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Sample records for analog fixed maximum

  1. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around...

  2. Fixed pitch wind turbine control to generate the maximum power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Rodrigo, Fernando

    This Doctoral Thesis firstly shows the state of the art about wind power, wind turbines and alternating current generators. A part is intended for the state of the art of the commercial small wind turbines: their applications, the technology used, the elements topology according to the application type, the investigation lines in this field, the political respects that have an influence in using or not small turbines, and lastly it analyses in detail four commercial small turbines. One chapter contains the models and equations of the alternating current generators used in the Doctoral Thesis, which are the induction generator and the permanent magnets generator. Other chapter explains some methods to control the alternating current generators speed. Chapter 7 is oriented to the induction machines speed estimators. These estimators will let to eliminate the generators speed sensor. In the Thesis, some of them are simulated to test their behaviour. It presents an original analysis, which is oriented to choose the most right estimators for such an application as small wind turbines. Chapter 8 introduces the control systems developed for wind turbines. They let to extract the maximum power for every wind speed. The base of all of them is the algorithm proposed in the Thesis. Some control systems are proposed for squirrel cage induction generators and permanent magnets generators, which use voltage source and current source schemes. Some of them use generator speed sensors and others use speed estimators. The schemes do not need wind speed sensor.

  3. Studentized Maximum Root Procedures for Coherent Analyses of Two-Factor Fixed-Effects Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kevin D.; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2005-01-01

    The authors provide generalizations of R. J. Boik's (1993) studentized maximum root (SMR) procedure that allow for simultaneous inference on families of product contrasts including simple effect contrasts and differences among simple effect contrasts in coherent analyses of data from 2-factor fixed-effects designs. Unlike the F-based simultaneous…

  4. Fixed-head star tracker magnitude calibration on the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitone, Daniel S.; Twambly, B. J.; Eudell, A. H.; Roberts, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of the fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is defined as the accuracy of the electronic response to the magnitude of a star in the sensor field-of-view, which is measured as intensity in volts. To identify stars during attitude determination and control processes, a transformation equation is required to convert from star intensity in volts to units of magnitude and vice versa. To maintain high accuracy standards, this transformation is calibrated frequently. A sensitivity index is defined as the observed intensity in volts divided by the predicted intensity in volts; thus, the sensitivity index is a measure of the accuracy of the calibration. Using the sensitivity index, analysis is presented that compares the strengths and weaknesses of two possible transformation equations. The effect on the transformation equations of variables, such as position in the sensor field-of-view, star color, and star magnitude, is investigated. In addition, results are given that evaluate the aging process of each sensor. The results in this work can be used by future missions as an aid to employing data from star cameras as effectively as possible.

  5. Mechanosensation and maximum bite force in edentulous patients rehabilitated with bimaxillary implant-supported fixed dental prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Luraschi, Julien; Schimmel, Martin; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Gallucci, German O; Belser, Urs Christophe; Muller, Frauke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare tactile sensitivity and maximum voluntary bite force (MBF) of edentulous patients with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (IFDP/IFDPs) to those wearing complete dentures (CG-CC) and fully dentate subjects (CG-DD).

  6. Maximum-likelihood reconstruction of photon returns from simultaneous analog and photon-counting lidar measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Veberic, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for combining the analog and photon-counting measurements of lidar transient recorders into reconstructed photon returns. The method takes into account the statistical properties of the two measurement modes and estimates the most likely number of arriving photons and the most likely values of acquisition parameters describing the two measurement modes. It extends and improves the standard combining ("gluing") methods and does not rely on any ad hoc definitions of the overlap region nor on any ackground subtraction methods.

  7. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  8. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  9. pplacer: linear time maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic placement of sequences onto a fixed reference tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodner Robin B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Likelihood-based phylogenetic inference is generally considered to be the most reliable classification method for unknown sequences. However, traditional likelihood-based phylogenetic methods cannot be applied to large volumes of short reads from next-generation sequencing due to computational complexity issues and lack of phylogenetic signal. "Phylogenetic placement," where a reference tree is fixed and the unknown query sequences are placed onto the tree via a reference alignment, is a way to bring the inferential power offered by likelihood-based approaches to large data sets. Results This paper introduces pplacer, a software package for phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization. The algorithm can place twenty thousand short reads on a reference tree of one thousand taxa per hour per processor, has essentially linear time and memory complexity in the number of reference taxa, and is easy to run in parallel. Pplacer features calculation of the posterior probability of a placement on an edge, which is a statistically rigorous way of quantifying uncertainty on an edge-by-edge basis. It also can inform the user of the positional uncertainty for query sequences by calculating expected distance between placement locations, which is crucial in the estimation of uncertainty with a well-sampled reference tree. The software provides visualizations using branch thickness and color to represent number of placements and their uncertainty. A simulation study using reads generated from 631 COG alignments shows a high level of accuracy for phylogenetic placement over a wide range of alignment diversity, and the power of edge uncertainty estimates to measure placement confidence. Conclusions Pplacer enables efficient phylogenetic placement and subsequent visualization, making likelihood-based phylogenetics methodology practical for large collections of reads; it is freely available as source code, binaries, and a web service.

  10. Estimating the richness of a population when the maximum number of classes is fixed: a nonparametric solution to an archaeological problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin I Eren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estimating assemblage species or class richness from samples remains a challenging, but essential, goal. Though a variety of statistical tools for estimating species or class richness have been developed, they are all singly-bounded: assuming only a lower bound of species or classes. Nevertheless there are numerous situations, particularly in the cultural realm, where the maximum number of classes is fixed. For this reason, a new method is needed to estimate richness when both upper and lower bounds are known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we introduce a new method for estimating class richness: doubly-bounded confidence intervals (both lower and upper bounds are known. We specifically illustrate our new method using the Chao1 estimator, rarefaction, and extrapolation, although any estimator of asymptotic richness can be used in our method. Using a case study of Clovis stone tools from the North American Lower Great Lakes region, we demonstrate that singly-bounded richness estimators can yield confidence intervals with upper bound estimates larger than the possible maximum number of classes, while our new method provides estimates that make empirical sense. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Application of the new method for constructing doubly-bound richness estimates of Clovis stone tools permitted conclusions to be drawn that were not otherwise possible with singly-bounded richness estimates, namely, that Lower Great Lakes Clovis Paleoindians utilized a settlement pattern that was probably more logistical in nature than residential. However, our new method is not limited to archaeological applications. It can be applied to any set of data for which there is a fixed maximum number of classes, whether that be site occupancy models, commercial products (e.g. athletic shoes, or census information (e.g. nationality, religion, age, race.

  11. An Efficient Analog Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Regulator for the Parallel Hybrid Photo Voltaic – Diesel and Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article we have proposed a new analog MPPT regulator with the high efficiency DC-DC converter for the photo voltaic and high efficient z- source converter for the variable speed wind energy systems. The both renewable energy output power is connected in parallel with the diesel generator and whole system provide the efficient hybrid energy systems to given the electrical power to the external grid. The MPPT regulator provides the control signal for the DC-DC converter and tracks the maximum power from the solar panel. In which here a logic truth table based perturbation and observation (P and O algorithm used for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT and hybrid bridge resonant DC-DC converter is giving the constant output voltage equal to the DC bus voltage by changing the proper modes. The parallel configuration is selected for the energy transformation from the solar panel, wind power and diesel systems to the load. The design includes a bidirectional inverter along with a dc-dc converter capable of interfacing a battery bank with the AC bus. The goals of the project included the implementation of two modes of operation: a battery discharge mode where current is being fed into the AC bus and a battery charging mode in which current is pulled from the grid and put into the batteries. A secondary goal of the design was to ensure that the current being injected into AC bus was at or near unity power factor by utilizing a hysteresis current control method.

  12. Efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination as transition therapy in patients previously on prostaglandin analog monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa VP

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vital Paulino Costa1, Hamilton Moreira2, Mauricio Della Paolera3, Maria Rosa Bet de Moraes Silva41Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, São Paulo, 2Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, 3Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, 4Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, BrazilPurpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of transitioning patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP had been insufficiently controlled on prostaglandin analog (PGA monotherapy to treatment with travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination with benzalkonium chloride (TTFC.Methods: This prospective, multicenter, open-label, historical controlled, single-arm study transitioned patients who had primary open-angle glaucoma, pigment dispersion glaucoma, or ocular hypertension and who required further IOP reduction from PGA monotherapy to once-daily treatment with TTFC for 12 weeks. IOP and safety (adverse events, corrected distance visual acuity, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12. A solicited ocular symptom survey was administered at baseline and at week 12. Patients and investigators reported their medication preference at week 12.Results: Of 65 patients enrolled, 43 had received prior travoprost therapy and 22 had received prior nontravoprost therapy (n = 18, bimatoprost; n = 4, latanoprost. In the total population, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline (P = 0.000009, showing a 16.8% reduction after 12 weeks of TTFC therapy. In the study subgroups, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline to week 12 (P = 0.0001 in the prior travoprost cohort (19.0% reduction and in the prior nontravoprost cohort (13.1% reduction. Seven mild, ocular, treatment-related adverse events were reported. Of the ten ocular symptom questions, eight had numerically lower percentages with TTFC compared with prior PGA monotherapy and two had numerically higher percentages with TTFC (dry eye symptoms and ocular

  13. An Efficient Analog Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Regulator for the Parallel Hybrid Photo Voltaic – Diesel and Wind Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anto Joseph; Godwin Jam

    2013-01-01

    In this research article we have proposed a new analog MPPT regulator with the high efficiency DC-DC converter for the photo voltaic and high efficient z- source converter for the variable speed wind energy systems. The both renewable energy output power is connected in parallel with the diesel generator and whole system provide the efficient hybrid energy systems to given the electrical power to the external grid. The MPPT regulator provides the control signal for the DC-DC converter and tra...

  14. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2002-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  15. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; Boom, van den Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is off

  16. Fixed combination of insulin and a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, exemplified by insulin degludec and liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Louise; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Insulin therapy in the management of Type 2 diabetes is often postponed and/or not adequately intensified to maintain glycemic control because of the risk of weight gain and hypoglycemia. A fixed combination of the long-acting insulin degludec and liraglutide has recently been accepted by the EMA...... for the management of Type 2 diabetes. The incentive for this combination is to exploit the advantages of each of the drugs while counterbalancing the side effects. Insulin degludec effectively reduces fasting plasma glucose, but carries the risk of hypoglycemia and body weight gain. Liraglutide, on the other hand...

  17. Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem at various flow modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A A; Butkovskii, A V

    2016-07-01

    The Reynolds analogy and the extended Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem are considered. For a viscous incompressible fluid we derive the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number and the Eckert number. We show that for any positive Eckert number, the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number has a maximum. For a monatomic gas in the transitional flow regime, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we investigate the extended Reynolds analogy, i.e., the relation between the shear stress and the energy flux transferred to the boundary surface, at different velocities and temperatures. We find that the extended Reynolds analogy for a rarefied monatomic gas flow with the temperature of the undisturbed gas equal to the surface temperature depends weakly on time and is close to 0.5. We show that at any fixed dimensionless time the extended Reynolds analogy depends on the plate velocity and temperature and undisturbed gas temperature mainly via the Eckert number. For Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less we generalize an extended Reynolds analogy. The generalized Reynolds analogy depends mainly only on dimensionless time for all considered Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less. PMID:27575220

  18. Contributions of the secondary jet to the maximum tangential velocity and to the collection efficiency of the fixed guide vane type axial flow cyclone dust collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akira; Anzou, Hideki; Yamamoto, So; Shimagaki, Mituru

    2015-11-01

    In order to control the maximum tangential velocity Vθm(m/s) of the turbulent rotational air flow and the collection efficiency ηc (%) using the fly ash of the mean diameter XR50=5.57 µm, two secondary jet nozzles were installed to the body of the axial flow cyclone dust collector with the body diameter D1=99mm. Then in order to estimate Vθm (m/s), the conservation theory of the angular momentum flux with Ogawa combined vortex model was applied. The comparisons of the estimated results of Vθm(m/s) with the measured results by the cylindrical Pitot-tube were shown in good agreement. And also the estimated collection efficiencies ηcth (%) basing upon the cut-size Xc (µm) which was calculated by using the estimated Vθ m(m/s) and also the particle size distribution R(Xp) were shown a little higher values than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected dust. The best method for adjustment of ηc (%) related to the contribution of the secondary jet flow is principally to apply the centrifugal effect Φc (1). Above stated results are described in detail.

  19. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  20. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Eleonora; Bansal, Ruchi

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  1. Interferon Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; Bansal, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. Among others, it relates to biologically active analogs of interferons (IFNs) which show less unwanted side-effects and to the therapeutic uses thereof. Provided is an IFN analog, wherein the moiety mediating binding to its natural receptor is at least

  2. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and...

  3. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  4. Maximum Fidelity

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkhabwala, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  5. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system

  6. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  7. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  8. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  9. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  10. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  11. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  12. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  13. Insulin analogs and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSciacca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, insulin analogs are used in millions of diabetic patients. Insulin analogs have been developed to achieve more physiological insulin replacement in terms of time course of the effect. Modifications in the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule change the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the analogs in respect to human insulin. However, these changes can also modify the molecular and biological effects of the analogs. The rapid-acting insulin analogs, lispro, aspart and glulisine, have a rapid onset and shorter duration of action. The long-acting insulin analogs glargine and detemir have a protracted duration of action and a relatively smooth serum concentration profile. Insulin and its analogs may function as growth factors and therefore have a theoretical potential to promote tumor proliferation. A major question is whether analogs have an increased mitogenic activity in respect to insulin. These ligands can promote cell proliferation through many mechanisms like the prolonged stimulation of the insulin receptor, stimulation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R, prevalent activation of the ERK rather than the AKT intracellular post-receptor pathways. Studies on in vitro models indicate that short-acting analogs elicit molecular and biological effects that are similar to those of insulin. In contrast, long-acting analogs behave differently. Although not all data are homogeneous, both glargine and detemir have been found to have a decreased binding to IR but an increased binding to IGF-1R, a prevalent activation of the ERK pathway, and an increased mitogenic effect in respect to insulin. Recent retrospective epidemiological clinical studies have suggested that treatment with long-acting analogs (specifically glargine may increase the relative risk for cancer. Results are controversial and methodologically weak. Therefore prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the possible tumor growth-promoting effects of these insulin

  14. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  15. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  16. Analog pulse processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  17. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  18. Introducing Analog Drawing into a Prison Art Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesh, Patrick

    A qualitative research study documents the progress of an adult male art student enrolled in a grade nine art class of adult males in a federal, maximum security penitentiary. Analog drawings were used as part of the curriculum. An analog drawing is a symbolic drawing expressing one's emotions, ideas, and feelings, often used to identify and help…

  19. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  20. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  1. Challenges in Analogical Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  2. FGF growth factor analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  3. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  4. Synthesis of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhibing

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most successful anti-cancer drugs, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For the investigation of the interaction between paclitaxel and MD-2 protein, and development of new antagonists for lipopolysaccharide, several C10 A-nor-paclitaxel analogs have been synthesized and their biological activities have been evaluated. In order to reduce the myelosuppression effect of the paclitaxel, several C3â ² and C4 paclitaxel analogs have been synth...

  5. HAPS, a Handy Analog Programming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1975-01-01

    HAPS (Hybrid Analog Programming System) is an analog compiler that can be run on a minicomputer in an interactive mode. Essentially HAPS is written in FORTRAN. The equations to be programmed for an ana log computer are read in by using a FORTRAN-like notation. The input must contain maximum...... and minimum values for the variables. The output file includes potentiometer coefficients and static-test 'measuring values.' The file format is fitted to an automatic potentiometer-setting and static-test program. Patch instructions are printed by HAPS. The article describes the principles of HAPS...

  6. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  7. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  8. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  9. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayasinghearachchi; Gamini Seneviratne

    2004-09-01

    It is generally reported that fungi like Pleurotus spp. can fix nitrogen (N2). The way they do it is still not clear. The present study hypothesized that only associations of fungi and diazotrophs can fix N2. This was tested in vitro. Pleurotus ostreatus was inoculated with a bradyrhizobial strain nodulating soybean and P. ostreatus with no inoculation was maintained as a control. At maximum mycelial colonization by the bradyrhizobial strain and biofilm formation, the cultures were subjected to acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Another set of the cultures was evaluated for growth and nitrogen accumulation. Nitrogenase activity was present in the biofilm, but not when the fungus or the bradyrhizobial strain was alone. A significant reduction in mycelial dry weight and a significant increase in nitrogen concentration were observed in the inoculated cultures compared to the controls. The mycelial weight reduction could be attributed to C transfer from the fungus to the bradyrhizobial strain, because of high C cost of biological N2 fixation. This needs further investigations using 14C isotopic tracers. It is clear from the present study that mushrooms alone cannot fix atmospheric N2. But when they are in association with diazotrophs, nitrogenase activity is detected because of the diazotrophic N2 fixation. It is not the fungus that fixes N2 as reported earlier. Effective N2 fixing systems, such as the present one, may be used to increase protein content of mushrooms. Our study has implications for future identification of as yet unidentified N2 systems occurring in the environment.

  10. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  11. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some

  12. Quantum Analog Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  13. Smeared Gauge Fixing

    CERN Document Server

    Hetrick, J E; Forcrand, Ph. de

    1998-01-01

    We present a new method of gauge fixing to standard lattice Landau gauge, Max Re Tr $\\sum_{\\mu,x}U_{\\mu,x}$, in which the link configuration is recursively smeared; these smeared links are then gauge fixed by standard extremization. The resulting gauge transformation is simultaneously applied to the original links. Following this preconditioning, the links are gauge fixed again as usual. This method is free of Gribov copies, and we find that for physical parameters ($\\beta \\geq 2$ in SU(2)), it generally results in the gauge fixed configuration with the globally maximal trace. This method is a general technique for finding a unique minimum to global optimization problems.

  14. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  15. A Convnet for Non-maximum Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hosang, J.; Benenson, R.; Schiele, B.

    2015-01-01

    Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is used in virtually all state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. While essential object detection ingredients such as features, classifiers, and proposal methods have been extensively researched surprisingly little work has aimed to systematically address NMS. The de-facto standard for NMS is based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold, which forces to trade-off recall versus precision. We propose a convnet designed to perform NMS of a given s...

  16. Measures of Noncircularity and Fixed Points of Contractive Multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In analogy to the Eisenfeld-Lakshmikantham measure of nonconvexity and the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness, we introduce two mutually equivalent measures of noncircularity for Banach spaces satisfying a Cantor type property, and apply them to establish a fixed point theorem of Darbo type for multifunctions. Namely, we prove that every multifunction with closed values, defined on a closed set and contractive with respect to any one of these measures, has the origin as a fixed point.

  17. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    \\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  18. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  19. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  20. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  1. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  2. The Age of Analog Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mattiussi, Claudio; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Marbach, Daniel; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Dürr, Peter; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL); Floreano, Dario; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)

    2008-01-01

    A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamical devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems which include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different timescales. When tackled b...

  3. Picard Sequence and Fixed Point Results on b-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Demma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain some fixed point results for single-valued and multivalued mappings in the setting of a b-metric space. These results are generalizations of the analogous ones recently proved by Khojasteh, Abbas, and Costache.

  4. Maximum information photoelectron metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...

  5. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  6. Optically fixed photorefractive correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友文; 刘立人; 周常河; 徐良瑛

    2002-01-01

    An optically fixed photorefractive correlator is presented, where two-centre non-volatile holographic recording isemployed to write and fix the matched filter in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals. This correlator shows good correlationcharacteristics and insensitivity to the writing beam during readout. It can be used in cases requiring stability and notrequiring modification for a long period, and it is refreshed optically when new information needs to be registered.

  7. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  8. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  9. Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Rania F.

    2011-12-01

    A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Energy-Efficient Large-Scale Antenna Systems with Hybrid Digital-Analog Beamforming Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangfeng Han; ChihLin I; Zhikun Xu; Qi Sun; Haibin Li

    2015-01-01

    A large⁃scale antenna system (LSAS) with digital beamforming is expected to significantly increase energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) in a wireless communication system. However, there are many challenging issues related to calibration, en⁃ergy consumption, and cost in implementing a digital beamforming structure in an LSAS. In a practical LSAS deployment, hybrid digital⁃analog beamforming structures with active antennas can be used. In this paper, we investigate the optimal antenna configu⁃ration in an N × M beamforming structure, where N is the number of transceivers, M is the number of active antennas per trans⁃ceiver, where analog beamforming is introduced for individual transceivers and digital beamforming is introduced across all N transceivers. We analyze the green point, which is the point of maximum EE on the EE⁃SE curve, and show that the log⁃scale EE scales linearly with SE along a slope of ⁃lg2/N. We investigate the effect of M on EE for a given SE value in the case of fixed NM and independent N and M. In both cases, there is a unique optimal M that results in optimal EE. In the case of independent N and M, there is no optimal (N, M) combination for optimizing EE. The results of numerical simulations are provided, and these re⁃sults support our analysis.

  11. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  12. The maximum number of minimal codewords in long codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alahmadi, A.; Aldred, R.E.L.; dela Cruz, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Upper bounds on the maximum number of minimal codewords in a binary code follow from the theory of matroids. Random coding provides lower bounds. In this paper, we compare these bounds with analogous bounds for the cycle code of graphs. This problem (in the graphic case) was considered in 1981...

  13. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  14. Antiprotons at Solar Maximum

    CERN Document Server

    Bieber, J W; Engel, R; Gaisser, T K; Roesler, S; Stanev, T; Bieber, John W.; Engel, Ralph; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Roesler, Stefan; Stanev, Todor

    1999-01-01

    New measurements with good statistics will make it possible to observe the time variation of cosmic antiprotons at 1 AU through the approaching peak of solar activity. We report a new computation of the interstellar antiproton spectrum expected from collisions between cosmic protons and the interstellar gas. This spectrum is then used as input to a steady-state drift model of solar modulation, in order to provide predictions for the antiproton spectrum as well as the antiproton/proton ratio at 1 AU. Our model predicts a surprisingly large, rapid increase in the antiproton/proton ratio through the next solar maximum, followed by a large excursion in the ratio during the following decade.

  15. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  16. Vorticity in analog gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  17. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  18. Analog and digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  19. FET comparator detects analog signal levels without loading analog device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, H. L.

    1966-01-01

    FET comparator circuit detects discrete analog computer output levels without excessively loading the output amplifier of the computer. An FET common source amplifier is coupled by a differential amplifier to a bistable transistor flip-flop. This circuit provides a digital output for analog voltages above or below a predetermined level.

  20. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  1. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  2. A Novel cooked extruded lentils analog: physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud; Alavi, Sajid; Al-Shathri, Abdulaziz

    2015-07-01

    Developing an extruded lentil analog is our aim. Lentil analog with six formulations were produced using a pilot-scale single (SS) and twin screw (TS) extruders. Texture analysis of lentil analogs prepared for consumption revealed that the products formulated with 60:40 and 70:30 soy: wheat ratios exhibited a significantly higher hardness, adhesiveness and lower springiness as compared to all other treatments. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results indicated that all starches in dry blend are completely 100 % gelatinized by extrusion for all treatments at 100 °C. The maximum peak of viscosity for TS was formed after 5.58 min. from the run at 89.9 °C for the best treatment. However, this lentil analog product can provide a high quality lentil which can be used as a substitute for regular lentils.

  3. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  4. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  5. Fabricating abutment crowns for existing removable partial dentures using custom resin clasp analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaditis, G J

    1998-11-01

    A universal approach for fabricating abutment crowns for existing removable partial dentures is described. A replica (analog) of the clasp assembly is generated and transferred to a traditional working cast, which includes the abutment die. The analog is incorporated into the working cast as a removable component to allow the formation of the crown contours. The article reviews in detail the procedures required to transfer accurately all the essential components and information from the mouth to the working cast while allowing the patient uninterrupted use of the removable partial denture. Prestabilizing the removable partial denture, creating the analog impression, avoiding errors due to soft tissue components, forming a precise analog base, selecting materials, generating a rigid resin analog, and prescribing a path of insertion and withdrawal to the analog are described. The method replicates all types of clasps and can generate all types of fixed prosthodontic retainers to function harmoniously with the existing partial denture.

  6. Fabricating abutment crowns for existing removable partial dentures using custom resin clasp analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaditis, G J

    1998-11-01

    A universal approach for fabricating abutment crowns for existing removable partial dentures is described. A replica (analog) of the clasp assembly is generated and transferred to a traditional working cast, which includes the abutment die. The analog is incorporated into the working cast as a removable component to allow the formation of the crown contours. The article reviews in detail the procedures required to transfer accurately all the essential components and information from the mouth to the working cast while allowing the patient uninterrupted use of the removable partial denture. Prestabilizing the removable partial denture, creating the analog impression, avoiding errors due to soft tissue components, forming a precise analog base, selecting materials, generating a rigid resin analog, and prescribing a path of insertion and withdrawal to the analog are described. The method replicates all types of clasps and can generate all types of fixed prosthodontic retainers to function harmoniously with the existing partial denture. PMID:9813815

  7. Fixed textile shutters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Chernova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics

  8. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is ...

  9. Fixed textile shutters

    OpenAIRE

    K.A. Chernova; N.V. Paranicheva

    2010-01-01

    One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with mu...

  10. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  11. Analog Systems for Gravity Duals

    OpenAIRE

    Hossenfelder, S.

    2014-01-01

    We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic Anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of AdS-space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore ...

  12. Molecular modeling of fentanyl analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA DOSEN-MICOVIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is a highly potent and clinically widely used narcotic analgesic. A large number of its analogs have been synthesized, some of which (sufentanil and alfentanyl are also in clinical use. Theoretical studies, in recent years, afforded a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships of this class of opiates and allowed insight into the molecular mechanism of the interactions of fentanyl analogs with their receptors. An overview of the current computational techniques for modeling fentanyl analogs, their receptors and ligand-receptor interactions is presented in this paper.

  13. Sulfonimidamide analogs of oncolytic sulfonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J E; Grindey, G B; Ehlhardt, W J; Ray, J E; Boder, G B; Bewley, J R; Klingerman, K K; Gates, S B; Rinzel, S M; Schultz, R M; Weir, L C; Worzalla, J F

    1997-03-14

    A series of sulfonimidamide analogs of the oncolytic diarylsulfonylureas was synthesized and evaluated for (1) in vitro cytotoxicity against CEM cells, (2) in vivo antitumor activity against subaxillary implanted 6C3HED lymphosarcoma, and (3) metabolic breakdown to the o-sulfate of p-chloroaniline. The separated enantiomers of one sulfonimidamide analog displayed very different activities in the in vivo screening model. In general, several analogs demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity in the 6C3HED model when dosed orally or intraperitoneally. A correlative structure-activity relationship to the oncolytic sulfonylureas was not apparent.

  14. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  15. A Loudness Function for Analog and Digital Sound Systems based on Equal Loudness Level Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2016-01-01

    frequency balance will been changed both for LL lower or higher than ML. The differences in ELLC ask for a level based equalization using fractional-order filters. A designing technique for both analog and digital fractional-order filters was developed. The analog solution is based on OPAMs and the digital...... solution is realized in a 16/32 bit fixed point DSP and could be implemented in any sound producing system....

  16. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  17. Fixed and Sunk Costs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Henry; Yang, Bill Z.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the concepts of, and the link between, fixed costs and sunk costs. Argues that the root of confusion is the inconsistency in defining the term fixed costs. Consistently defines fixed and sunk costs, and describes how instructors must teach under these definitions. (RLH)

  18. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  19. Test signal generation for analog circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiek, B.; Mathis, W.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper a new test signal generation approach for general analog circuits based on the variational calculus and modern control theory methods is presented. The computed transient test signals also called test stimuli are optimal with respect to the detection of a given fault set by means of a predefined merit functional representing a fault detection criterion. The test signal generation problem of finding optimal test stimuli detecting all faults form the fault set is formulated as an optimal control problem. The solution of the optimal control problem representing the test stimuli is computed using an optimization procedure. The optimization procedure is based on the necessary conditions for optimality like the maximum principle of Pontryagin and adjoint circuit equations.

  20. Test signal generation for analog circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Burdiek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new test signal generation approach for general analog circuits based on the variational calculus and modern control theory methods is presented. The computed transient test signals also called test stimuli are optimal with respect to the detection of a given fault set by means of a predefined merit functional representing a fault detection criterion. The test signal generation problem of finding optimal test stimuli detecting all faults form the fault set is formulated as an optimal control problem. The solution of the optimal control problem representing the test stimuli is computed using an optimization procedure. The optimization procedure is based on the necessary conditions for optimality like the maximum principle of Pontryagin and adjoint circuit equations.

  1. All-optical analog comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  2. Enumeration of Maximum Acyclic Hypergraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang Wang; Hai-zhu Li

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic hypergraphs are analogues of forests in graphs. They are very useful in the design of databases. In this article, the maximum size of an acyclic hypergraph is determined and the number of maximum r-uniform acyclic hypergraphs of order n is shown to be ( n t-1 )(n(r-1)-r2 +2r)n-r-1.

  3. A subjective supply-demand model: the maximum Boltzmann/Shannon entropy solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    2009-03-01

    The present authors have put forward a projective geometry model of rational trading. The expected (mean) value of the time that is necessary to strike a deal and the profit strongly depend on the strategies adopted. A frequent trader often prefers maximal profit intensity to the maximization of profit resulting from a separate transaction because the gross profit/income is the adopted/recommended benchmark. To investigate activities that have different periods of duration we define, following the queuing theory, the profit intensity as a measure of this economic category. The profit intensity in repeated trading has a unique property of attaining its maximum at a fixed point regardless of the shape of demand curves for a wide class of probability distributions of random reverse transactions (i.e. closing of the position). These conclusions remain valid for an analogous model based on supply analysis. This type of market game is often considered in research aiming at finding an algorithm that maximizes profit of a trader who negotiates prices with the Rest of the World (a collective opponent), possessing a definite and objective supply profile. Such idealization neglects the sometimes important influence of an individual trader on the demand/supply profile of the Rest of the World and in extreme cases questions the very idea of demand/supply profile. Therefore we put forward a trading model in which the demand/supply profile of the Rest of the World induces the (rational) trader to (subjectively) presume that he/she lacks (almost) all knowledge concerning the market but his/her average frequency of trade. This point of view introduces maximum entropy principles into the model and broadens the range of economic phenomena that can be perceived as a sort of thermodynamical system. As a consequence, the profit intensity has a fixed point with an astonishing connection with Fibonacci classical works and looking for the quickest algorithm for obtaining the extremum of a

  4. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  5. Test Wiseness and Analogy Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James C.

    1971-01-01

    Subjects received self instruction on how to approach analogy questions. Instruction was directed toward knowledge of the general format of analogy questions in standarized tests and the 15 types of relationships commonly asked for in analogy questions. An analogies post-test showed a significant effect for the group. (Author)

  6. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  7. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  8. 49205 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course 49205 Analog and Digital Filters...

  9. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  10. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  11. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  12. Analogy between Thermodynamics and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Establishes and illustrates a formal analogy between the motion of a particle and the "motion" of the equilibrium state of a homogeneous system in a quasistatic process. The purpose is to show that there is a much larger set of natural coordinate transformations in thermodynamics. (GA)

  13. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer

  14. Singularity of Farhi-Gutmann Analog Quantum Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Shun-Long; ZHANG Zheng-Min

    2004-01-01

    We show that the Farhi-Gutmann analog quantum search is a singular algorithm in the following sense:when the original driving Hamiltonian is perturbed slightly such that it is made of projections to the starting state and to the target state with different energies, the maximum fidelity (transition probability) between the searching state and thetarget state is strictly less than 1 over the entire evolution period, and the first time to achieve this maximum fidelity is of order √n/√1+cN, whose behavior depends crucially on whether c = 0 or not (here N is the total number of items, and the original Farhi-Gutmann case corresponds to c = 0). Moreover, when c ≠ 0 and N tends to infinity, the maximum fidelity tends to zero, and the first time to achieve the maximum fidelity tends to a positive constant! The condition for guaranteeing the algorithm's efficiency is determined explicitly.

  15. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  16. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D.F.(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK)

    2004-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  17. A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Potts-like Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities th...

  18. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  19. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  20. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  1. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  2. Splitting Compounds by Semantic Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    Daiber, Joachim; Quiroz, Lautaro; Wechsler, Roger; Frank, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Compounding is a highly productive word-formation process in some languages that is often problematic for natural language processing applications. In this paper, we investigate whether distributional semantics in the form of word embeddings can enable a deeper, i.e., more knowledge-rich, processing of compounds than the standard string-based methods. We present an unsupervised approach that exploits regularities in the semantic vector space (based on analogies such as "bookshop is to shop as...

  3. Decomposition using Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    , normally we have an ordering of landmarks (variables) along the contour of the objects. For the case with observation ordering the maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) transform was proposed for multivariate imagery in\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85}. This corresponds to a R-mode analyse of the data...

  4. A Global Analog of Cheshire Charge

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  5. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  6. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  7. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  8. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  9. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  10. Maximum efficiency of low-dissipation heat engines at arbitrary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem

    2016-07-01

    We investigate maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. Close to maximum power, the maximum gain in efficiency scales as a square root of relative loss in power and this scaling is universal for a broad class of systems. For low-dissipation engines, we calculate the maximum gain in efficiency for an arbitrary fixed power. We show that engines working close to maximum power can operate at considerably larger efficiency compared to the efficiency at maximum power. Furthermore, we introduce universal bounds on maximum efficiency at a given power for low-dissipation heat engines. These bounds represent direct generalization of the bounds on efficiency at maximum power obtained by Esposito et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603). We derive the bounds analytically in the regime close to maximum power and for small power values. For the intermediate regime we present strong numerical evidence for the validity of the bounds.

  11. Epsilon Nielsen fixed point theory

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Let be a map of a compact, connected Riemannian manifold, with or without boundary. For sufficiently small, we introduce an -Nielsen number that is a lower bound for the number of fixed points of all self-maps of that are -homotopic to . We prove that there is always a map that is -homotopic to such that has exactly fixed points. We describe procedures for calculating for maps of -manifolds.

  12. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  13. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  14. D(Maximum)=P(Argmaximum)

    CERN Document Server

    Remizov, Ivan D

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.

  15. Maximum-likelihood absorption tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum-likelihood methods are applied to the problem of absorption tomography. The reconstruction is done with the help of an iterative algorithm. We show how the statistics of the illuminating beam can be incorporated into the reconstruction. The proposed reconstruction method can be considered as a useful alternative in the extreme cases where the standard ill-posed direct-inversion methods fail. (authors)

  16. Homogeneous determination of maximum magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Meletti, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; D'Amico, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Martinelli, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable represents the result of the activities performed by a working group at INGV. The main object of the Task 3.5 is defined in the Description of Work. This task will produce a homogeneous assessment (possibly multiple models) of the distribution of the expected Maximum Magnitude for earthquakes expected in various tectonic provinces of Europe, to serve as input for the computation and validation of seismic hazard. This goal will be achieved by combining input from earthqu...

  17. Maximum matching on random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haijun; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can

    2003-01-01

    The maximum matching problem on random graphs is studied analytically by the cavity method of statistical physics. When the average vertex degree \\mth{c} is larger than \\mth{2.7183}, groups of max-matching patterns which differ greatly from each other {\\em gradually} emerge. An analytical expression for the max-matching size is also obtained, which agrees well with computer simulations. Discussion is made on this {\\em continuous} glassy phase transition and the absence of such a glassy phase ...

  18. Indistinguishability, symmetrisation and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that the distributions over single-particle states for Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics describing N non-interacting identical particles follow directly from the principle of maximum entropy. It is seen that the notions of indistinguishability and coarse graining are secondary, if not irrelevant. A detailed examination of the structure of the Boltzmann limit is provided. (author)

  19. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  20. Solar maximum: solar array degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment

  1. 47 CFR 25.211 - Analog video transmissions in the Fixed-Satellite Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... necessary to meet the power flux density limits specified in § 25.208(a) and successfully coordinated... bandwidth set at whatever value is necessary to meet the power flux density limits specified in §...

  2. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  3. Analog and mixed-signal electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A practical guide to analog and mixed-signal electronics, with an emphasis on design problems and applications This book provides an in-depth coverage of essential analog and mixed-signal topics such as power amplifiers, active filters, noise and dynamic range, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion techniques, phase-locked loops, and switching power supplies. Readers will learn the basics of linear systems, types of nonlinearities and their effects, op-amp circuits, the high-gain analog filter-amplifier, and signal generation. The author uses system design examples to motivate

  4. Funding human services: fixed utility versus fixed budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, D J; Rahn, S L

    1986-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that government allocations for human services based on inputs rather than outcomes, reduce efficiency in social and health service provision. An alternative system of budgeting or contracting on the basis of cost-per-closed case and case outcome is discussed. An interdependency between fixed budget and fixed utility models of allocation is affirmed. The locus of decision-making for operationalizing this interdependency is seen as the program and budget review panel to which operating agencies and government departments must submit financial and program accounting information from year to year. In isolation, the fixed budget approach degenerates into routine allocation or contract renewal with a focus on such input and output variables as volume of service and unit cost, and the fixed utility approach, into political stalemate. Simulated examples are given to demonstrate how allocation on the basis of inputs and outputs alone provides an incentive to inefficiency, and a fixed utility orientation to efficiency. PMID:10311890

  5. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  6. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  7. A Multi-Gigahertz Analog Transient Recorder Integrated Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinfelder, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic multi-channel analog transient recorder, implemented using switched capacitor sample-and-hold circuits and a high-speed analogically-adjustable delay-line-based write clock, has been designed, fabricated and tested. The 2.1 by 6.9 mm layout, in 1.2 micron CMOS, includes over 31,000 transistors and 2048 double polysilicon capacitors. The circuit contains four parallel channels, each with a 512 deep switched-capacitor sample-and-hold system. A 512 deep edge sensitive tapped active delay line uses look-ahead and 16 way interleaving to develop the 512 sample and hold clocks, each as little as 3.2 ns wide and 200 ps apart. Measurements of the device have demonstrated 5 GHz maximum sample rate, at least 350 MHz bandwidth, an extrapolated rms aperture uncertainty per sample of 0.7 ps, and a signal to rms noise ratio of 2000:1.

  8. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  9. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

  10. A Comparison Simulation of Fixed-fixed Type MEMS Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, G.; Sadeghian, H.; Malekpour, E.

    2006-04-01

    In the present work pull-in voltage of fixed-fixed end type MEMS switches with variative electrostatic area has been calculated using a distributed model and applying a full nonlinear finite difference discretizing method. The governing nonlinear differential equation has been derived using of the variational principle for multi domain electromechanical coupled system. The numerical results of the beam with variative electrostatic area with the results of Coupled-Domain Finite Element method have been compared and very good agreement has been achieved.

  11. Using Analogical Problem Solving with Different Scaffolding Supports to Learn about Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that many students believe that the magnitude of the static frictional force is always equal to its maximum value. Here, we examine introductory students' ability to learn from analogical reasoning (with different scaffolding supports provided) between two problems that are similar in terms of the physics principle involved but one problem involves static friction, which often triggers the misleading notion. To help students process through the analogy deeply and contemplate whether the static frictional force was at its maximum value, students in different recitation classrooms received different scaffolding support. We discuss students' performance in different groups.

  12. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  13. Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2011-04-01

    In their work [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner. Here, a discussion is developed about realizing the maximum power of such an engine, where the width of the well moves at low but finite speed. The efficiency of the engine at the maximum power output is found to be universal independently of any of the parameters contained in the model.

  14. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)

    2009-02-19

    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic

  15. Benefits of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) concept in aquatic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic organisms and the

  16. Statistical optimization for passive scalar transport: maximum entropy production vs. maximum Kolmogorov–Sinay entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihelich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.

  17. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  18. Perfect and Imperfect Gauge Fixing

    CERN Document Server

    Shirzad, A

    2006-01-01

    Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system, enables us to use either a perfect gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined; or an imperfect gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and perfect or imperfect gauges are distinguished.

  19. Fixed effects analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Lloyd; Birnbaum, Z W; Lukacs, E

    1978-01-01

    Fixed Effects Analysis of Variance covers the mathematical theory of the fixed effects analysis of variance. The book discusses the theoretical ideas and some applications of the analysis of variance. The text then describes topics such as the t-test; two-sample t-test; the k-sample comparison of means (one-way analysis of variance); the balanced two-way factorial design without interaction; estimation and factorial designs; and the Latin square. Confidence sets, simultaneous confidence intervals, and multiple comparisons; orthogonal and nonorthologonal designs; and multiple regression analysi

  20. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  1. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors.

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  4. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  5. Xampling: Compressed Sensing of Analog Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mishali, Moshe; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed wi...

  6. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitaniak, T.; Zyczkowski, K.; Feudel, U.; Grebogi, C.

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we d...

  7. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.

  8. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  9. Genetic and structural analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, C D; Ronson, C W; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    The fixA, fixB, fixC, and fixX genes of Rhizobium meliloti 1021 constitute an operon and are required for nitrogen fixation in alfalfa nodules. DNA homologous to the R. meliloti fixABC genes is present in all other Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species examined, but fixABC-homologous sequences were found in only one free-living diazotroph, Azotobacter vinelandii. To determine whether the fixABCX genes share sequence homology with any of the 17 Klebsiella pneumoniae nif genes, we determined the...

  10. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION IN GENERALIZED GAMMA TYPE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of ageneralized gamma type model have been obtained directly by solving the likelihood equationsas well as by reparametrizing the model first and then solving the likelihood equations (as doneby Prentice, 1974 for fixed values of the third parameter. It is found that reparametrization doesneither reduce the bulk nor the complexity of calculations. as claimed by Prentice (1974. Theprocedure has been illustrated with the help of an example. The distribution of MLE of q alongwith its properties has also been obtained.

  11. The equivalence of minimum entropy production and maximum thermal efficiency in endoreversible heat engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseli, Y

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power production of typical models of endoreversible heat engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy production rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible heat engine, a reduction in entropy production corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy production, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed heat input.

  12. Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...

  13. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  14. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  15. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F W Giacobbe

    2003-03-01

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  16. Maximum-likelihood algorithm for quantum tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical homodyne tomography is discussed in the context of classical image processing. Analogies between these two fields are traced and used to formulate an iterative numerical algorithm for reconstructing the Wigner function from homodyne statistics. (Author)

  17. $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood for sparse directed acyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    van de Geer, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of regularized maximum likelihood estimation for the structure and parameters of a high-dimensional, sparse directed acyclic graphical (DAG) model with Gaussian distribution, or equivalently, of a Gaussian structural equation model. We show that the $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood estimator of a DAG has about the same number of edges as the minimal-edge I-MAP (a DAG with minimal number of edges representing the distribution), and that it converges in Frobenius norm. We allow the number of nodes $p$ to be much larger than sample size $n$ but assume a sparsity condition and that any representation of the true DAG has at least a fixed proportion of its non-zero edge weights above the noise level. Our results do not rely on the restrictive strong faithfulness condition which is required for methods based on conditional independence testing such as the PC-algorithm.

  18. A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Potts-like Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio b...

  19. 64 Gbit/s Transmission over 850 m Fixed Wireless Link at 240 GHz Carrier Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallfass, Ingmar; Boes, Florian; Messinger, Tobias; Antes, Jochen; Inam, Anns; Lewark, Ulrich; Tessmann, Axel; Henneberger, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A directive fixed wireless link operating at a center frequency of 240 GHz achieves a data rate of 64 Gbit/s over a transmission distance of 850 m using QPSK and 8PSK modulation, in a single-channel approach without the use of spatial diversity concepts. The analog transmit and receive frontend consists of active monolithic integrated circuits including broadband RF amplification and quadrature subharmonic mixer channels. The analog frontend is addressed by 64 GSa/s ADC and DAC boards, which are amenable to real-time data transmission. A link budget calculation allows for the estimation of the performance under adverse weather conditions.

  20. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  1. An optical analog signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudzita, K.; Itida, T.; Tanaka, Kh.

    1984-01-11

    An optical laser analog signal transmitter employing an amplitude modulated subcarrier is patented; this transmitter performs stable and high quality transmission of information signals over great distances. A feature of the proposed transmitter is a special transmitter operational mode in which the light emission reflected off the connection point to the fiber optic conduit is sent back to the laser diode in a transient period. As a result, the critical mode of the generated emission is not influenced by the reflected signal. The transmitter consists of a laser diode with biasing near the cutoff point, an amplitude modulator with a subcarrier frequency oscillator, a section of flexible fiber-optic cable of length L, which connects the laser diode to the primary optical fiber conduit, and the connector itself. The subcarrier frequency may vary over wide ranges to establish the necessary correlation between the length of the light conduit section L and the return propagation time of the reflected light signal from the connection point to the laser diode. The difference between the lasing time of the light signal and the return time to the laser diode of the signal reflected off the connector is determined by the relation tau equals 2nL/c - mtauc, where L is the length of the connecting section; n is the refractivity of the optical fiber; c is the velocity of light; tauc is the period of the high frequency subcarrier signal; and m is an integer.

  2. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  3. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  4. A physical analogy to fuzzy clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides an interpretation of the membership assignment in the fuzzy clustering algorithm fuzzy c-means. The membership of a data point to several clusters is shown to be analogous to the gravitational forces between bodies of mass. This provides an alternative way to explain...... the algorithm to students. The analogy suggests a possible extension of the fuzzy membership assignment equation....

  5. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  6. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  7. Several Forms of Fuzzy Analogical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchon-Meunier, B; Delechamp, J.; Marsala, C.; Rifqi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a general framework representing analogy, on the basis of a link between variables and measures of comparison between values of variables. This analogical scheme is proven to represent a common description of several forms of reasoning used in fuzzy control or in the management of knowledge-based systems, such as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning or prototypical reasoning, gradual reasoning.

  8. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavitavya Nijampatnam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity.

  9. Analogical Processes and College Developmental Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a solid body of research concerning the role of analogies in reading processes has emerged at a variety of age groups and reading proficiencies, few of those studies have focused on analogy use by readers enrolled in college developmental reading courses. The current study explores whether 232 students enrolled in mandatory (by placement…

  10. Analogies in biology textbooks in zoology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Cézar Seiffert Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biologic structures of living creatures are of difficult understanding for students, because they are usually unknown by those, in needs of strategic didactics in order to facilitate the student understanding. There are several strategies and methods for teaching, such as, analogies, metaphors, descriptions, among others. In this article we aim to identify, assess and classify the analogies used in the Higher School Biology textbooks, commonly used in Public State Schools of Manaus – AM, related to the zoology theme. The methodological procedure includes: a analysis of the whole zoological content of the most used textbooks in the public state network of Amazonas throughout the year; b three didactic textbooks have been specifically analyzed in order to specify the class taxon of “Fish” for the comparison of possible variations of types and quantities of analogies. The adopted classification of analogies was of Curtis & Reigeluth (1984 and the model of enriching analysis was according to the TWA Glynn model (Harrison & Treagust, 1993. It has been concluded that the use of analogies is greater in the content of invertebrates than that of vertebrates. Most Analogies are presented in a simple and direct manner, comparing structures, concrete to concrete, and of verbal mediation, almost nothing is presented in a diverse and heuristic manner of Zoology content on the LD. The development of limits of comparison and reflexion about the analogies was rare, only the presentation of the analogue and the target of analogy occurred.

  11. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    OpenAIRE

    Loknath Ghoshal; Mausumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an "over the counter" drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug induced reaction pa...

  12. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  13. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  14. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  15. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  16. A Digital Coreless Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit for Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shiho; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Namjae; Baatar, Nyambayar; Kwon, Jangwoo

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for thermoelectric generators (TEG) without a digital controller unit. The proposed method uses an analog tracking circuit that samples the half point of the open-circuit voltage without a digital signal processor (DSP) or microcontroller unit for calculating the peak power point using iterative methods. The simulation results revealed that the MPPT circuit, which employs a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter, handled rapid variation of temperature and abrupt changes of load current; this method enables stable operation with high power transfer efficiency. The proposed MPPT technique is a useful analog MPPT solution for thermoelectric generators.

  17. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  18. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  19. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  20. Focal plane array readout integrated circuit with per-pixel analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Hottes, Alison; Pease, R. Fabian W.

    2000-07-01

    A pixel array readout integrated circuit (ROIC) containing per-pixel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and digital-to- analog conversion (DAC) for infrared detectors is presented with design and test result details. Fabricated in a standard 0.35 micron, 3.3 volt CMOS technology. the prototype consists of a linear array of 64 pixels, containing over 100 transistors per 30 by 30 micron pixel. The 8-bit per-pixel ADC is a Nyquist-rate single-slope design consisting of a three stage comparator and an 8 bit memory. This fully pixel- parallel ADC architecture operates in full-frame 'snapshot' mode and can reach over 1,000 frames per second. Each pixel also contains cascoded current source, globally biased to subtract an identical, fixed amount of current from each pixel in order to remove a common background signal by 'charge skimming.' It operates over more than 3 decades of current cancellation (approximately 10 pA to > 10 nA). As well, each pixel contains a 4 to 6+ bit current-mode DAC, intended to trim-out pixel-to-pixel variations in background current. It consists of 16 unit-cells of switched cascoded current sources per pixel, organized as two separately biased weights and controlled by a 16-bit per-pixel memory. The DAC operates over more than 4 decades of current cancellation (< 10 pA to approximately equals 100 nA) per least significant bit (LSB).

  1. A computational model of analogical reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵沁平

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of analogical reasoning is presented, which divides analogical reasoning process into four subprocesses, i.e. reminding, elaboration, matching and transfer. For each subprocess, its role and the principles it follows are given. The model is discussed in detail, including salient feature-based reminding, relevance-directed elaboration, an improved matching model and a transfer model. And the advantages of this model are summarized based on the results of BHARS, which is an analogical reasoning system implemented by this model.

  2. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  3. Photonic analog computing with integrated silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoleng; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    The spectra of silicon integrated waveguides are tailored to process analog computing (i.e.,differential and integral) in optical domain with huge bandwidth.With the theory of signal and system, we design some silicon integrated devices to implement photonic differentiator and optical differential equation solver. The basic principle is to tailor the spectra of silicon integrated waveguides to meet the requirements of analog computing circuits. These analog photonic integrated circuits are very promising in future computing systems with high speed, low cost, and compact size. We also plan to employ these basic computing units in more complex computing modules.

  4. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  5. TRANSVERSAL SPACES AND FIXED POINT THEOREMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sinia N. Ješić; Milan R. Tasković; Nataša Babačev

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we define Transversal functional probabilistic spaces (upper and lower) as a natural extension of Metric spaces, Probabilistic metric spaces and Fuzzy metric spaces. Also, we formulate and prove some fixed and common fixed point theorems.

  6. Predicting the fix time of bugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions concerning the coordination of development effort are which bugs to fix first and how long it takes to fix them. In this paper we investigate empirically the relationships between bug report attributes and the time to fix. The objective is to compute prediction models that ca

  7. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  8. An Electrical Analog Computer for Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruels, Mark C.

    1972-01-01

    Nonphysics majors are presented with a direct current experiment beyond Ohms law and series and parallel laws. This involves construction of an analog computer from common rheostats and student-assembled voltmeters. (Author/TS)

  9. The Analog (Computer) As a Physiology Adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    Defines and discusses the analog computer and its use in a physiology laboratory. Includes two examples: (1) The Respiratory Control Function and (2) CO-Two Control in the Respiratory System. Presents diagrams and mathematical models. (MA)

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  11. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  12. Removal of well-fixed fixed femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffosse, J-M

    2016-02-01

    The removal of a well-fixed prosthetic stem raises technical challenges. The objective is not only to remove the material, but also to prepare the implantation of a new prosthesis. Cemented stems are only very rarely unremovable; extraction of the cement mantle and plug raises the greatest difficulties. The main risk is cortex perforation, and a radiograph should be obtained at the slightest doubt. The removal of cementless stems carries a higher risk of fracture. Difficulties should be anticipated based on thorough familiarity with the implant design and on evaluations of implant fixation and bone stock. The intramedullary approach is usually sufficient to extract a cemented or cementless, well fixed, standard stem. Routine use of a transfemoral approach is warranted only in the following situations: revision surgery for infection, S-shaped stem, long stem, curvature or angulation of the femoral shaft, or unfeasible hip dislocation. However, the possibility that the intramedullary approach may need to be converted to a transfemoral approach should be anticipated. Thus, preoperative planning must include determination of the optimal length of a femoral osteotomy or femoral flap, should one be needed, and the surgeon must have access to all the revision implants and tools that might be needed for re-implantation. Experience with the various techniques is indispensable, as a well-performed extensive approach is associated with less morbidity than a fracture or trajectory error. There are three main techniques, which are described here: intramedullary extraction of a cementless stem, intramedullary extraction of a cemented stem, and transfemoral extraction through an extended trochanterotomy. The patients should receive detailed information on the difficulties of femoral stem removal and on the available solutions. PMID:26797009

  13. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  14. Implementing neural architectures using analog VLSI circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Mary Ann C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.; Mahowald, Misha A.; Mead, Carver A.

    1989-01-01

    Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) technology can be used not only to study and simulate biological systems, but also to emulate them in designing artificial sensory systems. A methodology for building these systems in CMOS VLSI technology has been developed using analog micropower circuit elements that can be hierarchically combined. Using this methodology, experimental VLSI chips of visual and motor subsystems have been designed and fabricated. These chips exhibit behavior similar to...

  15. Analogical Learning and Automated Rule Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周哈阳

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments of analogical learning and automated rule construction.The present investigation focuses on knowledge acquisition,learning by analyogy,and knowledge retention.The developed system initially learns from scratch,gradually acquires knowledge from its environment through trial-and-error interaction,incrementally augments its knowledge base,and analogically solves new tasks in a more efficient and direct manner.

  16. A review of EBMT using proportional analogies

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Harold; Dandapat, Sandipan; Naskar, Sudip Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Some years ago a number of papers reported an experimental implementation of Example Based Machine Translation (EBMT) using Proportional Analogy. This approach, a type of analogical learning, was attractive because of its simplicity; and the papers reported considerable success with the method. This paper reviews what we believe to be the totality of research reported using this method, as an introduction to our own experiments in this framework, reported in a companion paper. We report first...

  17. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao-Te; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P T P; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  18. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek Y.; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; P. T. P. Ho; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar

    2010-01-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband IF distribution, backend signal processing and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting c...

  19. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek Y.; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P. T. P.; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2010-06-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband intermediate frequency distribution, back-end signal processing, and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  20. Enhancement of naked FIX minigene expression by chloroquine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan CHEN; Huan-zhang ZHU; Bin LU; Xuan XU; Ji-hua YAO; Qi SHEN; Jing-lun XUE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of chloroquine on the expression of human clotting factor IX (hFIX) in mice. METHODS:Hydrodynamics-based naked DNA plasmid administration was performed by tail vein injection of 10 μg of pCMVhFIX and chloroquine (0, 100, 200, and 500 μmol/L) in 2.2 mL of Ringer' solution within 6-7 s, the level and stability of hFIX expression, liver damage and toxicity were then examined. RESULTS: The maximum expression of hFIX level was 4.4±-1.8 mg/L at 8 h after injection, 9.7±1.6 mg/L at 24 h only existed in 200 μmol/L chloroquinetreated animals, which is 3-4 fold higher than that of control (P<0.01). There is no significant difference observed among all the treated groups, 3 d later. Transaminase level and liver histological study showed the damage of liver was not related to chloroquine (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Chloroquine can enhance and sustain exogenous gene expression in vivo without side effect under our experimental conditions.

  1. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  2. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  3. Development of analogical problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O

    1984-12-01

    3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.

  4. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  5. Improved Minimum Cuts and Maximum Flows in Undirected Planar Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Italiano, Giuseppe F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study minimum cut and maximum flow problems on planar graphs, both in static and in dynamic settings. First, we present an algorithm that given an undirected planar graph computes the minimum cut between any two given vertices in O(n log log n) time. Second, we show how to achieve the same O(n log log n) bound for the problem of computing maximum flows in undirected planar graphs. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first algorithms for those two problems that break the O(n log n) barrier, which has been standing for more than 25 years. Third, we present a fully dynamic algorithm that is able to maintain information about minimum cuts and maximum flows in a plane graph (i.e., a planar graph with a fixed embedding): our algorithm is able to insert edges, delete edges and answer min-cut and max-flow queries between any pair of vertices in O(n^(2/3) log^3 n) time per operation. This result is based on a new dynamic shortest path algorithm for planar graphs which may be of independent int...

  6. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  7. Fixed Point and Aperiodic Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Bruno; Shen, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    An aperiodic tile set was first constructed by R.Berger while proving the undecidability of the domino problem. It turned out that aperiodic tile sets appear in many topics ranging from logic (the Entscheidungsproblem) to physics (quasicrystals) We present a new construction of an aperiodic tile set that is based on Kleene's fixed-point construction instead of geometric arguments. This construction is similar to J. von Neumann self-reproducing automata; similar ideas were also used by P. Gacs in the context of error-correcting computations. The flexibility of this construction allows us to construct a ``robust'' aperiodic tile set that does not have periodic (or close to periodic) tilings even if we allow some (sparse enough) tiling errors. This property was not known for any of the existing aperiodic tile sets.

  8. Iterative approximation of fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Berinde, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a unified introductory treatment of the most important iterative methods for constructing fixed points of nonlinear contractive type mappings. It summarizes the most significant contributions in the area by presenting, for each iterative method considered (Picard iteration, Krasnoselskij iteration, Mann iteration, Ishikawa iteration etc.), some of the most relevant, interesting, representative and actual convergence theorems. Applications to the solution of nonlinear operator equations as well as the appropriate error analysis of the main iterative methods, are also presented. Due to the explosive number of research papers on the topic (in the last 15 years only, more than one thousand articles related to the subject were published), it was felt that such a monograph was imperatively necessary. The volume is useful for authors, editors, and reviewers. It introduces concrete criteria for evaluating and judging the plethora of published papers.

  9. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri

    2010-01-01

    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  10. Estimation of Maximum Wind Speeds in Tornadoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dergarabedian, Paul; Fendell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed for rapidly estimating the maximum value of the azimuthal velocity component (maximum swirling speed) in tornadoes and waterspouts. The method requires knowledge of the cloud-deck height and a photograph of the funnel cloud—data usually available. Calculations based on this data confirm that the lower maximum wind speeds suggested by recent workers (roughly one-quarter of the sonic speed for sea-level air) are more plausible for tornadoes than the sonic speed sometimes ci...

  11. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C., E-mail: strand@lehigh.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p{sup +} ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p{sup +} contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n{sup +} contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation.

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. The future of vitamin D analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlien eLeyssens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (DaivonexR, which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Omics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 towards S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the

  14. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  15. Split-panel jackknife estimation of fixed-effect models

    OpenAIRE

    DHAENE, Geert; Jochmans, Koen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a jackknife for reducing the order of the bias of maximum likelihood estimates of nonlinear dynamic fixed-effect panel models. In its simplest form, the half-panel jackknife, the estimator is just $2\\hat{\\theta} - \\bar{\\theta}_{1/2}$, where $\\hat{\\theta}$ is the MLE from the full panel and $\\bar{\\theta}_{1/2}$ is the average of the two half-panel MLEs, each using T/2 time periods and all N cross-sectional units. This estimator eliminates the first-order bias of $\\hat{theta}. The o...

  16. Split-panel jackknife estimation of fixed-effect models

    OpenAIRE

    DHAENE, Geert; Jochmans, Koen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a jackknife for reducing the order of the bias of maximum likelihood estimates of nonlinear dynamic fixed-effect panel models. In its simplest form, the half-panel jackknife, the estimatorisjust 2θˆ−θ1/2,where θˆ!istheMLEfromthefullpaneland θ1/2 istheaverageofthe two half-panel MLEs, each using T/2 time periods and all N cross-sectional units. This estimatoreliminates the first-order bias of θˆ . The order of the bias is further reduced if two partitions of the panel are used, for ...

  17. Magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Salabert, D

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest results on the solar-stellar connection by studying 18 solar analogs that we identified among the Kepler seismic sample (Salabert et al., 2016a). We measured their magnetic activity properties using observations collected by the Kepler satellite and the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S) magnetic activity proxies of these seismic solar analogs are compared in relation to solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is actually comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs. Furthermore, we report on the discovery of temporal variability in the acoustic frequencies of the young (1 Gyr-old) solar analog KIC10644253 with a modulation of about 1.5 years, which agrees with the derived photospheric activity (Salabert et al., 2016b). It could actually be the signature of the short-period modulation, or quasi-biennal oscillation, of its magnetic activity as observed in the Sun and the 1-Gyr-old solar analog HD30495. In...

  18. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  19. Natural Analogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model

  20. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  1. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  2. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  3. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients - focus on bimatoprost-timolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Ling, Zhihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs). In the People's Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in the People's Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People's Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons of BTFC with other fixed-combination drugs, and treatment adherence and persistence with treatment in Chinese patients are unknown and will require further study.

  4. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Response Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Johnson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT models are a class of statistical models used by researchers to describe the response behaviors of individuals to a set of categorically scored items. The most common IRT models can be classified as generalized linear fixed- and/or mixed-effect models. Although IRT models appear most often in the psychological testing literature, researchers in other fields have successfully utilized IRT-like models in a wide variety of applications. This paper discusses the three major methods of estimation in IRT and develops R functions utilizing the built-in capabilities of the R environment to find the marginal maximum likelihood estimates of the generalized partial credit model. The currently available R packages ltm is also discussed.

  5. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  6. Analog Forecasting with Dynamics-Adapted Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhizhen

    2014-01-01

    Analog forecasting is a non-parametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems and kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning. The first improvement is to augment the dimension of the initial data using Takens' delay-coordinate maps to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations. Then, instead of using Euclidean distances between the states, weighted ensembles of analogs are constructed according to similarity kernels in delay-coordinate space, featuring an explicit dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions ...

  7. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  8. On Lovelock analogs of the Riemann tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camanho, Xian O. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Golm (Germany); Dadhich, Naresh [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)

    2016-03-15

    It is possible to define an analog of the Riemann tensor for Nth order Lovelock gravity, its characterizing property being that the trace of its Bianchi derivative yields the corresponding analog of the Einstein tensor. Interestingly there exist two parallel but distinct such analogs and the main purpose of this note is to reconcile both formulations. In addition we will introduce a simple tensor identity and use it to show that any pure Lovelock vacuum in odd d = 2N + 1 dimensions is Lovelock flat, i.e. any vacuum solution of the theory has vanishing Lovelock-Riemann tensor. Further, in the presence of cosmological constant it is the Lovelock-Weyl tensor that vanishes. (orig.)

  9. Analog Module Placement Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel genetic algorithm for analog module placement based on ageneralization of the two-dimensional bin packing problem. The genetic encoding and operators assure that allproblem constraints are always satisfied. Thus the potential problems of adding penalty terms to the costfunction are eliminated so that the search configuration space is drastically decreased. The dedicated costfunction is based on the special requirements of analog integrated circuits. A fractional factorial experimentwas conducted using an orthogonal array to study the algorithm parameters. A meta GA was applied todetermine the optimal parameter values. The algorithm was tested with several local benchmark circuits. Theexperimental results show that the algorithm has better performance than the simulated annealing approachwith satisfactory results comparable to manual placement. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of thegenetic algorithm in the analog module placement problem. The algorithm has been successfully used in alayout synthesis tool.

  10. Formal analogies in physics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo; Ricardo, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning by similarities, especially the ones associated with formal aspects, is one of the most valuable sources for the development of physical theories. The essential role of formal analogies in science can be highlighted by the fact that several equations for different physical situations have...... the exact same appearance. Coulomb’s law’s similarity with Newton’s, Maxwell’s application of fluid theory to electromagnetism and Hamilton’s optical mechanical analogy are some among many other examples. These cases illustrate the power of mathematics in providing unifying structures for physics. Despite...... the relevance of the subject, formal analogies are rarely systematically approached in physics education. In order to discuss this issue with pre-service physics teachers, we planned a lecture and designed a questionnaire with the goal of encouraging them to think about some “coincidences” in well known...

  11. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  12. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu;

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  13. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously

  14. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of...

  15. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  16. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Ghoshal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an "over the counter" drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a distinctive drug induced reaction pattern characterized by recurrence of eruption at the same site of the skin or mucous membrane with repeated systemic administration. Only two case reports exist in the literature describing modafinil induced FDE until date. Here, we report two similar cases. The increasing use of this class of drug amongst the medical personnel might be posing a threat to the proper use and encouraging subsequent abuse. There might be a considerable population using these drugs unaware of the possible adverse effects. Authorities should be more alert regarding the sale and distribution of such medicines.

  17. Can we fix nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Weinberg discusses some of the history of various aspects of the nuclear industry in light of the accident at Three Mile Island. The siting of commercial nuclear power plants near population centers is a result of opening up nuclear operations at the private sector. Early reactors established as a part of the Manhattan Project were all remote from unknowledgeable populations. When the utilities began to construct nuclear plants, their siting tended to conform to the practices already established for generation plants. With the nearness of nuclear power plants to people, and with media coverage of accidents so widespread, the public perception of risk associated with nuclear energy deserves attention. The primary issue concerning nuclear power plants is, according to Dr. Weinberg, the 15 billion curies in an operating reactor and the possibility of their release. He identifies six characteristics necessary for an acceptable nuclear energy system: technical fixes; physical isolation; separation of generation and distribution; professionalization of the nuclear cadre; heightened security; and, perhaps most difficult, public education about the hazards of radiation. The major alternatives to fission - geothermal, fusion, fossil, and the various forms of solar energy - are discussed briefly

  18. Fixed telephony evolution at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The heart of CERN’s telephony infrastructure consists of the Alcatel IP-PBX that links CERN’s fixed line phones, Lync softphones and CERN’s GSM subscribers to low-cost local and international telephony services. The PABX infrastructure also supports the emergency “red telephones” in the LHC tunnel and provides vital services for the Fire and Rescue Service and the CERN Control Centre. Although still reliable, the Alcatel hardware is increasingly costly to maintain and looking increasingly outmoded in a market where open source solutions are increasingly dominant. After presenting an overview of the Alcatel PABX and the services it provides, including innovative solutions such as the Closed User Group for our mobile telephony services, we present a possible architecture for a software based system designed to meet tomorrow’s communication needs and describe how the introduction of open-source call routers based on the SIP protocol and Session Border Controllers (SBC) could foster the introduction...

  19. cuLGT: Lattice Gauge Fixing on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    We adopt CUDA-capable Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) for Landau, Coulomb and maximally Abelian gauge fixing in 3+1 dimensional SU(3) and SU(2) lattice gauge field theories. A combination of simulated annealing and overrelaxation is used to aim for the global maximum of the gauge functional. We use a fine grained degree of parallelism to achieve the maximum performance: instead of the common 1 thread per site strategy we use 4 or 8 threads per lattice site. Here, we report on an improved version of our publicly available code (www.cuLGT.com and github.com/culgt) which again increases performance and is much easier to include in existing code. On the GeForce GTX 580 we achieve up to 470 GFlops (utilizing 80% of the theoretical peak bandwidth) for the Landau overrelaxation code.

  20. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinto Eguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  1. Analogies between a Meniscus and a Cantilever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Systematic and quantitative analyses of exact analogies between a meniscus and an elastica are performed. It is shown that the two governing equations take the same style after coordinate translation and scale transformation. The morphologies of the liquid bridge and the cantilever are calculated in terms of elliptic integrations, which can be reduced to the same shape,after converting the boundary conditions. The present analyses can make us grasp the nature of this physical phenomenon deeply and show some inspiration for designing the analogy experiments. Moreover, the calculated results are helpful to engineering applications, such as design and fabrication of MEMS, and micro-manipulations in micro/nano- technology.

  2. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  3. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  4. An Optical Analog of a Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Royston, A; Royston, Andrew; Gass, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Using media with extremely low group velocities one can create an optical analog of a curved space-time. Leonhardt and Piwnicki have proposed that a vortex flow will act as an optical black hole. We show that although the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow has an orbit of no return and an infinite red-shift surface, it is not a true black hole since it lacks a null hypersurface. However a radial flow will produce a true optical black hole that has a Hawking temperature and obeys the first law of black hole mechanics. By combining the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow with a radial flow we obtain the analog of the Kerr black hole.

  5. Landauer bound for analog computing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy. PMID:27575108

  6. Landauer bound for analog computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  7. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  8. Analog circuit design for communication SOC

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Steve Hung-Lung

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides several state-of-the-art analog circuit design techniques. It presents both empirical and theoretical materials for system-on-a-chip (SOC) circuit design. Fundamental communication concepts are used to explain a variety of topics including data conversion (ADC, DAC, S-? oversampling data converters), clock data recovery, phase-locked loops for system timing synthesis, supply voltage regulation, power amplifier design, and mixer design. This is an excellent reference book for both circuit designers and researchers who are interested in the field of design of analog communic

  9. Fixed Simplex Property for Retractable Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapart Anna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retractable complexes are defined in this paper. It is proved that they have the fixed simplex property for simplicial maps. This implies the theorem of Wallace and the theorem of Rival and Nowakowski for finite trees: every simplicial map transforming vertices of a tree into itself has a fixed vertex or a fixed edge. This also implies the Hell and Nešetřil theorem: any endomorphism of a dismantlable graph fixes some clique. Properties of recursively contractible complexes are examined.

  10. Fixed-film processes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended and fixed biomass bioreactors have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These process no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients and suspended solid. Also, processes may work at high rates making it possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film process include trickling filter, moving bed reactors fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical base governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined with some simple examples of calculations underlining the main differences with conventional activated sludge processes

  11. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  12. High-speed and high-resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are important building blocks connecting the analog world of transducers with the digital world of computing, signal processing and data acquisition systems. In chapter two the converter as part of a system is described. Requirements of analog filte

  13. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  14. The Maximum Likelihood Threshold of a Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elizabeth; Sullivant, Seth

    2014-01-01

    The maximum likelihood threshold of a graph is the smallest number of data points that guarantees that maximum likelihood estimates exist almost surely in the Gaussian graphical model associated to the graph. We show that this graph parameter is connected to the theory of combinatorial rigidity. In particular, if the edge set of a graph $G$ is an independent set in the $n-1$-dimensional generic rigidity matroid, then the maximum likelihood threshold of $G$ is less than or equal to $n$. This c...

  15. Future evolution in a backreaction model and the analogous scalar field cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Amna

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the future evolution of the universe using the Buchert framework for averaged backreaction in the context of a two-domain partition of the universe. We show that this approach allows for the possibility of the global acceleration vanishing at a finite future time, provided that none of the subdomains accelerate individually. The model at large scales is analogously described in terms of a homogeneous scalar field emerging with a potential that is fixed and free from phenomenological parametrization. The dynamics of this scalar field is explored in the analogous FLRW cosmology. We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, and Cosmic Microwave Background to constrain the parameters of the model for a viable cosmology, providing the corresponding likelihood contours.

  16. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  17. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  18. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  19. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  20. C4913 ANALOGE OG DIGITALE FILTRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Theese lecture notes treats the fundamental theory and the most commonly used design methods for passive- active and digital filters with special emphasis on microelectronic realizations. The lecture notes covers 75% of the material taught in the course C4913 Analog and Digital Filters...

  1. CMOS circuits for analog signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Design choices in CMOS analog signal processing circuits are presented. Special attention is focussed on continuous-time filter technologies. The basics of MOSFET-C continuous-time filters and CMOS Square Law Circuits are explained at the hand of a graphical MOST characteristics representation.

  2. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  3. A high-speed analog neural processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, Peter; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1994-01-01

    Targeted at high-energy physics research applications, our special-purpose analog neural processor can classify up to 70 dimensional vectors within 50 nanoseconds. The decision-making process of the implemented feedforward neural network enables this type of computation to tolerate weight discretiza

  4. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  5. Generating Analog IC Layouts with LAYGEN II

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo M F; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for the automatic generation of analog integrated circuits (ICs) layout, based on template descriptions and on evolutionary computational techniques. A design automation tool, LAYGEN II, was implemented to validate the proposed approach giving special emphasis to reusability of expert design knowledge and to efficiency on retargeting operations.

  6. Analog Optical Computing Primitives in Silicon Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yunshan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  7. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  8. A Mechanical Analogy for Ohm's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Couto Tavares, Milton; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A mechanical analogy between the microscopic motion of a charged carrier in an ordinary resistor and the macroscopic motion of a ball falling along a slanted board covered with a lattice of nails is introduced. The Drude model is also introduced to include the case of inelastic collisions. Computer simulation of the motion is described. (KR)

  9. Classical Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Alzar, C L G; Nussenzveig, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a classical analog for Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). In a system of just two coupled harmonic oscillators subject to a harmonic driving force we can reproduce the phenomenology observed in EIT. We describe a simple experiment performed with two linearly coupled RLC circuits which can be taught in an undergraduate laboratory class.

  10. Analogy between thermal convective and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdmanis, Ya.Ya.; Kukainis, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    An examination is made of the analogy between thermo-convective instability and instability produced by various electromagnetic forces both in steady and alternating thermal and electromagnetic fields. An example is given for calculating an assumed bubble instability which could occur in an alternating magnetic field. 17 references.

  11. Plasma analog of particle-pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the plasma axial shear flow instability satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation. The plasma instability is then shown to be analogous to spontaneous particle-pair production when a potential energy is present that is greater than twice the particle rest mass energy. Stability criteria can be inferred based on field theoretical conservation laws. (UK)

  12. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  13. A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2014-04-01

    We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio between the internal consequence and the interaction with others. We have found a critical value for the level of internal consequence, below which the personal beliefs of the agents seem to be irrelevant.

  14. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shahatha Salim, Jassim Mohammed Najim, Salih Mohammed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of photovoltaic (PV module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  15. Fixed Point Curve for Weakly Inward Contractions and Approximate Fixed Point Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Riyas; K. T. Ravindran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the concept of fixed point curve for linear interpo-lations of weakly inward contractions and establish necessary condition for a nonex-pansive mapping to have approximate fixed point property.

  16. Competition for phosphorus between the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena and Aphanizomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeNobel, WT; Snoep, JL; Mur, LR

    1997-01-01

    The influence of Na fixation on the P-limited growth of two strains of Anabaena and Aphanizomenon was investigated using continuous cultures. Under N-2-fixing conditions Anabaena had a higher maximum growth rate, a greater affinity for P, a higher yield on P and a higher N-2 fixation activity than A

  17. 13 CFR 120.213 - What fixed interest rates may a Lender charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Lender charge? 120.213 Section 120.213 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... have a reasonable fixed interest rate. SBA periodically publishes the maximum allowable rate in the... government determines the interest rate on direct loans. SBA publishes the rate periodically in the...

  18. Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mazaheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.

  19. Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio;

    2013-01-01

    We establish in perturbation theory the existence of fixed points along the renormalization group flow for QCD with an adjoint Weyl fermion and scalar matter reminiscent of magnetic duals of QCD [1-3]. We classify the fixed points by analyzing their basin of attraction. We discover that among...

  20. Product fixed points in ordered metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Turinici, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    All product fixed point results in ordered metric spaces based on linear contractive conditions are but a vectorial form of the fixed point statement due to Nieto and Rodriguez-Lopez [Order, 22 (2005), 223-239], under the lines in Matkowski [Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. (Ser. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys.), 21 (1973), 323-324].

  1. Approximate fixed point of Reich operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we study the existence of approximate fixed pointfor Reich operator together with the property that the ε-fixed points are concentrated in a set with the diameter tends to zero if ε $to$ > 0.

  2. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  3. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Random fixed point theorems on product spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ismat Beg; Naseer Shahzad

    1993-01-01

    The existence of random fixed point of a locally contractive random operator in first variable on product spaces is proved. The concept “continuous random height-selection” is discussed. Some random fixed point theorems for nonexpansive self and nonself maps are also obtained in product spaces.

  5. VAT and Fixed Establishment : Mysteries Solved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schippers (Martijn); Boender, J.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Sixth Value Added Tax (VAT) Directive introduced the concept of the fixed establishment in VAT. For a long time, the criteria for classifying activities as a fixed establishment seemed relatively clear. However the introduction in 2011 of the VAT Implementing Regulation3 (hereina

  6. Conformal Fixed Points of Unidentified Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, A M

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss gauge/strings correspondence based on the non-critical strings. With this goal we present several remarkable sigma models with the AdS target spaces. The models have kappa symmetry and are completely integrable. The radius of the AdS space is fixed and thus they describe isolated fixed points of gauge theories in various dimensions

  7. Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F

    2001-01-01

    The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.

  8. In silico designing of hyper-glycosylated analogs for the human coagulation factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fahimeh; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Khorramizadeh, M Reza

    2016-07-01

    N-glycosylation is a process during which a glycan moiety attaches to the asparagine residue in the N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Xxx-Ser/Thr), where Xxx can be any amino acid except proline. Introduction of a new N-glycosylation site into a protein backbone leads to its hyper-glycosylation, and may improve the protein properties such as solubility, folding, stability, and secretion. Glyco-engineering is an approach to facilitate the hyper-glycosylation of recombinant proteins by application of the site-directed mutagenesis methods. In this regard, selection of a suitable location on the surface of a protein for introduction of a new N-glycosylation site is a main concern. In this work, a computational approach was conducted to select suitable location(s) for introducing new N-glycosylation sites into the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX). With this aim, the first 45 residues of mature hFIX were explored to find out suitable positions for introducing either Asn or Ser/Thr residues, to create new N-glycosylation site(s). Our exploration lead to detection of five potential positions, for hyper-glycosylation. For each suggested position, an analog was defined and subjected for N-glycosylation efficiency prediction. After generation of three-dimensional structures, by homology-based modeling, the five designed analogs were examined by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, to predict their stability levels and probable structural distortions caused by amino acid substitutions, relative to the native counterpart. Three out of five suggested analogs, namely; E15T, K22N, and R37N, reached equilibration state with relatively constant Root Mean Square Deviation values. Additional analysis on the data obtained during MD simulations, lead us to conclude that, R37N is the only qualified analog with the most similar structure and dynamic behavior to that of the native counterpart, to be considered for further experimental investigations. PMID:27356208

  9. The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description

    CERN Document Server

    Belashev, B Z

    2002-01-01

    The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered

  10. Probalistic logic programming under maximum entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the combination of probabilistic logic programming with the principle of maximum entropy. We start by defining probabilistic queries to probabilistic logic programs and their answer substitutions under maximum entropy. We then present an efficient linear programming characterization for the problem of deciding whether a probabilistic logic program is satisfiable. Finally, and as a main result of this paper, we introduce an efficient technique for approximative p...

  11. Remarks on the maximum correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Dembo, Amir; Kagan, Abram; Shepp, Lawrence A.

    2001-01-01

    The maximum correlation coefficient between partial sums of independent and identically distributed random variables with finite second moment equals the classical (Pearson) correlation coefficient between the sums, and thus does not depend on the distribution of the random variables. This result is proved, and relations between the linearity of regression of each of two random variables on the other and the maximum correlation coefficient are discussed.

  12. MAXIMUM GENUS, INDEPENDENCE NUMBER AND GIRTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is known (for example see [2]) that the maximum genus of a graph is mainly determined by the Betti deficiency of the graph. In this paper, the authors establish an upper bound on the Betti deficiency in terms of the independence number as well as the girth of a graph, and thus use the formulation in [2] to translate this result to lower bound on the maximum genus.Meantime it is shown that both of the bounds are best possible.

  13. Which quantile is the most informative? Maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and quantile regression

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, A. K.; Galvao Jr, A. F.; Montes-Rojas, G.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the connections among quantile regression, the asymmetric Laplace distribution, maximum likelihood and maximum entropy. We show that the maximum likelihood problem is equivalent to the solution of a maximum entropy problem where we impose moment constraints given by the joint consideration of the mean and median. Using the resulting score functions we propose an estimator based on the joint estimating equations. This approach delivers estimates for the slope parameters toge...

  14. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  15. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Soil Analogs: The Effect of Ionic Charge and Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Rouleau, C. M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Hijazi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we report sput-tering measurements of anorthite, an analog material representative of the lunar highlands, by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the heavier solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, and had a fixed solar-wind-relevant impact velocity of approximately 310 km/s or 500 eV/ amu. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction.

  16. Embedded calibration system for the DIII-D Langmuir probe analog fiber optic linksa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. G.; Rajpal, R.; Mandaliya, H.; Watkins, M.; Boivin, R. L.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a generally applicable technique for simultaneously measuring offset and gain of 64 analog fiber optic data links used for the DIII-D fixed Langmuir probes by embedding a reference voltage waveform in the optical transmitted signal before every tokamak shot. The calibrated data channels allow calibration of the power supply control fiber optic links as well. The array of fiber optic links and the embedded calibration system described here makes possible the use of superior modern data acquisition electronics in the control room.

  17. Embedded calibration system for the DIII-D Langmuir probe analog fiber optic links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California (United States); Rajpal, R.; Mandaliya, H. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Watkins, M.; Boivin, R. L. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes a generally applicable technique for simultaneously measuring offset and gain of 64 analog fiber optic data links used for the DIII-D fixed Langmuir probes by embedding a reference voltage waveform in the optical transmitted signal before every tokamak shot. The calibrated data channels allow calibration of the power supply control fiber optic links as well. The array of fiber optic links and the embedded calibration system described here makes possible the use of superior modern data acquisition electronics in the control room.

  18. Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generators with Peak Gain Control of Boost DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyong; Kim, Shiho

    2012-06-01

    An analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed. We show that the peak point of the voltage conversion gain of a boost DC-DC converter with an input voltage source having an internal resistor is the maximum power point of the TEG. The key characteristic of the proposed MPPT controller is that the duty ratio of the input clock pulse to the boost DC-DC converter shifts toward the maximum power point of the TEG by seeking the peak gain point of the boost DC-DC converters. The proposed MPPT technique provides a simple and useful analog MPPT solution, without employing digital microcontroller units.

  19. Analog of the Peter-Weyl Expansion for Lorentz Group

    CERN Document Server

    Perlov, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of a square integrable function on $SL(2,C)$ into the sum of the principal series matrix coefficients with the specially selected representation parameters was recently used in the Loop Quantum Gravity in C. Rovelli and F. Vidotto's book. In this paper we prove that the sum used originally in the Loop Quantum Gravity: $\\sum\\limits_{j=0}^{\\infty}\\sum\\limits_{|m| \\le j}\\sum\\limits_{|n| \\le j} D^{(j, \\tau j)}_{jm, jn}(g)$, where $ j, m, n \\in Z, \\tau \\in C$ is convergent to a function on $SL(2,C)$, however the limit is not a square integrable function therefore such sums can not be used for the Peter-Weyl like expansion. We propose the alternative expansion and prove that for each fixed m: $\\sum\\limits_{j=m}^{\\infty}D^{(j, \\tau j)}_{jm, jm}(g)$ is convergent and that the limit is a square integrable function on $SL(2,C)$. We then prove the analog of the Peter-Weyl expansion: any $\\psi(g) \\in L_2(SL(2,C))$ can be decomposed into the sum: $\\psi(g) = \\sum\\limits_{j=m}^\\infty j^2 (1+ \\tau^2) c_{jmm} D^...

  20. Total Stability Properties Based on Fixed Point Theory for a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust stability results for nominally linear hybrid systems are obtained from total stability theorems for purely continuous-time and discrete-time systems by using the powerful tool of fixed point theory. The class of hybrid systems dealt consists, in general, of coupled continuous-time and digital systems subject to state perturbations whose nominal (i.e., unperturbed parts are linear and, in general, time-varying. The obtained sufficient conditions on robust stability under a wide class of harmless perturbations are dependent on the values of the parameters defining the over-bounding functions of those perturbations. The weakness of the coupling dynamics in terms of norm among the analog and digital substates of the whole dynamic system guarantees the total stability provided that the corresponding uncoupled nominal subsystems are both exponentially stable. Fixed point stability theory is used for the proofs of stability. A generalization of that result is given for the case that sampling is not uniform. The boundedness of the state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the global boundedness of the solutions for all time. The existence of a fixed point for the sampled state-trajectory solution at sampling instants guarantees the existence of a fixed point of an extended auxiliary discrete system and the existence of a global asymptotic attractor of the solutions which is either a fixed point or a limit n globally stable asymptotic oscillation.

  1. Design, synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of novel carbendazim dithioate analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahran, Magdy A H; Osman, Amany M A; Wahed, Rania A.;

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of carbendazim dithioate analogs was synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminobenzimdazole with CS2 and different alkyl halide in one pot reaction. All the chemical structure of carbendazim analogs were elucidated with all the spectroscopical tools IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass...... against soil dehydrogenase activity. Among the carbendazim dithioates, some analogs were the most effective analogs against all the Gram-negative and positive-bacteria. While the most of them showed slight activities against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. One of these analogs seemed to be more...... suppressive for dehydrogenase activity of soil microorganisms compared to all carbendazim sulfur analogs....

  2. Stimulus properties of fixed-interval responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, I B; Zeiler, M D

    1975-11-01

    Responses in the first component of a chained schedule produced a change to the terminal component according to a fixed-interval schedule. The number of responses emitted in the fixed interval determined whether a variable-interval schedule of food presentation or extinction prevailed in the terminal component. In one condition, the variable-interval schedule was in effect only if the number of responses during the fixed interval was less than that specified; in another condition, the number of responses had to exceed that specified. The number of responses emitted in the fixed interval did not shift markedly in the direction required for food presentation. Instead, responding often tended to change in the opposite direction. Such an effect indicated that differential food presentation did not modify the reference behavior in accord with the requirement, but it was consistent with other data on fixed-interval schedule performance. Behavior in the terminal component, however, did reveal sensitivity to the relation between total responses emitted in the fixed interval and the availability of food. Response rate in the terminal component was a function of the proximity of the response number emitted in the fixed interval to that required for food presentation. Thus, response number served as a discriminative stimulus controlling subsequent performance.

  3. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms in hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: will nitrogen reductions cause replacement of non-N2 fixing by N2 fixing taxa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Paerl

    Full Text Available Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L, in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp., but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible.

  4. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  5. Fixed points and fusion rings. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Beltaos, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    In the first of this two-part series, we find `fixed point factorisation' formulas, towards an understanding of the fusion ring of WZW models. Fixed-point factorisation refers to the simplifications in the data of a CFT involving primary fields fixed by simple-currents. Until now, it has been worked out only for SU(n), where it has developed into a powerful tool for understanding the fusion rings of WZW models of CFT -- e.g. it has lead to closed formulas for NIM-reps and D-brane charges and ...

  6. [FIXED COMBINATION ATORVASTATIN-EZETIMIBE (ATOZET®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular prevention in subjects at high or very high risk requires a drastic reduction in LDL cholesterol according to the concept "the lower, the better". The combination of an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis and a selective inhibitor of intestinal absorption results in a complementary and synergistic LDL-lowering activity. Besides a first fixed combination ezetimibe-simvastatin (Inegy®), a new fixed combination is presented, Atozet® that combines atorvastatin and ezetimibe. Because atorvastatin is more potent than simvastatin, this novel fixed combination should facilitate reaching therapeutic goals in terms of LDL cholesterol amongst patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia and/or at high or very high cardiovascular risk.

  7. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  8. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  9. A new program on digitizing analog seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maofa; Jiang, Qigang; Liu, Qingjie; Huang, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Historical seismograms contain a great variety of useful information which can be used in the study of earthquakes. It is necessary for researchers to digitize analog records and extract the information just as modern computing analysis requires. Firstly, an algorithm based on color scene filed method is presented in order to digitize analog seismograms. Secondly, an interactive software program using C# has been developed to digitize seismogram traces from raster files quickly and accurately. The program can deal with gray-scale images stored in a suitable file format and it offers two different methods: manual digitization and automatic digitization. The test result of the program shows that the methods presented in this paper can lead to good performance.

  10. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  11. An analogy strategy for transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce an analogy strategy to design transformation optical devices. Based on the similarities between field lines in different physical systems, the trajectories of light can be intuitively determined to curve in a gentle manner, and the resulting materials are isotropic and nonmagnetic. Furthermore, the physical meaning of the analogue problems plays a key role in the removal of dielectric singularities. We illustrate this approach by creating two designs of carpet cloak and a collimating lens as representative examples in two- and three-dimensional spaces, respectively. The analogy strategy not only reveals the intimate connections between different physical disciplines, such as optics, fluid mechanics and electrostatics, but also provides a heuristic pathway to designing advanced photonic systems

  12. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  13. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible.

  14. ON THE FREQUENCY OF JUPITER ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Anglo-Australian Planet Search has now accumulated 12 years of radial-velocity data with long-term instrumental precision better than 3 m s-1. In this paper, we expand on earlier simulation work, to probe the frequency of near-circular, long-period gas-giant planets residing at orbital distances of 3-6 AU-the so-called Jupiter analogs. We present the first comprehensive analysis of the frequency of these objects based on radial-velocity data. We find that 3.3% of stars in our sample host Jupiter analogs; detailed, star-by-star simulations show that no more than 37% of stars host a giant planet between 3 and 6 AU.

  15. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Desmethyl Azumamide Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex

    the azumamide analogs; however, removal of the methyl group had a significant impact relative to the natural products. To understand this effect, the NMR structure was solved with the assistance from Casper Hoeck and Charlotte H. Gotfredsen and docked conformations were obtained from Niels J. Christensen...... and Peter Fristrup. Compared to the natural compounds, the 3Dstructure of the scaffold in the azumamide analogs were similar. Although a conclusion was not found, the preliminary docking results indicated favorable lipophilic interaction with the methyl group in the azumamides. Largazole is another...... macrocylic natural product with HDAC inhibitory activity. The compound has a thioester functionality in the side chain, which is hydrolyzed before interaction with the enzymes. In the attempt to mimic the prodrug nature of largazole, compounds containing a thiol group were designed, as it was hypothesized...

  17. The Theory of Reich's Fixed Point Theorem for Multivalued Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moţ Ghiocel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a theory of Reich's fixed point theorem for multivalued operators in terms of fixed points, strict fixed points, multivalued weakly Picard operators, multivalued Picard operators, data dependence of the fixed point set, sequence of multivalued operators and fixed points, Ulam-Hyers stability of a multivalued fixed point equation, well-posedness of the fixed point problem, and the generated fractal operator.

  18. Analog controllers using digital stochastic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Quero Reboul, José Manuel; S. L. Toral; García Ortega, Juan de la Cruz; García Franquelo, Leopoldo

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic logic is based on digital processing of a random pulse stream, where the information is codified as the probability of a high level in a finite sequence. The probability of the pulse stream codifies a continuous time variable. Subsequently, this pulse stream can be digitally processed to perform analog operations. In this paper we propose a stochastic approach to the digital implementation of complex controllers. This is approach allows for the realization of the controllers, and A...

  19. Priming Analogical Reasoning with False Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Garner, S. R.; Threadgold, E.; Ball, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false mem...

  20. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Ke; Arlin G. Cameron; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA) analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR) dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occur...

  1. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T S; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Optical computing accelerators help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation and the recovery of a signal in the presence of multiplicative distortion. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide. PMID:26977687

  2. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  3. An introduction to analog and digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Haykin, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of this accessible book provides readers with an introductory treatment of communication theory as applied to the transmission of information-bearing signals. While it covers analog communications, the emphasis is placed on digital technology. It begins by presenting the functional blocks that constitute the transmitter and receiver of a communication system. Readers will next learn about electrical noise and then progress to multiplexing and multiple access techniques.

  4. Electrical Analogy to an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kucera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several applications of the atomic force microscopy (AFM, such as measurement of soft samples, manipulation with molecules, etc., require mechanical analysis of the AFM probe behavior. In this article we suggest the electrical circuit analogy to AFM cantilever tip motion. Well developed circuit theories in connection with fairly accessible software for circuit analysis make this alternative method easy to use for a wide community of AFM users.

  5. Survey of Evaluated Isobaric Analog States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCormick, M., E-mail: maccorm@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay CEDEX (France); Audi, G. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2014-06-15

    Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Paclitaxel Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Baloglu, Erkan

    2001-01-01

    The complex natural product paclitaxel (Taxol®), first isolated from Taxus brevifolia, is a member of a large family of taxane diterpenoids. Paclitaxel is extensively used for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly those of the breasts and ovaries. In order to obtain additional information about the mechanism of action of paclitaxel and the environment of the paclitaxel-binding site, several fluorescent analogs of paclitaxel were synthesized, and thei...

  7. The exoplanets analogy to the Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a Mutiverse is controversial, although it is a natural possible solution to particle physics and cosmological fine-tuning problems (FTPs). Here I explore the analogy between the Multiverse proposal and the proposal that there exist an infinite number of stellar systems with planets in a flat Universe, the Multiplanetverse. Although the measure problem is present in this scenario, the idea of a Multiplanetverse has predictive power, even in the absence of direct evidence for exopla...

  8. Maximum-Bandwidth Node-Disjoint Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H. Dahshan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for finding the node-disjoint paths with maximum combined bandwidth in communication networks. This problem is an NP-complete problem which can be optimally solved in exponential time using integer linear programming (ILP. The presented method uses a maximum-cost variant of Dijkstra algorithm and a virtual-node representation to obtain the maximum-bandwidth node-disjoint path. Through several simulations, we compare the performance of our method to a modern heuristic technique and to the ILP solution. We show that, in a polynomial execution time, our proposed method produces results that are almost identical to ILP in a significantly lower execution time

  9. Backtracking quantum trajectories with analog feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange*, G.; Ristè*, D.; Tiggelman, M. J.; Eichler, C.; Tornberg, L.; Johansson, G.; Wallraff, A.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, L.

    2014-03-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics offers a nearly ideal platform for the fundamental study of continuous quantum measurement. A nondemolition measurement of a superconducting qubit can be performed via homodyne detection of microwave transmission through a dispersively coupled cavity. By boosting the homodyne signal with a nearly noiseless phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, we experimentally show that a form of measurement backaction, consisting of stochastic quantum phase kicks on the measured qubit, is highly correlated with the fluctuations in the continuous homodyne record. We demonstrate a real-time analog feedback scheme that counteracts these phase kicks and thereby reduces measurement-induced dephasing. We develop a numerical optimization technique to overcome the bandwidth limitations of the amplification chain and provide a theoretical model for the optimization result. A quantum efficiency of 50% is extracted for the complete analog feedback loop. Finally, we discuss the integration of this analog feedback technique to improve performance in our recent demonstration of entanglement by dispersive parity measurement. *equal contribution. Research funded by NWO and the EU projects SOLID and SCALEQIT.

  10. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (∂px/∂x)T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)

  11. ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING SOLUTION FOR IMAGE ALIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Athreyas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and Image sensors is a field that is continuously evolving. There are new products coming into the market every day. Some of these have very severe Size, Weight and Power constraints whereas other devices have to handle very high computational loads. Some require both these conditions to be met simultaneously. Current imaging architectures and digital image processing solutions will not be able to meet these ever increasing demands. There is a need to develop novel imaging architectures and image processing solutions to address these requirements. In this work we propose analog signal processing as a solution to this problem. The analog processor is not suggested as a replacement to a digital processor but it will be used as an augmentation device which works in parallel with the digital processor, making the system faster and more efficient. In order to show the merits of analog processing the highly computational Normalized Cross Correlation algorithm is implemented. We propose two novel modifications to the algorithm and a new imaging architecture which, significantly reduces the computation time.

  12. Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs: Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different somatostatin analogs labeled with iodine-123 or indium-111 are currently used for the scintigraphic in vivo detection of somatostatin receptor expression by neuroendocrine tumors. The general features of the biodistribution of iodine-123-Tyr3-octreotide are the rapid clearance from the circulation and the predominantly hepatobiliary excretion. This pathway of excretion leads to a considerable amount of activity in the bowels and thus may compromise the diagnostic reliability of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in gastroentereopancreatic tumors. In contrast, up to 85% of the applied dose of indium-111 labeled pentreotide is cleared from the circulation via the kidneys. High receptor density and affinity as well as the small molecular size of the labeled somatostatin analogs are most likely responsible for the observed rapid tumor visualization within a few hours after intravenous application of the radiopharmaceuticals. Continuous treatment with somatostatin analogs changes the biodistribution of indium-111 pentetreotide, but the diagnostic reliability of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is not necessarily compromised under these therapeutic conditions. (orig./MG)

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.;

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used or...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. Maximum Entropy Learning with Deep Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the maximum likelihood (ML criterion is applied to train a deep belief network (DBN. We present a maximum entropy (ME learning algorithm for DBNs, designed specifically to handle limited training data. Maximizing only the entropy of parameters in the DBN allows more effective generalization capability, less bias towards data distributions, and robustness to over-fitting compared to ML learning. Results of text classification and object recognition tasks demonstrate ME-trained DBN outperforms ML-trained DBN when training data is limited.

  15. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  16. Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.

  17. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  18. Simple predictions of maximum transport rate in unsaturated soil and rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2007-05-01

    In contrast with the extreme variability expected for water and contaminant fluxes in the unsaturated zone, evidence from 64 field tests of preferential flow indicates that the maximum transport speed Vmax, adjusted for episodicity of infiltration, deviates little from a geometric mean of 13 m/d. A model based on constant-speed travel during infiltration pulses of actual or estimated duration can predict Vmax with approximate order-of-magnitude accuracy, irrespective of medium or travel distance, thereby facilitating such problems as the prediction of worst-case contaminant traveltimes. The lesser variability suggests that preferential flow is subject to rate-limiting mechanisms analogous to those that impose a terminal velocity on objects in free fall and to rate-compensating mechanisms analogous to Le Chatlier's principle. A critical feature allowing such mechanisms to dominate may be the presence of interfacial boundaries confined by neither solid material nor capillary forces.

  19. Realization of Minimum and Maximum Gate Function in Ta2O5-based Memristive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Nielen, Lutz; Roesgen, Bernd; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas; Linn, Eike

    2016-04-01

    Redox-based resistive switching devices (ReRAM) are considered key enablers for future non-volatile memory and logic applications. Functionally enhanced ReRAM devices could enable new hardware concepts, e.g. logic-in-memory or neuromorphic applications. In this work, we demonstrate the implementation of ReRAM-based fuzzy logic gates using Ta2O5 devices to enable analogous Minimum and Maximum operations. The realized gates consist of two anti-serially connected ReRAM cells offering two inputs and one output. The cells offer an endurance up to 106 cycles. By means of exemplary input signals, each gate functionality is verified and signal constraints are highlighted. This realization could improve the efficiency of analogous processing tasks such as sorting networks in the future.

  20. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  1. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Homer F. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  2. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  3. Fixed-film processes. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These processes no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients suspended solids. Also, processes may work at high rates making is possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film processes include trickling filters (and combined suspended and fixed-films processes), rotating biological contactors, biological aerated submerged, filters moving bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical based governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined, with some simple examples of calculations, underlining the main differences with conventional activate sludge processes. In the second part, the most common types of reactors are reviewed

  4. Topological fixed point theory of multivalued mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Górniewicz, Lech

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers an...

  5. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  6. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  7. THE Economics of Match-Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Raul

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of match-fixing does constitute a constant element of sport contests. This paper presents a simple formal model in order to explain it. The intuition behind is that an asymmetry in the evaluation of the stake is the key factor leading to match-fixing. In sum, this paper considers a partial equilibrium model of contest where two asymmetric, rational and risk-neutral opponents evaluate differently a contested stake. Differently from common contest models, agents have the option ...

  8. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  9. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  10. Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e

  11. Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.

  12. Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v

  13. Maximum likelihood estimation of search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga González, José; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper Hong and Shum [2006. Using price distributions to estimate search costs. Rand Journal of Economics 37, 257-275] present a structural method to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a new maximum likelihood method to estima

  14. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p

  15. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...

  16. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.;

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  17. Results of the maximum genus of graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we provide a new class of up-embeddable graphs,and obtain a tight lower bound on the maximum genus of a class of 2-connected pseudographs of diameter 2 and of a class of diameter 4 multi-graphs.This extends a result of (S)koviera.

  18. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the...

  19. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  20. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  1. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  2. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-01

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself.

  4. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit...

  5. Determining the Tsallis parameter via maximum entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J M; Miller, H G

    2015-05-01

    The nonextensive entropic measure proposed by Tsallis [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)] introduces a parameter, q, which is not defined but rather must be determined. The value of q is typically determined from a piece of data and then fixed over the range of interest. On the other hand, from a phenomenological viewpoint, there are instances in which q cannot be treated as a constant. We present two distinct approaches for determining q depending on the form of the equations of constraint for the particular system. In the first case the equations of constraint for the operator Ô can be written as Tr(F(q)Ô)=C, where C may be an explicit function of the distribution function F. We show that in this case one can solve an equivalent maxent problem which yields q as a function of the corresponding Lagrange multiplier. As an illustration the exact solution of the static generalized Fokker-Planck equation (GFPE) is obtained from maxent with the Tsallis enropy. As in the case where C is a constant, if q is treated as a variable within the maxent framework the entropic measure is maximized trivially for all values of q. Therefore q must be determined from existing data. In the second case an additional equation of constraint exists which cannot be brought into the above form. In this case the additional equation of constraint may be used to determine the fixed value of q. PMID:26066124

  6. The effect of natural selection on the performance of maximum parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofria Charles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used and extensively studied phylogeny reconstruction methods. While current evaluation methodologies such as computer simulations provide insight into how well maximum parsimony reconstructs phylogenies, they tell us little about how well maximum parsimony performs on taxa drawn from populations of organisms that evolved subject to natural selection in addition to the random factors of drift and mutation. It is clear that natural selection has a significant impact on Among Site Rate Variation (ASRV and the rate of accepted substitutions; that is, accepted mutations do not occur with uniform probability along the genome and some substitutions are more likely to occur than other substitutions. However, little is know about how ASRV and non-uniform character substitutions impact the performance of reconstruction methods such as maximum parsimony. To gain insight into these issues, we study how well maximum parsimony performs with data generated by Avida, a digital life platform where populations of digital organisms evolve subject to natural selective pressures. Results We first identify conditions where natural selection does affect maximum parsimony's reconstruction accuracy. In general, as we increase the probability that a significant adaptation will occur in an intermediate ancestor, the performance of maximum parsimony improves. In fact, maximum parsimony can correctly reconstruct small 4 taxa trees on data that have received surprisingly many mutations if the intermediate ancestor has received a significant adaptation. We demonstrate that this improved performance of maximum parsimony is attributable more to ASRV than to non-uniform character substitutions. Conclusion Maximum parsimony, as well as most other phylogeny reconstruction methods, may perform significantly better on actual biological data than is currently suggested by computer simulation studies because of natural

  7. SSERVI Analog Regolith Simulant Testbed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Joseph; Schmidt, Gregory; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) at NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley was founded in 2013 to act as a virtual institute that provides interdisciplinary research centered on the goals of its supporting directorates: NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and the Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).Primary research goals of the Institute revolve around the integration of science and exploration to gain knowledge required for the future of human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI intends to leverage existing JSC1A regolith simulant resources into the creation of a regolith simulant testbed facility. The purpose of this testbed concept is to provide the planetary exploration community with a readily available capability to test hardware and conduct research in a large simulant environment.SSERVI's goals include supporting planetary researchers within NASA, other government agencies; private sector and hardware developers; competitors in focused prize design competitions; and academic sector researchers.SSERVI provides opportunities for research scientists and engineers to study the effects of regolith analog testbed research in the planetary exploration field. This capability is essential to help to understand the basic effects of continued long-term exposure to a simulated analog test environment.The current facility houses approximately eight tons of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant in a test bin consisting of a 4 meter by 4 meter area, including dust mitigation and safety oversight.Facility hardware and environment testing scenarios could include, Lunar surface mobility, Dust exposure and mitigation, Regolith handling and excavation, Solar-like illumination, Lunar surface compaction profile, Lofted dust, Mechanical properties of lunar regolith, Surface features (i.e. grades and rocks)Numerous benefits vary from easy access to a controlled analog regolith simulant testbed, and

  8. Novel Gemini vitamin D3 analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Ryoko; Gery, Sigal; Kuwayama, Yoshio;

    2014-01-01

    anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose......-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, BXL-01-126, in vitro. A xenograft model of AML was developed using U937 AML cells injected into NSG-immunodeficient mice. Administration of vitamin D3 compounds to these mice resulted in substantial levels of CAMP...

  9. Integrated Analogic Filter Tuning System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of integrated analog filters can vary due to temperatu-re change, IC process variation and therefore they should have dedicated tuning circuits that compensate these imperfections. A method is proposed that speeds up switched resistor bank design while taking into account the required tuning range and step size. A novel counter structure is used in the tuning circuit that is ba-sed on successive approximation approach. The proposed swit-ched resistor design method and tuning circuit are designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology and verified. Results are compared to existing tuning circuit designs.

  10. Analogic China map constructed by DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Lulu; HE Lin; WANG Ying; ZHANG Zhao; ZHAO Jian; PAN Dun; ZHANG Yi; LIU Qiang; FAN Chunhai; HU Jun

    2006-01-01

    In this research, a nanoscale DNA structure of analogic China map is created. The nanostructure of roughly 150 nm in diameter with a spatial resolution of 6 nm is purely constructed by folding DNA. The picture observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is almost identical with the designed shape. The DNA origami technology invented by Rothemund in 2006 is employed in the construction of this shape, which has proved the capability of constructing almost any complicated shape enabled by DNA origami, and provides new bottom-up method for constructing nanostructures.

  11. High fluid intelligence and analogical reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Preusse, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Hitherto, previous studies on the cerebral correlates of fluid intelligence (fluIQ) used tasks that did not exclusively demand fluIQ, or were restricted to participants of average fluIQ (ave-fluIQ) solving intelligence test items of varying difficulty, thus not allowing assumptions on interindividual differences in fluIQ. Geometric analogical reasoning (GAR) demands fluIQ very purely and thus is an eligible approach for research on interindividual differences in fluIQ. In a first study, we ...

  12. Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; V Fernández, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design. Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior which numerical analyzers do not provide. Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in three domains: DC, AC and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols. Due to the fact that these expressions remain va

  13. Microstore: the Stanford analog memory unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.T.; Chae, S.I.; Shapiro, S.; Larsen, R.S.

    1984-11-01

    An NMOS device has been developed which provides high speed analog signal storage and readout for time expansion of transient signals. This device takes advantage of HMOS-1 VLSI technology to implement an array of 256 storage cells. Sequential samples of an input waveform can be taken every 5 ns while providing an effective sampling aperture time of less than 1 ns. The design signal-to-noise ratio is 1 part in 2000. Digital control circuitry is provided on the chip for controlling the read-in and read-out processes. A reference circuit is incorporated in the chip for first order compensation of leakage drifts, sampling pedestals, and temperature effects.

  14. An optical analog of quantum optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Lara, B M

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional array of nearest-neighbor coupled waveguides that is the optical analog of a quantum optomechanical system. We show that the quantum model predicts the appearance of effective column isolation, diagonal-coupling and other non-trivial couplings in the two-dimensional photonic lattice under a standard approximation from ion-trap cavity electrodynamics. We provide an approximate impulse function for the case of effective column isolation and compare it with exact numerical propagation in the photonic lattice.

  15. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  16. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  17. Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Luo

    2013-01-01

    item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.

  18. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  19. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  20. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  1. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendse, M T; Ligtvoet, R; Timmerman, M E; Oort, F J

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log-likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two-way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  2. Shrinkage Effect in Ancestral Maximum Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan; Steel, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) is a method that simultaneously reconstructs a phylogenetic tree and ancestral sequences from extant data (sequences at the leaves). The tree and ancestral sequences maximize the probability of observing the given data under a Markov model of sequence evolution, in which branch lengths are also optimized but constrained to take the same value on any edge across all sequence sites. AML differs from the more usual form of maximum likelihood (ML) in phylogenetics because ML averages over all possible ancestral sequences. ML has long been known to be statistically consistent -- that is, it converges on the correct tree with probability approaching 1 as the sequence length grows. However, the statistical consistency of AML has not been formally determined, despite informal remarks in a literature that dates back 20 years. In this short note we prove a general result that implies that AML is statistically inconsistent. In particular we show that AML can `shrink' short edges in a t...

  3. Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...

  4. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Tak Shing; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed of dewetting. For all radii we find the maximum speed occurs at vanishing apparent contact angle. To further investigate the transition we numerically determine the bifurcation diagram for steady menisci. It is found that the meniscus profiles on thick fibers are smooth, even when there is a film deposited between the bath and the contact line, while profiles on thin fibers exhibit strong oscillations. We discuss how this could lead to different experimental scenarios of film deposition.

  5. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yiran Chen

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...

  6. Nonlocal maximum principles for active scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Active scalars appear in many problems of fluid dynamics. The most common examples of active scalar equations are 2D Euler, Burgers, and 2D surface quasi-geostrophic equations. Many questions about regularity and properties of solutions of these equations remain open. We develop the idea of nonlocal maximum principle, formulating a more general criterion and providing new applications. The most interesting application is finite time regularization of weak solutions in the supercritical regime.

  7. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun

    2016-09-01

    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  8. Dynamic Programming, Maximum Principle and Vintage Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Giorgio; Iacopetta, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the Maximum Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant exogenous rate. In the other view each piece of capital has its own finite productive life cycle (vintage capital). The interpretatio...

  9. The Maximum Principle for Replicator Equations

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sigmund

    1984-01-01

    By introducing a non-Euclidean metric on the unit simplex, it is possible to identify an interesting class of gradient systems within the ubiquitous "replicator equations" of evolutionary biomathematics. In the case of homogeneous potentials, this leads to maximum principles governing the increase of the average fitness, both in population genetics and in chemical kinetics. This research was carried out as part of the Dynamics of Macrosystems Feasibility Study in the System and Decision ...

  10. Analog of the Peter-Weyl expansion for Lorentz group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlov, Leonid

    2015-11-01

    The expansion of a square integrable function on SL(2, C) into the sum of the principal series matrix coefficients with the specially selected representation parameters was recently used in the Loop Quantum Gravity [C. Rovelli and F. Vidotto, Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity: An Elementary Introduction to Quantum Gravity and Spinfoam Theory (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014) and C. Rovelli, Classical Quantum Gravity 28(11), 114005 (2011)]. In this paper, we prove that the sum used originally in the Loop Quantum Gravity: ∑ j = 0 ∞ ∑ |m| ≤ j ∑ |n| ≤ j Dj m , j n ( j , τ j ) ( g ) , where j, m, n ∈ Z, τ ∈ C is convergent to a function on SL(2, C); however, the limit is not a square integrable function; therefore, such sums cannot be used for the Peter-Weyl like expansion. We propose the alternative expansion and prove that for each fixed m: ∑ j = m ∞ D j m , j m ( j , τ j ) ( g ) is convergent and that the limit is a square integrable function on SL(2, C). We then prove the analog of the Peter-Weyl expansion: any ψ(g) ∈ L2(SL(2, C)) can be decomposed into the sum: ψ ( g ) = ∑ j = m ∞ j 2 ( 1 + τ 2 ) c j m m D j m , j m ( j , τ j ) ( g ) , with the Fourier coefficients c j m m = ∫ S L ( 2 , C ) ψ ( g ) Dj m , j m j , τ j ( g ) ¯ d g , g ∈ SL(2, C), τ ∈ C, τ ≠ i, - i, j, m ∈ Z, m is fixed. We also prove convergence of the sums ∑ j = |p| ∞ ∑ |m| ≤ j ∑ |n| ≤ j dp m /j 2 Dj m , j n ( j , τ j ) ( g ) , where d|p| m /j 2 = ( j + 1 ) /1 2 ∫ S U ( 2 ) ϕ ( u ) D|p| m /j 2 ( u ) ¯ d u is ϕ(u)'s Fourier transform and p, j, m, n ∈ Z, τ ∈ C, u ∈ SU(2), g ∈ SL(2, C), thus establishing the map between the square integrable functions on SU(2) and the space of the functions on SL(2, C). Such maps were first used in Rovelli [Class. Quant. Grav. 28, 11 (2011)].

  11. Analogy perception applied to seven tests of word comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. In AI research, algorithms for analogy are often limited by the need for hand-coded high-level representations as input. An alternative approach is to use high-level perception, in which high-level representations are automatically generated from raw data. Analogy perception is the process of recognizing analogies using high-level perception. We present PairClass, an algorithm for analogy perception that recognizes lexical proportional analogies using representations that are automatically generated from a large corpus of raw textual data. A proportional analogy is an analogy of the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D". A lexical proportional analogy is a proportional analogy with words, such as carpenter:wood::mason:stone. PairClass represents the semantic relations between two words using a high-dimensional feature vector, in which the elements are based on frequencies of patterns in the corpus. PairClass recognizes analogies by applying s...

  12. Analogies as categorization phenomena: Studies from scientific discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie Jill

    Studies on the role of analogies in science classrooms have tended to focus on analogies that come from the teacher or curriculum, and not the analogies that students generate. Such studies are derivative of an educational system that values content knowledge over scientific creativity, and derivative of a model of teaching in which the teacher's role is to convey content knowledge. This dissertation begins with the contention that science classrooms should encourage scientific thinking and one role of the teacher is to model that behavior and identify and encourage it in her students. One element of scientific thinking is analogy. This dissertation focuses on student-generated analogies in science, and offers a model for understanding these. I provide evidence that generated analogies are assertions of categorization, and the base of an analogy is the constructed prototype of an ad hoc category. Drawing from research on categorization, I argue that generated analogies are based in schemas and cognitive models. This model allows for a clear distinction between analogy and literal similarity; prior to this research analogy has been considered to exist on a spectrum of similarity, differing from literal similarity to the degree that structural relations hold but features do not. I argue for a definition in which generated analogies are an assertion of an unexpected categorization: that is, they are asserted as contradictions to an expected schema.

  13. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  14. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  15. The computation of fixed points and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Michael J

    1976-01-01

    Fixed-point algorithms have diverse applications in economics, optimization, game theory and the numerical solution of boundary-value problems. Since Scarf's pioneering work [56,57] on obtaining approximate fixed points of continuous mappings, a great deal of research has been done in extending the applicability and improving the efficiency of fixed-point methods. Much of this work is available only in research papers, although Scarf's book [58] gives a remarkably clear exposition of the power of fixed-point methods. However, the algorithms described by Scarf have been super~eded by the more sophisticated restart and homotopy techniques of Merrill [~8,~9] and Eaves and Saigal [1~,16]. To understand the more efficient algorithms one must become familiar with the notions of triangulation and simplicial approxi- tion, whereas Scarf stresses the concept of primitive set. These notes are intended to introduce to a wider audience the most recent fixed-point methods and their applications. Our approach is therefore ...

  16. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  17. Seeking Maximum Linearity of Transfer Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Filipi N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2016-01-01

    Linearity is an important and frequently sought property in electronics and instrumentation. Here, we report a method capable of, given a transfer function, identifying the respective most linear region of operation with a fixed width. This methodology, which is based on least squares regression and systematic consideration of all possible regions, has been illustrated with respect to both an analytical (sigmoid transfer function) and real-world (low-power, one-stage class A transistor amplifier) situations. In the former case, the method was found to identity the theoretically optimal region of operation even in presence of noise. In the latter case, it was possible to identify an amplifier circuit configuration providing a good compromise between linearity, amplification and output resistance. The transistor amplifier application, which was addressed in terms of transfer functions derived from its experimentally obtained characteristic surface, also yielded contributions such as the estimation of local cons...

  18. Minimum and maximum entropy distributions for binary systems with known means and pairwise correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Albanna, Badr F; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; DeWeese, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Maximum entropy models are increasingly being used to describe the collective activity of neural populations with measured mean neural activities and pairwise correlations, but the full space of probability distributions consistent with these constraints has not been explored. We provide lower and upper bounds on the entropy for both the minimum and maximum entropy distributions over binary units with fixed mean and pairwise correlation, and we construct distributions for several relevant cases. Surprisingly, the minimum entropy solution has entropy scaling logarithmically with system size, unlike the linear behavior of the maximum entropy solution, resolving an open question in neuroscience. Our results show how only small amounts of randomness are needed to mimic low-order statistical properties of highly entropic distributions, and we discuss some applications for engineered and biological information transmission systems.

  19. ASASSN-14cc: Likely Helium Analog of RZ Leonis Minoris

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Monard, Berto

    2015-01-01

    We identified that ASASSN-14cc is a very active dwarf nova spending approximately 60% of the time in outburst. Our long-term photometry revealed that the object shows long outbursts recurring with a period of 21-33 d and very brief short outbursts lasting less than 1 d. The maximum decline rate exceeds 2.8 mag/d. The duration of long outbursts is 9-18 d, comprising 50-60% of the recurrence time of long outbursts. We detected 0.01560-0.01562 d (22.5 min) modulations during long outbursts, which we identified to be superhumps. These features indicate that ASASSN-14cc has outburst parameters very similar to the extreme dwarf nova RZ LMi but with a much shorter superhump period. All the observations can be naturally understood considering that this object is a helium analog (AM CVn-type object) of RZ LMi. The highest outburst activity among AM CVn-type objects can be understood as the high-mass transfer rate expected for the orbital period giving a condition close to the stability limit of the accretion disk. In ...

  20. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  1. Isolation and characterization of soybean NBS analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Isolation of plant resistance genes is greatly helpful to crop resistance breeding and the insight of resistance mechanism. The cloned plant resistance genes are classified into four classes according to their putative structural domain, of which the majority possesses nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain that consists of P-loop, kinase2a and kinase3a. The conservation of this domain affords the potential possibility of cloning the plant resistance genes, which is homology-based cloning technique. In the present study, the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the tobacco N and Arabidopsis RPS2, and 358 clones were isolated from the genomic DNA of resistance soybean cultivar Kefeng1, resistant to soybean mosaic virus, and 4 open-reading NBS analogs were finally characterized and designated as KNBS1, KNBS2, KNBS3 and KNBS4. Southern hybridization suggested that they were present with multicopy in the soybean genome; KNBS4 was mapped to F linkage group and KNBS2 co-located J linkage group with the SCAR marker of Rsa resistant to soybean mosaic virus by RFLP analysis. Northern analysis suggested that KNBS2- related sequence was low and constitutively expressed in the root, stem and leaves of soybean. The detailed characterization of NBS analogs is very helpful to ultimately cloning the soybean resistance gene.

  2. C-Glycosyl Analogs of Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzeilles, Boris; Urban, Dominique; Doisneau, Gilles; Beau, Jean-Marie

    This chapter covers the synthesis of a large collection of "C-oligosaccharides ", synthetic analogs of naturally occurring oligosaccharides in which a carbon atom replaces the anomeric, interglycosidic oxygen atom. These non-natural constructs are stable to chemical and enzymatic degradation, and are primarily devised to probe carbohydrate-based biological processes. These mainly target carbohydrate-protein interactions such as the modulation of glycoenzyme (glycosylhydrolases and transferases) activities or the design of ligands for lectin Carbohydrate Recognition Domains. The discussion is based on the key carbon-carbon bond assembling steps on carbohydrate templates: ionic (anionic and cationic chemistries, sigmatropic rearrangements) or radical assemblage, and olefin metathesis. Synthetic schemes in which at least one of the monosaccharide units is constructed by total synthesis or by cyclization of acyclic chiral chains are presented separately in a "partial de novo synthesis" section. The review also provides comments, when they are known, on the conformational and binding properties of these synthetic analogs, as well as their biological behavior when tested.

  3. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  4. The exoplanets analogy to the Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a Mutiverse is controversial, although it is a natural possible solution to particle physics and cosmological fine-tuning problems (FTPs). Here I explore the analogy between the Multiverse proposal and the proposal that there exist an infinite number of stellar systems with planets in a flat Universe, the Multiplanetverse. Although the measure problem is present in this scenario, the idea of a Multiplanetverse has predictive power, even in the absence of direct evidence for exoplanets that appeared since the 90s. We argue that the fine-tuning of Earth to life (and not only the fine-tuning of life to Earth) could predict with certainty the existence of exoplanets decades or even centuries before that direct evidence. Several other predictions can be made by studying only the Earth and the Sun, without any information about stars. The analogy also shows that theories that defend that the Earth is the unique existing planet and that, at the same time, is fine-tuned to life by pure chance (or pure phy...

  5. Efficient Analog Circuits for Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xunzhao; Varga, Melinda; Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Efficient solutions to NP-complete problems would significantly benefit both science and industry. However, such problems are intractable on digital computers based on the von Neumann architecture, thus creating the need for alternative solutions to tackle such problems. Recently, a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system (CTDS) was proposed (Nature Physics, 7(12), 966 (2011)) to solve a representative NP-complete problem, Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). This solver shows polynomial analog time-complexity on even the hardest benchmark $k$-SAT ($k \\geq 3$) formulas, but at an energy cost through exponentially driven auxiliary variables. With some modifications to the CTDS equations, here we present a novel analog hardware SAT solver, AC-SAT, implementing the CTDS. AC-SAT is intended to be used as a co-processor, and with its modular design can be readily extended to different problem sizes. The circuit is designed and simulated based on a 32nm CMOS technology. SPICE simulation results show speedup factor...

  6. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Almeida Filho, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU). PMID:24455330

  7. Metastatic Insulinoma Managed with Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Overproduction of insulin and associated hypoglycemia are hallmark features of this disease. Diagnosis can be made through demonstration of hypoglycemia and elevated plasma levels of insulin or C-Peptide. Metastatic disease can be detected through computerized tomography (CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET/CT. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can be used not only to document metastatic disease but also as a predictive marker of the benefit from therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analog. Unresectable metastatic insulinomas may present as a major therapeutic challenge for the treating physician. When feasible, resection is the mainstay of treatment. Prevention of hypoglycemia is a crucial goal of therapy for unresectable/metastatic tumors. Diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, glucagon, and intravenous glucose infusions have been used for glycemic control yielding temporary and inconsistent results. Sandostatin and its long-acting depot forms have occasionally been used in the treatment of Octreoscan-positive insulinomas. Herein, we report a case of metastatic insulinoma with very difficult glycemic control successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium (177LU.

  8. Four channel analog router for spectroscopy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four input analog multiplexer/router has been developed in order to acquire spectral data from four different detector systems on first-come-first-sort basis. The circuit is incorporated in a single width NIM module and is fully compatible with the HPD 4K MCA developed in the Health Physics Division. The analog router accepts output from upto 4 detectors after these are passed through individual preamplifiers and linear amplifiers. The router generates signal for the channel whose input crosses set LLD limits first and simultaneously disables other inputs. The selected input is then passed to the ADC for further processing. The processed signal generates a channel dependent two bit address along with normal digital outputs of the ADC. The channel dependent two bit address is directly used to store the event in one of the four 1k segment of the HPD 4K MCA. The multiplexer is re-enabled to accept next input on priority basis. One such unit has already been commissioned to acquire data from four solid state detectors used for spectrometry. The paper discusses hardware of the router, its linearity resolution cross-talk between the channels and other performance characteristics. (author). 3 figs

  9. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occurs only after degradation. It is found that the conjugate containing 1%–2% NIR dye can be used as a normal optical imaging agent, while bioactivable imaging agents are formed at 6% to 17% dye loading. It was determined that the conjugation of dye to HA with different loading percentages does not impact HA biodegradation by hyaluronidase (Hyal. The feasibility of using these two NIR fluorescent hyaluronan analogs for HA investigation was evaluated in vivo with optical imaging. The data demonstrates that the 1% dye loaded fluorescent HA can be used to monitor the behavior of HA and its fragments, whereas bioactivatable HA imaging agent (17% dye in HA is more suitable for detecting HA fragments.

  10. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  11. Analog IC reliability in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Maricau, Elie

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modeling, simulation and analysis of analog circuit aging. First, all important nanometer CMOS physical effects resulting in circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor aging compact models for circuit simulation are discussed and several methods for efficient circuit reliability simulation are explained and compared. Ultimately, the impact of transistor aging on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are identified and the impact of technology scaling is discussed.   The models and simulation techniques described in the book are intended as an aid for device engineers, circuit designers and the EDA community to understand and to mitigate the impact of aging effects on nanometer CMOS ICs.   ·         Enables readers to understand long-term reliability of an integrated circuit; ·         Reviews CMOS unreliability effects, with focus on those that will emerge in future CMOS nodes; ·         Provides overview of models for...

  12. Fixed point theory of parametrized equivariant maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich, Hanno

    1988-01-01

    The first part of this research monograph discusses general properties of G-ENRBs - Euclidean Neighbourhood Retracts over B with action of a compact Lie group G - and their relations with fibrations, continuous submersions, and fibre bundles. It thus addresses equivariant point set topology as well as equivariant homotopy theory. Notable tools are vertical Jaworowski criterion and an equivariant transversality theorem. The second part presents equivariant cohomology theory showing that equivariant fixed point theory is isomorphic to equivariant stable cohomotopy theory. A crucial result is the sum decomposition of the equivariant fixed point index which provides an insight into the structure of the theory's coefficient group. Among the consequences of the sum formula are some Borsuk-Ulam theorems as well as some folklore results on compact Lie-groups. The final section investigates the fixed point index in equivariant K-theory. The book is intended to be a thorough and comprehensive presentation of its subjec...

  13. A New Clasp to Fix Partial Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakyan М.Yu.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new clasp to fix small saddle prostheses was designed to improve the quality of prosthetic unilateral free-end saddle restoration. Unlike the known ones, the clasp can be adapted for clinical crowns of any height (particularly useful for low crowns as no standard elements are required to be fixed on prosthesis. Prosthesis retention is independent of the height of coronal part and the evidence of its survey line. Gentle preparation of abutment teeth allows grinding off hard tooth issues minimally. The combination of fixing elements of a single clasp provides sufficient fixation to achieve high masticatory efficiency and prosthesis spatial stabilization but at the same time only partially limits its lability in mastication. The clasp can be used in free-end saddle restoration both in maxilla and mandible, and especially in patients with periodontal diseases complicated by partial tooth loss.

  14. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  15. Efficient Circuit Configuration for Enhancing Resolution of 8-bit flash Analog to Digital Convertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Balikatti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The need constantly exists for converters with higher resolution, faster conversion speeds and lower power dissipation. High speed analog to digital converters (ADCs have been based on flash architecture, because all comparators sample the analog input voltage simultaneously, this ADC is thus inherently fast. Unfortunately flash ADC requires 2N - 1 comparators to convert N bit digital code from an analog sample. This makes flash ADCs unsuitable for high resolution applications. The focus of this paper is on efficient circuit configuration to enhance resolution of available 8-bit flash ADC, while maintaining number of comparators only 256 for 12 bit conversion. This technique optimizes the number of comparator requirements. In this approach, an 8-bit flash ADC partitions the analog input range into 256 quantization cells, separated by 255 boundary points. An 8-bit binary code 00000000 to 11111111 is assigned to each cell. The Microcontroller decides within which cell the input sample lies and assigns a 12-bit binary center code 000000000000 to 111111111111 according to the cell value. The exact 12-bit digital code is obtained by successive approximation technique. In this paper the focus will be on all-around efficient circuit for enhancing resolution of 8-bit Flash ADC. It is shown that by adopting this configuration, we can obtain 12-bit digital data just using 256 comparators. Therefore this technique is best suitable when high speed combined with high resolution is required. An experimental prototype of proposed 12-bit ADC was implemented using Philips P89V51RD2BN Microcontroller. Use of Microcontroller has greatly reduced the hardware requirement and cost. An ADC result of 12-bit prototype is presented. The results show that the ADC exhibits a maximum DNL of 0.52LSB and a maximum INL of 0.55LSB.

  16. Analog models of computations \\& Effective Church Turing Thesis: Efficient simulation of Turing machines by the General Purpose Analog Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Pouly, Amaury; Graça, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    \\emph{Are analog models of computations more powerful than classical models of computations?} From a series of recent papers, it is now clear that many realistic analog models of computations are provably equivalent to classical digital models of computations from a \\emph{computability} point of view. Take, for example, the probably most realistic model of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) model from Claude Shannon, a model for Differential Analyzers, which are analog machines used from 1930s to early 1960s to solve various problems. It is now known that functions computable by Turing machines are provably exactly those that are computable by GPAC. This paper is about next step: understanding if this equivalence also holds at the \\emph{complexity} level. In this paper we show that the realistic models of analog computation -- namely the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) -- can simulate Turing machines in a computationally efficient manner. More concretely we show that, modulo...

  17. On coherent systems with fixed determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, I.; Newstead, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a great deal of work has been done on the moduli spaces of coherent systems on algebraic curves. Until recently, however, there has been very little work on the fixed determinant case, except for the special case of rank 2 and canonical determinant. This situation has changed due to two papers of B. Osserman, who has obtained lower bounds for the dimensions of the fixed determinant moduli spaces in some cases. Our object in this paper is to show that some of Osserman's...

  18. Fixing the shadows while moving the gnomon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    It is a common practice to fix a vertical gnomon and study the moving shadow cast by it. This shows our local solar time and gives us a hint regarding the season in which we perform the observation. The moving shadow can also tell us our latitude with high precision. In this paper we propose to exchange the roles and while keeping the shadows fixed on the ground we will move the gnomon. This lets us understand in a simple way the relevance of the tropical lines of latitude and the behavior of...

  19. Diametrically contractive maps and fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casini Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractive maps have nice properties concerning fixed points; a big amount of literature has been devoted to fixed points of nonexpansive maps. The class of shrinking (or strictly contractive maps is slightly less popular: few specific results on them (not applicable to all nonexpansive maps appear in the literature and some interesting problems remain open. As an attempt to fill this gap, a condition half way between shrinking and contractive maps has been studied recently. Here we continue the study of the latter notion, solving some open problems concerning these maps.

  20. Diametrically contractive maps and fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Papini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Contractive maps have nice properties concerning fixed points; a big amount of literature has been devoted to fixed points of nonexpansive maps. The class of shrinking (or strictly contractive maps is slightly less popular: few specific results on them (not applicable to all nonexpansive maps appear in the literature and some interesting problems remain open. As an attempt to fill this gap, a condition half way between shrinking and contractive maps has been studied recently. Here we continue the study of the latter notion, solving some open problems concerning these maps.

  1. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Panadero, Rubén; Román Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Wilson, Michael; Solá Ruiz, María Fernanda; Fons Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vi...

  2. Fix og færdig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Pedersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix & Finish “WHO CAN FIX IT?” is an investigation of the needles left behind by drug users in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro district. Based on the praxiological methods developed by Annemarie Mol as well as processes of objectification as described by Daniel Miller, the used needle appears to be a multiple object that is related to opportunities, fear, good intentions and trash. This article is an invitation to study material culture and material practices as a part of semiotic and discursive analyses in order to sharpen a researcher’s analytical focus while remaining grounded in reality.

  3. Recurrent fixed drug eruption caused by citiolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barrio, M; Tornero, P; Prieto, A; Sainza, T; Zubeldia, J M; Herrero, T

    1997-01-01

    Citiolone (N-acetylhomocysteinethiolactone) is a thiolic-derived medication frequently used in Spain and in other countries as a mucolytic agent for the treatment of certain hepatic disorders. Mucolytic drugs have rarely been implicated in the fixed drug eruption etiology. We report on a patient who presented several episodes of fixed exanthema related to citiolone intake. The patch test with citiolone (10% in dimethyl sulfoxide) was negative. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive controlled oral challenge test. Other mucolytic thiolic-derivatives (N-acetylcysteine) were tolerated by the patient, thus crossreactivity between these drugs seems to be unlikely.

  4. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....

  5. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  6. A maximum entropy framework for nonexponential distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Jack; Dixit, Purushottam D.; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Many statistical distributions, particularly among social and biological systems, have “heavy tails,” which are situations where rare events are not as improbable as would have been guessed from more traditional statistics. Heavy-tailed distributions are the basis for the phrase “the rich get richer.” Here, we propose a basic principle underlying systems with heavy-tailed distributions. We show that it is the same principle (maximum entropy) used in statistical physics and statistics to estim...

  7. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Rotundo, G; Navarra, Mauro; Rotundo, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  8. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and......In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics...

  9. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  10. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  11. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  12. A new unfolding code combining maximum entropy and maximum likelihood for neutron spectrum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new spectrum unfolding code, the Maximum Entropy and Maximum Likelihood Unfolding Code (MEALU), based on the maximum likelihood method combined with the maximum entropy method, which can determine a neutron spectrum without requiring an initial guess spectrum. The Normal or Poisson distributions can be used for the statistical distribution. MEALU can treat full covariance data for a measured detector response and response function. The algorithm was verified through an analysis of mock-up data and its performance was checked by applying it to measured data. The results for measured data from the Joyo experimental fast reactor were also compared with those obtained by the conventional J-log method for neutron spectrum adjustment. It was found that MEALU has potential advantages over conventional methods with regard to preparation of a priori information and uncertainty estimation. (author)

  13. Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L Theobald

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.

  14. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  15. Maximum Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Ruijun; Skeel, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the "center" of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will reach B before A. The committor "foliates" the transition region into a collection of isocommittors. The maximum flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. (This path is different from that of the MaxFlux method of Huo and Straub.) To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced. It is shown that a maximum flux tra...

  16. Maximum neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2009-04-01

    Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, maximum marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely maximum neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.

  17. Empirical Studies on Sovereign Fixed Income Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Duyvesteyn (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation presents evidence of five studies showing that sovereign fixed income markets are not always price efficient. The emerging local currency debt market has grown to a large size of more than 1.5 trill ion US Dollars at the end of 2012. The factors that

  18. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  19. Interactive Inconsistency Fixing in Feature Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 熊英飞; 胡振江; 赵海燕; 张伟; 梅宏

    2014-01-01

    Feature models have been widely adopted to reuse the requirements of a set of similar products in a domain. In feature models’ construction, one basic task is to ensure the consistency of feature models, which often involves detecting and fixing of inconsistencies in feature models. While many approaches have been proposed, most of them focus on detecting inconsistencies rather than fixing inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic-priority based approach to interactively fixing inconsistencies in feature models, and report an implementation of a system that not only automatically recommends a solution to fixing inconsistencies but also supports domain analysts to gradually reach the desirable solution by dynamically adjusting priorities of constraints. The key technical contribution is, as far as we are aware, the first application of the constraint hierarchy theory to feature modeling, where the degree of domain analysts’ confidence on constraints is expressed by using priority and inconsistencies are resolved by deleting one or more lower-priority constraints. Two case studies demonstrate the usability and scalability (effciency) of our new approach.

  20. Homotopies and the Universal Fixed Point Property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymik, Markus

    2015-01-01

    . To even specify the problem, we introduce the universal fixed point property. Our results apply in particular to the analysis of convex subspaces of Banach spaces, to the topology of finite-dimensional manifolds and CW complexes, and to the combinatorics of Kolmogorov spaces associated with finite posets....

  1. Force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N

    2014-03-01

    Fixed-ratio schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-ratio schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of ratio schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the ratio. The possibility that decreases in force during ratio execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-ratio 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the ratio; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the ratio, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics. PMID:24315798

  2. Fermilab fixed target program and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the research program for the Fermilab fixed target facility. The planned experiments concern neutrino interactions, beam dump studies, muon scattering, dimuon production, hadronic jets, direct photon production, hyperon decays, CP violation, polarized proton physics, and heavy quark states. (HSI)

  3. Some Generalizations of Jungck's Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to generalize the Jungck's fixed point theorem for commuting mappings by mean of the concepts of altering distance functions and compatible pair of mappings, as well as, by using contractive inequalities of integral type and contractive inequalities depending on another function.

  4. Ultrametric fixed points in reduced axiomatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Turinici, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The Brezis-Browder ordering principle [Advances Math., 21 (1976), 355-364] is used to get a proof, in the reduced axiomatic system (ZF-AC+DC), of a fixed point result [in the complete axiomatic system (ZF)] over Cantor complete ultrametric spaces due to Petalas and Vidalis [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 118 (1993), 819-821].

  5. Intuitionistic fixed point theories over Heyting arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Toshiyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that an intuitionistic theory for fixed points is conservative over the Heyting arithmetic with respect to a certain class of formulas. This extends partly the result of mine. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints.

  6. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang

    2002-01-01

    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$

  7. Fixed drug eruption due to ornidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male developed an ulcer on his glans penis and mucosae of upper and lower lips 3 days after taking ofloxacin, cephalexin, and ornidazole. Clinically, a provisional diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was made. The causative drug was confirmed by an oral provocation test which triggered a reactivation of all lesions only with ornidazole.

  8. Simplicial fixed point algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fixed point theory is an important branch of modern mathematics and has always been a major theoretical tool in fields such as differential equations, topology, function analysis, optimal control, economics, and game theory. Its applicability has been increased enormously by the development of simpl

  9. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in Building Construction” (AWSD1.0-1966). (7) Protection from deterioration. (i) Metal ladders and... different types of materials are used in the construction of a ladder, the materials used shall be so... Steel Rails and Round Steel Rungs (c) Clearance—(1) Climbing side. On fixed ladders, the...

  10. [Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed pa

  11. Fixed points for multi-class queues

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James B

    2010-01-01

    Burke's theorem can be seen as a fixed-point result for an exponential single-server queue; when the arrival process is Poisson, the departure process has the same distribution as the arrival process. We consider extensions of this result to multi-type queues, in which different types of customer have different levels of priority. We work with a model of a queueing server which includes discrete-time and continuous-time M/M/1 queues as well as queues with exponential or geometric service batches occurring in discrete time or at points of a Poisson process. The fixed-point results are proved using interchangeability properties for queues in tandem, which have previously been established for one-type M/M/1 systems. Some of the fixed-point results have previously been derived as a consequence of the construction of stationary distributions for multi-type interacting particle systems, and we explain the links between the two frameworks. The fixed points have interesting "clustering" properties for lower-priority ...

  12. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  13. A New Fixed Point Theorem and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fixed point theorem is established under the setting of a generalized finitely continuous topological space (GFC-space without the convexity structure. As applications, a weak KKM theorem and a minimax inequalities of Ky Fan type are also obtained under suitable conditions. Our results are different from known results in the literature.

  14. Analog computing using reflective plasmonic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent renewed interest in compact analog computing using light and metasurfaces (Silva, A. et al., Science 2014, 343, 160-163), we suggest a practical approach to its realization that involves reflective metasurfaces consisting of arrayed gold nanobricks atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances. Using well established numerical routines, we demonstrate that these metasurfaces enable independent control of the light phase and amplitude, and design differentiator and integrator metasurfaces featuring realistic system parameters. Proof-of-principle experiments are reported along with the successful realization of a high-quality poor-man's integrator metasurface operating at the wavelength of 800 nm.

  15. Z~+(4430) and Analogous Heavy Flavor States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Gui-jun

    2009-01-01

    We have studied Z~+ (4430)as a D~* D_1 molecule from the quark model,state mixing effect is considered by solving the coupled channel Schr(o)dinger equation numerically.More precise measurements of Z~+ (4430)mass and width,partial wave analysis are helpful to understand its structure.If it lies below the D~* D_1 threshold,molecule interpretation with J~P=1~- is favored,and JP =0~- can not be ruled out.Otherwise Z~+ (4430)may be a virtual state with J~P=2~-.The analogous heavy flavor mesons Z~+_(bb) and Z~(++)_(bc) are considered as well,and the masses predicted in our model are in agreement with the predictions from the potential model and QCD sum rule.

  16. Ultra Low-Power Analog Median Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diaz-Sanchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of three analog median filter topologies, whose transistors operate in the deep weak-inversion region, is described. The first topology is a differential pairs array, in which drain currents are driven into two nodes in a differential fashion, while the second topology is based on a wide range OTA, which is used to maximize the dynamic range. Finally, the third topology uses three range-extended OTAs. The proposed weak-inversion filters were designed and fabricated in ON Semiconductor 0.5 micrometer technology through MOSIS. Experimental results of three-input fabricated prototypes for all three topologies are show, where power consumptions of 90nW in the first case, and 270nW in the other two cases can be noticed. A dual power supply +/-1.5 Volts were used.

  17. Four-gate transistor analog multiplier circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A differential output analog multiplier circuit utilizing four G.sup.4-FETs, each source connected to a current source. The four G.sup.4-FETs may be grouped into two pairs of two G.sup.4-FETs each, where one pair has its drains connected to a load, and the other par has its drains connected to another load. The differential output voltage is taken at the two loads. In one embodiment, for each G.sup.4-FET, the first and second junction gates are each connected together, where a first input voltage is applied to the front gates of each pair, and a second input voltage is applied to the first junction gates of each pair. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  18. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  19. Integrated Circuits for Analog Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

      This book presents theory, design methods and novel applications for integrated circuits for analog signal processing.  The discussion covers a wide variety of active devices, active elements and amplifiers, working in voltage mode, current mode and mixed mode.  This includes voltage operational amplifiers, current operational amplifiers, operational transconductance amplifiers, operational transresistance amplifiers, current conveyors, current differencing transconductance amplifiers, etc.  Design methods and challenges posed by nanometer technology are discussed and applications described, including signal amplification, filtering, data acquisition systems such as neural recording, sensor conditioning such as biomedical implants, actuator conditioning, noise generators, oscillators, mixers, etc.   Presents analysis and synthesis methods to generate all circuit topologies from which the designer can select the best one for the desired application; Includes design guidelines for active devices/elements...

  20. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  1. A Probabilistic Approach to Pronunciation by Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Kujala, Janne V

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between written and spoken words is convoluted in languages with a deep orthography such as English and therefore it is difficult to devise explicit rules for generating the pronunciations for unseen words. Pronunciation by analogy (PbA) is a data-driven method of constructing pronunciations for novel words from concatenated segments of known words and their pronunciations. PbA performs relatively well with English and outperforms several other proposed methods. However, the best published word accuracy of 65.5% (for the 20,000 word NETtalk corpus) suggests there is much room for improvement in it. Previous PbA algorithms have used several different scoring strategies such as the product of the frequencies of the component pronunciations of the segments, or the number of different segmentations that yield the same pronunciation, and different combinations of these methods, to evaluate the candidate pronunciations. In this article, we instead propose to use a probabilistically justified scorin...

  2. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  3. Two-stage assembly-type flowshop batch scheduling problem subject to a fixed job sequence

    OpenAIRE

    F J Hwang; B M T Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with batching considerations subject to a fixed job sequence. The two-stage assembly flowshop consists of m stage-1 parallel dedicated machines and a stage-2 assembly machine which processes the jobs in batches. Four regular performance metrics, namely, the total completion time, maximum lateness, total tardiness, and number of tardy jobs, are considered. The goal is to obtain an optimal batching decision for the prede...

  4.  Determination of lethal doses of volatile and fixed oils of several plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hanefi, Özbek; Mustafa, Öztürk; Abdurrahman, Öztürk; Ebubekir, Ceylan; Zabit, Yener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine lethal doses of fixed and/orvolatile oils extracted from leafs or fruits of Pimpinellaanisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sesamum indicum,Eugenia caryophyllata, Nigella sativa, Urtica pilulifera,Apium graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Coriandrumsativum and Thymus fallax.Method:   Swiss albino mice were injectedintraperitoneally with different concentrations of theextract and results were evaluated with the method ofprobit analysis.Results: Maximum volume of oil administered to mice...

  5. 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Makinwa, Kofi

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 23rd workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, serving as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development.    • Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing; • Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; • Presents material in a tutorial-based format.

  6. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides...

  7. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 184.410 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 184.410 Section 184... Electronic position fixing devices. A vessel on an oceans route must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device, capable of providing accurate fixes for the area in which the vessel operates, to...

  9. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  11. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake...

  12. An asynchronous spike event coding scheme for programmable analog arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.C.; Koickal, T.; Hamilton, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a spike event coding scheme for the communication of analog signals in programmable analog arrays. In the scheme presented here no events are transmitted when the signals are constant leading to low power dissipation and traffic reduction in analog arrays. The design process and the implementation of the scheme in a programmable array context are explained. The validation of the presented scheme is performed using a speech signal. Finally, we demonstrate how the event code...

  13. A Novel cooked extruded lentils analog: physical and chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud; Alavi, Sajid; Al-Shathri, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Developing an extruded lentil analog is our aim. Lentil analog with six formulations were produced using a pilot-scale single (SS) and twin screw (TS) extruders. Texture analysis of lentil analogs prepared for consumption revealed that the products formulated with 60:40 and 70:30 soy: wheat ratios exhibited a significantly higher hardness, adhesiveness and lower springiness as compared to all other treatments. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results indicated that all starches in dry ...

  14. Configurable analog-digital conversion using the neural engineering framework

    OpenAIRE

    Christian G Mayr; Partzsch, Johannes; Noack, Marko; Schüffny, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Efficient Analog-Digital Converters (ADC) are one of the mainstays of mixed-signal integrated circuit design. Besides the conventional ADCs used in mainstream ICs, there have been various attempts in the past to utilize neuromorphic networks to accomplish an efficient crossing between analog and digital domains, i.e., to build neurally inspired ADCs. Generally, these have suffered from the same problems as conventional ADCs, that is they require high-precision, handcrafted analog circuits and...

  15. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  16. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schoen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules.

  17. Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei

    2005-01-01

    Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.

  18. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  19. Shape Modelling Using Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    of Active Shape Models by Timothy Cootes and Christopher Taylor by building new information into the model. This new information consists of two types of prior knowledge. First, in many situation we will be given an ordering of the shapes of the training set. This situation occurs when the shapes......This paper addresses the problems of generating a low dimensional representation of the shape variation present in a training set after alignment using Procrustes analysis and projection into shape tangent space. We will extend the use of principal components analysis in the original formulation....... Both these types of knowledge may be used to defined Shape Maximum Autocorrelation Factors. The resulting point distribution models are compared to ordinary principal components analysis using leave-one-out validation....

  20. Co-Clustering under the Maximum Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bulteau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-clustering, that is partitioning a numerical matrix into “homogeneous” submatrices, has many applications ranging from bioinformatics to election analysis. Many interesting variants of co-clustering are NP-hard. We focus on the basic variant of co-clustering where the homogeneity of a submatrix is defined in terms of minimizing the maximum distance between two entries. In this context, we spot several NP-hard, as well as a number of relevant polynomial-time solvable special cases, thus charting the border of tractability for this challenging data clustering problem. For instance, we provide polynomial-time solvability when having to partition the rows and columns into two subsets each (meaning that one obtains four submatrices. When partitioning rows and columns into three subsets each, however, we encounter NP-hardness, even for input matrices containing only values from {0, 1, 2}.