shown that the contribution from the $N^*(1535)$ resonance due to the $\\eta$ meson exchange plays the predominant role. Hence, this reaction provides a new good platform to study the $N^*(1535)$ resonance. The predicted total cross section and specific features of angular distributions can be tested by the future experiments.

  2. A Broadband Dipolar Resonance in THz Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Prabhu, S S

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a THz metamaterial with broadband dipole resonance originating due to the hybridization of LC resonances. The structure optimized by finite element method simulations is fabricated by electron beam lithography and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Numerically, we found that when two LC metamaterial resonators are brought together, an electric dipole resonance arises in addition to the LC resonances. We observed a strong dependence of the width of these resonances on the separation between the resonators. This dependence can be explained based on series and parallel RLC circuit analogies. The broadband dipole resonance appears when both the resonators are fused together. The metamaterial has a stopband with FWHM of 0.47 THz centered at 1.12 THz. The experimentally measured band features are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The experimental power extinction ratio of THz in the stopbands is found to be 15 dB.

  3. RESONANCES ON HEDGEHOG MANIFOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Exner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss resonances for a nonrelativistic and spinless quantum particle confined to a two- or three-dimensional Riemannian manifold to which a finite number of semiinfinite leads is attached. Resolvent and scattering resonances are shown to coincide in this situation. Next we consider the resonances together with embedded eigenvalues and ask about the high-energy asymptotics of such a family. For the case when all the halflines are attached at a single point we prove that all resonances are in the momentum plane confined to a strip parallel to the real axis, in contrast to the analogous asymptotics in some metric quantum graphs; we illustrate this on several simple examples. On the other hand, the resonance behaviour can be influenced by a magnetic field. We provide an example of such a ‘hedgehog’ manifold at which a suitable Aharonov-Bohm flux leads to absence of any true resonance, i.e. that corresponding to a pole outside the real axis.

  4. Calibration of a low temperature calorimeter and application in the determination of isobaric heat capacity of 2-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, L.M., E-mail: lmcasas@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias Experimentais, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Plantier, F. [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Energetique des Fluides Complexes - UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France); Pineiro, M.M.; Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias Experimentais, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bessieres, D. [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Energetique des Fluides Complexes - UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France)

    2010-08-10

    Nowadays, the experimental thermodynamic characterization of solvents in an extended range of temperatures and pressures is essential for the development of a wide variety of industrial applications (refrigeration, reactors, pumping, etc.). Moreover, accurate experimental data are also the key for the successful development and subsequent benchmarking of thermodynamic theoretical models. In the particular case of isobaric heat capacities, there are quite a lot of reported experimental high temperature data but, on the other hand, low temperature data are practically inexistent for most compounds. Bearing this limitation in mind, the present work is focused on the development of a new calibration methodology for calorimetric determination of isobaric heat capacities in liquid state at low temperatures. For this purpose, a Calvet calorimeter, SETARAM BT 2.15 has been used. By means of the calibration procedure explained below, this calorimeter allows to determine phase transitions and thermodynamic properties in a wide range of temperature (233.15-473.15 K) and pressure (0.1-100 MPa).

  5. Single and double beta decays in the A=100, A=116 and A=128 triplets of isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze the ground-state-to-ground-state two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decays and single EC and β− decays for the A=100 (100Mo–100Tc–100Ru), A=116 (116Cd–116In–116Sn) and A=128 (128Te–128I–128Xe) triplets of isobars. We use the proton–neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) with realistic G-matrix-derived effective interactions in very large single-particle bases. The purpose is to access the effective value of the axial-vector coupling constant gA in the pnQRPA calculations. We show that the three triplets of isobars represent systems with different characteristics of orbital occupancies and cumulative 2νββ nuclear matrix elements. Our analysis points to a considerably quenched averaged effective value of 〈gA〉≈0.6±0.2 in the pnQRPA calculations

  6. Isobar separation by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Czok, Ulrich; Geissel, Hans; Petrick, Martin; Reinheimer, Katrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2008-10-01

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) system for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities has been developed, which can be used for (i) isobar separation and (ii) direct mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei with half-lives of about 1 ms or longer, and (iii) for identification and diagnosis of the ion beam by mass spectrometry. The system has been designed and simulated, and individual subsystems have been built and characterized experimentally. An injection trap for cooling and bunching of the ion beam has been developed, and cooling times of less than one millisecond have been achieved. The performance of the MR-TOF-MS was characterized using the isobaric doublet of carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecular ions. A mass resolving power of 105 (FWHM) has been obtained even with an uncooled ion population. The separator capabilities of the MR-TOF-MS have been demonstrated by removing either carbon monoxide or nitrogen ions from the beam in a Bradbury-Nielsen Gate after a flight time of 320 μs. The separation power achieved is thus at least 7000 (FWHM) and increases for longer time-of-flight. An energy buncher stage has been designed that compresses the energy spread of the beam after the separation and facilitates efficient injection of the selected ions into an accumulation trap prior to transfer of the ions to experiments downstream of the MR-TOF-MS.

  7. Isobar separation by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plass, Wolfgang R. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfgang.R.Plass@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de; Dickel, Timo [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Czok, Ulrich; Geissel, Hans [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrick, Martin; Reinheimer, Katrin [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Yavor, Mikhail I. [Institute of Analytical Instrument Making, Russian Academy of Sciences, 190103 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-10-15

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) system for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities has been developed, which can be used for (i) isobar separation and (ii) direct mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei with half-lives of about 1 ms or longer, and (iii) for identification and diagnosis of the ion beam by mass spectrometry. The system has been designed and simulated, and individual subsystems have been built and characterized experimentally. An injection trap for cooling and bunching of the ion beam has been developed, and cooling times of less than one millisecond have been achieved. The performance of the MR-TOF-MS was characterized using the isobaric doublet of carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecular ions. A mass resolving power of 10{sup 5} (FWHM) has been obtained even with an uncooled ion population. The separator capabilities of the MR-TOF-MS have been demonstrated by removing either carbon monoxide or nitrogen ions from the beam in a Bradbury-Nielsen Gate after a flight time of 320 {mu}s. The separation power achieved is thus at least 7000 (FWHM) and increases for longer time-of-flight. An energy buncher stage has been designed that compresses the energy spread of the beam after the separation and facilitates efficient injection of the selected ions into an accumulation trap prior to transfer of the ions to experiments downstream of the MR-TOF-MS.

  8. Calibration of a low temperature calorimeter and application in the determination of isobaric heat capacity of 2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, the experimental thermodynamic characterization of solvents in an extended range of temperatures and pressures is essential for the development of a wide variety of industrial applications (refrigeration, reactors, pumping, etc.). Moreover, accurate experimental data are also the key for the successful development and subsequent benchmarking of thermodynamic theoretical models. In the particular case of isobaric heat capacities, there are quite a lot of reported experimental high temperature data but, on the other hand, low temperature data are practically inexistent for most compounds. Bearing this limitation in mind, the present work is focused on the development of a new calibration methodology for calorimetric determination of isobaric heat capacities in liquid state at low temperatures. For this purpose, a Calvet calorimeter, SETARAM BT 2.15 has been used. By means of the calibration procedure explained below, this calorimeter allows to determine phase transitions and thermodynamic properties in a wide range of temperature (233.15-473.15 K) and pressure (0.1-100 MPa).

  9. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-02-12

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  10. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for isobaric purification of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF-MS) for the enhancement of the performance of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN has been built and investigated at an off-line test facility. The MR-ToF-MS consists of two ion-optical mirrors between which oscillating ions are separated according to their different mass-over-charge ratios m/q. Flight paths of several hundreds of meters are folded to an apparatus length of less than one meter. Preliminary tests resulted in a mass-resolving power of up to m/Δm ≈ 80,000, and the separation was demonstrated for the isobaric ions CO +  and N2+. The MR-ToF-MS will support the existing purification methods of ISOLTRAP and will extend the access to nuclides produced with high isobaric contamination yields at the ISOLDE facility.

  11. PIPERADE: A Penning trap based isobar separator for the future low-energy facility DESIR of SPIRAL2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubin, A. de [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); CENBG, Gradignan (France); Ascher, P.; Blaum, K.; Naimi, S. [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); Blank, B.; Gerbaux, M.; Grevy, S.; Guerin, H. [CENBG, Gradignan (France); Dupre, P.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM, Orsay (France)

    2014-07-01

    Exotic nuclei currently not accessible will be delivered to the future DESIR facility for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies as well as for testing the Standard Model, using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments. For most of the experiments, a high precision is needed and can be reached only if highly pure samples of exotic nuclei are delivered. Some particular physics cases will be presented. PIPERADE will be a system placed upstream the DESIR hall to purify the radioactive ion beam from undesired contaminants. It will consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole to bunch and cool the beam and of a double Penning-trap system to separate the isobaric species and accumulate the ions of interest. The purified beam will then be sent to the various experiments of the low-energy DESIR facility. The challenge for the present double Penning-trap system consists of being able to accumulate very large amounts of short-lived nuclei (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}) while maintaining the resolving power necessary for isobar selection of at least 10{sup 5}. For this purpose, studies of space charge effects and new excitation schemes are under investigation and are presented.

  12. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  13. Constraining the mass and width of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the existence of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance, which is recently listed by the Particle Data Group as a one-star nucleon resonance, by using a covariant isobar model for kaon photoproduction and assuming that the resonance has $J^p=1/2^+$, in accordance with our previous finding. After the inclusion of this resonance the changes in the total $\\chi^2$ show two clear minima at $M_{N^*}=1650$ and 1696 MeV, which correspond to two different resonance states. The former corresponds to the narrow nucleon resonance found in our previous investigation, whereas the latter corresponds to a new resonance found as we increase the resonance width. From the latter we derive the mass and width relation of the $N^*(1685)$ resonance. We observe that the properties of both the $N^*(1685)$ and $N^*(1710)P_{11}$ resonances are strongly correlated. Although the best fit of the present work yields $M_{N^*}=1696$ MeV and $\\Gamma_{N^*}=76$ MeV, the apparently small $N^*(1710)P_{11}$ coupling constant to the $K^+\\Lambda...

  14. Effect of isobaric breathing gas shifts from air to heliox mixtures on resolution of air bubbles in lipid and aqueous tissues of recompressed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegaard, Ole; Kerem, Dikla; Melamed, Y

    2011-01-01

    while at 285 kPa or following immediate recompression to either 285 or 405 kPa, breathing 80:20 and 50:50 heliox mixtures. During the isobaric shifts, some bubbles in adipose tissue grew marginally for 10-30 min, subsequently they shrank and disappeared at a rate similar to or faster than during air...... shrinkage of all air bubbles, until they disappeared from view. Deep tissue isobaric counterdiffusion may cause some air bubbles to grow transiently in adipose tissue. The effect is marginal and of no clinical consequence. Bubble disappearance rate is faster with heliox breathing mixtures as compared to air......Deep tissue isobaric counterdiffusion that may cause unwanted bubble formation or transient bubble growth has been referred to in theoretical models and demonstrated by intravascular gas formation in animals, when changing inert breathing gas from nitrogen to helium after hyperbaric air breathing...

  15. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  16. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  17. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices in...

  18. Complete scaling makes differences along the critical isobar: Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones fluid with finite-time scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yankui; Liu, Ji; Xiao, Jiajie; Zhong, Fan

    2015-01-01

    We show that, along the critical isobar, the complete scaling results in a unique leading scaling qualitatively distinct to that arising from the simple and the revised scalings. This is verified by a complete-field finite-time scaling theory, which combines the complete scaling with finite-time scaling, and its application to the molecular dynamics simulations of the vapor-liquid critical point of a three-dimensional one-component Lennard-Jones fluid in an isobaric-isothermal ensemble with l...

  19. Three-body electrodisintegration of the three-nucleon bound state with ${\\Delta}$-isobar excitation: Processes below pion-production threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A.; Yuan, L. P.; Adam Jr., J.; Sauer, P. U.

    2004-01-01

    Electron scattering from the three-nucleon bound state with two- and three-body disintegration is described. The description uses the purely nucleonic charge-dependent CD-Bonn potential and its coupled-channel extension CD-Bonn + $\\Delta$. Exact solutions of three-particle equations are employed for the initial and final states of the reactions. The current has one-baryon and two-baryon contributions and couples nucleonic with $\\Delta$-isobar channels. $\\Delta$-isobar effects on the observabl...

  20. Application handbook for analog IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of ten chapters, which are prolog on analog IC and digital, basic function of OP amp for operation, characteristic on direct current and interchange, Op amp and linear circuit, nonlinear arithmetic circuit, filter circuit, oscillation circuit and V-F converter, D-A converter, A-D converter on introduction eight bit and 12 bit, I C for power supply and switching regulator. Each chapter has the explanations of specific function of the programs, filter circuit, converters. So, this book is a application handbook for analog IC.

  1. Halo Structure of Isobaric Analogue States in A= 21 and 17 Mirror Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周书华; 周静

    2002-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) radii of the last nucleons in the 2s1/2 states of 21 Ne, 21 Na, 17 O and 17 F are found to be 4.4±0.5, 5.2±0.6, 4.3±0.5 and 5.0±0. 6 fm, respectively, from transfer reaction data. The results show that the 2s1/2 states of 21 Na and 17F are proton halo states, while the analogous states in their mirror nuclei 21 Ne and 17O can be considered as neutron skin states. Comparisons among the rms radii of these states lead us to expect that a neutron halo nucleus has a proton halo mirror partner, and the Coulomb barrier is a determinant factor limiting the extension of the rms radius of the loosely bound proton.

  2. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  3. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer

  4. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  5. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  6. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  7. Comparative study of the binding of Trypsin with bifendate and analogs by spectrofluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Pu, Juanjuan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Chuang; Yu, Jie; Li, Tao; Wang, Ruiqiang

    2013-11-01

    The interactions between Trypsin and bifendate (DDB) or analogs (I, II and III) were investigated by fluorescence, UV-visible absorption, resonance light scattering, synchronous fluorescence and 3D spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that DDB and analogs caused the fluorescence quenching of Trypsin by the formation of DDB/I/II/III-Trypsin complex. The quenching and energy transfer mechanisms were discussed. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that DDB was the stronger quencher and bound to Trypsin with higher affinity than other three analogs.

  8. Inclusive (p, n) and (3 He, t) reactions on nuclei in the quasielastic and Δ -isobar excitation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a formalism of effective numbers for the inclusive integral cross sections (p, n) of reaction with formation of quasielastic and Δ-isobar nuclear excitation we obtain, without free parameters, a satisfactory quantitative description of existing experimental data. The theory gives a factorized form which allows for a useful separation of the reaction mechanism and the structure of the light and heavy reaction partners. We have now been successful in using this formalism with only minor modifications for (3 He, t) reactions at intermediate energies. We argue from the similarity of the cross sections for the (p, n) and (3 He, t) reactions obtained by removing the form factor of the 3 He from the cross sections and bringing the experimental data for different energies to the same energy. It is shown that the reaction mechanism for the processes (p, n) and (3 He, t) is in principle essentially the same

  9. Polarized deuteron charge-exchange reaction $dp->{pp}_sN\\pi$ in the Delta-isobar region

    CERN Document Server

    Uzikov, Yu N; Wilkin, C

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of the charge exchange reaction $dp\\to \\{pp\\}_{\\!s} N\\pi$, where $\\{pp\\}_{\\!s}$ is a two-proton system at low excitation energy, are studied at beam energies 1 -- 2 GeV and for invariant masses $M_X$ of the final $N\\pi $ system that correspond to the formation of the $\\Delta(1232)$ isobar. The direct mechanism, where the initial proton is excited into the $\\Delta(1232)$, dominates and explains the existing data on the unpolarized differential cross section and spherical tensor analyzing power $T_{22}$ for $M_X> 1.2$ GeV/$c^2$. However, this model fails to describe $T_{20}.

  10. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  11. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  12. Molecular dynamics in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble: the requirement of a "shell" molecule. III. Discontinuous potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uline, Mark J; Corti, David S

    2008-07-01

    Based on the approach of Gruhn and Monson [Phys. Rev. E 63, 061106 (2001)], we present a new method for deriving the collisions dynamics for particles that interact via discontinuous potentials. By invoking the conservation of the extended Hamiltonian, we generate molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for simulating the hard-sphere and square-well fluids within the isothermal-isobaric (NpT) ensemble. Consistent with the recent rigorous reformulation of the NpT ensemble partition function, the equations of motion impose a constant external pressure via the introduction of a shell particle of known mass [M. J. Uline and D. S. Corti, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 164101 (2005); 123, 164102 (2005)], which serves to define uniquely the volume of the system. The particles are also connected to a temperature reservoir through the use of a chain of Nose-Hoover thermostats, the properties of which are not affected by a hard-sphere or square-well collision. By using the Liouville operator formalism and the Trotter expansion theorem to integrate the equations of motion, the update of the thermostat variables can be decoupled from the update of the positions of the particles and the momentum changes upon a collision. Hence, once the appropriate collision dynamics for the isobaric-isenthalpic (NpH) equations of motion is known, the adaptation of the algorithm to the NpT ensemble is straightforward. Results of MD simulations for the pure component square-well fluid are presented and serve to validate our algorithm. Finally, since the mass of the shell particle is known, the system itself, and not a piston of arbitrary mass, controls the time scales for internal pressure and volume fluctuations. We therefore consider the influence of the shell particle algorithm on the dynamics of the square-well fluid. PMID:18624470

  13. Proteomic identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation in mouse macrophages using resin-assisted enrichment and isobaric labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dian; Gaffrey, Matthew J; Guo, Jia; Hatchell, Kayla E; Chu, Rosalie K; Clauss, Therese R W; Aldrich, Joshua T; Wu, Si; Purvine, Sam; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Thrall, Brian D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2014-02-01

    S-Glutathionylation (SSG) is an important regulatory posttranslational modification on protein cysteine (Cys) thiols, yet the role of specific cysteine residues as targets of modification is poorly understood. We report a novel quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic method for site-specific identification and quantification of S-glutathionylation across different conditions. Briefly, this approach consists of initial blocking of free thiols by alkylation, selective reduction of glutathionylated thiols, and covalent capture of reduced thiols using thiol affinity resins, followed by on-resin tryptic digestion and isobaric labeling with iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) for MS-based identification and quantification. The overall approach was initially validated by application to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with different doses of diamide to induce glutathionylation. A total of 1071 Cys sites from 690 proteins were identified in response to diamide treatment, with ~90% of the sites displaying >2-fold increases in SSG modification compared to controls. This approach was extended to identify potential SSG-modified Cys sites in response to H2O2, an endogenous oxidant produced by activated macrophages and many pathophysiological stimuli. The results revealed 364 Cys sites from 265 proteins that were sensitive to S-glutathionylation in response to H2O2 treatment, thus providing a database of proteins and Cys sites susceptible to this modification under oxidative stress. Functional analysis revealed that the most significantly enriched molecular function categories for proteins sensitive to SSG modifications were free radical scavenging and cell death/survival. Overall the results demonstrate that our approach is effective for site-specific identification and quantification of SSG-modified proteins. The analytical strategy also provides a unique approach to determining the major pathways and cellular processes most susceptible

  14. Isobaric VLE of the mixture {(±)-linalool + ethanol}: A case study for the distillation of absolute and volatile oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Distillation of linalool, the main component of absolute and volatile oils from Lippia alba (Uruguay). • Isobaric VLE for the mixture (±)-linalool + ethanol is reported at (26.66, 40.00 and 53.33) kPa. • The mixture (±)-linalool + ethanol shows positive deviations from Raoult’s law. • COSMO-RS calculations predict rather well the VLE behavior. • PR, PRSV-VT and SAFT are tested. PRSV-VT provides the best prediction and correlation. -- Abstract: This paper presents the isobaric vapor + liquid equilibrium data at pressures of (26.66, 40.00 and 53.33) kPa for the mixture {(±)-linalool (1) + ethanol (2)} in the whole composition range. Also a comparative study about the capability of several models to describe the experimental behavior is reported. Three models of activity coefficients, namely, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC were used to correlate the experimental data and to check their thermodynamic consistency. The equations of Peng–Robinson (PR), Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera with volume translation (PRSV-VT) and the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) were used to, first, predict and then, to adjust the VLE of the system. The adjusted interactions parameters, kij, show a linear dependence with temperature and the best correlations were obtained with the PRSV-VT model. Additionally, COSMO-RS calculations were performed using σ-profiles based on Density Functional Theory (BP86 DFT) with triple valence polarization (TZVP) basis sets. Taking into account the very small number of parameters used, COSMO-RS model leads to good results for this system

  15. A multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator and mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) for the LEB at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the LEB of the Super-FRS at FAIR, precision measurements of very short-lived nuclei will be performed. For these experiments (MATS, LASPEC), the nuclei have to be stopped, cooled, separated and measured fast and efficiently. To achieve this goal, a multi-purpose, non-scanning mass spectrometer with single-ion sensitivity, a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer, has been developed. It will be positioned behind the gas-filled stopping cell at the LEB, where it can be used as a broadband mass spectrometer, an isobar separator or a high-precision mass spectrometer. The broadband mode will be used for optimization of the range and range-compression in the Super-FRS and the stopping and extraction from the gas cell. Isobaric contamination that is produced by secondary reactions in the degraders or by charge-exchange reactions in the gas cell can be orders of magnitude larger than the ions of interest. To remove these ions, the isobar separator mode is required, in which up to 107 isobaric ions/s can be handled. The high-precision mode enables measurements with an accuracy of 10-6 to 10-7 in about 2 ms. In this contribution the basic characteristics and performance of the device are presented.

  16. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  17. Halo structure of isobaric analogue states in A = 21 and 17 mirror nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Shu Hua

    2002-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) radii of the last nucleons in the 2s sub 1 sub / sub 2 states of sup 2 sup 1 Ne, sup 2 sup 1 Na, sup 1 sup 7 O and sup 1 sup 7 F are found to be 4.4 +- 0.5, 5.2 +- 0.6, 4.3 +- 0.5 and 5.0 +- 0.6 fm, respectively, from transfer reaction data. The results show that the 2s sub 1 sub / sub 2 states of sup 2 sup 1 Na and sup 1 sup 7 F are proton halo states, while the analogous states in their mirror nuclei sup 2 sup 1 Ne and sup 1 sup 7 O can be considered as neutron skin states. Comparisons among the rms radii of these states lead authors to expect that a neutron halo nucleus has a proton halo mirror partner, and the Coulomb barrier is a determinant factor limiting the extension of the rms radius of the loosely bound proton

  18. Nuclear structure of 110Pd and 110Cd isobar by interacting boson model (ibm-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a computational study in the field of nuclear structure by interacting boson model (IBM) to represents very important step formed in the description of collective nuclear excitations and the properties of electromagnetic transition. The ground state energy bands and the reduced transition probabilities B(E2) ↓ up to 81+ level of even-even nuclei 110Pd and 110Cd have been calculated by interacting boson model (IBM-1) and compared with previous experimental values. The set of parameters used in this calculation is the best approximation that has been carried out so far. The ratio of the excitation energies of the first 4+ and the first 2+ excited states, R4/2, is also calculated and an achievable degree of agreement has been investigated in transitional symmetry U(5) - O(6) for 110Cd and O(6) for 110Pd nuclei. We have been compared B(E2) values of 110Pd and 110Cd nuclei with theoretically and experimentally and their systematic studies as a function of angular momentum (L). We have been studied systematically the ratios RL = E(L+) / E(21+) and R = B(E2 : L+- > (L - 2)+) / B(E2 : 2+ -> 0+) of those nuclei in the ground-state band. Moreover, we have compared the attention to the analogy between the rotational frequency in ordinary space and Fermi energy in gauge space between 110Pd and 110Cd nuclei.

  19. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties. PMID:17716003

  20. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  1. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  2. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Isselhardt, Brett Hallen

    2011-01-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with aut...

  3. A Global Analog of Cheshire Charge

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  4. Atheism and Analogy: Aquinas Against the Atheists

    OpenAIRE

    Linford, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas developed two models for how humans may speak of God - either by the analogy of proportion or by the analogy of proportionality. Aquinas's doctrines initiated a theological debate concerning analogy that spanned several centuries. In the 18th century, there appeared two closely related arguments for atheism which both utilized analogy for their own purposes. In this thesis, I show that one argument, articulated by the French materialist Paul-Henri Thiry Bar...

  5. Magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency analogy of dielectric metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript, we experimentally demonstrate magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogy effect inside dielectric metamaterial. In contrast to previous studies employed different metallic topological microstructures to introduce dissipation loss change, barium strontium titanate, and calcium titanate (CaTiO3) are chosen as the bright and dark EIT resonators, respectively, due to their different intrinsic dielectric loss. Under incident magnetic field excitation, dielectric metamaterial exhibits an EIT-type transparency window around 8.9 GHz, which is accompanied by abrupt change of transmission phase. Numerical calculations show good agreement with experiment spectra and reveal remarkably increased group index, indicating potential application in slow light

  6. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  7. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  8. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  9. Kicked rotor quantum resonances in position space

    OpenAIRE

    Lepers, Maxence; Zehnlé, Véronique; Garreau, Jean Claude

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach of the kicked rotor quantum resonances in position-space, based on its analogy with the optical Talbot effect. This approach leads to a very simple picture of the physical mechanism underlying the dynamics and to analytical expressions for relevant physical quantities, such as mean momentum or kinetic energy. The ballistic behavior, which is closely associated to quantum resonances, is analyzed and shown to emerge from a coherent adding of successive kicks applied to th...

  10. Nucleic Acid Base Analog FRET-Pair Facilitating Detailed Structural Measurements in Nucleic Acid Containing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börjesson, Karl; Preus, Søren; El-Sagheer, Afaf;

    2009-01-01

    We present the first nucleobase analog fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-pair. The pair consists of tCO, 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine, as an energy donor and the newly developed tC(nitro), 7-nitro-1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine, as an energy acceptor. The FRET-pair successfully monitors d...

  11. A helpful analogy between the covalent bond and Particle Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bugg, D V

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that meson resonances are linear combinations of q-qbar and meson-meson (MM); baryon resonances are combinations of qqq and meson-baryon (MB). Mixing between these combinations arises via decays of confined states to meson-meson or meson-baryon. There is a precise analogy with the covalent bond in molecular physics; it helps to visualise what is happening physically. One eigenstate is lowered by the mixing; the other moves up and normally increases in width. Cusps arise at thresholds. At sharp thresholds due to S-wave 2-particle decays, these cusps play a conspicuous role in many sets of data. The overall pattern of light mesons is consistent with nearly linear Regge trajectories, hence q-qbar components. There is no obvious reason why this pattern should arise from dynamically generated states without q-qbar content.

  12. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

  13. Analog computation with dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann, Hava T.; Fishman, Shmuel

    1998-09-01

    Physical systems exhibit various levels of complexity: their long term dynamics may converge to fixed points or exhibit complex chaotic behavior. This paper presents a theory that enables to interpret natural processes as special purpose analog computers. Since physical systems are naturally described in continuous time, a definition of computational complexity for continuous time systems is required. In analogy with the classical discrete theory we develop fundamentals of computational complexity for dynamical systems, discrete or continuous in time, on the basis of an intrinsic time scale of the system. Dissipative dynamical systems are classified into the computational complexity classes P d, Co-RP d, NP d and EXP d, corresponding to their standard counterparts, according to the complexity of their long term behavior. The complexity of chaotic attractors relative to regular ones leads to the conjecture P d ≠ NP d. Continuous time flows have been proven useful in solving various practical problems. Our theory provides the tools for an algorithmic analysis of such flows. As an example we analyze the continuous Hopfield network.

  14. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  15. Coulomb effects in isobaric cold fission from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf)

    CERN Document Server

    Montoya, Modesto

    2014-01-01

    The Coulomb effect hypothesis, formerly used to interpret fluctuations in the curve of maximal total kinetic energy as a function of light fragment mass in reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f) and 239Pu(nth,f), is confirmed in high kinetic energy as well as in low excitation energy windows, respectively. Data from reactions 233U(nth,f), 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(sf) show that, between two isobaric fragmentations with similar Q-values, the more asymmetric charge split reaches the higher value of total kinetic energy. Moreover, in isobaric charge splits with different Q-values, similar preference for asymmetrical fragmentations is observed in low excitation energy windows.

  16. Reexamining the "finite-size" effects in isobaric yield ratios using a statistical abrasion-ablation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, C W; Ma, Y G

    2012-01-01

    The "finite-size" effects in isobaric yield ratio (IYR), which is shown in the standard grand-canonical and canonical statistical ensembles (SGC/CSE) method, is found to prevent obtaining the actual values of physical parameters. Due to there is no inputs of neutron and proton density distribution in SGC/CSE, the conclusion of SGC/CSE is doubtable. To investigate wether IYR has the "finite-size" effects, IYR of mirror nuclei are reexamined using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. IYR of mirror nuclei in the 140$A$ MeV $^{38\\sim52}$Ca + $^{12}$C, and $^{72}$Zn/$^{96}$Zr/$^{120}$Sn + $^{12}$C reactions are calculated using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. IYR of mirror nucleus in reactions of $^{38\\sim52}$Ca increases when the projectile becomes more neutron-rich, but saturates in the reactions of very neutron-rich nucleus. IYR of mirror nuclei in reactions of $^{72}$Zn/$^{96}$Zr/$^{120}$Sn that have same n/p ratio show no "finite-size" effects. IYR of mirror nuclei is found to depen...

  17. Measurement and correlation of isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for the binary system of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran (THF system were measured at 101.3 kPa by using an equilibrium still. Thermodynamic consistency of the experimental data was confirmed by means of the Herington method. The experimental data were correlated and calculated by the Margules, Van Laar and Wilson activity-coefficient models, respectively. The Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models are better than the Margules activity-coefficient model based on the average absolute deviations of temperature and the vapor-phase composition. For the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models the average absolute deviations between the experimental and the calculated values were 0.24 K and 0.23 K for the boiling point, and 0.0040 for vapor-phase composition, respectively. These agree well with the experimental data. Therefore, it was shown that the Wilson and Van Laar activity-coefficient models satisfactorily correlate the experimental results of the cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran system.

  18. MR-ToF isobar separation for mass and life-time measurements of neutron-rich zinc at ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audi, Georges; Lunney, David; Wang, Meng [CSNSMIN2P3-CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Beck, Dietrich; Herfurth, Frank; Kluge, Juergen; Ramirez, Enrique Minaya; Neidherr, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, Klaus; Boehm, Christine; Borgmann, Christopher; Cakirli, R. Burcu; Eliseev, Sergey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Breitenfeldt, Martin [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika; Cocolios, Thomas Elias; Kowalska, Magdalena [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); George, Sebastian; Schwarz, Stefan [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Herlert, Alexander [FAIR GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kreim, Susanne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Naimi, Sarah [RIKEN Research Facility (Japan); Rosenbusch, Marco; Schweikhard, Lutz; Wienholtz, Frank; Wolf, Robert N. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany); Stanja, Juliane; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are performed with ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN. An important prerequisite to achieve relative uncertainties of {delta}m/m=10{sup -8} is the availability of purely isobaric ion ensembles. To enhance the purity of radioactive ion beams, a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator developed at the University of Greifswald has recently been implemented at the ISOLTRAP setup. A mass resolving power of R=2.10{sup 5} and a contaminant reduction of four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen ion gate have been achieved. The performance of the combined setup (including an RFQ ion buncher, the MR-ToF MS and the two Penning traps) in both offline tests as well as in first applications with radioactive ion beams is presented. Furthermore, the physics case and recent results of mass measurements of neutron-rich Zinc are shown.

  19. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Cam, J.-F.; Chauveau, P.; Daudin, L.; Delahaye, P.; Delalee, F.; Dupré, P.; El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H.; Lunney, D.; Metz, F.; Naimi, S.; Perrot, L.; de Roubin, A.; Serani, L.; Thomas, B.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 105 ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 105 is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  20. MR-ToF isobar separation for mass and life-time measurements of neutron-rich zinc at ISOLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are performed with ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN. An important prerequisite to achieve relative uncertainties of δm/m=10-8 is the availability of purely isobaric ion ensembles. To enhance the purity of radioactive ion beams, a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator developed at the University of Greifswald has recently been implemented at the ISOLTRAP setup. A mass resolving power of R=2.105 and a contaminant reduction of four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen ion gate have been achieved. The performance of the combined setup (including an RFQ ion buncher, the MR-ToF MS and the two Penning traps) in both offline tests as well as in first applications with radioactive ion beams is presented. Furthermore, the physics case and recent results of mass measurements of neutron-rich Zinc are shown.

  1. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  2. A resonant ionization laser ion source at ORNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-step resonance laser ionization has become an essential tool for the production of isobarically pure radioactive ion beams at the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities around the world. A resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) has been developed for the former Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RILIS employs a hot-cavity ion source and a laser system featuring three grating-tuned and individually pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers, especially designed for stable and simple operation. The RILIS has been installed at the second ISOL production platform of former HRIBF and has successfully provided beams of exotic neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies. This paper reports the features, advantages, limitations, and on-line and off-line performance of the RILIS.

  3. Sulfonium Ion Derivatization, Isobaric Stable Isotope Labeling and Data Dependent CID- and ETD-MS/MS for Enhanced Phosphopeptide Quantitation, Identification and Phosphorylation Site Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptid...

  4. Custom 4-Plex DiLeu Isobaric Labels Enable Relative Quantification of Urinary Proteins in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Tyler; Hao, Ling; Nechyporenko, Anatoliy; Lee, Sanghee; Vezina, Chad M.; Ricke, Will A.; Marker, Paul C.; Bjorling, Dale E.; Bushman, Wade; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    The relative quantification of proteins using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has allowed researchers to compile lists of potential disease markers. These complex quantitative workflows often include isobaric labeling of enzymatically-produced peptides to analyze their relative abundances across multiple samples in a single LC-MS run. Recent efforts by our lab have provided scientists with cost-effective alternatives to expensive commercial labels. Although the quantitative pe...

  5. The multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator for TITAN and direct mass measurements at the FRS Ion Catcher

    OpenAIRE

    Jesch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclides are relevant for the investigation of the structure of the nucleus, the development of mass models and to understand and model astrophysical nucleosynthesis processes. Production, preparation and measurement methods for exotic nuclides are limited by isobaric contamination, required measurement time and number of produced particles. A new alternative to existing methods to circumvent these limitations exists: Multiple-reflection time-of-fli...

  6. Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-10-01

    We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy. PMID:17263066

  7. An experimental setup for isobaric heat capacities for viscous fluids at high pressure: Squalane, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► New setup to measure accurate heat capacities under pressure for viscous fluids. ► Highly accurate Cp up to 30 MPa for SQN, DEHS and DEHP are reported. ► A new fitting equation Cp(T, p) obtaining maximum deviations of 0.5% is presented. ► The highest Cp and the most pronounced decrease with pressure are shown for SQN. - Abstract: A high-pressure flow calorimeter has been used to determine highly accurate isobaric heat capacities for different viscous fluids, squalane (SQN), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DEHS) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from T = (293.15 to 353.15) K and up to 30 MPa. The experimental device was adapted for viscous liquids at high pressure and it can measure heat capacities with an estimated total uncertainty better than 1%. The isobaric heat capacity values were analysed together with their temperature and pressure dependences. In addition, a fitting equation of the experimental molar isobaric heat capacity for these viscous fluids as a function of temperature and pressure was proposed.

  8. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  9. Analysis of analogies used by science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.

    Science teachers use analogies that display a rich variety of form and content. An account of science teacher analogies that relies solely on systems of analysis imported from other fields of inquiry tends to obscure the unique features of these analogies as they operate within classroom discourse. This study examines teachers' analogies in context and highlights some of their special characteristics. The purpose of this analysis is to increase our understanding of how analogies operate in naturalistic instructional settings and to generate new research questions about science teaching and learning in view of the broader dimensions of the curriculum.Science isa very human activity. It involves human actors and judgements, rivalries and antagonisms, mysteries and surprises, the creative use of metaphor and analogy. It is fallible, often uncertain, and sometimes creatively ambiguous [Lemke, 1990, p. 134].Received: 1 June 1993; Revised: 29 November 1993;

  10. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  11. Analog circuit design scalable analog circuit design, high speed D/A converters, RF power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsing, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Preface. Part I: Scalable Analog Circuit Design. Introduction. Scalable High-Speed Analog Circuit Design; M. Vertregt, P. Scholtens. Scalable High Resolution Mixed Mode Circuit Design; R.J. Brewer. Scalable 'High Voltages' Integrated Circuit Design for XDSL Type of Applications; D. Rossi. Scalability of Wire-Line Analog Front-Ends; K. Bult. Reusable IP Analog Circuit Design; J. Hauptmann, A. Wiesbauer, H. Weinberger. Process Migration Tools for Analog and Digital Circuits; K. Francken, G. Gielen. Part II: High-Speed D/A Converters. Introduction. Introduction to High-Speed Digital-to-Analog Con

  12. Xampling: Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mishali, Moshe; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed wi...

  13. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitaniak, T.; Zyczkowski, K.; Feudel, U.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we d...

  14. Acoustic analog of a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As well known, at the present time there are many types of laser the operation of which is based on the stimulated emission of light by an active medium. Lasers are generators of coherent electromagnetic waves in the range from ultraviolet to submillimeters. But acoustic analogs of such devices have not been created up to now in spite of the progress in laser technology. Meanwhile, an acoustic laser could have a lot of interesting applications. Recently a theoretical scheme for an acoustic laser was proposed by the present author. A liquid dielectric with dispersed particles was considered as an active medium. The pumping was created by an oscillating electric field deforming dispersed particle volumes. Different types of oils or distilled water can serve as a liquid dielectric with gas bubbles as dispersed particles. Gas bubbles in water can be created by an electrolysis. The phase bunching of the initially incoherent emitters (gas bubbles) was realized by acoustic radiation forces. This scheme is an analog of the free-electron laser (FEL). It was shown that two types of losses must be overcome for the beginning of a generation. The first type results from the energy dissipation in the active medium and the second one is caused by radiation losses at the boundaries of the resonator. The purposes of this report are: (1) to discuss the analogies between the acoustic laser and FEL; (2) to propose an effective scheme of an acoustic laser with a mechanical pumping (by a piezoelectric emitter of the piston type); (3) to consider the schemes of acoustic lasers with the different types of the resonators (rectangular and cylindrical); (4) to discuss the possibility of the creation of an impact acoustic laser (5) to discuss the experimental works which are planned to be carried out in cooperation with prof. L.A. Crum

  15. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  16. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  17. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  18. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  19. Analogical Processes and College Developmental Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a solid body of research concerning the role of analogies in reading processes has emerged at a variety of age groups and reading proficiencies, few of those studies have focused on analogy use by readers enrolled in college developmental reading courses. The current study explores whether 232 students enrolled in mandatory (by placement…

  20. Several Forms of Fuzzy Analogical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchon-Meunier, B; Delechamp, J.; Marsala, C.; Rifqi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a general framework representing analogy, on the basis of a link between variables and measures of comparison between values of variables. This analogical scheme is proven to represent a common description of several forms of reasoning used in fuzzy control or in the management of knowledge-based systems, such as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning or prototypical reasoning, gradual reasoning.

  1. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...... the algorithm to students. The analogy suggests a possible extension of the fuzzy membership assignment equation....

  2. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio;

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of thes...

  3. Analog simulation of the Josephson effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analog circuit techniques can be used to advantage to simulate the Josephson effects in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction. Details of an electronic Josephson simulator are presented, and the advantages of analog techniques over their digital counterparts for this application are discussed. The simulation of a Josephson microwave mixer is used as an example

  4. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  5. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  6. Play with Language: Overextensions as Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith; Nelson, Katherine

    1984-01-01

    Defines criteria to identify children's language overextensions and investigates how young children in the early stages of language acquisition rename objects analogically during a standardized play situation. Results indicate that analogic extensions are well within the capabilities of children from one year, eight months to two years, four…

  7. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  9. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  10. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  11. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  12. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  13. Precision spectroscopy with COMPASS and the observation of a new iso-vector resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results of a novel partial-wave analysis based on 50 ⋅ 106 events from the reaction π− + p → π−π−π+ + precoil at 190 GeV/c incoming beam momentum using the COMPASS spectrometer. A separated analysis in bins of m3π and four-momentum transfer t′ reveals the interference of resonant and non-resonant particle production and allows their spectral separation. Besides well known resonances we observe a new iso-vector meson a1(1420 at a mass of 1420 MeV/c2 in the f0(980π final state only, the origin of which is unclear. We have also examined the structure of the 0++ππ-isobar in the JPC = 0−+, 1++, 2−+ three pion waves. This clearly reveals the various 0++ππ-isobar components and its correlation to the decay of light mesons.

  14. Rare evidence for formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling of ultrahigh temperature metapelites: New insights for retrograde P-T trajectory of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2015-04-01

    We report the occurrence of coexisting garnet + corundum in spinel- and corundum-bearing, garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (pelitic granulites) from the Highland Complex (HC), Sri Lanka. In the investigated pelitic granulites, two domains such as quartz-saturated and quartz-undersaturated are distinguishable. The quartz-saturated domains consist of porphyroblastic garnet, quartz, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and biotite flakes rimming garnet. The quartz-undersaturated domains are constituted of two generations of garnet (Grt1 and Grt2), sillimanite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, corundum, spinel and biotite. Grt1 encloses rare Ti-rich biotite and numerous rutile needles and apatite rods. Grt2 contains rare sillimanite and/or spinel inclusions. Corundum occurs in mutual contact with Grt2, partially embedded at the rim or as an inclusions in Grt2. Thermobarometry on inclusion phases in Grt1 indicates that during the prograde history pelitic granulites attained a P of 10.5-11 kbar at T of ~ 850 °C. Textural observations coupled with both pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and Ti-in-Garnet geothermobarometry suggest that peak metamorphism occurred at ultrahigh temperature (UHT) conditions of 950-975 °C and pressures of 9-9.5 kbar. Peak T was followed by a period of isobaric cooling that formed corundum and Grt2 at approx. 930 °C along with exsolution of rutile needles and apatite rods in Grt1. Thermodynamic modelling confirms that corundum appears along an isobaric cooling path at about 920-930 °C and 9-9.5 kbar. Therefore, the investigated granulites provide a rare example of post-peak crystallization of garnet + corundum along a retrograde metamorphic trajectory under UHT conditions. Thus, isobaric cooling at the base of the crust could be regarded as an alternative process to form coexisting garnet + corundum.

  15. Measurement and isobar-model analysis of the doubly differential cross section for the π+ produced in π-p → π+π-n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doubly differential cross section d2sigma/dΩdT for π+ mesons produced in the reaction π-p → π+π-n was measured at 203, 230, 256, and 358 MeV with a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. A set of five previous measurements at 254, 280, 292, 331, and 356 MeV was reanalyzed with the new measurements. Integrated cross sections were calculated for the combined data set with unprecedented accuracy for this energy range. The chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter was determined to be epsilon = -0.03 +- 0.26 by extrapolating the mean square modulus of the matrix element to threshold and comparing the threshold matrix element with the prediction of soft-pion theory. This value of epsilon is consistent with zero as required by the Weinberg Lagrangian. Measurements at the three highest energies were compared with the results of an isobar-model analysis of bubble-chamber events by an LBL-SLAC collaboration. After allowing for an overall normalization difference, the measurements at 331 and 358 MeV were in excellent agreement with the results of their analysis. The measurement at 292 MeV required variation of the PS11(epsilonN) amplitude, as well as the overall normalization, which could be due to the limited number of bubble-chamber events available for the LBL-SLAC analysis at this energy. A partial-wave analysis of the measurements was also carried out with the VPI isobar model. Within this model, the matrix element contains a background term calculated from a phenomenological πN Lagrangian that is consistent with the hypotheses of current algebra and PCAC. The reaction was found to be dominated by the initial P11 wave. Production of the Δ isobar from initial D waves was found to be significant at the two highest energies

  16. Isobar separation of 93Zr and 93Nb at 24 MeV with a new multi-anode ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschini, Martin; Buchriegler, Josef; Collon, Philippe; Kutschera, Walter; Lachner, Johannes; Lu, Wenting; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    93Zr with a half-life of 1.6 Ma is produced with high yield in nuclear fission, and thus should be present as a natural or anthropogenic trace isotope in all compartments of the general environment. Sensitive measurements of this isotope would immediately find numerous applications, however, its detection at sufficiently low levels has not yet been achieved. AMS measurements of 93Zr suffer from the interference of the stable isobar 93Nb. At the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator VERA a new multi-anode ionization chamber was built. It is optimized for isobar separation in the medium mass range and is based on the experience from AMS experiments of 36Cl at our 3-MV tandem accelerator facility. The design provides high flexibility in anode configuration and detector geometry. After validating the excellent energy resolution of the detector with 36S, it was recently used to study iron-nickel and zirconium-niobium-molybdenum isobar separation. To our surprise, the separation of 94Zr (Z = 40) from 94Mo (Z = 42) was found to be much better than that of 58Fe (Z = 26) from 58Ni (Z = 28), despite the significantly larger ΔZ/Z of the latter pair. This clearly contradicts results from SRIM-simulations and suggests that differences in the stopping behavior may unexpectedly favor identification of 93Zr. At 24 MeV particle energy, a 93Nb (Z = 41) suppression factor of 1000 is expected based on a synthetic 93Zr spectrum obtained by interpolation between experimental spectra from the two neighboring stable isotopes 92Zr and 94Zr. Assuming realistic numbers for chemical niobium reduction, a detection level of 93Zr/Zr below 10-9 seems feasible.

  17. Parametric study and characterization of the isobaric thermomechanical transformation fatigue of nickel-rich NiTi SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Olivier W.; Schick, Justin; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of various aerospace applications utilizing Ni-rich NiTi Shape memory Alloys (SMAs) as actuators motivated the need to characterize the cyclic response and the transformation fatigue behavior of such alloys. The fatigue life validation and certification of new designs is required in order to be implemented and used in future applications. For that purpose, a custom built fatigue test frame was designed to perform isobaric thermally induced transformation cycles on small dogbones SMA actuators (test gauge cross-section up to: 1.270 x 0.508 mm2). A parametric study on the cyclic response and transformation fatigue behavior of Ni-rich NiTi SMAs led to the optimization of several material/process and test parameters, namely: the applied stress range, the heat treatment, the heat treatment environment and the specimen thickness. However, fatigue testing was performed in a chilled waterless glycol environment maintained at a temperature of 5°C that showed evidence of corrosion-assisted transformation fatigue failure. Therefore, it was necessary to build a fatigue test frame that would employ a dry and inert cooling methodology to get away from any detrimental interactions between the specimens and the cooling medium (corrosion). The selected cooling method was gaseous nitrogen, sprayed into a thermally insulated chamber, maintaining a temperature of -20°C. The design of the gaseous nitrogen cooling was done in such a way that the actuation frequency is similar to the one obtained using the original design (~ 0.1 Hz). For both cooling methods, Joule resistive heating was used to heat the specimens. In addition and motivated by the difference in surface quality resulting from different material processing such as EDM wire cutting and heat treatments, EDM recast layer and oxide layer were removed. The removal was followed by an ultra-fine polish (0.05 μm) that was performed on a subset of the fatigue specimens. Experimental results are presented

  18. Photonic analog computing with integrated silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoleng; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    The spectra of silicon integrated waveguides are tailored to process analog computing (i.e.,differential and integral) in optical domain with huge bandwidth.With the theory of signal and system, we design some silicon integrated devices to implement photonic differentiator and optical differential equation solver. The basic principle is to tailor the spectra of silicon integrated waveguides to meet the requirements of analog computing circuits. These analog photonic integrated circuits are very promising in future computing systems with high speed, low cost, and compact size. We also plan to employ these basic computing units in more complex computing modules.

  19. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibria of the binary system maleic anhydride and diethyl phthalate at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturated vapor pressures of pure diethyl phthalate were measured with the ebulliometer. And isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system (maleic anhydride + diethyl phthalate) at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa were determined using the ebulliometric method. The parameters of the NRTL model for the binary system were obtained by calculating equilibrium compositions of the liquid and vapor phase with the experimental equilibrium temperatures, pressures and feed compositions. Moreover (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system were predicted by use of the UNIFAC model. Predicted results were compared with those from the ebulliometric method, and showed good agreement

  20. Microscopic nuclear-structure calculations for the solar-neutrino detector sup 7 sup 1 Ga and close-lying isobars

    CERN Document Server

    Holmlund, E

    2003-01-01

    In the present solar-neutrino experiments, mainly observing the pp contribution of the solar-neutrino flux, an important role is played by sup 7 sup 1 Ga. The structure of this detector nucleus and three of its isobars have been calculated by using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model. Using a realistic effective two-body interaction in a realistic valence space, the method yielded energy spectra in good agreement with experiments. The calculated logft values for a number of spontaneous and neutrino-induced Gamow-Teller transitions, when compared with the experimental results, gave qualitatively correct but overestimated transition-strength values in most cases.

  1. First-principles calculations for $c$-coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation in the $1p0f$ shell

    CERN Document Server

    Ormand, W E; Jensen, M Hjorth

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculations for the $c$-coefficients of the isobaric mass multiplet equation (IMME) for nuclei from $A=42$ to $A=54$ based on input from several realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. We show that there is clear dependence on the short-ranged charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) part of the strong interaction. There is a significant variation in the CSB part between the commonly used CD-Bonn, N$^3$LO and Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon interactions. All of them give a CSB contribution that is too large when compared to experiment.

  2. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    the unencumbered motion-to-computer-generated activities - ‘Music Making’, ‘Painting’, ‘Robotic’ and ‘Video Game’ control. A focus of this position paper is to highlight how Aesthetic Resonance, in this context, relates to the growing body of research on Neuroaesthetics to evolve Neuroaesthetic Resonance.......Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment...... tailored channeling of sensory stimulus aligned as ‘art-making’ and ‘game playing’ core experiences. Thus, affecting brain plasticity and human motoric-performance via the adaptability (plasticity) of digital medias result in closure of the human afferent-efferent neural feedback loop closure through...

  3. Elastic Enhancement Factor: from Mesoscopic Systems to Macroscopic Analogous Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Valentin V

    2014-01-01

    Excess of probabilities of the elastic processes over the inelastic ones is a common feature of the resonance phenomena, described in the framework of the random matrix theory. This phenomenon is quantitatively characterized by the elastic enhancement factor $F^{(\\beta)}$ that is a typical ratio of elastic and inelastic cross sections. Being measured experimentally, this quantity can supply us with information on the character of dynamics of the intermediate complicated open system. We discuss properties of the enhancement factor in a wide scope from mesoscopoic systems to macroscopic analogous devices and demonstrate essential qualitative distinction between the elastic enhancement factor's peculiarities in these two cases. Complete analytical solution is found for the case of systems without time-reversal symmetry and only a few open equivalent scattering channels.

  4. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  5. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  6. The Analog (Computer) As a Physiology Adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    Defines and discusses the analog computer and its use in a physiology laboratory. Includes two examples: (1) The Respiratory Control Function and (2) CO-Two Control in the Respiratory System. Presents diagrams and mathematical models. (MA)

  7. An Electrical Analog Computer for Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruels, Mark C.

    1972-01-01

    Nonphysics majors are presented with a direct current experiment beyond Ohms law and series and parallel laws. This involves construction of an analog computer from common rheostats and student-assembled voltmeters. (Author/TS)

  8. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Raring, James; Skogen, Erik J.

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  9. Implementing neural architectures using analog VLSI circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Mary Ann C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.; Mahowald, Misha A.; Mead, Carver A.

    1989-01-01

    Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) technology can be used not only to study and simulate biological systems, but also to emulate them in designing artificial sensory systems. A methodology for building these systems in CMOS VLSI technology has been developed using analog micropower circuit elements that can be hierarchically combined. Using this methodology, experimental VLSI chips of visual and motor subsystems have been designed and fabricated. These chips exhibit behavior similar to...

  10. Pigeons, Rats, and Humans Show Analogous Misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we show that pigeons, rats and humans can be influenced by misleading postevent information in ways analogous to findings in the human memory distortion literature. We used a delayed matching to sample analog of the eyewitness testimony procedure from Loftus et al.(1978), and varied the length of the delay between event and exposure to post event information(PEI). We also varied the nature of PEI so that it was consistent with the event information, inconsistent, or neut...

  11. Analog VLSI model of binaural hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Carver A.; Arreguit, Xavier; Lazzaro, John

    1991-01-01

    The stereausis model of biological auditory processing was proposed as a representation that encodes both binaural and spectral information in a unified framework. We describe a working analog VLSI chip that implements this model of early auditory processing in the brain. The chip is a 100 000-transistor integrated circuit that computes the stereausis representation in real time, using continuous-time analog processing. The chip receives two audio inputs, representing sou...

  12. Analogical Learning and Automated Rule Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周哈阳

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments of analogical learning and automated rule construction.The present investigation focuses on knowledge acquisition,learning by analyogy,and knowledge retention.The developed system initially learns from scratch,gradually acquires knowledge from its environment through trial-and-error interaction,incrementally augments its knowledge base,and analogically solves new tasks in a more efficient and direct manner.

  13. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao-Te; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P T P; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  14. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek Y.; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; P. T. P. Ho; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting c...

  15. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek Y.; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P. T. P.; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2010-06-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband intermediate frequency distribution, back-end signal processing, and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  16. Low Power Analog Design in Scaled Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, A; Cocciolo, G; D’Amico, S; De Matteis, M; Delizia, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an overview on the main issues in analog IC design in scaled CMOS technology is presented. Decreasing the length of MOS channel and the gate oxide has led to undoubted advantages in terms of chip area, speed and power consumption (mainly exploited in the digital parts). Besides, some drawbacks are introduced in term of power leakage and reliability. Moreover, the scaled technology lower supply voltage requirement has led analog designers to find new circuital solution to guarantee the required performance.

  17. A review of EBMT using proportional analogies

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Harold; Dandapat, Sandipan; Naskar, Sudip Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Some years ago a number of papers reported an experimental implementation of Example Based Machine Translation (EBMT) using Proportional Analogy. This approach, a type of analogical learning, was attractive because of its simplicity; and the papers reported considerable success with the method. This paper reviews what we believe to be the totality of research reported using this method, as an introduction to our own experiments in this framework, reported in a companion paper. We report first...

  18. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Karolis Kiela; Romualdas Navickas

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  19. On the gravitational analog of electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussed are some aspects of the analogy between stationary gravitational and electromagnetic fields, in particular, the gravitational analog of the electromagnetic induction phenomenon. The point is that the field of forces influencing the test particle in the strict system of reference is similar to the field of forces influencing a charged particle in the stationary electromagnetic field. The effect proceeds from the equation of motion of a spinning extended body

  20. Excitation of graphene plasmons as an analogy with the two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiahui; Lv, Bo; Li, Rujiang; Ma, Ruyu; Chen, Wan; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-02-01

    The excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) is presented as an interaction between the GPs and the incident electromagnetic field. In this Letter, the excitation of GPs in a plasmonic system is interpreted as an analogy with the two-level system by taking the two-coupled graphene-covered gratings as an example. Based on the equivalent circuit theory, the excitation of GPs in the graphene-covered grating is equivalent to the resonance of an oscillator. Thus, according to the governing equation, the electric currents at the resonant frequencies for two-coupled graphene-covered gratings correspond to the energy states in a two-level system. In addition, the excitation of GPs in different two-coupled graphene-covered gratings is numerically studied to validate our theoretical model. Our work provides an intuitive understanding of the excitation of GPs using an analogy with the two-level system.

  1. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  2. Gadolinium trace determination in biomedical samples by diode-laser-based multi-step resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diode laser based multi-step resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), which has been developed primarily for ultra trace analysis of long lived radioactive isotopes has been adapted for the application to elements within the sequence of the rare earths. First investigations concern Gd isotopes. Here high suppression of isobars, as provided by RIMS, is mandatory. Using a three step resonant excitation scheme into an autoionizing state, which has been the subject of preparatory spectroscopic investigations, high efficiency of >1x10-6 and good isobaric selectivity >107 was realized. Additionally the linearity of the method has been demonstrated over six orders of magnitude. Avoiding contaminations from the Titanium-carrier foil resulted in a suppression of background of more than one order of magnitude and a correspondingly low detection limit of 4x109 atoms, equivalent to lpg of Gd. The technique has been applied for trace determination of the Gd-content in animal tissue. Bio-medical micro samples were analyzed shortly after Gd-chelat, which is used as the primary contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in biomedical investigations, has been injected. Correlated in-vivo magnetic resonance images have been taken. The RIMS measurements show high reproducibility as a well as good precision, and contribute to new insight into the distribution and kinetics of Gd within different healthy and cancerous tissues

  3. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  4. Custom 4-Plex DiLeu Isobaric Labels Enable Relative Quantification of Urinary Proteins in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Greer

    Full Text Available The relative quantification of proteins using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS has allowed researchers to compile lists of potential disease markers. These complex quantitative workflows often include isobaric labeling of enzymatically-produced peptides to analyze their relative abundances across multiple samples in a single LC-MS run. Recent efforts by our lab have provided scientists with cost-effective alternatives to expensive commercial labels. Although the quantitative performance of these dimethyl leucine (DiLeu labels has been reported using known ratios of complex protein and peptide standards, their potential in large-scale proteomics studies using a clinically relevant system has never been investigated. Our work rectifies this oversight by implementing 4-plex DiLeu to quantify proteins in the urine of aging human males who suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Protein abundances in 25 LUTS and 15 control patients were compared, revealing that of the 836 proteins quantified, 50 were found to be differentially expressed (>20% change and statistically significant (p-value <0.05. Gene ontology (GO analysis of the differentiated proteins showed that many were involved in inflammatory responses and implicated in fibrosis. While confirmation of individual protein abundance changes would be required to verify protein expression, this study represents the first report using the custom isobaric label, 4-plex DiLeu, to quantify protein abundances in a clinically relevant system.

  5. Design, construction and commissioning of an RF trap system for a multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator and mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesch, Christian; Dickel, Timo; Becker, Arno; Czok, Ulrich; Petrick, Martin [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Plass, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator and mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been developed, which can be used for isobar separation, broadband mass spectrometry and high-accuracy mass measurement of very short lived nuclei with half-lives on the order of milliseconds. The start of the time-of-flight measurement in the MR-TOF-MS is given by the injection of ions from an RF trap. The performance of the mass spectrometer is significantly determined by the characteristics of the injected ion population. The newly developed injection trap system provides cooled ion bunches of low emittance. It consists of three stages for fast ion cooling, while avoiding collisional losses during ion ejection. A fast-switching square wave RF source was developed. It allows to switch off the RF during ejection in order to reduce mass selective ion energies. The system was set up and commissioned. Time-of-flight peak widths of < 5 ns have been measured, enabling a mass resolving power of the MR-TOF-MS of 10{sup 5} after a flight time of 1 ms. Cooling times of down to 1 ms and a high transmission efficiency have been achieved. The design of the trap system and first experimental results are presented.

  6. Isobaric yield ratio difference between the 140 $A$ MeV $^{58, 64}$Ni + $^{9}$Be reactions studied by antisymmetric molecular dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, C Y; Ma, C W; Zhang, Y L; Wang, S S

    2015-01-01

    \\item[Background] The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) method is found to be sensitive to the density difference of neutron-rich nucleus induced reaction around the Fermi energy. \\item[Purpose] An investigation is performed to study the IBD results in the transport model. \\item[Methods] The antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model plus the sequential decay model GEMINI are adopted to simulate the 140$A$ MeV $^{58, 64}$Ni + $^{9}$Be reactions. A relative small coalescence radius R$_c =$ 2.5 fm is used for the phase space at $t =$ 500 fm/c to form the hot fragment. Two limitations on the impact parameter ($b1 = 0 - 2$ fm and $b2 = 0 - 9$ fm) are used to study the effect of central collisions in IBD. \\item[Results] The isobaric yield ratios (IYRs) for the large--$A$ fragments are found to be suppressed in the symmetric reaction. The IBD results for fragments with neutron-excess $I = $ 0 and 1 are obtained. A small difference is found in the IBDs with the $b1$ and $b2$ limitations in the AMD simulated re...

  7. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Wiinberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects of the...... test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices in...

  8. Excitation of the Delta(1232) isobar in deuteron charge exchange on hydrogen at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.3 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mchedlishvili, D; Carbonell, J; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Dzyuba, A; Engels, R; Gebel, R; Glagolev, V; Grigoryev, K; Goslawski, P; Hartmann, M; Imambekov, O; Kacharava, A; Kamerdzhiev, V; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Lehrach, A; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Macharashvili, G; Maier, R; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychyants, M; Mikirtychyants, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Papenbrock, M; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Seyfarth, H; Stein, H J; Steffens, E; Stockhorst, H; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Trusov, S; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C

    2013-01-01

    The charge-exchange break-up of polarised deuterons pol{d}p -> {pp}n, where the final {pp} diproton system has a very low excitation energy and hence is mainly in the 1S0 state, is a powerful tool to probe the spin-flip terms in the proton-neutron charge-exchange scattering. Recent measurements with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.27 GeV have extended these studies into the pion-production regime in order to investigate the mechanism for the excitation of the Delta(1232) isobar in the pol{d}p -> {pp}X reaction. Values of the differential cross section and two deuteron tensor analysing powers, A_{xx} and A_{yy}, have been extracted in terms of the momentum transfer to the diproton or the invariant mass Mx of the unobserved system X. The unpolarised cross section in the high Mx region is well described in a model that includes only direct excitation of the Delta isobar through undistorted one pion exchange. However, the cross section is grossly underestimated for low Mx, even w...

  9. $\\eta$ MAID-2015: update with new data and new resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Kashevarov, V L; Ostrick, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent data for $\\eta$ and $\\eta\\prime$ photoproduction on protons obtained by the A2 Collaboration at MAMI are presented. The total cross section for $\\eta$ photoproduction demonstrates a cusp at the energy corresponding to the $\\eta\\prime$ threshold. The new data and existing data from GRAAL, CBELSA/TAPS, and CLAS collaborations have been analyzed by an expansion in terms of associated Legendre polynomials. %A Legendre decomposition shows the sensitivity to small partial-wave contributions. The isobar model $\\eta$MAID updated with $\\eta \\prime$ channel and new resonances have been used to fit the new data. The new solution $\\eta$MAID-2015 reasonably good describes the data in the photon beam energy region up to 3.7 GeV.

  10. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  11. The Resonator Banjo Resonator, part 2: What makes them really crack?

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment quantifies the difference between the sound production of a banjo with and without a resonator back. Driven by a small tweeter mounted inside the pot, for frequencies above about 4500 Hz, the produced external sound is 6 to 10 dB louder with the resonator than without. With the banjo played in any normal fashion, this gives a negligible contribution to the overall volume. However, that difference is clearly a reflection of the universally recognized resonator sound, in close analogy to plosive consonants in human speech. No direct correlation is observed between the head-resonator separation and the spectrum of the enhanced response. This suggests that direct reflection off the back is not a primary contributor to the resonator/openback difference, leaving differences in overall absorption as the major suspect.

  12. Interaction of plasma vortices with resonant particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic effects associated with the electron motion along magnetic field lines in low-beta plasmas are studied. Using the gyrokinetic description of electrons, a kinetic analog of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations is derived, and it is shown that in the strongly nonlinear regime they possess localized solutions in the form of dipolar vortices, which can efficiently interact with resonant electrons. In the adiabatic limit, evolution equations are derived for the vortex parameters, describing exchange of the energy, enstrophy, and of the Poynting vector between the vortex and resonant particles. The evolution equations indicate the possibility of excitation of plasma vortices by electron beams

  13. Meson and Isobar Degrees of Freedom in A($\\vec{e},e'\\vec{p}$) reactions at $0.2 \\leq Q^2 \\leq 0.8 (GeV/c)^2$

    OpenAIRE

    Ryckebusch, Jan; Debruyne, Dimitri; Van Nespen, Wim; Janssen, Stijn

    1999-01-01

    The effect of meson and isobar degrees of freedom in A($\\vec{e},e'\\vec{p}$) and A(e,e'n) is studied for four-momentum transfers Q^2 in the range between 0.2 and 0.8 (GeV/c)^2. The calculations are performed in a non-relativistic framework with explicit (N,\\Delta,\\pi) degrees-of-freedom. For the whole range of momentum transfers under investigation the relative effect of the meson-exchange and isobar degrees of freedom is significant. At low missing momenta and quasi-elastic conditions, a tend...

  14. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  15. Natural Analogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model

  16. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  17. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  18. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  19. Spontaneous pattern formation in an acoustical resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor J.

    2003-01-01

    A dynamical system of equations describing parametric sound generation (PSG) in a dispersive large aspect ratio resonator is derived. The model generalizes previously proposed descriptions of PSG by including diffraction effects, and is analogous to the model used in theoretical studies of optical parametric oscillation. A linear stability analysis of the solution below the threshold of subharmonic generation reveals the existence of a pattern forming instability, which is confirmed by numeri...

  20. Resistive Fine Tuning of Resonant Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple fixed-inductance/fixed-capacitance tank circuit modified for fine adjustment of resonant frequency by addition of small inductance with potentiometer across it. Additional winding built into full winding as integral part or added externally. Technique provides quick way of tuning reactance out of power-transformer circuit to maximize power transfer or to adjust frequency of oscillator. Applications include rotary transformers, servo amplifiers, and analog computer modules.

  1. Posterior Isobar non-fusion internal fixation system in repair of lumbar disc herniation:more advantages in restoring range of motion of lumbar spine%后路Isobar非融合内固定系统修复腰椎间盘突出症:恢复腰椎活动度更具优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦斌; 付强

    2015-01-01

    method in treatment of lumbar disc herniation. METHODS:From September 2011 to September 2012, 40 patients with lumbar disc herniation who were treated in the Department of Orthopedic, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medial University of Chinese PLA were enrol ed in this study. They were equal y assigned to the Isobar non-fusion internal fixation system group (Isobar group) and the traditional intervertebral fusion nail rod system internal fixation group (rigid internal fixation group) and subjected to corresponding treatments. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Surgery was successful y completed in patients of the two groups. These patients received at least 2 years of fol ow-up, no drop out. Compared with pre-fixation, low back pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were improved significantly after fixation in both groups. Compared with the rigid internal fixation group, range of motion of lumbar spine was larger in the Isobar group. Low back pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were similar between the two groups. These results indicated that posterior Isolbar non-fusion internal fixation obtained identical outcomes as traditional treatment, and showed more advantages in range of motion of lumbar spine.

  2. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment sessions are achieved via adaptive action-analyzed activities. These interactive virtual environments are designed to empower patients’ creative and/or playful expressions via digital feedback stimu...

  3. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, Igor O

    1996-10-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects.

  4. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  5. Analog Forecasting with Dynamics-Adapted Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Analog forecasting is a non-parametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems and kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning. The first improvement is to augment the dimension of the initial data using Takens' delay-coordinate maps to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations. Then, instead of using Euclidean distances between the states, weighted ensembles of analogs are constructed according to similarity kernels in delay-coordinate space, featuring an explicit dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions ...

  6. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  7. Analog pipeline readout for ATLAS calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design and prototype testing of an analog pipeline readout module suitable for readout of the LAr calorimetry at the large hadron collider. The design has been driven by the readout requirements of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter and the ATLAS trigger design parameters. The results indicate that an analog pipeline readout system meeting the ATLAS requirements can be built using our modules. The SCA-chip employed has resolution approaching 13-bits (using the full range of the SCA) and can achieve a 16-bit dynamic range using a dual-range scheme. The module is based on switched capacitor array chips. A brief description of the design of the pipeline controller development, that will enable the SCA readout system to run as a deadtimeless analog RAM, is also given. (orig.)

  8. On Lovelock analogs of the Riemann tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camanho, Xian O. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is possible to define an analog of the Riemann tensor for Nth order Lovelock gravity, its characterizing property being that the trace of its Bianchi derivative yields the corresponding analog of the Einstein tensor. Interestingly there exist two parallel but distinct such analogs and the main purpose of this note is to reconcile both formulations. In addition we will introduce a simple tensor identity and use it to show that any pure Lovelock vacuum in odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions is Lovelock flat, i.e. any vacuum solution of the theory has vanishing Lovelock-Riemann tensor. Further, in the presence of cosmological constant it is the Lovelock-Weyl tensor that vanishes. (orig.)

  9. Biosynthesis of amphetamine analogs in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Jillian M; Krizevski, Raz; Marsolais, Frédéric; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Amphetamine analogs are produced by plants in the genus Ephedra and by Catha edulis, and include the widely used decongestants and appetite suppressants pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. A combination of yeast (Candida utilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation and subsequent chemical modification is used for the commercial production of these compounds. The availability of certain plant biosynthetic genes would facilitate the engineering of yeast strains capable of de novo pseudoephedrine and ephedrine biosynthesis. Chemical synthesis has yielded amphetamine analogs with myriad functional group substitutions and diverse pharmacological properties. The isolation of enzymes with the serendipitous capacity to accept novel substrates could allow the production of substituted amphetamines in synthetic biosystems. Here, we review the biology, biochemistry and biotechnological potential of amphetamine analogs in plants. PMID:22502775

  10. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  11. Doing mathematics convention, subject, calculation, analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses some ways of doing mathematical work and the subject matter that is being worked upon and created. It argues that the conventions we adopt, the subject areas we delimit, what we can prove and calculate about the physical world, and the analogies that work for mathematicians - all depend on mathematics, what will work out and what won't. And the mathematics, as it is done, is shaped and supported, or not, by convention, subject matter, calculation, and analogy. The cases studied include the central limit theorem of statistics, the sound of the shape of a drum, the connection

  12. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  13. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  14. One higher dimensional analog of jet schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of truncated wedge schemes, a higher dimensional analog of jet schemes. We prove some basic properties and give an irreducibility criterion for truncated wedge schemes of a locally complete intersection variety analogous to Musta\\c{t}\\v{a}'s for jet schemes. We show that the reduced subscheme structure of a truncated wedge scheme of any monomial scheme is itself a monomial scheme in a natural way by explicitly describing generators of each of the minimal primes of any tr...

  15. Discrete analog computing with rotor-routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, James

    2010-09-01

    Rotor-routing is a procedure for routing tokens through a network that can implement certain kinds of computation. These computations are inherently asynchronous (the order in which tokens are routed makes no difference) and distributed (information is spread throughout the system). It is also possible to efficiently check that a computation has been carried out correctly in less time than the computation itself required, provided one has a certificate that can itself be computed by the rotor-router network. Rotor-router networks can be viewed as both discrete analogs of continuous linear systems and deterministic analogs of stochastic processes. PMID:20887076

  16. Analog circuit design for communication SOC

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Steve Hung-Lung

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides several state-of-the-art analog circuit design techniques. It presents both empirical and theoretical materials for system-on-a-chip (SOC) circuit design. Fundamental communication concepts are used to explain a variety of topics including data conversion (ADC, DAC, S-? oversampling data converters), clock data recovery, phase-locked loops for system timing synthesis, supply voltage regulation, power amplifier design, and mixer design. This is an excellent reference book for both circuit designers and researchers who are interested in the field of design of analog communic

  17. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog filte

  18. Nonlinear ferromagnetic resonance shift in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Belova, Lyuba; McMichael, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In dynamic magnetic systems, various experiments have shown that the ferromagnetic resonance frequency can shift up or down with increasing driving power in the nonlinear regime. The resonance shift is important in understanding nonlinear physics in nanomagnets and for applications of spin-torque oscillators. Here, we present a systematic study on the sign of the nonlinear coefficient, i.e. the direction of the resonance field/frequency shift. We use ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy (FMRFM) to measure the ferromagnetic resonance of a series of submicron NiFe ellipses with varying aspect ratios. We find the sign of the resonance shift is determined by both the applied field and the anisotropy field. Our measurement and micromagnetic modeling results are in qualitative agreement with a macro-spin analysis developed by Slavin and Tiberkevich. However, both measurement and modeling results exhibit values of the nonlinear coefficient that are more positive (meaning that the resonance tends to shift toward low field direction) than are predicted by the macrospin model. We attribute the difference to the non-uniformity of the precession modes in the ellipses. By analogy with standing spin waves, we show that nonuniform precession tends to increase the nonlinear frequency coefficient through a magnetostatic mechanism.

  19. Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

  20. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  1. Formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling at UHT conditions: an example from pelitic granulites of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksthitha Dharmapriya, Prasanna; Galli, Andrea; Prabath Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva; Su, Ben-Xun

    2014-05-01

    prograde history. Further heating induced a series of biotite-melting reactions which progressively consumed biotite and quartz from the rock matrix and produced garnet-porphyroblasts and spinel. Textural observations coupled with both pseudosections calculated in the CNKFMASHTMnO system and Ti-in-garnet geothermobarometry suggest that peak metamorphic temperature occurred at UHT conditions of 950-975 0C and pressures of 9-9.5 kbar. Peak T was followed by a period of isobaric cooling responsible for the formation of corundum and Grt2 via the reaction Spl + Sil = Grt2 + Crn at around 930 °C, as well as exsolution of rutile needles and apatite rods from Grt1. Modelling of the mode of spinel, sillimanite, corundum and garnet confirms that along an isobaric cooling path at about 920-930 °C and 9-9.5 kbar corundum appears and spinel contemporaneously disappears. At the same PT conditions, our model predicts a decrease of sillimanite and an increase of garnet content. Further isobaric cooling produced a second generation of biotite at the rim of large Grt1-porphyroblasts at ca. 800 °C. Therefore, the investigated granulites provide a rare but meaningful example where garnet + corundum formed along a retrograde metamorphic trajectory under UHT conditions, forcing to consider isobaric cooling at the base of the crust as an alternative process to explain the formation of coexisting garnet + corundum, especially if the studied rock lacks of cordierite or orthopyroxene.

  2. Deformation of Zr41 Ti14 CU12.5 Ni10 Be22.5 bulk amorphous alloy under isobaric pressure in super-cooled liquid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-qin; LU Qi-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The curve of crystallization transition during continuous heating for the Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk amorphous alloy was measured by means of dilatation(Fully automatic transformation recording/measuring instrument) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) method. The deformation behavior of the alloy at various heating rates in the supercooled liquid region was studied. The results show that the glass transition temperature of the alloy increases slightly and the supercooled liquid region(SLR) increases significantly with increasing heating rate. The deformation amount under isobaric pressure of 1 N for the alloy in the SLR increases with increasing heating rate. As the heating rate of the alloy increases from 5 to 100 ℃/min, the amount of deformation of the alloy increases from 8.3% to 45%.

  3. First Online Mass Measurements of Isobar Chains via Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph Coupled with GARIS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, P; Ito, Y; Kaji, D; Soderstrom, P-A; Takamine, A; Arai, F; Haba, H; Jeong, S; Kimura, S; Koura, H; Miyatake, H; Morimoto, K; Morita, K; Ozawa, A; Reponen, M; Sonoda, T; Tanaka, T; Wollnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Using a mulit-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF-MS) located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several heavy nuclei have been directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectile-like and target-like particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po, 206Fr-206Rn-206At and 201Rn-201At-201Po-201Bi, were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for 205,206Fr, 201At, and 201Po.

  4. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  5. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  6. A high-speed analog neural processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, Peter; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Targeted at high-energy physics research applications, our special-purpose analog neural processor can classify up to 70 dimensional vectors within 50 nanoseconds. The decision-making process of the implemented feedforward neural network enables this type of computation to tolerate weight discretiza

  7. Analog Optical Computing Primitives in Silicon Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yunshan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  8. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  9. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  10. A Mechanical Analogy for Ohm's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Couto Tavares, Milton; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A mechanical analogy between the microscopic motion of a charged carrier in an ordinary resistor and the macroscopic motion of a ball falling along a slanted board covered with a lattice of nails is introduced. The Drude model is also introduced to include the case of inelastic collisions. Computer simulation of the motion is described. (KR)

  11. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    . Despite the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well...

  12. Plasma analog of particle-pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the plasma axial shear flow instability satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation. The plasma instability is then shown to be analogous to spontaneous particle-pair production when a potential energy is present that is greater than twice the particle rest mass energy. Stability criteria can be inferred based on field theoretical conservation laws. (UK)

  13. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  14. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  15. Sulfonium Ion Derivatization, Isobaric Stable Isotope Labeling and Data Dependent CID- and ETD-MS/MS for Enhanced Phosphopeptide Quantitation, Identification and Phosphorylation Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2012-04-01

    An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded `fixed charge' sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptides with S, S'-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester iodide (DMBNHS), followed by analysis using capillary HPLC-ESI-MS, yielded an average 2.5-fold increase in ionization efficiencies and a significant increase in the presence and/or abundance of higher charge state precursor ions compared to the non-derivatized phosphopeptides. Notably, 44% of the phosphopeptides (22 of 50) in their underivatized states yielded precursor ions whose maximum charge states corresponded to +2, while only 8% (4 of 50) remained at this maximum charge state following DMBNHS derivatization. Quantitative analysis was achieved by measuring the abundances of the diagnostic product ions corresponding to the neutral losses of `light' (S(CH3)2) and `heavy' (S(CD3)2) dimethylsulfide exclusively formed upon CID-MS/MS of isobaric stable isotope labeled forms of the DMBNHS derivatized phosphopeptides. Under these conditions, the phosphate group stayed intact. Access for a greater number of peptides to provide enhanced phosphopeptide sequence identification and phosphorylation site characterization was achieved via automated data-dependent CID-MS3 or ETD-MS/MS analysis due to the formation of the higher charge state precursor ions. Importantly, improved sequence coverage was observed using ETD-MS/MS following introduction of the sulfonium ion fixed charge, but with no detrimental effects on ETD fragmentation efficiency.

  16. Isobaric yield ratio difference between the 140 A MeV 58Ni + 9Be and 64Ni +9Be reactions studied by the antisymmetric molecular dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, C. Y.; Wei, H. L.; Ma, C. W.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Background: The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) method is found to be sensitive to the density difference of neutron-rich nucleus induced reaction around the Fermi energy. Purpose: An investigation is performed to study the IBD results in the transport model. Methods: The antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model plus the sequential decay model gemini are adopted to simulate the 140 A MeV 58 ,64Ni +9Be reactions. A relative small coalescence radius Rc= 2.5 fm is used for the phase space at t = 500 fm/c to form the hot fragment. Two limitations on the impact parameter (b 1 =0 -2 fm and b 2 =0 -9 fm) are used to study the effect of central collisions in IBD. Results: The isobaric yield ratios (IYRs) for the large-A fragments are found to be suppressed in the symmetric reaction. The IBD results for fragments with neutron excess I = 0 and 1 are obtained. A small difference is found in the IBDs with the b 1 and b 2 limitations in the AMD simulated reactions. The IBD with b 1 and b 2 are quite similar in the AMD + GEMINI simulated reactions. Conclusions: The IBDs for the I =0 and 1 chains are mainly determined by the central collisions, which reflects the nuclear density in the core region of the reaction system. The increasing part of the IBD distribution is found due to the difference between the densities in the peripheral collisions of the reactions. The sequential decay process influences the IBD results. The AMD + GEMINI simulation can better reproduce the experimental IBDs than the AMD simulation.

  17. Excitation of the Δ(1232) isobar in deuteron charge exchange on hydrogen at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.3 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mchedlishvili, D. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, GE-0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barsov, S. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Chiladze, D. [High Energy Physics Institute, Tbilisi State University, GE-0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dymov, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Physikalisches Institut II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dzyuba, A. [High Energy Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RU-188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Engels, R.; Gebel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Centre for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Glagolev, V. [Laboratory of High Energies, JINR, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-10-07

    The charge-exchange break-up of polarised deuterons d{sup →}p→{pp}{sub s}n, where the final {pp}{sub s} diproton system has a very low excitation energy and hence is mainly in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state, is a powerful tool to probe the spin-flip terms in the proton–neutron charge-exchange scattering. Recent measurements with the ANKE spectrometer at the COSY storage ring at 1.6, 1.8, and 2.27 GeV have extended these studies into the pion-production regime in order to investigate the mechanism for the excitation of the Δ(1232) isobar in the d{sup →}p→{pp}{sub s}X reaction. Values of the differential cross section and two deuteron tensor analysing powers, A{sub xx} and A{sub yy}, have been extracted as functions of the momentum transfer to the diproton or the invariant mass M{sub X} of the unobserved system X. The unpolarised cross section in the high M{sub X} region is well described in a model that includes only direct excitation of the Δ isobar through undistorted one pion exchange. However, the cross section is grossly underestimated for low M{sub X}, even when Δ excitation in the projectile deuteron is included in the calculation. Furthermore, direct Δ production through one pion exchange only reproduces the angular dependence of the difference between the two tensor analysing powers.

  18. 大量镱同质异位素干扰下镥同位素丰度比的测量%Isotopic Analysis of Lu with a Mass of Yb Isobars by TIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江; 朱凤蓉; 李志明; 翟利华; 邓虎; 李冬梅

    2005-01-01

    The method of lutetium isotopic ratio determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) with a mass of interference isobars Yb was developed. In this method, isotopic ratio of Lu R176/175 was analysed by linear least square method. The uncertainty of values mainly came from the type A uncertainty of the regression.

  19. Are hyperon resonances required in the elementary $K^+\\Lambda$ photoproduction?

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T; 10.1007/s00601-012-0497-9

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the role of hyperon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process, $\\gamma p\\to K^+\\Lambda$, by using a covariant isobar model. To this end, new experimental data are used in the fitting process, whereas the old SAPHIR 1998 data are also used for comparison. The result indicates that the $\\Lambda(1600)P_{01}$ and $\\Lambda(1810)P_{01}$ hyperon resonances can significantly reduce the $\\chi^2$ and, simultaneously, can increase the hadronic form factor cut-off in the background terms. This finding is different from the result of the previous studies, which showed that the $\\Lambda(1800)S_{01}$ was important for this purpose, instead of the $\\Lambda(1600)P_{01}$.

  20. Restudy on the $\\Delta ^{\\ast}$ resonances in the $pp\\rightarrow nK^{+}\\Sigma ^{+}$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Xie, Ju-Jun; Chen, Xu-Rong

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the role of the $\\Delta ^{\\ast }$ resonances in the process of $pp\\rightarrow nK^{+}\\Sigma ^{+}$ are systematically investigated with the effective Lagrangian approach and the isobar model. We find that a $P_{31}$ state, either $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1750)$ or $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1910)$, is favored by the data while the $P_{33}$ state, namely $\\Delta ^{\\ast }(1920)$, has small contribution. Besides, either sub-threshold $S_{31}$ $\\Delta ^{\\ast}(1620)$ resonance or strong $n\\Sigma $ final state interaction or both have possible contribution at near threshold region, depending on the measured cross sections. We demonstrate the invariant mass distributions and the Dalitz Plots in order to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish the controversial $K\\Sigma $ production mechanism in these observables.

  1. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  2. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S.; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely ex...

  3. Pion nucleus single charge exchange reactions above the Δ(1232) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward-angle differential cross sections for the (π+, π0) reaction leading to the Isobaric Analog State in the residual nuclei at 300, 425, 500 and 550 MeV have been measured. Targets ranged in mass from 7Li to 208Pb. A description of the experimental setup and the analysis is presented. The 00 cross sections are found to rise markedly between 300 and 425 MeV, contrary to the extrapolation from the lower energy data and to the behavior of the free pion-nucleon single charge exchange process. The angular distributions are sharply forward peaked. Systematics of the data indicate increased volume penetration with increasing pion beam energy. The cross sections are compared with the results of Glauber model calculations indicating the significance of higher order processes even at these energies. 67 refs., 40 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Resonant Nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, M; Gleiser, Marcelo; Howell, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role played by fast quenching on the decay of metastable (or false vacuum) states. Instead of the exponentially-slow decay rate per unit volume, $\\Gamma_{\\rm HN} \\sim \\exp[-E_b/k_BT]$ ($E_b$ is the free energy of the critical bubble), predicted by Homogeneous Nucleation theory, we show that under fast enough quenching the decay rate is, in fact, a power law $\\Gamma_{\\rm RN} \\sim [E_b/k_BT]^{-B}$, where $B$ is weakly sensitive to the temperature. We argue that the fast quench generates large-amplitude fluctuations about the metastable state which promote its rapid decay via parametric resonance. Possible decay mechanisms and their dependence on $E_b$ are proposed and illustrated in a (2+1)-dimensional scalar field model with an asymmetric double-well potential.

  5. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-06-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context.

  6. Nuclear isovector giant resonances excited by pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is an experimental study of isovector giant resonances in light nuclei excited by pion single charge exchange reactions. Giant dipole resonances in light nuclei are known to be highly structured. For the mass 9 and 13 giant dipole resonances, isospin considerations were found to be very important to understanding this structure. by comparing the excitation functions from cross section measurements of the (π+, π0) and (π, π0) inclusive reactions, the authors determined the dominant isospin structure of the analog IVGR's. The comparison was made after decomposing the cross section into resonant and non-resonant components. This decomposition is made in the framework of strong absorption and quasi-free scattering. Measurements in the region of the isovector giant dipole resonances (IVGDR) were made to cover the inclusive angular distributions out to the second minimum. Study of the giant resonance decay process provides further understanding of the resonances. This study was carried out by observing the (π+, π0p) coincident reactions involving the resonances of 9B and 13N excited from 9Be and 13C nuclei. These measurements determined the spectra of the decay protons. This method also permitted a decomposition of the giant resonances into their isospin components. The multipolarities of the resonances were revealed by the decay proton angular correlations which, for dipoles, are of the form 1 + A2P2(cos θ)

  7. Applied neutron resonance theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilisation of resonance theory in basic and applications-oriented neutron cross section work is reviewed. The technically important resonance formalisms, principal concepts and methods as well as representative computer programs for resonance parameter extraction from measured data, evaluation of resonance data, calculation of Doppler-broadened cross sections and estimation of level-statistical quantities from resonance parameters are described. (orig.)

  8. The nucleon resonances in the $J/\\psi \\to p\\bar{p}\\eta'$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    We are aiming to study the $J/\\psi \\to p\\bar{p}\\eta'$ decay in an isobar model and the effective Lagrangian approach. After a careful exploration of the contributions of the $S_{11}(1535)$, $P_{11}(1710)$, $P_{13}(1900)$, $S_{11}(2090)$ and $P_{11}(2100)$ resonances, we conclude that either a subthreshold resonance or a broad $P$-wave state in the near threshold range seems to be indispensable to describe present data of the $\\pi N \\to \\eta'N$. Furthermore, at least one broad resonance above $\\eta'N$ threshold is preferred. With this detailed analysis, we could give the invariant mass spectrum and Dalitz plot of the $J/\\psi \\to p\\bar{p}\\eta'$ decay for the purpose of assisting the future detailed partial wave analysis. It is found that the $J/\\psi \\to p\\bar{p}\\eta'$ data are useful for disentangling the above or below threshold resonant contribution, though it still further needs the differential cross section data of $\\pi N \\to \\eta'N$ to realize some of the resonant and the non-resonant contribution. Our re...

  9. Study of the interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of biphenyldicarboxylate by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Yin, Yujing [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Afficiated Hospiatal of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Xie, Yuanzhe; Ge, Baoyu; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhen; Shi, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of Biphenyldicarboxylate was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet–vis absorbance, resonance light-scattering spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra at pH 7.40. The quenching mechanism and binding constants were determined by the quenching of bovine hemoglobin fluorescence in presence of analogs. Results showed that the nature of the quenching was of static type. Both the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding played a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance between donor and acceptors was obtained to be 2.11–2.25 nm according to Förster's theory. The influence of analogs on the conformation of bovine hemoglobin was investigated. -- Highlights: • The interactions between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of DDB have been investigated. • Results reveal that DDB has the strongest affinity for hemoglobin among four compounds. • The van der Waals and hydrogen bonding play major role in the binding process. • The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects has been investigated.

  10. Study of the interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of biphenyldicarboxylate by spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of Biphenyldicarboxylate was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, ultraviolet–vis absorbance, resonance light-scattering spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra at pH 7.40. The quenching mechanism and binding constants were determined by the quenching of bovine hemoglobin fluorescence in presence of analogs. Results showed that the nature of the quenching was of static type. Both the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding played a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance between donor and acceptors was obtained to be 2.11–2.25 nm according to Förster's theory. The influence of analogs on the conformation of bovine hemoglobin was investigated. -- Highlights: • The interactions between bovine hemoglobin and analogs of DDB have been investigated. • Results reveal that DDB has the strongest affinity for hemoglobin among four compounds. • The van der Waals and hydrogen bonding play major role in the binding process. • The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects has been investigated

  11. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  12. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  13. ON THE FREQUENCY OF JUPITER ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Anglo-Australian Planet Search has now accumulated 12 years of radial-velocity data with long-term instrumental precision better than 3 m s-1. In this paper, we expand on earlier simulation work, to probe the frequency of near-circular, long-period gas-giant planets residing at orbital distances of 3-6 AU-the so-called Jupiter analogs. We present the first comprehensive analysis of the frequency of these objects based on radial-velocity data. We find that 3.3% of stars in our sample host Jupiter analogs; detailed, star-by-star simulations show that no more than 37% of stars host a giant planet between 3 and 6 AU.

  14. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  15. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  16. An analogy strategy for transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce an analogy strategy to design transformation optical devices. Based on the similarities between field lines in different physical systems, the trajectories of light can be intuitively determined to curve in a gentle manner, and the resulting materials are isotropic and nonmagnetic. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the analogue problems plays a key role in the removal of dielectric singularities. We illustrate this approach by creating two designs of carpet cloak and a collimating lens as representative examples in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The analogy strategy not only reveals the intimate connections between different physical disciplines, such as optics, fluid mechanics and electrostatics, but also provides a heuristic pathway to designing advanced photonic systems

  17. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  18. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1975-01-01

    HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum...... and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test program. Patch instructions are printed by HAPS. The article describes the principles of HAPS...... and emphasizes the limitations HAPS puts on equation structure, types of computing circuit, scaling, and static testing....

  19. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Electromagnetotoroid Structures and their Hydrodynamic Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, Mario J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an electromagnetotoroid in astrophysics, and explore its role in polar jets. This model represents the onset of Abraham's force driven by some external source, for example, the infall of gas towards a star. The Abraham's force term is analogous to the Magnus force, and thus represents the formation of electromagnetic vortex structures in the fabric of space-time. In principle, the proposed toroidal field structure can also provide force spaceship propulsion.

  1. Interference Alignment with Analog Channel State Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Ayach, Omar El; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) is a multiplexing gain optimal transmission strategy for the interference channel. While the achieved sum rate with IA is much higher than previously thought possible, the improvement often comes at the cost of requiring network channel state information at the transmitters. This can be achieved by explicit feedback, a flexible yet potentially costly approach that incurs large overhead. In this paper we propose analog feedback as an alternative to limited feedback ...

  2. Pyrrolidine nucleotide analogs with a tunable conformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Pohl, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Aug 22 (2014), s. 1967-1980. ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : conformation * NMR * nucleic acids * nucleotide analog * phosphonic acid * pseudorotation * pyrrolidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-10-205

  3. Quantum Electric Circuits Analogous to Ballistic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoman, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The conductance steps in a constricted two-dimensional electron gas and the minimum conductivity in graphene are related to a new uncertainty relation between electric charge and conductance in a quantized electric circuit that mimics the electric transport in mesoscopic systems. This uncertainty relation makes specific use of the discreteness of electric charge. Quantum electric circuits analogous to both constricted two-dimensional electron gas and graphene are introduced. In the latter cas...

  4. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  5. SOI design analog, memory and digital techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Overview. 2. SOI Materials. 3. Components. 4. SOI Modeling. 5. Layout for SOI. 6. Static SOI Design. 7. Dynamic SOI Design. 8. SOI SRAMs. 9. SOI DRAMs. 10. SOI Analog Design. 11. Global Design Issues. 12. Low Power Design. 13. SOI in Development. Appendix 1: Internet Sites (issue 1.0). Appendix 2: Trade Mark / Technology Information (issue 1.0). Index. About the Authors.

  6. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Ke; Arlin G. Cameron; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA) analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR) dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occur...

  7. OpenModelica for Analog IC Design

    OpenAIRE

    Malo Cid, David

    2011-01-01

    Modelica is a language supported by Modelica Association. It is a non-proprietary, object-oriented, equation based language to conveniently model complex physical. OpenModelica is an open source environment for the Modelica language supported by Open Source Modelica Consortium (OSMC). The aim of this thesis is the development of a library of models and components for design and simulation of analog integrated circuits and an OMNotebook-based tutorial for an academic purpose as a design tool f...

  8. The exoplanets analogy to the Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a Mutiverse is controversial, although it is a natural possible solution to particle physics and cosmological fine-tuning problems (FTPs). Here I explore the analogy between the Multiverse proposal and the proposal that there exist an infinite number of stellar systems with planets in a flat Universe, the Multiplanetverse. Although the measure problem is present in this scenario, the idea of a Multiplanetverse has predictive power, even in the absence of direct evidence for exopla...

  9. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Baloglu, Erkan

    2001-01-01

    The complex natural product paclitaxel (Taxol®), first isolated from Taxus brevifolia, is a member of a large family of taxane diterpenoids. Paclitaxel is extensively used for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly those of the breasts and ovaries. In order to obtain additional information about the mechanism of action of paclitaxel and the environment of the paclitaxel-binding site, several fluorescent analogs of paclitaxel were synthesized, and thei...

  11. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  12. Controller implementation using analog reconfigurable hardware (FPAA)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Paulo Jorge Rodrigues da

    2015-01-01

    This Thesis has the main target to make a research about FPAA/dpASPs devices and technologies applied to control systems. These devices provide easy way to emulate analog circuits that can be reconfigurable by programming tools from manufactures and in case of dpASPs are able to be dynamically reconfigurable on the fly. It is described different kinds of technologies commercially available and also academic projects from researcher groups. These technologies are very recent and...

  13. Difficulties in constructing Bose analogs to supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative to the usual fermionic supersymmetry transformations is discussed, namely bosonic ones in which the particle helicities are changed by an integral multiple of h/2π. No matter how such transformations are carried out, it appears that the road to a local supersymmtric analog to supergravity is closed, either because no gauge field of the required rank to couple with the supercurrent exists, or because the non-interacting action is already locally invariant, and hence the supercurrent vanishes identically. (Auth.)

  14. Priming Analogical Reasoning with False Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Garner, S. R.; Threadgold, E.; Ball, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false mem...

  15. Analog "neuronal" networks in early vision

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, C; Marroquin, J; Yuille, A.

    1986-01-01

    Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing a cost function. Examples are shape from shading, edge detection, motion analysis, structure from motion, and surface interpolation. As shown by Poggio and Koch [Poggio, T. & Koch, C. (1985) Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 226, 303-323], quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be "solved" by linear, analog electrical, or chemical networks. However, in the presence of discontinuities, the...

  16. Analog controllers using digital stochastic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Quero Reboul, José Manuel; S. L. Toral; García Ortega, Juan de la Cruz; García Franquelo, Leopoldo

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic logic is based on digital processing of a random pulse stream, where the information is codified as the probability of a high level in a finite sequence. The probability of the pulse stream codifies a continuous time variable. Subsequently, this pulse stream can be digitally processed to perform analog operations. In this paper we propose a stochastic approach to the digital implementation of complex controllers. This is approach allows for the realization of the controllers, and A...

  17. Analog gravity from field theory normal modes?

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the emergence of a curved spacetime ``effective Lorentzian geometry'' is a common and generic result of linearizing a field theory around some non-trivial background. This investigation is motivated by considering the large number of ``analog models'' of general relativity that have recently been developed based on condensed matter physics, and asking whether there is something more fundamental going on. Indeed, linearization of a classical field theory (a field theoretic ...

  18. Backtracking quantum trajectories with analog feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange*, G.; Ristè*, D.; Tiggelman, M. J.; Eichler, C.; Tornberg, L.; Johansson, G.; Wallraff, A.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, L.

    2014-03-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics offers a nearly ideal platform for the fundamental study of continuous quantum measurement. A nondemolition measurement of a superconducting qubit can be performed via homodyne detection of microwave transmission through a dispersively coupled cavity. By boosting the homodyne signal with a nearly noiseless phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, we experimentally show that a form of measurement backaction, consisting of stochastic quantum phase kicks on the measured qubit, is highly correlated with the fluctuations in the continuous homodyne record. We demonstrate a real-time analog feedback scheme that counteracts these phase kicks and thereby reduces measurement-induced dephasing. We develop a numerical optimization technique to overcome the bandwidth limitations of the amplification chain and provide a theoretical model for the optimization result. A quantum efficiency of 50% is extracted for the complete analog feedback loop. Finally, we discuss the integration of this analog feedback technique to improve performance in our recent demonstration of entanglement by dispersive parity measurement. *equal contribution. Research funded by NWO and the EU projects SOLID and SCALEQIT.

  19. ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING SOLUTION FOR IMAGE ALIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Athreyas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and Image sensors is a field that is continuously evolving. There are new products coming into the market every day. Some of these have very severe Size, Weight and Power constraints whereas other devices have to handle very high computational loads. Some require both these conditions to be met simultaneously. Current imaging architectures and digital image processing solutions will not be able to meet these ever increasing demands. There is a need to develop novel imaging architectures and image processing solutions to address these requirements. In this work we propose analog signal processing as a solution to this problem. The analog processor is not suggested as a replacement to a digital processor but it will be used as an augmentation device which works in parallel with the digital processor, making the system faster and more efficient. In order to show the merits of analog processing the highly computational Normalized Cross Correlation algorithm is implemented. We propose two novel modifications to the algorithm and a new imaging architecture which, significantly reduces the computation time.

  20. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (∂px/∂x)T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)