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Sample records for anaerobic degradation pathways

  1. REDOX AND REDUCTION POTENTIALS AS PARAMETERS TO PREDICT THE DEGRADATION PATHWAY OF CHLORINATED BENZENES IN ANAEROBIC ENVIRONMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLFING, J; HARRISON, BK

    1993-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation pathway of hexachlorobenzene starts with a series of reductive dehalogenation steps. In the present paper it was evaluated whether the dehalogenation pathway observed in microbial ecosystems could be predicted by the redox potential and/or the reduction potential (the

  2. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal of such compounds. Among a long list of OMPs, antibiotics are considered as top priority pollutants to be treated due to their great resistance to biological treatments and their potential to develop bacterial resistance. Different approaches, such as membrane-based and advance oxidation processes have been proposed to alleviate or minimize antibiotics discharge into aquatic environments. However most of these processes are costly and generate either matrices with high concentration of OMPs or intermediate products with potentially greater toxicity or persistence. Therefore, this thesis proposes the study of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a world widely used antibiotic. Besides the general evaluation of AnMBR performance in the COD removal and biogas production, this research mainly focuses on the SMX removal and its degradation pathway. Thus 5 SMX quantification was performed through solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the identification of its transformation products (TPs) was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The results achieved showed that, working under optimal conditions (35°C, pH 7 and ORP around -380 to -420 mV) and after a biomass adaptation period (maintaining 0.85 VSS/TSS ratio), the AnMBR process provided over 95% COD removal and 95-98% SMX removal, while allowing stable biogas composition and methane production (≈130 mL CH4/g CODremoved). Kinetic analysis through a batch test showed that after 24 h of biological reaction, AnMBR process achieved around 94% SMX removal, indicating a first order kinetic reaction with K= 0.119, which highlights the high degradation

  3. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...... operating under different ammonia levels were sampled, and the residual biogas production was followed in fed-batch reactors. Acetate, labelled in the methyl group, was used to determine the methanogenic pathway by following the 14CH4 and 14CO2 production. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used...... to determine the methanogenic communities’ composition. Results obtained clearly demonstrated that syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway in all digesters with high ammonia levels (2.8–4.57 g NH4 +-N L−1), while acetoclastic methanogenic pathway...

  4. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial

  5. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Helene

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively. Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be

  6. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  7. Anaerobic Degradation of Bicyclic Monoterpenes in Castellaniella defragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Puentes-Cala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial degradation pathways of bicyclic monoterpenes contain unknown enzymes for carbon–carbon cleavages. Such enzymes may also be present in the betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans, a model organism to study the anaerobic monoterpene degradation. In this study, a deletion mutant strain missing the first enzyme of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway transformed cometabolically the bicyclics sabinene, 3-carene and α-pinene into several monocyclic monoterpenes and traces of cyclic monoterpene alcohols. Proteomes of cells grown on bicyclic monoterpenes resembled the proteomes of cells grown on monocyclic monoterpenes. Many transposon mutants unable to grow on bicyclic monoterpenes contained inactivated genes of the monocyclic monoterpene pathway. These observations suggest that the monocyclic degradation pathway is used to metabolize bicyclic monoterpenes. The initial step in the degradation is a decyclization (ring-opening reaction yielding monocyclic monoterpenes, which can be considered as a reverse reaction of the olefin cyclization of polyenes.

  8. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  9. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N.S.; Zaiat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m 3 day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 ± 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms

  10. Microbial consortia involved in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski; Harris, R F; Hickey, W J

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we examine the energetics of well-characterized biodegradation pathways and explore the possibilities for these to support growth of multiple organisms interacting in consortia. The relevant phenotypic and/or phylogenetic characteristics of isolates and consortia mediating hydrocarbon degradation coupled with different terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAP) are also reviewed. While the information on metabolic pathways has been gained from the analysis of individual isolates, the energetic framework presented here demonstrates that microbial consortia could be readily postulated for hydrocarbon degradation coupled to any TEAP. Several specialized reactions occur within these pathways, and the organisms mediating these are likely to play a key role in defining the hydrocarbon degradation characteristics of the community under a given TEAP. Comparing these processes within and between TEAPs reveals biological unity in that divergent phylotypes display similar degradation mechanisms and biological diversity in that hydrocarbon-degraders closely related as phylotypes differ in the type and variety of hydrocarbon degradation pathways they possess. Analysis of microcosms and of field samples suggests that we have only begun to reveal the diversity of organisms mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Advancements in the understanding of how hydrocarbon-degrading communities function will be significantly affected by the extent to which organisms mediating specialized reactions can be identified, and tools developed to allow their study in situ.

  11. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  12. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  13. Starch-degrading enzymes from anaerobic non-clostridial bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H; Schepers, H J; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-08-01

    A number of meso- and thermophilic anaerobic starch-degrading non-spore-forming bacteria have been isolated. All the isolates belonging to different genera are strictly anaerobic, as indicated by a catalase-negative reaction, and produce soluble starch-degrading enzymes. Compared to enzymes of aerobic bacteria, those of anaerobic origin mainly show low molecular mass of about 25 000 daltons. Some of the enzymes may have useful applications in the starch industry because of their unusual product pattern, yielding maltotetraose as the main hydrolysis product. (orig.).

  14. Assessment of the anaerobic degradation of six active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Stephen E; Campo, Pablo; Tolaymat, Thabet; Suidan, Makram; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-04-01

    Research examined the anaerobic degradation of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, metoprolol tartrate, and progesterone by methanogenic bacteria. Using direct sample analysis and respirometric testing, anaerobic degradation was examined with (a) each compound as the sole organic carbon source and (b) each compound at a lower concentration (250 microg/L) and cellulose serving as the primary organic carbon source. The change in pharmaceutical concentration was determined following 7, 28, 56, and 112 days of anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C. Only acetylsalicylic acid demonstrated significant degradation; the remaining compounds showed a mixture of degradation and abiotic removal mechanisms. Experimental results were compared with BIOWIN, an anaerobic degradation prediction model of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The BIOWIN model predicted anaerobic biodegradability of the compounds in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > ibuprofen > acetaminophen > 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol >progesterone. This corresponded well with the experimental findings which found degradability in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > acetaminophen > ibuprofen. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-perf...

  16. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Yang-hsin; Chou, Hsi-Ling; Peng, Yu-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BDE-3 was degraded with two anaerobes in different rates. ► Glucose addition augment the debromination efficiencies. ► Hydrogen gas was detected and relative microbes were identified. ► Extra-carbon source enhanced degradation partial due to H 2 -generation bacteria. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H 2 gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of the various fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Zanden, J. van der; Wijffels, R.; Lettinga, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of the present investigations were to determine the maximum extent of anaerobic biological degradation of the soluble, colloidal and Coarse Suspended Solids fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the removal of these organic pollutant fractions and to determine the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of each fraction of the wastewater, and to assess the effects of the fractions on the methanogenic activity of the sludge.

  18. Inhibition of the anaerobic acetate degradation by formate

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Ramirez, F.

    1989-01-01

    Granular sludge from an UASB reactor fed with VFA showed a very low affinity for formate which provide little support to the theory of interspecies formate transfer. It is shown that formate can inhibit acetate degradation by anaerobic sludge. (Résumé d'auteur)

  19. Degradation of plant wastes by anaerobic process using rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, J; Creuly, C; Duchez, D; Pons, A; Dussap, C G

    2003-01-01

    An operational reactor has been designed for the fermentation of a pure culture of Fibrobacter succinogenes with the constraints of strict anaerobic condition. The process is controlled by measurements of pH, redox, temperature and CO2 pressure; it allows an efficient degradation (67%) of lignocellulosic wastes such as a mixture of wheat straw, soya bean cake and green cabbage.

  20. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe [Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Relating BTEX degradation to the biogeochemistry of an anaerobic aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toze, S.G.; Power, T.R.; Davis, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in chemical and microbiological parameters in a petroleum hydrocarbon plume within anaerobic groundwater have been studied. Previously, microbial degradation of the hydrocarbon compounds had been substantiated by the use of deuterated hydrocarbons to determine natural (intrinsic) degradation rates within the contaminant plume. Here, sulfate concentration decreases, Eh decreases, and hydrogen sulfide and bicarbonate concentration increases are shown to be associated with the contaminant plume. These trends indicate microbial degradation of the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Stoichiometry indicates that other consortia of bacteria play a role in the degradation of the hydrocarbons. Total microbial cell numbers were higher within the plume than in the uncontaminated groundwater. There is, however, no direct correlation between total microbial cell numbers, and BTEX, sulfate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations within the plume

  2. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  3. Effects of microbial inhibitors on anaerobic degradation of DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.S.; Chiu, T.C.; Yen, J.H. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Chlorinated insecticide DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] was extensively used for controlling pests in the agricultural field and human-being living environments in the past several decades. Due to the chemical stability, DDT was extremely persistent and recalcitrant in soils and sediments and it was banned by nations. Microorganisms usually play important roles in reducing organochlorine compounds in the environments. Under low-oxygen conditions, microbial dechlorination is thought as the onset of highly chlorinated compounds. Methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria participate in microbial dechlorination under anaerobic condition has been reported. In this study, a mixed anaerobic culture enabling to dechlorinate DDT was obtained from river sediment in Taiwan. In order to understand the effect of these microorganisms on DDT dechlorination, microbial inhibitors BESA (2-bromoethanesulfonate) and molybdate, for inhibiting methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively, were chosen to investigate the interaction between specific microbial communities and their degradation activities. Besides, a molecular technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), based on analyzing the 16S rDNA of bacteria, was used for monitoring the bacterial community structure in this study.

  4. Performance and diversity of polyvinyl alcohol-degrading bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Yang, Shisu; Zhang, Siqi

    2016-11-01

    To compare the degradation performance and biodiversity of a polyvinyl alcohol-degrading microbial community under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor was operated to degrade polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in simulated wastewater. The degradation performance of the bioreactor during sludge cultivation and the microbial communities in each reactor were compared. Both anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors demonstrated high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of 87.5 and 83.6 %, respectively. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that Proteobacteria dominated in both reactors and that the microbial community structures varied significantly under different operating conditions. Both reactors obviously differed in bacterial diversity from the phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria dominated, respectively, in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors. The anaerobic-aerobic system is suitable for PVA wastewater treatment, and the microbial genetic analysis may serve as a reference for PVA biodegradation.

  5. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.

  6. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  7. Effect of temperature on the anaerobic degradation of phenol and the microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, L.; Schnurer, A.

    2009-01-01

    The residue produced during anaerobic digestion of organic waste is rich in nutrient and can be used as fertiliser However, one concern is the content of organic pollutants, as these may influence the soil fertility negatively and should therefore only occur at low levels. In this study, the effect of the process temperature on the anaerobic degradation of different phenolic compounds was investigated. Phenols have been shown to have a negative impact on soil microbial activity and can appear in anaerobic bioreactors both as components of the in-going substrate, and as intermediates during degradation of different complex aromatic compounds. (Author)

  8. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del; Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. → Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. → Several species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 μM of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 ± 27 micro-electron equivalents (μEq) L -1 , linked to the reduction of 619 ± 81 μEq L -1 of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two γ-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  10. Elucidation of the pathways of catabolic glutamate conversion in three thermophilic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, C M; van Leeuwen, J M; Hummelen, T; Balk, M; Stams, A J

    2001-07-01

    The glutamate catabolism of three thermophilic syntrophic anaerobes was compared based on the combined use of [(13)C] glutamate NMR measurements and enzyme activity determinations. In some cases the uptake of intermediates from different pathways was studied. The three organisms, Caloramator coolhaasii, Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans and strain TGO, had a different stoichiometry of glutamate conversion and were dependent on the presence of a hydrogen scavenger (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245) to a different degree for their growth. C. coolhaasii formed acetate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2) from glutamate. Acetate was found to be formed through the beta-methylaspartate pathway in pure culture as well as in coculture. T. acidaminovorans converted glutamate to acetate, propionate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2). Most likely, this organism uses the beta-methylaspartate pathway for acetate formation. Propionate formation occurred through a direct oxidation of glutamate via succinyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA. The metabolism of T. acidaminovorans shifted in favour of propionate formation when grown in coculture with the methanogen, but this did not lead to the use of a different glutamate degradation pathway. Strain TGO, an obligate syntrophic glutamate-degrading organism, formed propionate, traces of succinate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2). Glutamate was converted to propionate oxidatively via the intermediates succinyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA. A minor part of the succinyl-CoA was converted to succinate and excreted.

  11. BACE is degraded via the lysosomal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Ho; von Arnim, Christine A F; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2005-09-16

    Amyloid plaques are formed by aggregates of amyloid-beta-peptide, a 37-43-amino acid fragment (primarily Abeta(40) and Abeta(42)) generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. A type I transmembrane aspartyl protease, BACE (beta-site APP cleaving enzyme), has been identified to be the beta-secretase. BACE is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane where it can be internalized to endosomes. The carboxyl terminus of BACE contains a di-leucine-based signal for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, we set out to determine whether BACE is degraded by the lysosomal pathway and whether the di-leucine motif is necessary for targeting BACE to the lysosomes. Here we show that lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and NH(4)Cl, lead to accumulation of endogenous and ectopically expressed BACE in a variety of cell types, including primary neurons. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal hydrolases results in the redistribution and accumulation of BACE in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2)-positive). In contrast, the BACE-LL/AA mutant, in which Leu(499) and Leu(500) in the COOH-terminal sequence (DDISLLK) were replaced by alanines, only partially co-localized with LAMP2-positive compartments following inhibition of lysosomal hydrolases. Collectively, our data indicate that BACE is transported to the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments where it is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that the di-leucine motif plays a role in sorting BACE to lysosomes.

  12. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. L. Bolaños

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3 were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge from a biodigestor treating industrial and domestic effluents. The sludges were first acclimatized to a culture medium generally recommended for organochloride anaerobic degradation studies. The reactors were then subjected to increasing concentrations of PCP from 0.05 to 10.0 mg.l-1. PCP degradation and metabolite formation were monitored using gas chromatography, and the effects of PCP on the anaerobic process were verified by monitoring pH, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, total suspended solids, and chemical oxygen demand. It was found that PCP did not affect reactor performance. All the sludges displayed the best PCP degradation capacity at a concentration of 0.2 mg.l-1, producing fewer chlorinated metabolites than when higher PCP concentrations were applied. R1 consistently produced fewer chlorinated metabolites, confirming the hypothesis that pre exposure to chlorinated compounds improves the sludge's capacity to degrade PCP.

  13. Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae was identified as dominant benzene degrader by Stable Isotope Probing (SIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaan, van der B.M.; Talarico Saia, F.; Plugge, C.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic microbial community was enriched in a chemostat that was operated for more than 8 years with benzene and nitrate as electron acceptor. The coexistence of multiple species in the chemostat and the presence of a biofilm, led to the hypothesis that benzene-degrading species coexist in a

  14. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  15. Degradation of a mono sulfonated azo dye by an integrated bio sorption and anaerobic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, L. C.; Campos, R.; Pinheiro, H. M.; Lopes, A.; Ferra, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    A simulated textile effluent containing a mono sulphonated azo dye was fed to an anaerobic bioreactor in which a natural adsorbent, spent brewery grains (SBG), was incorporated. SABG is a by-product of the brewing industry and could act as adsorbent as well an electron shuttle (lignin fraction) in the dye degradation mechanism. Furthermore, it can also work as a conditioner for the anaerobic biomass. The influence of the dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7) concentration (60 and 150 mg/L) and the presence of SBG in the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated. (Author)

  16. Degradation of a mono sulfonated azo dye by an integrated bio sorption and anaerobic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, L. C.; Campos, R.; Pinheiro, H. M.; Lopes, A.; Ferra, M. I.

    2009-07-01

    A simulated textile effluent containing a mono sulphonated azo dye was fed to an anaerobic bioreactor in which a natural adsorbent, spent brewery grains (SBG), was incorporated. SABG is a by-product of the brewing industry and could act as adsorbent as well an electron shuttle (lignin fraction) in the dye degradation mechanism. Furthermore, it can also work as a conditioner for the anaerobic biomass. The influence of the dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7) concentration (60 and 150 mg/L) and the presence of SBG in the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated. (Author)

  17. Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.; Toraeng, L.; Waul, C.M.; Schmidt, J.E.

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stages reactor system consisting by a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the first step. Removal of LAS in the UASB reactors was approx. 80% where half was due to absorption and the other half was apparently due to biological removal as shown from the LAS mass balance. At the end of the experiment the reactors were spiked with {sup 14}C-LAS which resulted in 5.6% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the produced gas. Total mass balance of the radioactivity was however not achieved. In batch experiments it was found that LAS at concentrations higher than 50 mg/l is inhibitory for the most microbial groups of the anaerobic process. Therefore, low initial LAS concentration is a prerequisite for successful LAS degradation. The results from the present study suggest that anaerobic degradation of LAS is possible in UASB reactors when the concentration of LAS is low enough to avoid inhibition of microorganisms active in the anaerobic process. (author)

  18. Degradation of chlorinated compounds in an anaerobic-aerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfan-Guzman, R.; Guerrero-Barajas, C.; Garcia-Pena, I.

    2009-07-01

    Remediation technologies that involves gas transport (e.g., soil vapor extraction and air sparging of groundwater) cause the emission of gases contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Under anaerobic conditions, reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) proceeds via the formation of cis and trans dichloroethene (DCEs) and vinyl chloride (VC) as intermediates. (Author)

  19. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF HALOGENATED BENZOIC-ACIDS BY PHOTOHETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWOUDE, BJ; DEBOER, M; VANDERPUT, NMJ; VANDERGELD, FM; PRINS, RA; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1994-01-01

    From light-exposed enrichment cultures containing benzoate and a mixture of chlorobenzoates, a pure culture was obtained able to grow with 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) or 3-bromobenzoate (3-BrBA) as the sole growth substrate anaerobically in the light. The thus isolated organism is a photoheterotroph,

  20. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, K T; Lovley, D R

    2001-05-01

    The potential for anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) was investigated in laboratory incubations of sediments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer and in aquatic sediments. The addition of humic substances (HS) stimulated the anaerobic degradation of MTBE in aquifer sediments in which Fe(III) was available as an electron acceptor. This is attributed to the fact that HS and other extracellular quinones can stimulate the activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms by acting as an electron shuttle between Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and insoluble Fe(III) oxides. MTBE was not degraded in aquifer sediments without Fe(III) and HS. [14C]-MTBE added to aquatic sediments adapted for anaerobic MTBE degradation was converted to 14CO2 in the presence or absence of HS or the HS analog, anthraquione-2,6-disulfonate. Unamended aquatic sediments produced 14CH4 as well as 14CO2 from [14C]-MTBE. The aquatic sediments also rapidly consumed TBA under anaerobic conditions and converted [14C]-TBA to 14CH4 and 14CO2. An adaptation period of ca. 250-300 days was required prior to the most rapid anaerobic MTBE degradation in both sediment types, whereas TBA was metabolized in the aquatic sediments without a lag. These results demonstrate that, under the appropriate conditions, MTBE and TBA can be degraded in the absence of oxygen. This suggests that it may be possible to design strategies for the anaerobic remediation of MTBE in petroleum-contaminated subsurface environments.

  3. 6-Oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A hydrolases from obligately anaerobic bacteria: characterization and identification of its gene as a functional marker for aromatic compounds degrading anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Kevin; Shinoda, Yoshifumi; Moutakki, Housna; McInerney, Michael J; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Boll, Matthias

    2008-06-01

    In anaerobic bacteria, most aromatic growth substrates are channelled into the benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) degradation pathway where the aromatic ring is dearomatized and cleaved into an aliphatic thiol ester. The initial step of this pathway is catalysed by dearomatizing benzoyl-CoA reductases yielding the two electron-reduction product, cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA, to which water is subsequently added by a hydratase. The next two steps have so far only been studied in facultative anaerobes and comprise the oxidation of the 6-hydroxyl-group to 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA (6-OCH-CoA), the addition of water and hydrolytic ring cleavage yielding 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. In this work, two benzoate-induced genes from the obligately anaerobic bacteria, Geobacter metallireducens (bamA(Geo)) and Syntrophus aciditrophicus (bamA(Syn)), were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized as 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases. Both enzymes consisted of a single 43 kDa subunit. Some properties of the enzymes are presented and compared with homologues from facultative anaerobes. An alignment of the nucleotide sequences of bamA(Geo) and bamA(Syn) with the corresponding genes from facultative anaerobes identified highly conserved DNA regions, which enabled the discrimination of genes coding for 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases from those coding for related enzymes. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer pair was deduced from conserved regions and applied in polymerase chain reaction reactions. Using these primers, the expected DNA fragment of the 6-OCH-CoA hydrolase genes was specifically amplified from the DNA of nearly all known facultative and obligate anaerobes that use aromatic growth substrates. The only exception was the aromatic compound-degrading Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which uniquely uses a modified benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. Using the oligonucleotide primers, the expected DNA fragment was also amplified in a toluene-degrading and a m-xylene-degrading

  4. Anaerobic degradation of paunch and pig stomach contents. Untersuchungen zum anaeroben Abbauverhalten von Pansen- und Schweinemageninhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, W.P. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Technologie)

    1989-11-01

    Slaughtering wastes amount to about 60 kg of paunch and 1 kg of pig stomach contents per animal. Each slaughterhouse is responsible for the disposal of these wastes. Anaerobic degradation is among the solutions suggested. It is a process developing gases, and reducing odors and volumes of wastes. Details are given on investigations assessing the methane yields expected, degradation characteristics, and the required amount of inoculants. (orig.).

  5. Anaerobic degradation of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether and guaiacoxyacetic acid by mixed rumen bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W; Supanwong, K; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S; Kawakami, H

    1985-01-01

    Veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (0.2 g/liter), a lignin model compound, was found to be degraded by mixed rumen bacteria in a yeast extract medium under strictly anaerobic conditions to the extent of 19% within 24 h. Guaiacoxyacetic acid, 2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, vanillic acid, and vanillin were detected as degradation products of veratrylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Guaiacoxyacetic acid (0.25...

  6. Gelria glutamica gen. nov., sp. a thermophilic oligately syntrophic glutamate-degrading anaerobe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Balk, M.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, Gram-positive, thermophilic, spore-forming, obligately syntrophic, glutamate-degrading bacterium, strain TGO(T), was isolated from a propionate-oxidizing methanogenic enrichment culture. The axenic culture was obtained by growing the bacterium on pyruvate. Cells were rod-shaped

  7. Aerobic versus Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Clothianidin under Simulated California Rice Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Tomco, Patrick L; Howard, Megan W; Schempp, Tabitha T; Stewart, Davis J; Stacey, Phillip M; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-09-28

    Microbial degradation of clothianidin was characterized under aerobic and anaerobic California rice field conditions. Rate constants (k) and half-lives (DT50) were determined for aerobic and anaerobic microcosms, and an enrichment experiment was performed at various nutrient conditions and pesticide concentrations. Temperature effects on anaerobic degradation rates were determined at 22 ± 2 and 35 ± 2 °C. Microbial growth was assessed in the presence of various pesticide concentrations, and distinct colonies were isolated and identified. Slow aerobic degradation was observed, but anaerobic degradation occurred rapidly at both 25 and 35 °C. Transformation rates and DT50 values in flooded soil at 35 ± 2 °C (k = -7.16 × 10(-2) ± 3.08 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 9.7 days) were significantly faster than in 25 ± 2 °C microcosms (k= -2.45 × 10(-2) ± 1.59 × 10(-3) day(-1), DT50 = 28.3 days). At the field scale, biodegradation of clothianidin will vary with extent of oxygenation.

  8. Anaerobic degradation of long-chain alkylamines by a denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Ginkel, van C.G.; Plugge, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of tetradecylamine and other long-chain alkylamines by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium was studied. Strain ZN6 was isolated from a mixture of soil and active sludge and was identified as representing Pseudomonas stutzeri, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence

  9. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  10. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia Thabet, Olfa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  12. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  13. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in intermittent UASB reactors: influence of effluent recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couras, C S; Louros, V L; Gameiro, T; Alves, N; Silva, A; Capela, M I; Arroja, L M; Nadais, H

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the influence of effluent recirculation upon the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in the feedless phase of intermittent upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Several laboratory-scale tests were performed with different organic loads in closed circuit UASB reactors inoculated with adapted flocculent sludge. The data obtained were used for determination of specific substrate removal rates and specific methane production rates, and adjusted to kinetic models. A high initial substrate removal was observed in all tests due to adsorption of organic matter onto the anaerobic biomass which was not accompanied by biological substrate degradation as measured by methane production. Initial methane production rate was about 45% of initial soluble and colloidal substrate removal rate. This discrepancy between methane production rate and substrate removal rate was observed mainly on the first day of all experiments and was attenuated on the second day, suggesting that the feedless period of intermittent UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater should be longer than one day. Effluent recirculation expressively raised the rate of removal of soluble and colloidal substrate and methane productivity, as compared with results for similar assays in batch reactors without recirculation. The observed bed expansion was due to the biogas production and the application of effluent recirculation led to a sludge bed contraction after all the substrates were degraded. The settleability of the anaerobic sludge improved by the introduction of effluent recirculation this effect being more pronounced for the higher loads.

  15. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  16. Anaerobic degradation of naphthalene by the mixed bacteria under nitrate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Ding Aizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mixed bacteria were enriched from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The anaerobic degradation characteristics by the enriched bacteria with different initial naphthalene concentrations were investigated under nitrate reducing conditions. The results showed that the mixed bacteria could degrade nearly all the naphthalene over the incubations of 25 days when the initial naphthalene concentration was below 30 mg/L. The degradation rates of naphthalene increased with increasing initial concentrations. A high naphthalene concentration of 30 mg/L did not inhibit neither on the bacterial growth nor on the naphthalene degradation ability. The accumulation of nitrite was occurred during the reduction of nitrate, and a nitrite concentration of 50 mg/L had no inhibition effect on the degradation of naphthalene. The calculation of electron balances revealed that most of the naphthalene was oxidized whereas a small proportion was used for cell synthesis.

  17. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  18. Regulating the 20S Proteasome Ubiquitin-Independent Degradation Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Ben-Nissan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the ubiquitin-26S proteasome degradation pathway was considered the primary route for proteasomal degradation. However, it is now becoming clear that proteins can also be targeted for degradation by the core 20S proteasome itself. Degradation by the 20S proteasome does not require ubiquitin tagging or the presence of the 19S regulatory particle; rather, it relies on the inherent structural disorder of the protein being degraded. Thus, proteins that contain unstructured regions due to oxidation, mutation, or aging, as well as naturally, intrinsically unfolded proteins, are susceptible to 20S degradation. Unlike the extensive knowledge acquired over the years concerning degradation by the 26S proteasome, relatively little is known about the means by which 20S-mediated proteolysis is controlled. Here, we describe our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate 20S proteasome-mediated degradation, and highlight the gaps in knowledge that remain to be bridged.

  19. Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades long chain fatty acids in co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Smidt, H.; Alves, M.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    An anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain OL-4T, was isolated as a co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535NT from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed reactor used to treat an oleate-based effluent. Strain OL-4T degraded oleate, a

  20. Studies on the enzymology of cellulose degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, K.M.; Gow, L.A.; Wilson, C.A.; Wood, T.W. (Rowett Research Inst., Aberdeen (UK))

    1990-01-01

    The extracellular cellulases from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis are very active on crystalline cellulose. In both cases the activity resides in a high molecular weight complex. The complex from C. thermocellum (termed the cellulosome) was found to be readily dissociated at pH 5.0 and at room temperature by a mixture of SDS, EDTA and DTT. Virtually all the activity of the unfractionated cellulosome was recovered when the dissociated enzyme components were reassociated by dialysis. Thus, the route is now established for the first time for a meaningful study of the mechanism of cellulase action of this commercially important enzyme system. Nearly all of the activity to crystalline cellulose shown by the cellulase of N. frontalis was associated with a fraction which comprised only 2% of the extracellular protein, 3% of the endoglucanase and 3% of the {beta}-glucosidase. This fraction, which could be isolated by affinity chromatography on cellulose, was produced in greater quantity when the fungus was grown in co-culture with the methanogen, Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme for degradation of crystalline cellulose was several-fold greater than that produced by the aerobic fungus T. reesei, which is being developed world-wide for its commercial potential for converting cellulose to fermentable soluble sugars. The cellulase of N. frontalis clearly has great commercial potential. 39 refs., 19 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Vitamin C Degradation Products and Pathways in the Human Lens*

    OpenAIRE

    Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation ...

  2. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the

  3. The deep-subsurface sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii employs two methanol-degrading pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Diana Z; Visser, Michael; van Gelder, Antonie H; Boeren, Sjef; Pieterse, Mervin M; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Vogt, Carsten; Franke, Steffi; Kümmel, Steffen; Stams, Alfons J M

    2018-01-16

    Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in deep-subsurface environments, where thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfotomaculum have key roles. Here, we study the methanol metabolism of Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii strain 17 T , isolated from a 3000-m deep geothermal water reservoir. We use proteomics to analyze cells grown with methanol and sulfate in the presence and absence of cobalt and vitamin B12. The results indicate the presence of two methanol-degrading pathways in D. kuznetsovii, a cobalt-dependent methanol methyltransferase and a cobalt-independent methanol dehydrogenase, which is further confirmed by stable isotope fractionation. This is the first report of a microorganism utilizing two distinct methanol conversion pathways. We hypothesize that this gives D. kuznetsovii a competitive advantage in its natural environment.

  4. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    losses were observed in the sterile controls (20-22%), substantial DBP biodegradation was found in the enrichment cultures (90-99%). In addition, significant population changes were observed. The dominant bacterial species in the DBP-degrading cultures was affiliated to Soehngenia saccharolytica...... in enrichment cultures degrading phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions. A selection pressure was applied by adding DBP at 10 and 200 mg L(-1) in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. The microbial dynamics were monitored using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). While only limited abiotic...

  5. Cellulose- and xylan-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from biocompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, M V; Izquierdo, J A; Panikov, N S; Lynd, L R

    2011-04-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation.

  6. Vitamin C degradation products and pathways in the human lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Ina; Monnier, Vincent M

    2011-10-28

    Vitamin C and its degradation products participate in chemical modifications of proteins in vivo through non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) and formation of different products called advanced glycation end products. Vitamin C levels are particularly high in selected tissues, such as lens, brain and adrenal gland, and its degradation products can inflict substantial protein damage via formation of advanced glycation end products. However, the pathways of in vivo vitamin C degradation are poorly understood. Here we have determined the levels of vitamin C oxidation and degradation products dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, 3-deoxythreosone, xylosone, and threosone in the human lens using o-phenylenediamine to trap both free and protein-bound adducts. In the protein-free fraction and water-soluble proteins (WSP), all five listed degradation products were identified. Dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid, and 3-deoxythreosone were the major products in the protein-free fraction, whereas in the WSP, 3-deoxythreosone was the most abundant measured dicarbonyl. In addition, 3-deoxythreosone in WSP showed positive linear correlation with age (p degradation product bound to human lens proteins provides in vivo evidence for the non-oxidative pathway of dehydroascorbate degradation into erythrulose as a major pathway for vitamin C degradation in vivo.

  7. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn eDiender; Alfons J.M. Stams; Alfons J.M. Stams; Diana Z. Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, ...

  8. Protein degradation pathways in Parkinson's disease: curse or blessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Wahlster, Lara; McLean, Pamela J

    2012-08-01

    Protein misfolding, aggregation and deposition are common disease mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of damaged or abnormally modified proteins may lead to perturbed cellular function and eventually to cell death. Thus, neurons rely on elaborated pathways of protein quality control and removal to maintain intracellular protein homeostasis. Molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) are critical pathways that mediate the refolding or removal of abnormal proteins. The successive failure of these protein degradation pathways, as a cause or consequence of early pathological alterations in vulnerable neurons at risk, may present a key step in the pathological cascade that leads to spreading neurodegeneration. A growing number of studies in disease models and patients have implicated dysfunction of the UPS and ALP in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Deciphering the exact mechanism by which the different proteolytic systems contribute to the elimination of pathogenic proteins, like α-synuclein, is therefore of paramount importance. We herein review the role of protein degradation pathways in Parkinson's disease and elaborate on the different contributions of the UPS and the ALP to the clearance of altered proteins. We examine the interplay between different degradation pathways and provide a model for the role of the UPS and ALP in the evolution and progression of α-synuclein pathology. With regards to exciting recent studies we also discuss the putative potential of using protein degradation pathways as novel therapeutic targets in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  10. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  12. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  13. Enzymatic description of the anhydrofructose pathway of glycogen degradation. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Shukun; Refdahl, Charlotte; Lundt, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The anhydrofructose pathway describes the degradation of glycogen and starch to metabolites via 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5AnFru). The enzyme catalyzing the first reaction step of this pathway, i.e., a-1,4-glucan lyase (EC 4.2.1.13), has been purified, cloned and characterized from fungi and red...... possessed all enzymes needed for conversion of glycogen to APP, an a-1,4-glucan lyase from this fungus was isolated and partially sequenced. Based on this work, a scheme of the enzymatic description of the anhydrofructose pathway in A. melaloma was proposed. Keywords: Anhydrofructose pathway; Anthracobia...

  14. Biominerlization and possible endosulfan degradation pathway adapted by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Tejomyee S

    2013-11-28

    Endosulfan is a chlorinated pesticide; its persistence in the environment and toxic effects on biota are demanding its removal. This study aims at improving the tolerance of the previously isolated fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger) ARIFCC 1053 to endosulfan. Released chloride, dehalogenase activity, and released proteins were estimated along with analysis of endosulfan degradation and pathway identification. The culture could tolerate 1,000 mg/ml of technical grade endosulfan. Complete disappearance of endosulfan was seen after 168 h of incubation. The degradation study could easily be correlated with increase in released chlorides, dehalogenase activity and protein released. Comparative infrared spectral analysis suggested that the molecule of endosulfan was degraded efficiently by A. niger ARIFCC 1053. Obtained mass ion values by GC-MS suggested a hypothetical pathway during endosulfan degradation by A. niger ARIFCC 1053. All these results provide a basis for the development of bioremediation strategies to remediate the pollutant under study in the environment.

  15. New Pathway for Nonphosphorylated Degradation of Gluconate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzainy, T. A.; Hassan, M. M.; Allam, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    A new nonphosphorylative pathway for gluconate degradation was found in extracts of a strain of Aspergillus niger. The findings indicate that gluconate is dehydrated into 2-keto-3-deoxy-gluconate (KDG), which then is cleaved into glyceraldehyde and pyruvate. 6-Phosphogluconate was not degraded under the same conditions. In addition, KDG was formed from glyceraldehyde and pyruvate. Very weak activity was obtained when glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate replaced glyceraldehyde in this reaction. PMID:4698214

  16. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  17. Trichloroethylene degradation by two independent aromatic-degrading pathways in Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134.

    OpenAIRE

    Harker, A R; Kim, Y

    1990-01-01

    The bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) degrades trichloroethylene (TCE) by a chromosomal phenol-dependent pathway and by the plasmid-encoded 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pathway. The two pathways were independent and exhibited different rates of removal and capacities for quantity of TCE removed. The phenol-dependent pathway was more rapid (0.2 versus 0.06 nmol of TCE removed per min per mg of protein) and consumed all detectable TCE. The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-dependent p...

  18. Inhibitors degradation and microbial response during continuous anaerobic conversion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Buchun; Li, Jiaming; Zhu, Zhangbing; Shen, Mengmeng; Lu, Jianwen; Duan, Na; Zhang, Yuanhui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Liu, Zhidan

    2018-07-15

    One critical challenge of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is its complex aqueous product, which has a high concentration of organic pollutants (up to 100gCOD/L) and diverse fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural, phenolics and N-heterocyclic compounds. Here we report continuous anaerobic digestion of HTL wastewater via an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) and packed bed reactor (PBR). Specifically, we investigated the transformation of fermentation inhibitors and microbial response. GC-MS identified the complete degradation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and partial degradation (54.0-74.6%) of organic nitrogen and phenolic compounds, including 3-hydroxypyridine, phenol and 4-ethyl-phenol. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that the bacteria families related to detoxification increased in response to the HTL aqueous phase. In addition, the increase of acetate-oxidizing bacteria in UASB and acetogens in PBR showed a strengthened acetogenesis. As for the archaeal communities, an increase in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed. Based on GC-MS/HPLC and microbial analysis, we speculate that dominant fermentation inhibitors were transformed into intermediates (Acetyl-CoA and acetate), further contributing to biomethane formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  20. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luiza L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm, which were similar to each other.

  1. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Damodar, Rahul A.; Hou, Sheng-Chon

    2010-01-01

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO 2 system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum sp strain 15-1 as a representative anaerobic toluene-degrader from a constructed wetland model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Cifuentes, Ingrid; Lavanchy, Paula Maria Martinez; Marin-Cevada, Vianey

    2017-01-01

    -independent approaches indicated also that microbes capable of anaerobic toluene degradation were abundant. Therefore, we aimed at isolating anaerobic-toluene degraders from one of these PFRs. From the obtained colonies which consisted of spirilli-shaped bacteria, a strain designated 15-1 was selected for further...

  3. Degradation of Nicotine in Chlorinated Water: Pathways and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The objective of the study is to illustrate how drinking water would affect alkaloid pesticides, and to address the issue by (a) investigating the fate of nicotine in chlorinated drinking water and deionized water, (b) determining the reaction rate and pathway of the reaction between nicotine and aqueous chlorine, (c) identifying nicotine’s degradation products, and (d) providing data that can be used to assess the potential threat from nicotine in drinking water.

  4. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangguo, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn; Xiangyang, Yu [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  5. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Guangguo; Yu Xiangyang; Kookana, Rai S.

    2007-01-01

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil

  6. Effects of disintegration on anaerobic degradation of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, M; Krüger, M; Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2000-01-01

    The effects of mechanical disintegration on anaerobic digestibility of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) digesters were investigated on laboratory scale. Mechanical pretreatment using a high pressure homogenizer led to significantly enhanced concentrations of soluble proteins and carbohydrates in the feed sludge. Using DSFF digesters with two different tubular plastic media as support material it was shown that a stable digestion process could be achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) down to 5 days. Compared to conventional digesters at 10 d and 15 d HRT respectively, the degradation of volatile solids was enhanced up to 25%, also resulting in a higher specific biogas production. Further investigations on degradation of soluble proteins and carbohydrates showed that a slowly degradable fraction of carbohydrates was released via disintegration. Using the distribution of chain length and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids as process parameters, the dependability on the HRT and the degree of disintegration (the release of soluble COD) predominated the effects of specific surface area of the support media.

  7. New insights into enhanced anaerobic degradation of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) with the assistance of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei; Xu, Chunyan

    2018-08-01

    The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system with graphene assisted was developed for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment. Short-term results showed that optimal graphene addition (0.5 g/L) resulted in a more significant enhancement of methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal compared with that of the optimal activated carbon addition (10.0 g/L). Long-term results demonstrated that COD removal efficiency and methane production rate with graphene assisted achieved 64.7% and 180.5 mL/d, respectively. In addition, graphene could promote microbes accumulation and enzymes activity, resulting in higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and coenzyme F 420 concentrations. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that chemical of graphene changed insignificantly during the experiment. Meanwhile, with graphene assisted, cells were attached together to form microbial aggregates to facilitate sludge granulation process. Furthermore, the enriched Geobacter and Pseudomonas might perform direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) with Methanosaeta via biological electrical connection, enhancing the anaerobic degradation of CGW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids in syntrophic association with methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M J [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana; Bryant, M P; Pfennig, N

    1979-01-01

    A new species of anaerobic bacterium that degrades the even-numbered carbon fatty acids, butyrate, caproate and caprylate, to acetate and H/sub 2/ and the odd-numbered carbon fatty acids, valerate and heptanoate, to acetate, propionate and H/sub 2/ was obtained in coculture with either an H/sub 2/-utilizing methanogen or H/sub 2/-utilizing desulfovibrio. The organism could be grown only in syntrophic association with the H/sub 2/-utilizer and no other energy sources or combination of electron donor and acceptors were utilized. It was a Gram-negative helical rod with 2 to 8 flagella, about 20 nm in diameter, inserted in a linear fashion about 130 nm or more apart along the concave side of the cell. It grew with a generation time of 84 h in co-culture with Methanospirillum hungatii and was present in numbers of at least 4.5 x 10/sup -6/ per g of anaerobic digest or sludge.

  9. Kynurenine pathway in psychosis: evidence of increased tryptophan degradation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Sandra

    2009-05-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation may serve to integrate disparate abnormalities heretofore identified in research aiming to elucidate the complex aetiopathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Post-mortem brain tissue studies have reported elevated kynurenine and kynurenic acid in the frontal cortex and upregulation of the first step of the pathway in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined kynurenine pathway activity by measuring tryptophan breakdown, a number of pathway metabolites and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which is the preferential activator of the first-step enzyme, indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), in the plasma of patients with major psychotic disorder. Plasma tryptophan, kynurenine pathway metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 34 patients with a diagnosis on the psychotic spectrum (schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and in 36 healthy control subjects. IFN-gamma was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean tryptophan breakdown index (kynurenine\\/tryptophan) was significantly higher in the patient group compared with controls (P < 0.05). IFN-gamma measures did not differ between groups (P = 0.23). No relationship was found between measures of psychopathology, symptom severity and activity in the first step in the pathway. A modest correlation was established between the tryptophan breakdown index and illness duration. These results provide evidence for kynurenine pathway upregulation, specifically involving the first enzymatic step, in patients with major psychotic disorder. Increased tryptophan degradation in psychoses may have potential consequences for the treatment of these disorders by informing the development of novel therapeutic compounds.

  10. Phenol degradation in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor packed with low density support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Sancinetti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study phenol degradation in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR packed with polymeric particulate supports (polystyrene - PS, polyethylene terephthalate - PET, and polyvinyl chloride - PVC. The reactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h. The influent phenol concentration in the AFBR varied from 100 to 400 mg L-1, resulting in phenol removal efficiencies of ~100%. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances yielded better results with the PVC particles; however, deformations in these particles proved detrimental to reactor operation. PS was found to be the best support for biomass attachment in an AFBR for phenol removal. The AFBR loaded with PS was operated to analyze the performance and stability for phenol removal at feed concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 mg L-1. The phenol removal efficiency ranged from 90-100%.

  11. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  12. The deep-subsurface sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii employs two methanol-degrading pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Diana Z.; Visser, Michael; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Boeren, Sjef; Pieterse, Mervin M.; Pinkse, Martijn W.H.; Verhaert, Peter D.E.M.; Vogt, Carsten; Franke, Steffi; Kümmel, Steffen; Stams, Alfons J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in

  13. Complementary roles of intracellular and pericellular collagen degradation pathways in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar-Miller, Rebecca A; Engelholm, Lars H; Gavard, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Collagen degradation is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Two key turnover pathways have been described for collagen: intracellular cathepsin-mediated degradation and pericellular collagenase-mediated degradation. However, the functional relationship between these ...

  14. Insights into the Anaerobic Biodegradation Pathway of n-Alkanes in Oil Reservoirs by Detection of Signature Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin-Yu; Maurice Mbadinga, Serge; Liu, Yi-Fan; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Ye, Ru-Qiang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of alkanes in hydrocarbon-rich environments has been documented and different degradation strategies proposed, of which the most encountered one is fumarate addition mechanism, generating alkylsuccinates as specific biomarkers. However, little is known about the mechanisms of anaerobic degradation of alkanes in oil reservoirs, due to low concentrations of signature metabolites and lack of mass spectral characteristics to allow identification. In this work, we used a multidisciplinary approach combining metabolite profiling and selective gene assays to establish the biodegradation mechanism of alkanes in oil reservoirs. A total of twelve production fluids from three different oil reservoirs were collected and treated with alkali; organic acids were extracted, derivatized with ethanol to form ethyl esters and determined using GC-MS analysis. Collectively, signature metabolite alkylsuccinates of parent compounds from C1 to C8 together with their (putative) downstream metabolites were detected from these samples. Additionally, metabolites indicative of the anaerobic degradation of mono- and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (2-benzylsuccinate, naphthoate, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthoate) were also observed. The detection of alkylsuccinates and genes encoding for alkylsuccinate synthase shows that anaerobic degradation of alkanes via fumarate addition occurs in oil reservoirs. This work provides strong evidence on the in situ anaerobic biodegradation mechanisms of hydrocarbons by fumarate addition. PMID:25966798

  15. The effect of moisture regimes on the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste from Metepec (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Berriel, Ma.C.; Marquez-Benavides, L.; Gonzalez-Perez, D.J.; Buenrostro-Delgado, O.

    2008-01-01

    The State of Mexico, situated in central Mexico, has a population of about 14 million, distributed in approximately 125 counties. Solid waste management represents a serious and ongoing pressure to local authorities. The final disposal site ('El Socavon') does not comply with minimum environmental requirements as no liners or leachate management infrastructure are available. Consequently, leachate composition or the effects of rain water input on municipal solid waste degradation are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to monitor the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW), simulating the water addition due to rainfall, under two different moisture content regimes (70% and 80% humidity). The study was carried out using bioreactors in both laboratory and pilot scales. The variation of organic matter and pH was followed in the solid matrix of the MSW. The leachate produced was used to estimate the field capacity of the MSW and to determine the pH, COD, BOD and heavy metals. Some leachate parameters were found to be within permitted limits, but further research is needed in order to analyze the leachate from lower layers of the disposal site ('El Socavon')

  16. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  17. Characterization of microbial consortia in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Liu, W T; Tseng, I C; Cheng, S S

    2001-02-01

    The microbial composition and spatial distribution in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system were characterized using molecular techniques. 16S rDNA clone library and sequence analysis revealed that 78.5% of 106 bacterial clones belonged to the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria; the remaining clones were assigned to the green non-sulfur bacteria (7.5%), Synergistes (0.9%) and unidentified divisions (13.1%). Most of the bacterial clones in the delta-Proteobacteria formed a novel group containing no known bacterial isolates. For the domain Archaea, 81.7% and 18.3% of 72 archaeal clones were affiliated with Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum, respectively. Spatial localization of microbial populations inside granules was determined by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting the novel delta-proteobacterial group, the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, and the hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum and members of Methanobacteriaceae. The novel group included at least two different populations with identical rod-shape morphology, which made up more than 87% of the total bacterial cells, and were closely associated with methanogenic populations to form a nonlayered granular structure. This novel group was presumed to be the primary bacterial population involved in the terephthalate degradation in the methanogenic granular consortium.

  18. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  19. E1AF degradation by a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Aoyagi, Mariko; Yoshida, Koichi; Itoh, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Totsuka, Yasunori; Kohgo, Takao; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    E1AF is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. In mammary tumors, overexpression of E1AF is associated with tumorigenesis, but E1AF protein has hardly been detected and its degradation mechanism is not yet clear. Here we show that E1AF protein is stabilized by treatment with the 26S protease inhibitor MG132. We found that E1AF was modified by ubiquitin through the C-terminal region and ubiquitinated E1AF aggregated in nuclear dots, and that the inhibition of proteasome-activated transcription from E1AF target promoters. These results suggest that E1AF is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has some effect on E1AF function

  20. Organic Waste Anaerobic degradation with bio-activator-5 Effective Microorganism (EM-5 to Produce Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metri Dian Insani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradasi Anaerob Sampah Organik dengan Bioaktivator Effective Microorganism-5 (EM-5 untuk Menghasilkan Biogas Abstract: The purpose of this study was to: (1 analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2 analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow dung for a long time flame biogas produced, and (3 analyze the different uses corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the C / N ratio end. Experimental study was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD, with three treatments each in 3 repetitions. The research proves that: (1 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the length of time the flame and (3 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the C / N ratio end. Key Words: anaerobic degradation, organic waste, EM-5, biogas Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk: (1 menganalisis perbedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap tekanan biogas, (2 menganalisis perbedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penam-bahan kotoran sapi terhadap lama waktu nyala api biogas yang dihasilkan, dan (3 menganalisis per-bedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap rasio C/N akhir. Penelitian eksperimen didesain menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan tiga perlakuan masing-masing dalam 3 kali ulangan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa: (1 terdapat perbedaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap tekanan biogas, (2 terdapat

  1. Anaerobic degradation of organic municipal solid waste together with liquid manure. Part 1; Anaerob nedbrydning af organisk husholdningsaffald sammen med gylle. Del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    This project includes preliminary investigations about anaerobic degradation of organic municipal waste together with liquid manure. Investigations consist of characterization of organic municipal waste and preliminary test of anaerobic degradation of the waste. Characterization is related especially to the contents of environmentally hazardous substances, while the degradation process is characterized by means of determination of biogas potential in batch test and methane yield, organic VS (volatile solids) reduction and process stability in reactor test. In relation to environmentally hazardous substances the content of NPE and LAS in all tests of organic municipal waste was insignificant. The main problem was the content of DEHP, concentration of which is half of the cut-off value in the municipal waste. By TS (Total solid) reduction through the biogas process the DEHP concentration will thus exceed the cut-off value pr kg TS in the effluent if DEHP is not removed at the same time. The PAH concentration in the collected waste was only in one case at the level of the cut-off value which would exceed the cut-off value if no removal happens through the anaerobic degradation. The biogas potential of municipal waste was determined to be 187 m{sup 3}biogas/m{sup 3}waste, which makes organic municipal waste a very attractive waste type for biogas plants. No direct restraint by degradation of clean waste in batch test could be demonstrated. In the reactor test a stable degradation of organic municipal waste with an increasing supply of waste in mixture with manure could be established. By treatment of a mixture of municipal waste and manure in ratio to 50 : 50 a methane yield on 350 lCH{sub 4} kg VS and a VS-reduction between 50% and 60% could be obtained. Using clean municipal waste diluted with water the methane yield was higher than in the batch test and a VS reduction of up to 80% could be obtained. The analyses of DEHP and PAH in influent and effluent of the

  2. Degradation of Chlorinated Aromatic Compounds in UASB Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina; Hendriksen, Hanne Vang; Järvinen, Kimmo T.

    1995-01-01

    Data on anaerobic degradation of chloroaromatic compounds in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors (UASB-reactor) are presented and compared. Special attention is given to the metabolic pathways for degradation of chlorinated phenols by granular sludge. Results indicate that PCP can be degraded...

  3. Photo-fenton degradation of diclofenac: identification of main intermediates and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Malato, Sixto; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Agüera, Ana; Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been of growing interest. These new contaminants are important because many of them are not degraded under the typical biological treatments applied in the wastewater treatment plants and represent a continuous input into the environment. Thus, compounds such as diclofenac are present in surface waters in all Europe and a crucial need for more enhanced technologies that can reduce its presence in the environment has become evident. In this sense, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) represent a good choice for the treatment of hazardous nonbiodegradable pollutants. This work deals with the solar photodegradation of diclofenac, an antiinflammatory drug, in aqueous solutions by photo-Fenton reaction. A pilot-scale facility using a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor was used for this study. Results obtained show rapid and complete oxidation of diclofenac after 60 min, and total mineralization (disappearance of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) after 100 min of exposure to sunlight. Although diclofenac precipitates during the process at low pH, its degradation takes place in the homogeneous phase governed by a precipitation-redissolution-degradation process. Establishment of the reaction pathway was made possible by a thorough analysis of the reaction mixture identifying the main intermediate products generated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) were used to identify 18 intermediates, in two tentative degradation routes. The main one was based on the initial hydroxylation of the phenylacetic acid moiety in the C-4 position and subsequent formation of a quinone imine derivative that was the starting point for further multistep degradation involving hydroxylation, decarboxylation, and oxidation reactions. An alternative route was based on the transient preservation of the biphenyl amino moiety

  4. Proteogenomic Characterization of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Aniline-Degrading Bacterium Burkholderia sp. K24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeop Lee

    Full Text Available Burkholderia sp. K24, formerly known as Acinetobacter lwoffii K24, is a soil bacterium capable of utilizing aniline as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that this bacterium possesses putative gene clusters for biodegradation of various monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, as well as aniline. We verified the proposed MAH biodegradation pathways by dioxygenase activity assays, RT-PCR, and LC/MS-based quantitative proteomic analyses. This proteogenomic approach revealed four independent degradation pathways, all converging into the citric acid cycle. Aniline and p-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathways converged into the β-ketoadipate pathway. Benzoate and toluene were degraded through the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. The xylene isomers, i.e., o-, m-, and p-xylene, were degraded via the extradiol cleavage pathways. Salicylate was degraded through the gentisate degradation pathway. Our results show that Burkholderia sp. K24 possesses versatile biodegradation pathways, which may be employed for efficient bioremediation of aniline and BTX.

  5. Proteogenomic Characterization of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Aniline-Degrading Bacterium Burkholderia sp. K24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Ho; Choi, Chi-Won; Yi, Yoon-Sun; Kim, Jonghyun; Chung, Young-Ho; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. K24, formerly known as Acinetobacter lwoffii K24, is a soil bacterium capable of utilizing aniline as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that this bacterium possesses putative gene clusters for biodegradation of various monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), including benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), as well as aniline. We verified the proposed MAH biodegradation pathways by dioxygenase activity assays, RT-PCR, and LC/MS-based quantitative proteomic analyses. This proteogenomic approach revealed four independent degradation pathways, all converging into the citric acid cycle. Aniline and p-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathways converged into the β-ketoadipate pathway. Benzoate and toluene were degraded through the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. The xylene isomers, i.e., o-, m-, and p-xylene, were degraded via the extradiol cleavage pathways. Salicylate was degraded through the gentisate degradation pathway. Our results show that Burkholderia sp. K24 possesses versatile biodegradation pathways, which may be employed for efficient bioremediation of aniline and BTX. PMID:27124467

  6. Investigation of the impact of trace elements on anaerobic volatile fatty acid degradation using a fractional factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2017-11-15

    The requirement of trace elements (TE) in anaerobic digestion process is widely documented. However, little is understood regarding the specific requirement of elements and their critical concentrations under different operating conditions such as substrate characterisation and temperature. In this study, a flask batch trial using fractional factorial design is conducted to investigate volatile fatty acids (VFA) anaerobic degradation rate under the influence of the individual and combined effect of six TEs (Co, Ni, Mo, Se, Fe and W). The experiment inoculated with food waste digestate, spiked with sodium acetate and sodium propionate both to 10 g/l. This is followed by the addition of a selection of the six elements in accordance with a 2 6-2 fractional factorial principle. The experiment is conducted in duplicate and the degradation of VFA is regularly monitored. Factorial effect analysis on the experimental results reveals that within these experimental conditions, Se has a key role in promoting the degradation rates of both acetic and propionic acids; Mo and Co are found to have a modest effect on increasing propionic acid degradation rate. It is also revealed that Ni shows some inhibitory effects on VFA degradation, possibly due to its toxicity. Additionally, regression coefficients for the main and second order effects are calculated to establish regression models for VFA degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge by degasification of dissolved hydrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hisashi; Bandara, Wasala M K R T W; Sasakawa, Manabu; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    A hollow fiber degassing membrane (DM) was applied to enhance organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge process by reducing the dissolved hydrogen gas (D-H 2 ) concentration in the liquid phase. DM was installed in the bench-scale anaerobic granular sludge reactors and D-H 2 was removed through DM using a vacuum pump. Degasification improved the organic matter degradation efficiency to 79% while the efficiency was 62% without degasification at 12,000mgL -1 of the influent T-COD concentration. Measurement of D-H 2 concentrations in the liquid phase confirmed that D-H 2 was removed by degasification. Furthermore, the effect of acetate concentrations on the organic matter degradation efficiency was investigated. At acetate concentrations above 3gL -1 , organic matter degradation deteriorated. Degasification enhanced the propionate and acetate degradation. These results suggest that degasification reduced D-H 2 concentration and volatile fatty acids concentrations, prevented pH drop, and subsequent enhanced organic matter degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Fernando J.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Borglin, Sharon; Brislawn, Colin J.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Carroll, Jolynn; Sjoling, Sara; Lozada , Mariana

    2018-01-02

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  9. Iodinated contrast media electro-degradation: process performance and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, Guido; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    The electrochemical degradation of six of the most widely used iodinated contrast media was investigated. Batch experiments were performed under constant current conditions using two DSA® electrodes (titanium coated with a proprietary and patented mixed metal oxide solution of precious metals such as iridium, ruthenium, platinum, rhodium and tantalum). The degradation removal never fell below 85% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) when perchlorate was used as the supporting electrolyte; however, when sulphate was used, the degradation performance was above 80% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) for all of the compounds studied. Three main degradation pathways were identified, namely, the reductive de-iodination of the aromatic ring, the reduction of alkyl aromatic amides to simple amides and the de-acylation of N-aromatic amides to produce aromatic amines. However, as amidotrizoate is an aromatic carboxylate, this is added via the decarboxylation reaction. The investigation did not reveal toxicity except for the lower current density used, which has shown a modest toxicity, most likely for some reaction intermediates that are not further degraded. In order to obtain total removal of the contrast media, it was necessary to employ a current intensity between 118 and 182 mA/cm(2) with energy consumption higher than 370 kWh/m(3). Overall, the electrochemical degradation was revealed to be a reliable process for the treatment of iodinated contrast media that can be found in contaminated waters such as hospital wastewater or pharmaceutical waste-contaminated streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van R.C.; Bonilla-Salinas, M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Bruning, H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda

  11. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA in a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmeyer, C; Koch, J; Fuchs, G

    1992-06-01

    The enzymes catalyzing the initial reactions in the anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) were studied with a denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. anaerobically grown with 2-aminobenzoate and nitrate as the sole carbon and energy sources. Cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate are simultaneously adapted to growth with benzoate, whereas cells grown on benzoate degrade 2-aminobenzoate several times less efficiently than benzoate. Evidence for a new reductive pathway of aromatic metabolism and for four enzymes catalyzing the initial steps is presented. The organism contains 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase), which forms 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA is then reductively deaminated to benzoyl-CoA by an oxygen-sensitive enzyme, 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reductase (deaminating), which requires a low potential reductant [Ti(III)]. The specific activity is 15 nmol of 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reduced min-1 mg-1 of protein at an optimal pH of 7. The two enzymes are induced by the substrate under anaerobic conditions only. Benzoyl-CoA is further converted in vitro by reduction with Ti(III) to six products; the same products are formed when benzoyl-CoA or 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA is incubated under reducing conditions. Two of them were identified preliminarily. One product is cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA, the other is trans-2-hydroxycyclohexane-carboxyl-CoA. The complex transformation of benzoyl-CoA is ascribed to at least two enzymes, benzoyl-CoA reductase (aromatic ring reducing) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA hydratase. The reduction of benzoyl-CoA to alicyclic compounds is catalyzed by extracts from cells grown anaerobically on either 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate at almost the same rate (10 to 15 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein). In contrast, extracts from cells grown anaerobically on acetate or grown aerobically on benzoate or 2-aminobenzoate are inactive. This suggests a sequential induction of the enzymes.

  12. Characterization of a novel oxyfluorfen-degrading bacterial strain Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense and its biochemical degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Yanbing; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-08-01

    Persistent use of the diphenyl ether herbicides oxyfluorfen may seriously increase the health risks and ecological safety problems. A newly bacterium R-21 isolated from active soil was able to degrade and utilize oxyfluorfen as the sole carbon source. R-21 was identified as Chryseobacterium aquifrigidense by morphology, physiobiochemical characteristics, and genetic analysis. Under the optimum cultural conditions (pH 6.9, temperature 33.4 °C, and inoculum size 0.2 g L(-1)), R-21 could degrade 92.1 % of oxyfluorfen at 50 mg L(-1) within 5 days. During oxyfluorfen degradation, six metabolites were detected and identified by atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry, and a plausible degradation pathway was deduced. Strain R-21 is a promising potential in bioremediation of oxyfluorfen-contaminated environments.

  13. Adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition: Kinetics and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Genxiang; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Shuangqing; Zhang, Hongchang; Yuan, Zhejun; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Sulfonamides, one of the commonest antibiotics, were widely used on humans and livestock to control pathema and bacterial infections resulting in further environmental risks. The present study evaluated the adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition. Low sorption coefficients (K d , 1.22 L kg -1 for SDZ and 1.23 L kg -1 for SMX) obtained from Freundlich isotherms experiment indicated that poor sorption of both antibiotics may pose a high risk to environment due to their high mobility and possibility of entering surface and ground water. Degradation occurred at a lower rate under the anaerobic environment, where both two antibiotics had higher persistence in sterile and non-sterile soils with degradation ratio  20 d. Additionally, the addition of manure slightly increased degradation rates of SDZ and SMX, but there were no significant differences between single and repeated manure application at a later stage (p > 0.05), which suggested that the degradation was affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. Degradation rates would be slower at a higher concentration, indicating that degradation kinetics of SDZ and SMX were dependent on initial concentrations. During the degradation period, the antibiotics removal may change temperature, pH, sulfate and nitrate in soil, which suggested that the variation of antibiotics concentrations was related to the changes of soil physicochemical properties. An equation was proposed to elucidate the link between adsorption and degradation under different conditions, and to predict potential environmental risks of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of phthalates in unsorted household wastes; Anaerob nedbrytning av ftalater med ymp fraan anaerobt behandlat hushaallsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, H.

    1993-10-01

    Phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate were tested for their biodegradability in anaerobic, unsorted household wastes. The compounds were analyzed by measuring absorbance after centrifugation of a water suspension. This cheap and rapid method was proven to be applicable. Both phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate disappeared almost completely in 1-3 months, using initial concentrations from 50 to 250 mg/l. The same methodology was used for diethylhexyl phthalate, but did not work. The stoichiometrically expected amounts of methane were not found for any of the compounds, and in case of diethyl phthalate an inhibition of the methane production was observed. (36 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. Volatile fatty acid degradation kinetics in anaerobic process; Cinetica de la degradacion de acidos grasos volatiles en procesos anaerobios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riscado, S.; Osuna, B.; Iza, J.; Ruiz, E. [Universidad del Pais Vasco. Bilbao (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    While searching for the optimal substrate load for anaerobic toxicity assays, the inhibition caused by the propionic acid has been addressed. Lab scale experiments have been carried out to assess the effects of different loads and acid ratios. Results bad been subjected to kinetic analysis and show the degradation follows a first order kinetic, and acetic is easier to degrade than propionic acid. The optimal load for a 100 ml vial assay is composed of 158 mg COD of the 3:1:1 HAc:HPr:HBu mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  16. Importance of cobalt for individual trophic groups in an anaerobic methanol-degrading consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, L; Field, J A; Lettinga, G

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important anaerobic substrate in industrial wastewater treatment and the natural environment. Previous studies indicate that cobalt greatly stimulates methane formation during anaerobic treatment of methanolic wastewaters. To evaluate the effect of cobalt in a mixed culture, a sludge with low background levels of cobalt was cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Specific inhibitors in batch assays were then utilized to study the effect of cobalt on the growth...

  17. Anaerobic degradation of a mixture of MtBE, EtBE, TBA, and benzene under different redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waals, Marcelle J; Pijls, Charles; Sinke, Anja J C; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The increasing use of biobased fuels and fuel additives can potentially change the typical fuel-related contamination in soil and groundwater. Anaerobic biotransformation of the biofuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE), as well as of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), benzene, and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA, a possible oxygenate metabolite), was studied at an industrially contaminated site and in the laboratory. Analysis of groundwater samples indicated that in the field MtBE was degraded, yielding TBA as major product. In batch microcosms, MtBE was degraded under different conditions: unamended control, with medium without added electron acceptors, or with ferrihydrite or sulfate (with or without medium) as electron acceptor, respectively. Degradation of EtBE was not observed under any of these conditions tested. TBA was partially depleted in parallel with MtBE. Results of microcosm experiments with MtBE substrate analogues, i.e., syringate, vanillate, or ferulate, were in line with the hypothesis that the observed TBA degradation is a cometabolic process. Microcosms with ferulate, syringate, isopropanol, or diethyl ether showed EtBE depletion up to 86.5% of the initial concentration after 83 days. Benzene was degraded in the unamended controls, with medium without added electron acceptors and with ferrihydrite, sulfate, or chlorate as electron acceptor, respectively. In the presence of nitrate, benzene was only degraded after addition of an anaerobic benzene-degrading community. Nitrate and chlorate hindered MtBE, EtBE, and TBA degradation.

  18. The microbial ecology of anaerobic cellulose degradation in municipal waste landfill sites: evidence of a role for fibrobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Houghton, James N I; Rooks, David J; Allison, Heather E; McCarthy, Alan J

    2012-04-01

    Cellulose is reputedly the most abundant organic polymer in the biosphere, yet despite the fundamental role of cellulolytic microorganisms in global carbon cycling and as potential sources of novel enzymes for biotechnology, their identity and ecology is not well established. Cellulose is a major component of landfill waste and its degradation is therefore a key feature of the anaerobic microbial decomposition process. Here, we targeted a number of taxa containing known cellulolytic anaerobes (members of the bacterial genus Fibrobacter, lineages of Clostridium clusters I, III, IV and XIV, and anaerobic fungi of the Neocallimastigales) in landfill leachate and colonized cellulose 'baits' via PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium clusters III, IV and XIV were detected in almost all leachate samples and cluster III and XIV clostridia were the most abundant (1-6% and 1-17% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies respectively). Two landfill leachate microcosms were constructed to specifically assess those microbial communities that colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of colonized cotton revealed extensive cellulose degradation in one microcosm, and Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium cluster III represented 29% and 17%, respectively, of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in the biofilm. Visible cellulose degradation was not observed in the second microcosm, and this correlated with negligible relative abundances of Clostridium cluster III and Fibrobacter spp. (≤ 0.1%), providing the first evidence that the novel fibrobacters recently detected in landfill sites and other non-gut environments colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l -1 ) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m 3 t -1 substrate compared with 57.35 m 3 t -1 substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  20. Aqueous photodegradation of antibiotic florfenicol: kinetics and degradation pathway studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Li, Jianhua; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Guoqing; Feng, Yanhong; Wang, Zunyao; Yang, Xi

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of antibacterial agents in natural environment was of scientific concern in recent years. As endocrine disrupting chemicals, they had potential risk on ecology system and human beings. In the present study, the photodegradation kinetics and pathways of florfenicol were investigated under solar and xenon lamp irradiation in aquatic systems. Direct photolysis half-lives of florfenicol were determined as 187.29 h under solar irradiation and 22.43 h under xenon lamp irradiation, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) were found to play an important role in indirect photolysis process. The presence of nitrate and dissolved organic matters (DOMs) could affect photolysis of florfenicol in solutions through light screening effect, quenching effect, and photoinduced oxidization process. Photoproducts of florfenicol in DOMs solutions were identified by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) analysis techniques, and degradation pathways were proposed, including photoinduced hydrolysis, oxidation by (1)O2 and ·OH, dechlorination, and cleavage of the side chain.

  1. A probable pathway in the degradation of 2-methoxyethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methoxyethanol was isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge. The bacterium utilizes 2-methoxyethanol as sole source of carbon and energy. In a time course experiment Pseudomonas sp. strain VB was grown in 2-methoxyethanol, ethylene glycol, ...

  2. Tetracycline degradation by ozonation in the aqueous phase: Proposed degradation intermediates and pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Hammad; Bae, Hyokwan; Jung, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    During the ozonation of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous media at pHs 2.2 and 7.0, the effects of pH variations, protonation and dissociation of functional groups and variation in free radical exposure were investigated to elucidate the transformation pathway. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detected around 15 ozonation products, and uncovered their production and subsequent degradation patterns. During ozonation at pH 2.2, the TC degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the structure, ozonation chemistry and mass spectrometry data of TC. Ozonation of TC at the C11a-C12 and C2-C3 double bonds, aromatic ring and amino group generated products of m/z 461, 477, 509 and 416, respectively. Further ozonation at the above mentioned sites gave products of m/z 432, 480, 448, 525 and 496. The removal of TOC reached a maximum of ∼40% after 2 h of ozonation, while TC was completely removed within 4-6 min at both pHs. The low TOC removal efficiency might be due to the generation of recalcitrant products and the low ozone supply for high TC concentration. Ozonation decreased the acute toxicity of TC faster at pH 7.0 than pH 2.2, but the maximum decrease was only about 40% at both pHs after 2 h of ozonation. In this study, attempts were made to understand the correlation between the transformation products, pathway, acute toxicity and quantity of residual organics in solution. Overall, ozonation was found to be a promising process for removing TC and the products initially generated.

  3. Degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic irradiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Er; Yang, Mo; Wang, Dong; Yang, Xiaoying; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug found in various water bodies, posing threats to human health. In this research, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation at 585kHz on the degradation of DCF were studied under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions. First, the dechlorination efficiencies under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions were calculated to be 67%, 60%, 53% and 59%. Second, there was full mineralization of nitrogen during DCF degradation under the air, oxygen, and argon saturated conditions, but no mineralization of nitrogen under the nitrogen-saturated condition. Different from nitrogen, only partial mineralization of carbon occurred under the four gas-saturated conditions. Third, OH scavengers were added to derive the rate constants in the three reaction zones: cavitation bubble, supercritical interface, and bulk solution. Comparison of the constants indicated that DCF degradation was not limited to the bulk solution as conventionally assumed. Oxidation in the supercritical interface played a dominant role under the air and oxygen saturated conditions, while OH reactions in the cavitation bubble and/or bulk solution were dominant under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions. After the addition of H2O2, reactions in the cavitation bubble and bulk solution kept their dominant roles under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions, while reaction in the supercritical interface decreased under the air and oxygen saturated conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was used to derive the by-products and propose the main pathways of DCF degradation by ultrasonic irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of the antibiotics ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin on biogas production and their degradation efficiency during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J; Frear, Craig

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of four common animal husbandry antibiotics (ampicillin, florfenicol, sulfamethazine, and tylosin) on anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during digestion were evaluated. Sulfamethazine and ampicillin exhibited no impact on total biogas production up to 280 and 350 mg/L, respectively, although ampicillin inhibited biogas production rates during early stages of AD. Tylosin reduced biogas production by 10-38% between 130 and 913 mg/L. Florfenicol reduced biogas by ≈ 5%, 40% and 75% at 6.4, 36 and 210 mg/L, respectively. These antibiotic concentrations are higher than commonly seen for mixed feedlot manure, so impacts on full scale AD should be minimal. Antibiotic degradation products were found, confirming AD effectively degraded ampicillin, florfenicol, and tylosin, although some products were persistent throughout the process. Contamination of AD solid and liquid effluents with sulfamethazine and antibiotic transformation products from florfenicol and tylosin could present an environmental concern. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. Nine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. The nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible t...

  6. Fenton degradation of Cartap hydrochloride: identification of the main intermediates and the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaixun; Ming, Cuixiang; Dai, Youzhi; Honore Ake, Kouassi Marius

    2015-01-01

    The advanced oxidation of Cartap hydrochloride (Cartap) promoted by the Fenton system in an aqueous medium was investigated. Based on total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and high-performance liquid chromatography, the oxidation of Cartap is quite efficient by the Fenton system. Its long chain is easily destroyed, but the reaction does not proceed to complete mineralization. Ion chromatography detection indicated the formation of acetic acid, propionic acid, formic acid, nitrous acid and sulfuric acid in the reaction mixtures. Further evidence of nitrogen monoxide and sulfur dioxide formation was obtained by using a flue gas analyzer. Monitoring by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer demonstrated the formation of oxalic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and L-alanine ethylamide. Based on these experimental results, plausible degradation pathways for Cartap mineralization in an aqueous medium by the Fenton system are proposed.

  7. MAPKs are essential upstream signaling pathways in proteolytic cartilage degradation--divergence in pathways leading to aggrecanase and MMP-mediated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B-C; Schultz, N; Madsen, S H

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases are essential players in cartilage degradation. However, the signaling pathways that results in MMP and/or aggrecanase synthesis and activation are not well understood. We investigated the molecular events leading to MMP- and aggrecanase-mediated ......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases are essential players in cartilage degradation. However, the signaling pathways that results in MMP and/or aggrecanase synthesis and activation are not well understood. We investigated the molecular events leading to MMP- and aggrecanase......-mediated cartilage degradation....

  8. Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov., an anaerobe that degrades long-chain fatty acids in co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Diana Z; Smidt, Hauke; Alves, M Madalena; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-03-01

    An anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain OL-4(T), was isolated as a co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535(NT) from an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed reactor used to treat an oleate-based effluent. Strain OL-4(T) degraded oleate, a mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and straight-chain fatty acids C(4 : 0)-C(18 : 0) in syntrophic association with Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1535(NT). Even-numbered fatty acids were degraded to acetate and methane whereas odd-numbered fatty acids were degraded to acetate, propionate and methane. Branched-chain fatty acids were not degraded. The bacterium could not grow axenically with any other substrate tested and therefore is considered to be obligately syntrophic. Fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur and nitrate could not serve as electron acceptors for strain OL-4(T) to degrade oleate or butyrate. Cells of strain OL-4(T) were curved rods, formed spores and showed a variable response to Gram staining. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain OL-4(T) was most closely related to the fatty-acid-oxidizing, syntrophic bacterium Syntrophomonas sp. TB-6 (95 % similarity), Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei DSM 2245(T) (94 % similarity) and Syntrophomonas erecta DSM 16215(T) (93 % similarity). In addition to this moderate similarity, phenotypic and physiological characteristics, such as obligate syntrophy, spore formation and utilization of a broader substrate range, differentiated strain OL-4(T) from these Syntrophomonas species. Therefore strain OL-4(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Syntrophomonas zehnderi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OL-4(T) (=DSM 17840(T)=JCM 13948(T)).

  9. Quantifying the percentage of methane formation via acetoclastic and syntrophic acetate oxidation pathways in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Banks, Charles; Zhang, Yue; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia concentration is one of the key factors influencing the methanogenic community composition and dominant methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters. This study adopted a radiolabelling technique using [2- 14 C] acetate to investigate the relationship between total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and the methanogenic pathway. The radiolabelling experiments determined the ratio of 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 in the biogas which was used to quantitatively determine the percentage of CH 4 derived from acetoclastic and syntrophic acetate oxidation routes, respectively. This technique was performed on a selection of mesophilic digesters representing samples of low to high TAN concentrations (0.2-11.1gkg -1 wet weight). In high TAN digesters, the ratio between 14 CO 2 and 14 CH 4 was in the range 2.1-3.0; indicating 68-75% of methane was produced via the hydrogenotrophic route; whereas in low ammonia samples the ratio was 0.1-0.3, indicating 9-23% of methane was produced by the hydrogenotrophic route. These findings have been confirmed further by phylogenetic studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Rapid anaerobic mineralization of pyridine in a subsurface sediment inoculated with a pyridine-degrading Alcaligenes sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Z; Bollag, J M [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Lab. of Soil Biochemistry

    1992-05-01

    A denitrifying bacterium capable of pyridine mineralization under anaerobic conditions was isolated from polluted soil. The bacterium, identified as Alcaligenes sp., was used in inoculation experiments. A subsurface sediment from a polluted site was amended with 10 {mu}g/g {sup 14}C-labeled pyridine, and 250 {mu}g/g nitrate, and then inoculated with the bacterium at an inoculum size of 4.5x10{sup 7} cells/g. After 44 h incubation at 28deg C under anaerobic conditions, 67% of the radioactivity was recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: 2% was extracted with 50% methanol, and 24% was recovered by combustion of the sediment. Analysis of the methanol extract revealed that no pyridine could be detected in the inoculated sediment. In contrast, mineralization of pyridine by the native microflora in the sediment occurred much more slowly: After 7 days of incubation only 10% of the added radioactivity was recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. At an inoculum size of 2x10{sup 3} cells/g pyridine mineralization was not as effective as at an inoculum size of 2x10{sup 7} cells/g. It is presumed that suppression of the introduced bacteria by the native microflora of the sediment prevents degradation at a low inoculum size. Amending the sediment with nitrate and phosphate improved pyridine mineralization by the introduced bacterium. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using soil inoculation anaerobically for the bioremediation of pyridine-polluted soils. (orig.).

  11. Degradation of whey in an anaerobic fixed bed (AnFB) reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Handajani, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    An Anaerobic Fixed Bed (AnFB) reactor was run as an upflow anaerobic reactor with an arrangement of supporting material for growth of a biofilm. The supporting material was made from Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas (Herding Co., Amberg). The AnFB reactor was used for treating high concentrations of whey-containing wastewater. Optimal operating conditions for whey treatment at a concentration of COD in the influent of around 50 g whey·l-1 were found for a hydraulic retention ...

  12. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SIP suggested that Dechloromonas can mineralize PCP in soil. • Methanosaeta and Methanocella acquired PCP-derived carbon. • Lactate enhanced microbial degradation of PCP in soil. - Abstract: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of 13 CH 4 and 13 CO 2 indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil

  13. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Hui [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chengshuai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Li, Fangbai, E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Luo, Chunling [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • SIP suggested that Dechloromonas can mineralize PCP in soil. • Methanosaeta and Methanocella acquired PCP-derived carbon. • Lactate enhanced microbial degradation of PCP in soil. - Abstract: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil.

  14. Enrichment of Thermophilic Syntrophic Anaerobic Glutamate-Degrading Consortia using a Dialysis Membrane Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A dialysis cultivation system was used to enrich slow-growing moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria at high cell densities. Bicarbonate buffered mineral salts medium with 5 mM glutamate as the sole carbon and energy source was used and the incubation temperature was 55 degrees C. The reactor

  15. Role of nickel in high rate methanol degradation in anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; O'Flaherty, V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH

  16. Effects of Electron Acceptors, Reducing Agents, and Toxic Metabolites on Anaerobic Degradation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Dorthe; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Arvin, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of four heterocyclic compounds was examined under nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Soil samples from a creosote-polluted site in Denmark were used as inoculum. Indole and quinoline were degraded under all redox conditions with the highest degradation...... of quinoline under sulphate-reducing conditions which was inhibited by sulphide at concentrations above 0.8 mM. Degradation of quinoline under methanogenic conditions was also inhibited by 3.2 mM sulphide used as a reducing agent, but sulphide had no inhibitory effect on the degradation of indole...... in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing soil slurries...

  17. RNAi screening for characterisation of ER-associated degradation pathways in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Mats David Joakim

    in a process termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). This mechanism proceeds through four steps involving recognition, dislocation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This report describes a high-throughput screening method for identification of hitherto unknown pathways for degradation. We present...... fluorescence-based RNAi screens in mammalian cells on TCR-α-GFP and HANSκLC, for identification of ERAD pathways. By validating the obtained screening hits we concluded that UBE2J2 is involved in TCR-α-GFP degradation, possibly by ubiquitination of C-terminal serine residues in TCR-α-GFP. Additionally, we also...

  18. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  19. Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultured anaerobe capable of degrading phenol to acetate in obligate syntrophic associations with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Phenol degradation under methanogenic conditions has long been studied, but the anaerobes responsible for the degradation reaction are still largely unknown. An anaerobe, designated strain UI(T), was isolated in a pure syntrophic culture. This isolate is the first tangible, obligately anaerobic, syntrophic substrate-degrading organism capable of oxidizing phenol in association with an H(2)-scavenging methanogen partner. Besides phenol, it could metabolize p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzoate, isophthalate, and benzoate. During the degradation of phenol, a small amount of 4-hydroxybenzoate (a maximum of 4 microM) and benzoate (a maximum of 11 microM) were formed as transient intermediates. When 4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the substrate, phenol (maximum, 20 microM) and benzoate (maximum, 92 microM) were detected as intermediates, which were then further degraded to acetate and methane by the coculture. No substrates were found to support the fermentative growth of strain UI(T) in pure culture, although 88 different substrates were tested for growth. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain UI(T) belongs to an uncultured clone cluster (group TA) at the family (or order) level in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strain UI(T), and the novel family Syntrophorhabdaceae fam. nov. is described. Peripheral 16S rRNA gene sequences in the databases indicated that the proposed new family Syntrophorhabdaceae is largely represented by abundant bacteria within anaerobic ecosystems mainly decomposing aromatic compounds.

  20. Organic Waste Anaerobic degradation with bio-activator-5 Effective Microorganism (EM-5) to Produce Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Metri Dian Insani

    2014-01-01

    Degradasi Anaerob Sampah Organik dengan Bioaktivator Effective Microorganism-5 (EM-5) untuk Menghasilkan Biogas Abstract: The purpose of this study was to: (1) analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2) analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow dung for a long time flame biogas produced, and (3) analyze the different uses corn cobs,...

  1. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  2. Anaerobic p-coumarate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and identification of CouR, a MarR repressor protein that binds p-coumaroyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Schaefer, Amy L; Greenberg, E Peter; Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid p-coumarate and structurally related aromatic compounds are produced in large amounts by green plants and are excellent carbon sources for many soil bacteria. Aerobic bacteria remove the acyl side chain from phenylpropanoids to leave an aromatic aldehyde, which then enters one of several possible central pathways of benzene ring degradation. We investigated the pathway for the anaerobic degradation of p-coumarate by the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris and found that it also follows this metabolic logic. We characterized enzymes for the conversion of p-coumarate to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) encoded by the couAB operon. We also identified a MarR family transcriptional regulator that we named CouR. A couR mutant had elevated couAB expression. In addition, His-tagged CouR bound with high affinity to a DNA fragment encompassing the couAB promoter region, and binding was abrogated by the addition of nanomolar quantities of p-coumaroyl-CoA but not by p-coumarate. Footprinting demonstrated binding of CouR to an inverted repeat sequence that overlaps the -10 region of the couAB promoter. Our results provide evidence for binding of a CoA-modified aromatic compound by a MarR family member. Although the MarR family is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and includes over 12,000 members, ligands have been identified for relatively few family members. Here we provide biochemical evidence for a new category of MarR ligand.

  3. Pathway and rate-limiting step of glyphosate degradation by Aspergillus oryzae A-F02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui-Ming; Chen, Yan; Li, Ru-Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Li, Bin; Wan, Yin

    2017-09-14

    Aspergillus oryzae A-F02, a glyphosate-degrading fungus, was isolated from an aeration tank in a pesticide factory. The pathway and rate-limiting step of glyphosate (GP) degradation were investigated through metabolite analysis. GP, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and methylamine were detected in the fermentation liquid of A. oryzae A-F02, whereas sarcosine and glycine were not. The pathway of GP degradation in A. oryzae A-F02 was revealed: GP was first degraded into AMPA, which was then degraded into methylamine. Finally, methylamine was further degraded into other products. Investigating the effects of the exogenous addition of substrates and metabolites showed that the degradation of GP to AMPA is the rate-limiting step of GP degradation by A. oryzae A-F02. In addition, the accumulation of AMPA and methylamine did not cause feedback inhibition in GP degradation. Results showed that degrading GP to AMPA was a crucial step in the degradation of GP, which determines the degradation rate of GP by A. oryzae A-F02.

  4. Modeling position-specific isotope fractionation of organic micropollutants degradation via different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    : dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model successfully reproduces the multi-element isotope data, and precisely captures the dual element isotope trends, characterizing the different degradation pathways. Besides illustrating the model capability of mechanistic evaluation...

  5. A genomic view on syntrophic versus non-syntrophic lifestyle in anaerobic fatty acid degrading communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Koehorst, J.J.; Visser, M.; Sedano Nunez, V.T.; Schaap, P.J.; Plugge, C.M.; Sousa, D.Z.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In sulfate-reducing and methanogenic environments complex biopolymers are hydrolyzed and degraded by fermentative micro-organisms that produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide and short chain fatty acids. Degradation of short chain fatty acids can be coupled to methanogenesis or to sulfate-reduction. Here

  6. Degradation of diclofenac by UV-activated persulfate process: Kinetic studies, degradation pathways and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Chen, Juxiang; Zhang, Yansen; Xiang, Huiming; Guo, Youluo

    2017-07-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is the frequently detected non-steroidal pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In this study, the degradation of DCF was evaluated by UV-254nm activated persulfate (UV/PS). The degradation of DCF followed the pseudo first-order kinetics pattern. The degradation rate constant (k obs ) was accelerated by UV/PS compared to UV alone and PS alone. Increasing the initial PS dosage or solution pH significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency. Presence of various natural water constituents had different effects on DCF degradation, with an enhancement or inhibition in the presence of inorganic anions (HCO 3 - or Cl - ) and a significant inhibition in the presence of NOM. In addition, preliminary degradation mechanisms and major products were elucidated using LC-MS/MS. Hydroxylation, decarbonylation, ring-opening and cyclation reaction involving the attack of SO 4 • - or other substances, were the main degradation mechanism. TOC analyzer and Microtox bioassay were employed to evaluate the mineralization and cytotoxicity of solutions treated by UV/PS at different times, respectively. Limited elimination of TOC (32%) was observed during the mineralization of DCF. More toxic degradation products and their related intermediate species were formed, and the UV/PS process was suitable for removing the toxicity. Of note, longer degradation time may be considered for the final toxicity removal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Modeling of anaerobic degradation of solid slaughterhouse waste: inhibition effects of long-chain fatty acids or ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshina, L Y; Vavilin, V A; Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of solid poultry slaughterhouse wastes was kinetically investigated. The modified version of simulation model was applied for description of experimental data in mesophilic laboratory digester and assays. Additionally, stages of formation and consumption of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were included in the model. Batch data on volatile solids, ammonium, acetate, butyrate, propionate, LCFA concentrations, pH level, cumulative volume, and methane partial pressure were used for model calibration. As a reference, the model was used to describe digestion of solid sorted household waste. Simulation results showed that an inhibition of polymer hydrolysis by volatile fatty acids and acetogenesis by NH3 or LCFA could be responsible for the complex system dynamics during degradation of lipid- and protein-rich wastes.

  8. Effects of hydrogen and formate on the degradation of propionate and butyrate in thermophilic granules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J E; Ahring, B K

    1993-01-01

    Degradation of propionate and butyrate in whole and disintegrated granules from a thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with acetate, propionate, and butyrate as substrates was examined. The propionate and butyrate degradation rates in whole granules were 1.16 and 4.0 mumol/min/g of volatile solids, respectively, and the rates decreased 35 and 25%, respectively, after disintegration of the granules. The effect of adding different hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (...

  9. 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon

    RNA synthesis and degradation are key steps in the regulation of gene expression in all living organisms. During the course of his PhD studies, Michal Lubas centred his research on the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA turnover of both noncoding and coding RNAs in human cells. His proteomic studies...... revealed the interaction network of the main 3'-5' RNA degradation machinery – the RNA exosome complex. One of the key findings was the identification and characterisation of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, important for nuclear functions of the exosome. Michal Lubas also studied the role...

  10. Rapid establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia driven by the scoured cake layer in an anaerobic baffled ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shun; Ren, Xuesong; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2017-11-01

    Although toxic and refractory organics, such as phenol and quinoline, are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria, the establishment of specific degrading consortia is a relatively slow process. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor allows for complete biomass retention that can aid the establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of phenol (500 mg L -1 ) and quinoline (50 mg L -1 ) was investigated using an anaerobic baffled ceramic membrane bioreactor (ABCMBR). The results showed that, within 30 days, 99% of phenol, 98% of quinoline and 88% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed. The substrate utilisation rates of the cake layer for phenol and quinoline, and specific methanogenic activity of the cake layer, were 7.58 mg phenol g -1  mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) day -1 , 8.23 mg quinoline g -1  MLVSS day -1 and 0.55 g COD CH4  g -1  MLVSS day -1 , respectively. The contribution of the cake layer to the removals of phenol and quinoline was extremely underestimated because the uncounted scoured cake layer was disregarded. Syntrophus was the key population for phenol and quinoline degradation, and it was more abundant in the cake layer than in the bulk sludge. The highly active scattered cake layer sped up the establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia in the ABCMBR.

  11. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Cellulose degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating and anaerobic hybrid reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. cut grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised in the anaerobic degradation to produce...

  12. Production of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by Bacillus macerans in anaerobic culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.G.; Withers, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    The cell-associated and exocellular hemicellulolytic polysaccharide depolymerase and glycoside hydrolase activity of Bacillus macerans NCDO 1764 was monitored over a range of anaerobic growth conditions in batch and continuous culture. The enzymes were detectable throughout the complete growth cycle in batch culture reaching and maintaining maximum levels in the stationary phase. In continuous culture enzyme activity was largely independent of growth rate (D=0.025-0.1 h/sup -1/) although the activity was reduced at higher dilution rates (0.125-0.15 h/sup -1/). Although activity was detectable over a wide pH range (pH 5.5-7.5) it was pH dependent, and maximum activities of both the cell-associated and exocellular enzymes were measured in cultures maintained at pH 6.5-7.0 +- 0.1. The principal metabolites formed anaerobically from xylose by B. macerans in batch and continuous culture were acetic acid, formic acid and ethanol which represented 95-99% of the products formed. Smaller amounts of acetone, D,L-lactic acid and succinic acid were formed together with traces of butyric acid (<5 nmol/ml) and isovaleric acid (<25 nmol/ml). The proportions of the metabolites produced varied with growth conditions and were influenced by the pH of the culture and the rate and stage of growth of the microorganism.

  13. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed. • Malachite green degraded in bipolar double-effect mode. • Salt bridge replaced by a cation exchange membrane in the reactor. • Degradation pathways of malachite green in the cathode and anode tanks were similar. -- Abstract: A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO 2 /Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions

  15. Characterization of the novel dimethyl sulfide-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and its biochemical degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yiming; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Chen, Jianmeng, E-mail: jchen@zjut.edu.cn

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • A novel efficient DMS-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was identified. • A RSM was applied to optimize incubation condition of Alcaligenes sp. SY1. • SIP was applied as C{sup 13} labelled DMS to trace intermediates during DMS degradation. • Kinetics of DMS degradation via batch experiment was revealed. • Carbon and sulfur balance were analyzed during DMS degradation process. - Abstract: Recently, the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) has become a burgeoning field, with a growing focus on the reduction of VOSCs. The reduction of VOSCs encompasses both organic emission control and odor control. Herein, Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was isolated from active sludge and found to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a growth substrate in a mineral salt medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was applied to optimize the incubation conditions. The following conditions for optimal degradation were identified: temperature 27.03 °C; pH 7.80; inoculum salinity 0.84%; and initial DMS concentration 1585.39 μM. Under these conditions, approximately 99% of the DMS was degraded within 30 h of incubation. Two metabolic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS): dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The DMS degradation kinetics for different concentrations were evaluated using the Haldane–Andrews model and the pseudo first-order model. The maximum specific growth rate and degradation rate of Alcaligenes sp. SY1 were 0.17 h{sup −1} and 0.63 gs gx{sup −1} h{sup −1}. A possible degradation pathway is proposed, and the results suggest that Alcaligenes sp. SY1 has the potential to control odor emissions under aerobic conditions.

  16. Characterization of a Pyrethroid-Degrading Pseudomonas fulva Strain P31 and Biochemical Degradation Pathway of D-Phenothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available D-phenothrin is one of the most popular pyrethroid insecticides for its broad spectrum and high insecticidal activity. However, continuous use of D-phenothrin has resulted in serious environmental contamination and raised public concern about its impact on human health. Biodegradation of D-phenothrin has never been investigated and its metabolic behaviors remain unknown. Here, a novel bacterial strain P31 was isolated from active sludge, which completely degraded (100% D-phenothrin at 50 mg⋅L-1 in 72 h. Based on the morphology, 16S rRNA gene and Biolog tests, the strain was identified as Pseudomonas fulva. Biodegradation conditions were optimized as 29.5°C and pH 7.3 by utilizing response surface methodology. Strain P31 depicted high tolerance and strong D-phenothrin degradation ability through hydrolysis pathway. Strain P31 degraded D-phenothrin at inhibition constant (Ki of 482.1673 mg⋅L-1 and maximum specific degradation constant (qmax of 0.0455 h-1 whereas critical inhibitor concentration remained as 41.1189 mg⋅L-1. The 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic butyl dacyl ester were identified as the major intermediate metabolites of D-phenothrin degradation pathway through high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioaugmentation of D-phenothrin-contaminated soils with strain P31 dramatically enhanced its degradation, and over 75% of D-phenothrin was removed from soils within 10 days. Moreover, the strain illustrated a remarkable capacity to degrade other synthetic pyrethroids, including permethrin, cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, and bifenthrin, exhibiting great potential in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment.

  17. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  18. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic fermentation of food waste: A mini-review focusing on acidogenic metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaomiao; Yan, Binghua; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, efficient disposal of food waste (FW) with potential resource recovery has attracted great attentions. Due to its easily biodegradable nature, rich nutrient availability and high moisture content, FW is regarded as favorable substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). Both waste disposal and energy recovery can be fulfilled during AD of FW. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which are the products of the first-two stages of AD, are widely applied in chemical industry as platform chemicals recently. Concentration and distribution of VFAs is the result of acidogenic metabolic pathways, which can be affected by the micro-environment (e.g. pH) in the digester. Hence, the clear elucidation of the acidogenic metabolic pathways is essential for optimization of acidogenic process for efficient product recovery. This review summarizes major acidogenic metabolic pathways and regulating strategies for enhancing VFAs recovery during acidogenic fermentation of FW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of co-substrates in the anaerobic degradation of an anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Okada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS was evaluated in a UASB reactor using short-chain alcohols (ethanol and methanol and complex co-substrate (yeast extract. Using only methanol and ethanol as co-substrates resulted in removal of LAS between 30 and 41%. At the end, addition of a complex substrate (yeast extract increased the removal of LAS to 50%. During the assay, water supply aeration increased the volatile fatty acid of the effluent (70 mg HAc.L-1 and decreased the removal of LAS (from 40 to 30%. According to the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH results, the amount of Archaea decreased due to water supply aeration (from 64 to 48%. Furthermore, addition of complex co-substrate increased the total anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea content (three and four log units, respectively, which were estimated using the most probable number technique.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal: protein and lipid-rich substrate degradation and population dynamics of acidogens and methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeob; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal was investigated in batch reactors at 35 °C to determine the feasibility of using cattle offal as a feedstock. The organic content [i.e., volatile solids (VS)] of the cattle offal was mainly composed of protein (33.9%) and lipids (46.1%). Hydrolysis along with acidogenesis was monitored to investigate the substrate degradation and generation of intermediate products (e.g., volatile fatty acids, ammonia). Acetate (2.03 g/L), propionate (0.60 g/L), n-butyrate (0.39 g/L), and iso-valerate (0.37 g/L) were major acidogenesis products (91% of total volatile fatty acid concentration). Overall protein and lipid degradation were 82.9 and 81.8%, respectively. Protein degraded first, and four times faster (0.28 day(-1)) than lipid (0.07 day(-1)). Methane yields were 0.52 L CH4/g VSadded and 0.65 L CH4/g VSremoved, indicating that anaerobic digestion of the offal was feasible. A quantitative QPCR assay was conducted to understand the microbial dynamics. The variation patt erns in the gene concentrations successfully indicated the population dynamics of proteolytic and lipolytic acidogens. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta approximation was used to determine the kinetics of the acidogens. The molecular biotechnology approach was appropriate for the evaluation of the acidogenic biokinetics. The maximum growth rate, μ m, halfsaturation coefficients, K s, microbial yield coefficient, Y, cell mass decay rate coefficient, k d, of the proteolytic acidogens were 9.9 day(-1), 37.8 g protein/L, 1.1 × 10(10) copies/g protein, and 3.8 × 10(-1), respectively. Those for the lipolytic acidogens were 1.2 × 10(-1) day(-1), 8.3 g lipid/L, 1.5 × 10(9) copies/g lipid, and 9.9 × 10(-3) day(-1), respectively.

  1. Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewert, Berit; Plassmann, Merle M; MacLeod, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Each year vast amounts of plastic are produced worldwide. When released to the environment, plastics accumulate, and plastic debris in the world's oceans is of particular environmental concern. More than 60% of all floating debris in the oceans is plastic and amounts are increasing each year. Plastic polymers in the marine environment are exposed to sunlight, oxidants and physical stress, and over time they weather and degrade. The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. In this paper we review available information about the degradation pathways and chemicals that are formed by degradation of the six plastic types that are most widely used in Europe. We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids.

  2. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  3. Effects of anaerobic digestion on chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline degradation efficiency for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Ji, Chao; Tao, Xiuping; Chen, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Manure containing antibiotics is considered a hazardous substance that poses a serious health risk to the environment and to human health. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could not only treatment animal waste but also generate valuable biogas. However, the interaction between antibiotics in manure and the AD process has not been clearly understood. In this study, experiments on biochemical methane potential (BMP) were conducted to determine the inhibition of the AD process from antibiotics and the threshold of complete antibiotic removal. The thresholds of the complete antibiotic removal were 60 and 40mg/kg·TS for CTC and OTC, respectively. CTC and OTC with concentrations below thresholds could increase the BMP of manure. When the CTC and OTC concentrations exceeded the thresholds, they inhibited manure fermentation, and the CTC removal rate declined exponentially with concentration (60-500mg/kg·TS). The relationship between OTC antibiotic concentration and its removal rate in AD treatment was described with exponential (40-100mg/kg·TS) and linear equations (100-500mg/kg·TS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass spectrometric comparison of swift heavy ion-induced and anaerobic thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V.; Hossain, U. H.; Walbert, T.; Seidl, T.; Ensinger, W.

    2018-03-01

    The study of polymers irradiated by highly energetic ions and the resulting radiation-induced degradation is of major importance for space and particle accelerator applications. The mechanism of ion-induced molecular fragmentation of polyethylene, polyethyleneimine and polyamide was investigated by means of mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen into the polymer influences the stability rendering aliphatic polymers with heteroatoms less stable. A comparison to thermal decomposition data from literature reveals that ion-induced degradation is different in its bond fracture mechanism. While thermal degradation starts at the weakest bond, which is usually the carbon-heteroatom bond, energetic ion irradiation leads in the first step to scission of all types of bonds creating smaller molecular fragments. This is due to the localized extreme energy input under non-equilibrium conditions when the ions transfer kinetic energy onto electrons. These findings are of relevance for the choice of polymers for long-term application in both space and accelerator facilities.

  5. PA-1, a Versatile Anaerobe Obtained in Pure Culture, Catabolizes Benzenoids and Other Compounds in Syntrophy with Hydrogenotrophs, and P-2 plus Wolinella sp. Degrades Benzenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sudhakar; Brulla, W. J.; Bryant, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Methanogenic enrichments catabolizing 13 mM phenylacetate or 4 mM phenol were established at 37°C, using a 10% inoculum from a municipal anaerobic digester. By using agar roll tubes of the basal medium plus 0.1% yeast extract-25 mM fumarate, a hydrogenotrophic lawn of Wolinella succinogenes and phenol or phenylacetate, strains P-2 and PA-1, respectively, were isolated in coculture with W. succinogenes. With the lawn deleted, PA-1 was isolated in pure culture. Strain P-2 is apparently a new species of anaerobic, motile, gram-negative, spindle-shaped, small rod that as yet has been grown only in coculture with W. succinogenes. It used phenol, hydrocinnamate, benzoate, and phenylacetate as energy sources. Product recovery by the coculture, per mole of phenol and 4.4 mol of fumarate used, included 2.03, 0.12, 0.08, and 3.23 mol, respectively, of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate. Carbon recovery was 75% and H recovery was 80%, although CO2 and a few other possible products were not determined. That P-2 is an obligate proton-reducing acetogen and possible pathways for its degradation of phenol are discussed. Strain PA-1 is apparently a new species of anaerobic, motile, relatively small, gram-negative rod. It utilized compounds such as phenylacetate, hydrocinnamate, benzoate, phenol, resorcinol, gallate, 4-aminophenol, 2-aminobenzoate, pyruvate, Casamino Acids, and aspartate as energy sources in coculture with W. succinogenes. Per mole of phenylacetate and 1.44 mol of fumarate used, 1.04, 0.53, and 0.78 mol of acetate, propionate, and succinate, respectively, were recovered from the coculture. Only about 50% of the carbon and H were recovered. In coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei, 0.96 mol of acetate and 0.25 mol of methane were recovered per mol of pyruvate used; 0.90 mol of acetate and 0.33 mol of methane, per mol of fumarate used; 0.93 mol of acetate and 0.54 mol of methane, per mol of aspartate used; and 1.71 mol of acetate and 0.57 mol of methane

  6. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E.; Alavi Moghaddam, M.R.; Hashemi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  7. Role of nickel in high rate methanol degradation in anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan; O’Flaherty, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30°C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH 7.0 and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5–15 g COD l−1 day−1 for 191 days. A clear limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of nickel was observed after 129 days of bioreactor operation: the SMA of the sludge in medium with the complete trace metal solution except nickel amounted to 1.164 (±0.167) g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 compared to 2.027 (±0.111) g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with the complete (including nickel) trace metal solution. The methanol removal efficiency during these 129 days was 99%, no volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed and the size of the Methanosarcina population increased compared to the seed sludge. Continuation of the UASB reactor operation with the nickel limited sludge lead to incomplete methanol removal, and thus methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent from day 142 onwards. This methanol accumulation subsequently induced an increase of the acetogenic activity in the UASB reactor on day 160. On day 165, 77% of the methanol fed to the system was converted to acetate and the Methanosarcina population size had substantially decreased. Inclusion of 0.5 μM Ni (dosed as NiCl2) to the influent from day 165 onwards lead to the recovery of the methanol removal efficiency to 99% without VFA accumulation within 2 days of bioreactor operation. PMID:18247139

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qi; Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. ► Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. ► we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m 3 /kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO 2 equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  9. Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov., an anaerobic mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from reticulated python faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Aalvink, Steven; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly anaerobic, oval-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PytT) was isolated from reticulated python faeces. Strain PytT was capable of using mucin as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source. Cells could grow singly, in pairs, and were also found to aggregate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures connecting individual bacterial cells. Strain PytT could grow on a limited number of single sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucose, lactose and galactose, but only when a plentiful protein source was provided. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed strain PytT to belong to the Verrucomicrobiae class I, family Akkermansiaceae, genus Akkermansia, with Akkermansia muciniphila MucT as the closest relative (94.4 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness of 28.3 % with A. muciniphila MucT. The G+C content of DNA from strain PytT was 58.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome of strain PytT compared to the genome of strain MucT was 79.7 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PytT to the genus Akkermansia. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain PytT represents a novel species of the genus Akkermansia, for which the name Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PytT (=DSM 100705T=CIP 110913T).

  10. Robust Ordering of Anaphase Events by Adaptive Thresholds and Competing Degradation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenz, Julia; Mihaljev, Tamara; Kubis, Armin; Legewie, Stefan; Hauf, Silke

    2015-11-05

    The splitting of chromosomes in anaphase and their delivery into the daughter cells needs to be accurately executed to maintain genome stability. Chromosome splitting requires the degradation of securin, whereas the distribution of the chromosomes into the daughter cells requires the degradation of cyclin B. We show that cells encounter and tolerate variations in the abundance of securin or cyclin B. This makes the concurrent onset of securin and cyclin B degradation insufficient to guarantee that early anaphase events occur in the correct order. We uncover that the timing of chromosome splitting is not determined by reaching a fixed securin level, but that this level adapts to the securin degradation kinetics. In conjunction with securin and cyclin B competing for degradation during anaphase, this provides robustness to the temporal order of anaphase events. Our work reveals how parallel cell-cycle pathways can be temporally coordinated despite variability in protein concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics and Novel Degradation Pathway of Permethrin in Acinetobacter baumannii ZH-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent use of permethrin has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils, yet little is known about the kinetics and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. In this study, a novel bacterial strain Acinetobacter baumannii ZH-14 utilizing permethrin via partial hydrolysis pathways was isolated from sewage sludge. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design of cultural conditions was used for optimization resulting in 100% degradation of permethrin (50 mg·L−1 within 72 h. Strain ZH-14 degraded permethrin up to a concentration of 800 mg·L−1. Biodegradation kinetics analysis indicated that permethrin degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate, half-saturation constant, and inhibition constant of 0.0454 h−1, 4.7912 mg·L−1, and 367.2165 mg·L−1, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 3-phenoxybenzenemethanol and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde as the major intermediate metabolites of the permethrin degradation pathway. Bioaugmentation of permethrin-contaminated soils with strain ZH-14 significantly enhanced degradation, and over 85% of permethrin was degraded within 9 days with the degradation process following the first-order kinetic model. In addition to degradation of permethrin, strain ZH-14 was capable of degrading a large range of synthetic pyrethroids such as deltamethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, and beta-cypermethrin which are also widely used pesticides with environmental contamination problems, suggesting the promising potentials of A. baumannii ZH-14 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  12. Methanogenic degradation of toilet-paper cellulose upon sewage treatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jiang; Utashiro, Tetsuya; Lu, Jianbo; Yue, Shangchao; Jiang, Hongyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yu-You

    2017-03-01

    Toilet-paper cellulose with rich but refractory carbon sources, are the main insoluble COD fractions in sewage. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was configured for sewage treatment at room temperature and its performance on methanogenic degradation of toilet paper was highlighted. The results showed, high organic removal (95%), high methane conversion (90%) and low sludge yield (0.08gVSS/gCOD) were achieved in the AnMBR. Toilet-paper cellulose was fully biodegraded without accumulation in the mixed liquor and membrane cake layer. Bioconversion efficiency of toilet paper approached 100% under a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.02gCOD/L/d and it could provide around 26% of total methane generation at most of OLRs. Long sludge retention time and co-digestion of insoluble/soluble COD fractions achieving mutualism of functional microorganisms, contributed to biodegradation of toilet-paper cellulose. Therefore the AnMBR successfully implemented simultaneously methanogenic bioconversion of toilet-paper cellulose and soluble COD in sewage at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfate radical degradation of acetaminophen by novel iron-copper bimetallic oxidation catalyzed by persulfate: Mechanism and degradation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Junming

    2017-11-01

    A novel iron coupled copper oxidate (Fe2O3@Cu2O) catalyst was synthesized to activate persulfate (PS) for acetaminophen (APAP) degradation. The catalysts were characterized via field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The effects of the catalyst, PS concentration, catalyst dosage, initial pH, dissolved oxygen were analyzed for treatment optimization. Results indicated that Fe2O3@Cu2O achieved higher efficiency in APAP degradation than Fe2O3/PS and Cu2O/PS systems. The optimal removal efficiency of APAP (90%) was achieved within 40 min with 0.6 g/L PS and 0.3 g/L catalyst. To clarify the mechanism for APAP degradation, intermediates were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three possible degradation pathways were identified. During reaction, Cu(I) was found to react with Fe(III) to generate Fe(II), which is the most active phase for PS activation. Through the use of methanol and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as radical trappers, SO4rad - was identified as the main radical species that is generated during oxidation.

  14. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal

  15. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-09-15

    A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO₂/Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of oxcarbazepine by UV-activated persulfate oxidation: kinetics, mechanisms, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingjun; Zhou, Shiqing; Shi, Zhou; Deng, Lin; Li, Guangchao; Yi, Qihang; Gao, Naiyun

    2016-02-01

    The degradation kinetics and mechanism of the antiepileptic drug oxcarbazepine (OXC) by UV-activated persulfate oxidation were investigated in this study. Results showed that UV/persulfate (UV/PS) process appeared to be more effective in degrading OXC than UV or PS alone. The OXC degradation exhibited a pseudo-first order kinetics pattern and the degradation rate constants (k obs) were affected by initial OXC concentration, PS dosage, initial pH, and humic acid concentration to different degrees. It was found that low initial OXC concentration, high persulfate dosage, and initial pH enhanced the OXC degradation. Additionally, the presence of humic acid in the solution could greatly inhibit the degradation of OXC. Moreover, hydroxyl radical (OH•) and sulfate radical (SO4 (-)••) were identified to be responsible for OXC degradation and SO4 (-)• made the predominant contribution in this study. Finally, major intermediate products were identified and a preliminary degradation pathway was proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/PS system is a potential technology to control the water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as OXC.

  17. A second pathway to degrade pyrimidine nucleic acid precursors in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Bjornberg, Olof; Polakova, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Pyrimidine bases are the central precursors for RNA and DNA, and their intracellular pools are determined by de novo, salvage and catabolic pathways. In eukaryotes, degradation of uracil has been believed to proceed only via the reduction to dihydrouracil. Using a yeast model, Saccharomyces kluyv...... of the eukaryotic or prokaryotic genes involved in pyrimidine degradation described to date.......Pyrimidine bases are the central precursors for RNA and DNA, and their intracellular pools are determined by de novo, salvage and catabolic pathways. In eukaryotes, degradation of uracil has been believed to proceed only via the reduction to dihydrouracil. Using a yeast model, Saccharomyces......, respectively. The gene products of URC1 and URC4 are highly conserved proteins with so far unknown functions and they are present in a variety of prokaryotes and fungi. In bacteria and in some fungi, URC1 and URC4 are linked on the genome together with the gene for uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (URC6). Urc1...

  18. A novel pathway for nicotine degradation by Aspergillus oryzae 112822 isolated from tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang Jing; Lu, Li Li; Gu, Guo Feng; Xiao, Min

    2010-09-01

    An efficient nicotine-degrading fungus was isolated from tobacco leaves and identified as Aspergillus oryzae 112822 based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of 18S rDNA, 5.8S rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (5.8S-ITS region). When the strain was cultured in a medium with tobacco leaf extract for 40 h, the maximum amount of cell growth was 3.6 g l(-1) and nicotine degradation was 2.19 g l(-1). The intermediates of nicotine degradation by resting cells were isolated by preparative TLC or semi-preparative HPLC, and identified by TLC, MS, NMR, Fourier-transform (FT)-IR and GC-MS analysis. The pathway for nicotine degradation in A. oryzae 112822 was proposed to be from nicotine to 2,3-dihydroxypyridine through the intermediates nornicotine, myosmine, N-methylnicotinamide and 2-hydroxy-N-methylnicotinamide. The ring of 2,3-dihydroxypyridine was opened between the 2- and 3-hydroxy positions to yield succinic acid. N-methylnicotinamide and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine were satisfactorily verified as metabolites of nicotine degradation. This is the first elucidation of a pathway for nicotine degradation in fungi. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xuan-Ru; Cheng, Kuan-Chung; Chen, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS), autophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are cellular degradation pathways that each play a critical role in the removal of misfolded proteins and the prevention of the accumulation of abnormal proteins. Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis have suggested that accumulation of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the AD brain results from a dysfunction in these cellular clearance systems. However, the specific roles of these pathways in the removal of Aβ peptides and the pathogenesis underlying AD are unclear. Our in vitro and in vivo genetic approaches revealed that ELS mainly removed monomeric β-amyloid42 (Aβ42), while autophagy and UPS clear oligomeric Aβ42. Although overproduction of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-5 increased Aβ42 clearance, it reduced the life span of Aβ42 transgenic flies. Our behavioral studies further demonstrated impaired autophagy and UPS-enhanced Aβ42-induced learning and memory deficits, but there was no effect on Aβ42-induced reduction in life span. Results from genetic fluorescence imaging showed that these pathways were damaged in the following order: UPS, autophagy, and finally ELS. The results of our study demonstrate that different degradation pathways play distinct roles in the removal of Aβ42 aggregates and in disease progression. These findings also suggest that pharmacologic treatments that are designed to stimulate cellular degradation pathways in patients with AD should be used with caution.-Ji, X.-R., Cheng, K.-C., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Cheung, C. H. A., Wu, C.-L., Chiang, H.-C. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

  20. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yongjun [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Lei Lecheng [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)], E-mail: lclei@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Xingwang; Zhou Minghua; Zhang Yi [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2008-02-11

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone > oxygen > argon > nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed.

  1. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Lei, Lecheng; Zhang, Xingwang; Zhou, Minghua; Zhang, Yi

    2008-02-11

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone>oxygen>argon>nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed.

  2. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongjun; Lei Lecheng; Zhang Xingwang; Zhou Minghua; Zhang Yi

    2008-01-01

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone > oxygen > argon > nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed

  3. Identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Huang, Xuenian; Zhong, Chengwei; Li, Jianjun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus. Previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in A. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. In this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA), and citramalyl-CoA lyase (CclA), that are involved in the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. In the itaconic acid catabolic pathway in A. terreus, itaconic acid is first converted by IctA into itaconyl-CoA with succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor, and then itaconyl-CoA is hydrated into citramalyl-CoA by IchA. Finally, citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by CclA. Moreover, IctA can also catalyze the reaction between citramalyl-CoA and succinate to generate succinyl-CoA and citramalate. These results, for the first time, identify the three key enzymes, IctA, IchA, and CclA, involved in the itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing A. terreus. The results will facilitate the improvement of itaconic acid production by metabolically engineering the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus.

  4. Modulation of apoptosis sensitivity through the interplay with autophagic and proteasomal degradation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M E; Dyck, L; Laussmann, M A; Rehm, M

    2014-01-01

    Autophagic and proteasomal degradation constitute the major cellular proteolysis pathways. Their physiological and pathophysiological adaptation and perturbation modulates the relative abundance of apoptosis-transducing proteins and thereby can positively or negatively adjust cell death susceptibility. In addition to balancing protein expression amounts, components of the autophagic and proteasomal degradation machineries directly interact with and co-regulate apoptosis signal transduction. The influence of autophagic and proteasomal activity on apoptosis susceptibility is now rapidly gaining more attention as a significant modulator of cell death signalling in the context of human health and disease. Here we present a concise and critical overview of the latest knowledge on the molecular interplay between apoptosis signalling, autophagy and proteasomal protein degradation. We highlight that these three pathways constitute an intricate signalling triangle that can govern and modulate cell fate decisions between death and survival. Owing to rapid research progress in recent years, it is now possible to provide detailed insight into the mechanisms of pathway crosstalk, common signalling nodes and the role of multi-functional proteins in co-regulating both protein degradation and cell death. PMID:24457955

  5. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Mou

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  6. Degradation of ibuprofen by hydrodynamic cavitation: Reaction pathways and effect of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmarra, Dino; Prisciandaro, Marina; Capocelli, Mauro; Karatza, Despina; Iovino, Pasquale; Canzano, Silvana; Lancia, Amedeo

    2016-03-01

    Ibuprofen (IBP) is an anti-inflammatory drug whose residues can be found worldwide in natural water bodies resulting in harmful effects to aquatic species even at low concentrations. This paper deals with the degradation of IBP in water by hydrodynamic cavitation in a convergent-divergent nozzle. Over 60% of ibuprofen was degraded in 60 min with an electrical energy per order (EEO) of 10.77 kWh m(-3) at an initial concentration of 200 μg L(-1) and a relative inlet pressure pin=0.35 MPa. Five intermediates generated from different hydroxylation reactions were identified; the potential mechanisms of degradation were sketched and discussed. The reaction pathways recognized are in line with the relevant literature, both experimental and theoretical. By varying the pressure upstream the constriction, different degradation rates were observed. This effect was discussed according to a numerical simulation of the hydroxyl radical production identifying a clear correspondence between the maximum kinetic constant kOH and the maximum calculated OH production. Furthermore, in the investigated experimental conditions, the pH parameter was found not to affect the extent of degradation; this peculiar feature agrees with a recently published kinetic insight and has been explained in the light of the intermediates of the different reaction pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential impact of diverse anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation checkpoint pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agner, Jeppe; Falck, Jacob; Lukas, Jiri; Bartek, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    When exposed to DNA-damaging insults such as ionizing radiation (IR) or ultraviolet light (UV), mammalian cells activate checkpoint pathways to halt cell cycle progression or induce cell death. Here we examined the ability of five commonly used anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action to activate the Chk1/Chk2-Cdc25A-CDK2/cyclin E cell cycle checkpoint pathway, previously shown to be induced by IR or UV. Whereas exposure of human cells to topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, or adriamycin resulted in rapid (within 1 h) activation of the pathway including degradation of the Cdc25A phosphatase and inhibition of cyclin E/CDK2 kinase activity, taxol failed to activate this checkpoint even after a prolonged treatment. Unexpectedly, although the alkylating agent cisplatin also induced degradation of Cdc25A (albeit delayed, after 8-12 h), cyclin E/CDK2 activity was elevated and DNA synthesis continued, a phenomena that correlated with increased E2F1 protein levels and consequently enhanced expression of cyclin E. These results reveal a differential impact of various classes of anticancer chemotherapeutics on the Cdc25A-degradation pathway, and indicate that the kinetics of checkpoint induction, and the relative balance of key components within the DNA damage response network may dictate whether the treated cells arrest their cell cycle progression

  8. Degradation of clofibric acid in UV/chlorine disinfection process: kinetics, reactive species contribution and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuqing; Shi, Xueting; Liu, Yongze; Feng, Li; Zhang, Liqiu

    2018-02-01

    As a potential endocrine disruptor, clofibric acid (CA) was investigated in this study for its degradation kinetics and pathways in UV/chlorine process. The results showed that CA in both UV photolysis and UV/chlorine processes could be degraded via pseudo-first-order kinetics, while it almost could not be degraded in the dark chlorination process. The observed rate constant ( k obs ) in UV photolysis was 0.0078 min -1, and increased to 0.0107 min -1 combining with 0.1 mM chlorine. The k obs increased to 0.0447 min -1 with further increasing the chlorine dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 mM, and reached a plateau at higher dosage (greater than 1.0 mM). The higher k obs was obtained at acid solution rather than basic solution. Moreover, the calculated contributions of radical species to k obs indicated that the HO• contributed significantly to CA degradation in acidic conditions, while the reactive chlorine species and UV direct photolysis dominated in neutral and basic solution. The degradation of CA was slightly inhibited in the presence of [Formula: see text] (1 ∼ 50 mM), barely affected by the presence of Cl - (1 ∼ 200 mM) and greatly suppressed by humic acid (0 ∼ 5 mg l -1 ). Thirteen main degradation intermediates and three degradation pathways of CA were identified during UV/chlorine process.

  9. High-density natural luffa sponge as anaerobic microorganisms carrier for degrading 1,1,1-TCA in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Chi

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms were applied to degrade organic contaminants in groundwater with permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). However, anaerobic microorganisms need to select optimal immobilizing material as carrier. The potential of high-density natural luffa sponge (HDLS) (a new variety of luffa) for the immobilization and protection of anaerobic microorganisms was investigated. The HDLS has a dense structure composed of a complicated interwoven fibrous network. Therefore, the abrasion rate of HDLS (0.0068 g s -1 ) was the smallest among the four carriers [HDLS, ordinary natural luffa sponge (OLS), polyurethane sponge (PS), and gel carrier AQUAPOROUSGEL (APG)]. The results suggest that it also had the greatest water retention (10.26 H 2 O-g dry carrier-g -1 ) and SS retention (0.21 g dry carrier-g -1 ). In comparison to well-established commercialized gel carrier APG, HDLS was of much better mechanical strength, hydrophilicity and stability. Microbial-immobilized HDLS also had the best performance for the remediation of 1,1,1-TCA simulated groundwater. Analysis of the clone libraries from microorganism-immobilized HDLS showed the HDLS could protect microorganisms from the toxicity of 1,1,1-TCA and maintain the stability of microbial community diversity. The mechanism of HDLS immobilizing and protecting microorganisms was proposed as follows. The HDLS had a micron-scale honeycomb structure (30-40 μm) and an irregular ravine structure (4-20 μm), which facilitate the immobilization of anaerobic microorganisms and protect the anaerobic microorganisms.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  11. Novel degradation pathway and kinetic analysis for buprofezin removal by newly isolated Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangli; Xu, Dayong; Xiong, Minghua; Zhang, Hui; Li, Feng; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-15

    Given the intensive and widespread application of the pesticide, buprofezin, its environmental residues potentially pose a problem; yet little is known about buprofezin's kinetic and metabolic behaviors. In this study, a novel gram-positive strain, designated BF-5, isolated from aerobic activated sludge, was found to be capable of metabolizing buprofezin as its sole energy, carbon, and nitrogen source. Based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics, other aspects of its phenotype, and a phylogenetic analysis, strain BF-5 was identified as Bacillus sp. This study investigated the effect of culture conditions on bacterial growth and substrate degradation, such as pH, temperature, initial concentration, different nitrogen source, and additional nitrogen sources as co-substrates. The degradation rate parameters, qmax, Ks, Ki and Sm were determined to be 0.6918 h(-1), 105.4 mg L(-1), 210.5 mg L(-1), and 148.95 mg L(-1) respectively. The capture of unpublished potential metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has led to the proposal of a novel degradation pathway. Taken together, our results clarify buprofezin's biodegradation pathway(s) and highlight the promising potential of strain BF-5 in bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Secretion of intact proteins and peptide fragments by lysosomal pathways of protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenman, L.D.; Dice, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    We report that degradation of proteins microinjected into human fibroblasts is accompanied by release into the culture medium of peptide fragments and intact proteins as well as single amino acids. For the nine proteins and polypeptides microinjected, acid-precipitable radioactivity, i.e. peptide fragments and/or intact proteins, ranged from 10 to 67% of the total released radioactivity. Peptide fragments and/or intact protein accounted for 60% of the radioactivity released into the medium by cells microinjected with ribonuclease A. Two major radiolabeled peptide fragments were found, and one was of an appropriate size to function as an antigen in antigen-presenting cells. The peptides released from microinjected ribonuclease A were derived from lysosomal pathways of proteolysis based on several lines of evidence. Previous studies have shown that microinjected ribonuclease A is degraded to single amino acids entirely within lysosomes. We show that release of free amino acids and peptide fragments and/or intact protein was equivalently stimulated by serum deprivation and equivalently inhibited by NH4Cl. We also show that lysosomal degradation of endocytosed [3H]ribonuclease A was accompanied by the release of two peptide fragments similar in size and charge to those from microinjected [ 3 H]ribonuclease A. These findings demonstrate that degradation within lysosomes occurs in a manner that spares specific peptides; they also suggest a previously unsuspected pathway by which cells can secrete cytosol-derived polypeptides

  13. Oxidative degradation of atenolol by heat-activated persulfate: Kinetics, degradation pathways and distribution of transformation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dong; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhou, Xiaohuan; Qian, Li; Wang, Mengjie; Zhai, Li; Gao, Shixiang

    2018-05-17

    Atenolol (ATL) has been widely detected in wastewater and aquatic environment. Although satisfactory removal of ATL from wastewater could be achieved, the mineralization ratio is usually low, which may result in the accumulation of its transformation products in the effluent and cause additional ecological risk to the environment. The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of heat activated persulfate (PS) in the removal of ATL from wastewater. Influencing factors including temperature, PS dosage, solution pH, existence of NO 3 - , Cl - , HCO 3 - and Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA) were examined. Complete removal of ATL was achieved within 40 min at pH 7.0 and 70 °C by using 0.5 mM PS. Inhibitive effects of HCO 3 - and FA had been observed on ATL oxidation, which was increased with the increase of their concentration. Sulfate radical (SO 4 - ) was determined as the main reactive species by quenching experiment. Eight intermediates produced in ATL degradation were identified, and four degradation pathways were proposed based on the analysis of mass spectrum and frontier electron densities. The distribution of major intermediates was influenced by reaction temperature. Hydroxylation intermediates and deamidation intermediate were the most prominent at 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. All intermediates were completely degraded in 40 min except P134 at 70 °C. Effective removal of TOC (74.12%) was achieved with 0.5 mM PS, pH 7.0 and 70 °C after 240 min. The results proved that heat activation of PS is a promising method to remove organic pollutants in wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 Contains a Novel Degradation Pathway for Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Mariët J.; Swarts, Henk J.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Strain DCL14, which is able to grow on limonene as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from a freshwater sediment sample. This organism was identified as a strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis by chemotaxonomic and genetic studies. R. erythropolis DCL14 also assimilated the terpenes limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, carveol, carvone, and (−)-menthol, while perillyl alcohol was not utilized as a carbon and energy source. Induction tests with cells grown on limonene revealed that the oxygen consumption rates with limonene-1,2-epoxide, limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and carveol were high. Limonene-induced cells of R. erythropolis DCL14 contained the following four novel enzymatic activities involved in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism: a flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADH-dependent limonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity, a cofactor-independent limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity, a dichlorophenolindophenol-dependent limonene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity, and an NADPH-dependent 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene 1,2-monooxygenase activity. Product accumulation studies showed that (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1S,4R)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate were intermediates in the (4R)-limonene degradation pathway. The opposite enantiomers [(1R,2R,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol, (1R,4S)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate] were found in the (4S)-limonene degradation pathway, while accumulation of (1R,2S,4S)-limonene-1,2-diol from (4S)-limonene was also observed. These results show that R. erythropolis DCL14 metabolizes both enantiomers of limonene via a novel degradation pathway that starts with epoxidation at the 1,2 double bond forming limonene-1,2-epoxide. This epoxide is subsequently converted to limonene-1,2-diol, 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, and 7-hydroxy-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone. This lactone spontaneously rearranges to form 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate. In

  15. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-14

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH{sub 4} and the quantity of CH{sub 4} lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N{sub 2}O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  16. Waste-to-wheel analysis of anaerobic-digestion-based renewable natural gas pathways with the GREET model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH 4 ) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors - most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH 4 and the quantity of CH 4 lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N 2 O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.

  17. Identification of the degradation pathways of alkanolamines with TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chung-Shin; Chen, Chiing-Chang; Mai, Fu-Der; Li, Hua-Kuang

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the photocatalytic degradation of the alkanolamine, 2-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-propanol (DMAMP), in the presence of TiO 2 particles and UV-A (λ = 365 nm) radiation. The obtained results show complete oxidation of DMAMP after 20 h, and a little over 90% of DMAMP was mineralization after 64-h of treatment. The effects of the solution pH, catalyst loading, and anions on the photocatalytic degradation of DMAMP were investigated, as well as the reaction intermediates that were formed during treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that reports the degradation pathways of DMAMP. A number of intermediates were identified by GC/MS techniques during the treatment of DMAMP, following three tentative degradation routes. The first one is based on the oxidation of the primary alcohol group leading to the formation of corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid. The second route is based on the rupture of the N-C bond to form 2-methylpropanal and acetone. The last degradation route is based on the cyclization of the β-amino alcohol group to form the oxazolidine derivatives.

  18. Interleukin-1 Acts via the JNK-2 Signaling Pathway to Induce Aggrecan Degradation by Human Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Heba M; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Vincent, Tonia L; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda; Saklatvala, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    Aggrecan enables articular cartilage to bear load and resist compression. Aggrecan loss occurs early in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1 induces cleavage of specific aggrecans characteristic of the ADAMTS proteinases. The aim of this study was to identify the intracellular signaling pathways by which IL-1 causes aggrecan degradation by human chondrocytes and to investigate how aggrecanase activity is controlled by chondrocytes. We developed a cell-based assay combining small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown with aggrecan degradation assays. Human articular chondrocytes were overlaid with bovine aggrecan after transfection with siRNAs against molecules of the IL-1 signaling pathway. After IL-1 stimulation, released aggrecan fragments were detected with AGEG and ARGS neoepitope antibodies. Aggrecanase activity and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) shedding was analyzed by Western blotting. ADAMTS-5 is a major aggrecanase in human chondrocytes, regulating aggrecan degradation in response to IL-1. The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated 6 (TRAF-6)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1)/MKK-4 signaling axis is essential for IL-1-induced aggrecan degradation, while NF-κB is not. Of the 3 MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK), only JNK-2 showed a significant role in aggrecan degradation. Chondrocytes constitutively secreted aggrecanase, which was continuously endocytosed by LRP-1, keeping the extracellular level of aggrecanase low. IL-1 induced aggrecanase activity in the medium in a JNK-2-dependent manner, possibly by reducing aggrecanase endocytosis, because IL-1 caused JNK-2-dependent shedding of LRP-1. The signaling axis TRAF-6/TAK-1/MKK-4/JNK-2 mediates IL-1-induced aggrecanolysis. The level of aggrecanase is controlled by its

  19. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HECTD3 Mediates an HSP90-Dependent Degradation Pathway for Protein Kinase Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobo Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the ATPase cycle of the HSP90 chaperone promotes ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of its client proteins, which include many oncogenic protein kinases. This provides the rationale for HSP90 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics. However, the mechanism by which HSP90 ATPase inhibition triggers ubiquitylation is not understood, and the E3 ubiquitin ligases involved are largely unknown. Using a siRNA screen, we have identified components of two independent degradation pathways for the HSP90 client kinase CRAF. The first requires CUL5, Elongin B, and Elongin C, while the second requires the E3 ligase HECTD3, which is also involved in the degradation of MASTL and LKB1. HECTD3 associates with HSP90 and CRAF in cells via its N-terminal DOC domain, which is mutationally disrupted in tumor cells with activated MAP kinase signaling. Our data implicate HECTD3 as a tumor suppressor modulating the activity of this important oncogenic signaling pathway.

  1. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  2. Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Bin [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hiromatsu, Kenji, E-mail: khiromatsu@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Hisaeda, Hajime; Duan, Xuefeng; Imai, Takashi [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Keiji [Department of Molecular Oncology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113-8613 (Japan); Himeno, Kunisuke [Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Cytotoxic CD8{sup +} T cells are particularly important to the development of protective immunity against the intracellular protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We have developed a new effective strategy of genetic immunization by activating CD8{sup +} T cells through the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. We constructed expression plasmids encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP-2) of T. cruzi. To induce the UFD pathway, a chimeric gene encoding ubiquitin fused to ASP-2 (pUB-ASP-2) was constructed. Mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 presented lower parasitemia and longer survival period, compared with mice immunized with pASP-2 alone. Depletion of CD8{sup +} T cells abolished protection against T. cruzi in mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 while depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells did not influence the effective immunity. Mice deficient in LMP2 or LMP7, subunits of immunoproteasomes, were not able to develop protective immunity induced. These results suggest that ubiquitin-fused antigens expressed in antigen-presenting cells were effectively degraded via the UFD pathway, and subsequently activated CD8{sup +} T cells. Consequently, immunization with pUB-ASP-2 was able to induce potent protective immunity against infection of T. cruzi.

  3. Decomposition of clofibric acid in aqueous media by advance oxidation techniques: kinetics study and degradation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, M.; Khan, A.M.; Khan, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the decomposition of clofibric acid (CLF) by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV (254 nm), VUV (185 nm), UV / TiO/sub 2/ and VUV / TiO/sub 2/. The removal efficiencies of applied AOPs were compared in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The removal efficiency of the studied AOPs towards degradation of CLF were found in the order of VUV / TiO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/ > VUV/TiO/sub 2/ + N/sub 2/ > VUV alone > UV / TiO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/ > UV / TiO/sub 2/ +N/sub 2/ > UV alone. The decomposition kinetics of CLF was found to follow pseudo-first order rate law. VUV / TiO2 process was found to be most cheap and effective one for decomposition of CLF as compared to other applied AOPs in terms of electrical energy per order. Degradation products resulting from the degradation processes were also investigated using UPLC-MS /MS, accordingly degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  4. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao

    2018-02-01

    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of a mixture of MtBE, EtBE, TBA, and benzene under different redox conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der Marcelle J.; Pijls, Charles; Sinke, Anja J.C.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smidt, Hauke; Gerritse, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The increasing use of biobased fuels and fuel additives can potentially change the typical fuel-related contamination in soil and groundwater. Anaerobic biotransformation of the biofuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE), as well as of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), benzene, and tert-butyl

  6. Thermotoga lettingae sp. nov. : a novel thermophilic, methanol-degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic anaerobic reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, mobile, Gram-negative, thermophilic bacterium, strain TMO(T), was isolated from a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as the sole substrate. The G C content of the DNA of strain TMO(T) was 39.2 molÐThe optimum pH,

  7. Reactive Minerals and Dechlorinating Communities: Mechanisms Governing the Degradation of Chlorinated Ethenes during Back Diffusion from Low Permeability Zones in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, E. C.; Zeng, R.; Singh, H.; Valocchi, A. J.; Sanford, R. A.; Strathmann, T. J.; Schaefer, C. E.; Werth, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Low permeability zones (LPZs) comprised of silts and clays, and contaminated with chlorinated ethenes, can act as a long term source of contaminated groundwater by diffusion into adjacent high permeability zones (HPZs). Following initial remediation efforts, chlorinated ethenes that have diffused into LPZs will back diffuse and recontaminate HPZs. Because chlorinated ethenes are known to cause cancer and damage the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, it is important to understand how they degrade in natural systems and how to model their fate and transport. Previous work has shown that anaerobic hydrogenolysis reactions are facilitated by both dechlorinating microorganisms and reactive minerals. Abiotic dichloro-elimination reactions with reactive minerals can also degrade chlorinated ethenes to acetylene, albeit at slower rates than biotic processes. More recently, studies have explored aerobic abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes to formate, glycolate, and carbon dioxide. This study focuses on these biotic and abiotic reactions and their contributions to chlorinated ethene degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at the LPZ/HPZ interface. A two-dimensional flow cell was constructed to model this interface using clay and sand from Pease Air Force Base. The clay was inoculated with a dechlorinating enrichment culture. Tenax adsorbent beads equilibrated with trichloroethylene (TCE) were used as a chlorinated ethene source zone at the base of the clay. TCE and its degradation products diffused from the clay into the sand, where they were removed from the flow cell by groundwater at a rate of 50 mL/day. Volatile compounds were trapped in a sample loop and removed every 48 hours for analysis by GC-FID. Organic and inorganic ions in the effluent were analyzed on the HPLC and IC. The experiment was terminated by freezing the flow cell, and chemical profiles through the flow cell material were created to show the spatial distribution of degradation

  8. Finding Solvable Units of Variables in Nonlinear ODEs of ECM Degradation Pathway Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kawasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ordinary differential equation (ODE model for a pathway network that arises in extracellular matrix (ECM degradation. For solving the ODEs, we propose applying the mass conservation law (MCL, together with a stoichiometry called doubling rule, to them. Then it leads to extracting new units of variables in the ODEs that can be solved explicitly, at least in principle. The simulation results for the ODE solutions show that the numerical solutions are indeed in good accord with theoretical solutions and satisfy the MALs.

  9. Finding Solvable Units of Variables in Nonlinear ODEs of ECM Degradation Pathway Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shuji; Minerva, Dhisa; Itano, Keiko; Suzuki, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We consider ordinary differential equation (ODE) model for a pathway network that arises in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. For solving the ODEs, we propose applying the mass conservation law (MCL), together with a stoichiometry called doubling rule , to them. Then it leads to extracting new units of variables in the ODEs that can be solved explicitly, at least in principle. The simulation results for the ODE solutions show that the numerical solutions are indeed in good accord with theoretical solutions and satisfy the MALs.

  10. Electrochemical treatment of trypan blue synthetic wastewater and its degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trypan blue (TB dye synthetic wastewater was treated in presence of chloride ions by electrochemical method. The effect of current density, pH, initial concentration of dye and supporting electrolyte on color and COD removal were investigated. The UV-Vis ab­sorption intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis were conducted to investigate the kinetics and degradation pathway of TB dye.

  11. ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Frabutt, Dylan A; Moremen, Kelley W; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2015-09-04

    Previously, we reported that the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) induces HIV-1 envelope (Env) degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but the mechanism was not clear. Here we investigated how the four ER-associated glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) α-mannosidases, ERManI, and ER-degradation enhancing α-mannosidase-like (EDEM) proteins 1, 2, and 3, are involved in the Env degradation process. Ectopic expression of these four α-mannosidases uncovers that only ERManI inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genetic knock-out of the ERManI gene MAN1B1 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology disrupts the TSPO-mediated Env degradation. Biochemical studies show that HIV-1 Env interacts with ERManI, and between the ERManI cytoplasmic, transmembrane, lumenal stem, and lumenal catalytic domains, the catalytic domain plays a critical role in the Env-ERManI interaction. In addition, functional studies show that inactivation of the catalytic sites by site-directed mutagenesis disrupts the ERManI activity. These studies identify ERManI as a critical GH47 α-mannosidase in the ER-associated protein degradation pathway that initiates the Env degradation and suggests that its catalytic domain and enzymatic activity play an important role in this process. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in Danish coastal sediments: iron reduction, manganese reduction, and sulfate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Thamdrup, B; Hansen, Jens Würgler

    1993-01-01

    ). In the deep portion of the basin, surface Mn enrichments reached 3.5 wt%, and Mn reduction was the only important anaerobic carbon oxidation process in the upper 10 cm of the sediment. In the less Mn-rich sediments from intermediate depths in the basin, Fe reduction ranged from somewhat less, to far more...... speculate that in shallow sediments of the Skagerrak, surface Mn oxides are present in a somewhat reduced oxidation level (deep basin....

  13. Thermophilic Anaerobic Degradation of Butyrate by a Butyrate-Utilizing Bacterium in Coculture and Triculture with Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was β-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in th...

  14. Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Silva

    Full Text Available Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system.

  15. Unfolded protein response and activated degradative pathways regulation in GNE myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Li

    Full Text Available Although intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ accumulation is known as an early upstream event in the degenerative course of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE myopathy, the process by which Aβdeposits initiate various degradative pathways, and their relationship have not been fully clarified. We studied the possible secondary responses after amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP deposition including unfolded protein response (UPR, ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS activation and its correlation with autophagy system. Eight GNE myopathy patients and five individuals with normal muscle morphology were included in this study. We performed immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to investigate the expression of AβPP, phosphorylated tau (p-tau and endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. Proteasome activities were measured by cleavage of fluorogenic substrates. The expression of proteasome subunits and linkers between proteasomal and autophagy systems were also evaluated by immunoblotting and relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Four molecular chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, calreticulin and calnexin and valosin containing protein (VCP were highly expressed in GNE myopathy. 20S proteasome subunits, three main proteasome proteolytic activities, and the factors linking UPS and autophagy system were also increased. Our study suggests that AβPP deposition results in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS and highly expressed VCP deliver unfolded proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to proteosomal system which is activated in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD in GNE myopathy. Excessive ubiquitinated unfolded proteins are exported by proteins that connect UPS and autophagy to autophagy system, which is activated as an alternative pathway for degradation.

  16. Serial completely stirred tank reactors for improving biogas production and substance degradation during anaerobic digestion of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YuQian; Liu, ChunMei; Wachemo, Akiber Chufo; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Li, XiuJin

    2017-07-01

    Several completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) connected in series for anaerobic digestion of corn stover were investigated in laboratory scale. Serial anaerobic digestion systems operated at a total HRT of 40days, and distribution of HRT are 10+30days (HRT10+30d), 20+20days (HRT20+20d), and 30+10days (HRT30+10d) were compared to a conventional one-step CSTR at the same HRT of 40d. The results showed that in HRT10+30d serial system, the process became very unstable at organic load of 50gTS·L -1 . The HRT20+20d and HRT30+10d serial systems improved methane production by 8.3-14.6% compared to the one-step system in all loads of 50, 70, 90gTS·L -1 . The conversion rates of total solid, cellulose, and hemicellulose were increased in serial anaerobic digestion systems compared to single system. The serial systems showed more stable process performance in high organic load. HRT30+10d system showed the best biogas production and conversions among all systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Transfer of the high-GC cyclohexane carboxylate degradation pathway from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli for production of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey R; Bulter, Thomas; Liao, James C

    2008-01-01

    This work demonstrates the transfer of the five-gene cyclohexane carboxylate (CHC) degradation pathway from the high-GC alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli, a gammaproteobacterium. The degradation product of this pathway is pimeloyl-CoA, a key metabolite in E. coli's biotin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is useful for biotin overproduction in E. coli; however, the expression of GC-rich genes is troublesome in this host. When the native R. palustris CHC degradation pathway is transferred to a DeltabioH pimeloyl-CoA auxotroph of E. coli, it is unable to complement growth in the presence of CHC. To overcome this expression problem we redesigned the operon with decreased GC content and removed stretches of high-GC intergenic DNA which comprise the 5' untranslated region of each gene, replacing these features with shorter low-GC sequences. We show this synthetic construct enables growth of the DeltabioH strain in the presence of CHC. When the synthetic degradation pathway is overexpressed in conjunction with the downstream genes for biotin biosynthesis, we measured significant accumulation of biotin in the growth medium, showing that the pathway transfer is successfully integrated with the host metabolism.

  18. Photodegradation of gemfibrozil in aqueous solution under UV irradiation: kinetics, mechanism, toxicity, and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingshuai; Lv, Wenying; Chen, Ping; Lu, Yida; Wang, Fengliang; Li, Fuhua; Yao, Kun; Liu, Guoguang

    2016-07-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) has been reported to be persistent in conventional wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the photolytic behavior, toxicity of intermediate products, and degradation pathways of GEM in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation. The results demonstrated that the photodegradation of GEM followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant was decreased markedly with increasing initial concentrations of GEM and initial pH. The photodegradation of GEM included direct photolysis via (3)GEM(*) and self-sensitization via ROS, where the contribution rates of degradation were 0.52, 90.05, and 8.38 % for ·OH, (1)O2, and (3)GEM(*), respectively. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) was evidenced by the molecular probe compound, furfuryl alcohol (FFA), and was identified as the primary reactive species in the photolytic process. The steady-state concentrations of (1)O2 increased from (0.324 ± 0.014) × 10(-12) to (1.021 ± 0.040) × 10(-12) mol L(-1), as the initial concentrations of GEM were increased from 5 to 20 mg L(-1). The second-order rate constant for the reaction of GEM with (1)O2 was calculated to be 2.55 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The primary transformation products were identified using HPLC-MS/MS, and possible photodegradation pathways were proposed by hydroxylation, aldehydes reactions, as well as the cleavage of ether side chains. The toxicity of phototransformation product evaluation revealed that photolysis potentially provides a critical pathway for GEM toxicity reduction in potable water and wastewater treatment facilities.

  19. Aqueous photodegradation of 4-tert-butylphenol: By-products, degradation pathway and theoretical calculation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanlin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Jin; Chen, Hongche [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dong, Wenbo, E-mail: wbdong@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-10-01

    4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), an endocrine disrupting chemical, is widely distributed in natural bodies of water but is difficult to biodegrade. In this study, we focused on the transformation of 4-t-BP in photo-initiated degradation processes. The steady-state photolysis and laser flash photolysis (LFP) experiments were conducted in order to elucidate its degradation mechanism. Identification of products was performed using the GC–MS, LC-MS and theoretical calculation techniques. The oxidation pathway of 4-t-BP by hydroxyl radical (HO·) was also studied and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added to produce HO·. 4-tert-butylcatechol and 4-tert-butylphenol dimer were produced in 4-t-BP direct photolysis. 4-tert-butylcatechol and hydroquinone were produced by the oxidation of HO·. But the formation mechanism of 4-tert-butylcatechol in the two processes was different. The benzene ring was fractured in 4-t-BP oxidation process and 29% of TOC was degraded after 16 h irradiation. - Highlights: • Photodegradation of 4-t-BP, an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been investigated. • 3 stable byproducts were identified from photolysis and oxidation processes. • 5 transient by-products were concluded from LFP experiments. • The theoretical calculation was performed to confirm the byproducts. • 4-t-BP was degraded with increasing efficiency: 254 nm < H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/313 nm < H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/254 nm.

  20. Establishment of thermophilic anaerobic terephthalic acid degradation system through one-step temperature increase startup strategy - Revealed by Illumina Miseq Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Li; Li, Xiang-Kun; Wang, Ke; Meng, Ling-Wei; Liu, Gai-Ge; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Over recent years, thermophilic digestion was constantly focused owing to its various advantage over mesophilic digestion. Notably, the startup approach of thermophilic digester needs to be seriously considered as unsuitable startup ways may result in system inefficiency. In this study, one-step temperature increase startup strategy from 37 °C to 55 °C was applied to establish a thermophilic anaerobic system treating terephthalic acid (TA) contained wastewater, meanwhile, the archaeal and bacterial community compositions at steady periods of 37 °C and 55 °C during the experimental process was also compared using Illumina Miseq Sequencing. The process operation demonstrated that the thermophilic TA degradation system was successfully established at 55 °C with over 95% COD reduction. For archaea community, the elevation of operational temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C accordingly increase the enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens but decrease the abundance of the acetotrophic ones. While for bacterial community, the taxonomic analysis suggested that Syntrophorhabdus (27.40%) was the dominant genus promoting the efficient TA degradation under mesophilic condition, whereas OPB95 (24.99%) and TA06 (14.01%) related populations were largely observed and probably take some crucial role in TA degradation under thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs: Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Oswald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate in suspensions of two TiO2-based photocatalysts with different surface area. Identification of intermediates and proposal of degradation pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramović, Biljana; Kler, Sanja; Šojić, Daniela; Laušević, Mila; Radović, Tanja; Vione, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Kinetics and efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of the β 1 -blocker metoprolol tartrate (MET). ► Two TiO 2 specimens employed. ► Faster degradation of MET, but slower mineralization, obtained with the TiO 2 specimen having lower surface area. ► Photocatalytic transformation pathways of MET including mineralization. - Abstract: This study investigates the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate (MET), a widely used β 1 -blocker, in TiO 2 suspensions of Wackherr's “Oxyde de titane standard” and Degussa P25. The study encompasses transformation kinetics and efficiency, identification of intermediates and reaction pathways. In the investigated range of initial concentrations (0.01–0.1 mM), the photocatalytic degradation of MET in the first stage of the reaction followed approximately a pseudo-first order kinetics. The TiO 2 Wackherr induced a significantly faster MET degradation compared to TiO 2 Degussa P25 when relatively high substrate concentrations were used. By examining the effect of ethanol as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (·OH), it was shown that the reaction with ·OH played the main role in the photocatalytic degradation of MET. After 240 min of irradiation the reaction intermediates were almost completely mineralized to CO 2 and H 2 O, while the nitrogen was predominantly present as NH 4 + . Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC–MS/MS (ESI+), which allowed the proposal of a tentative pathway for the photocatalytic transformation of MET as a function of the TiO 2 specimen.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate in suspensions of two TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalysts with different surface area. Identification of intermediates and proposal of degradation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramovic, Biljana, E-mail: biljana.abramovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Kler, Sanja, E-mail: sanja.kler@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Sojic, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.sojic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Lausevic, Mila, E-mail: milal@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Radovic, Tanja, E-mail: tradovic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Vione, Davide, E-mail: davide.vione@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics and efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of the {beta}{sub 1}-blocker metoprolol tartrate (MET). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two TiO{sub 2} specimens employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Faster degradation of MET, but slower mineralization, obtained with the TiO{sub 2} specimen having lower surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic transformation pathways of MET including mineralization. - Abstract: This study investigates the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol tartrate (MET), a widely used {beta}{sub 1}-blocker, in TiO{sub 2} suspensions of Wackherr's 'Oxyde de titane standard' and Degussa P25. The study encompasses transformation kinetics and efficiency, identification of intermediates and reaction pathways. In the investigated range of initial concentrations (0.01-0.1 mM), the photocatalytic degradation of MET in the first stage of the reaction followed approximately a pseudo-first order kinetics. The TiO{sub 2} Wackherr induced a significantly faster MET degradation compared to TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25 when relatively high substrate concentrations were used. By examining the effect of ethanol as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH), it was shown that the reaction with {center_dot}OH played the main role in the photocatalytic degradation of MET. After 240 min of irradiation the reaction intermediates were almost completely mineralized to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, while the nitrogen was predominantly present as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC-MS/MS (ESI+), which allowed the proposal of a tentative pathway for the photocatalytic transformation of MET as a function of the TiO{sub 2} specimen.

  4. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum‐polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian‐Alexander; Martínez‐Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi‐enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large‐scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro‐aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen‐depleted petroleum‐polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  6. Terminal processes in the anaerobic degradation of an algal-bacterial mat in a high-sulfate hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.M.; Olson, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The algal-bacterial mat of a high-sulfate hot spring (Bath Lake) provided an environment in which to compare terminal processes involved in anaerobic decomposition. Sulfate reduction was found to dominate methane production, as indicated by comparison of initial electron flow through the two processes, rapid conversion of [2- 14 C]acetate to 14 CO 2 and not to 14 CH 4 , and the lack of rapid reduction of NaH 14 CO 3 to 14 CH 4 . Sulfate reduction was the dominant process at all depth intervals, but a marked decrease of sulfate reduction and sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed with depth. Concurrent methanogenesis was indicated by the presence of viable methanogenic bacteria and very low but detectable rates of methane production. A marked increase in methane production was observed after sulfate depletion despite high concentrations of sulfide (>1.25 mM), indicating that methanogenesis was not inhibited by sulfide in the natural environment. Although a sulfate minimum and sulfide maximum occurred in the region of maximal sulfate reduction, the absence of sulfate depletion in interstitial water suggests that methanogenesis is always severely limited in Bath Lake sediments. Low initial methanogenesis was not due to anaerobic methane oxidation

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen.

  8. M2-like macrophages are responsible for collagen degradation through a mannose receptor–mediated pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Leonard, Daniel; Masedunskas, Andrius; Moyer, Amanda; Jürgensen, Henrik Jessen; Peters, Diane E.; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Selvaraj, Arul; Yamada, Susan S.; Brenner, David A.; Burgdorf, Sven; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels; Holmbeck, Kenn; Weigert, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Tissue remodeling processes critically depend on the timely removal and remodeling of preexisting collagen scaffolds. Nevertheless, many aspects related to the turnover of this abundant extracellular matrix component in vivo are still incompletely understood. We therefore took advantage of recent advances in optical imaging to develop an assay to visualize collagen turnover in situ and identify cell types and molecules involved in this process. Collagen introduced into the dermis of mice underwent cellular endocytosis in a partially matrix metalloproteinase–dependent manner and was subsequently routed to lysosomes for complete degradation. Collagen uptake was predominantly executed by a quantitatively minor population of M2-like macrophages, whereas more abundant Col1a1-expressing fibroblasts and Cx3cr1-expressing macrophages internalized collagen at lower levels. Genetic ablation of the collagen receptors mannose receptor (Mrc1) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor–associated protein (Endo180 and Mrc2) impaired this intracellular collagen degradation pathway. This study demonstrates the importance of receptor-mediated cellular uptake to collagen turnover in vivo and identifies a key role of M2-like macrophages in this process. PMID:24019537

  9. Characterization of the complete uric acid degradation pathway in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Russel Lee

    Full Text Available Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase, URO2 (HIU hydrolase, URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase, DAL1 (allantoinase, DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein, and URE1 (urease. All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed.

  10. Natural and enhanced anaerobic degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and its degradation products in the subsurface – A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Durant, Neal D.; Hansen, Maria Heisterberg

    2011-01-01

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) in groundwater is susceptible to a variety of natural degradation mechanisms. Evidence of intrinsic decay of TCA in aquifers is commonly observed; however, TCA remains a persistent pollutant at many sites and some of the daughter products that accumulate from intrinsic...

  11. Unusual Starch Degradation Pathway via Cyclodextrins in the Hyperthermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus Strain 7324▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labes, Antje; Schönheit, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324 has been shown to grow on starch and sulfate and thus represents the first sulfate reducer able to degrade polymeric sugars. The enzymes involved in starch degradation to glucose 6-phosphate were studied. In extracts of starch-grown cells the activities of the classical starch degradation enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase, could not be detected. Instead, evidence is presented here that A. fulgidus utilizes an unusual pathway of starch degradation involving cyclodextrins as intermediates. The pathway comprises the combined action of an extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) converting starch to cyclodextrins and the intracellular conversion of cyclodextrins to glucose 6-phosphate via cyclodextrinase (CDase), maltodextrin phosphorylase (Mal-P), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). These enzymes, which are all induced after growth on starch, were characterized. CGTase catalyzed the conversion of starch to mainly β-cyclodextrin. The gene encoding CGTase was cloned and sequenced and showed highest similarity to a glucanotransferase from Thermococcus litoralis. After transport of the cyclodextrins into the cell by a transport system to be defined, these molecules are linearized via a CDase, catalyzing exclusively the ring opening of the cyclodextrins to the respective maltooligodextrins. These are degraded by a Mal-P to glucose 1-phosphate. Finally, PGM catalyzes the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate, which is further degraded to pyruvate via the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway. PMID:17921308

  12. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Life and death of proteins after protease cleavage: protein degradation by the N-end rule pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissmeyer, Nico; Rivas, Susana; Graciet, Emmanuelle

    2018-05-01

    Contents Summary 929 I. conservation and diversity of N-end rule pathways 929 II. Defensive functions of the N-end rule pathway in plants 930 III. Proteases and degradation by the N-end rule pathway 930 IV. New proteomics approaches for the identification of N-end rule substrates 932 V. Concluding remarks 932 Acknowledgements 934 References 934 SUMMARY: The N-end rule relates the stability of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue and some of its modifications. Since its discovery in the 1980s, the repertoire of N-terminal degradation signals has expanded, leading to a diversity of N-end rule pathways. Although some of these newly discovered N-end rule pathways remain largely unexplored in plants, recent discoveries have highlighted roles of N-end rule-mediated protein degradation in plant defense against pathogens and in cell proliferation during organ growth. Despite this progress, a bottleneck remains the proteome-wide identification of N-end rule substrates due to the prerequisite for endoproteolytic cleavage and technical limitations. Here, we discuss the recent diversification of N-end rule pathways and their newly discovered functions in plant defenses, stressing the role of proteases. We expect that novel proteomics techniques (N-terminomics) will be essential for substrate identification. We review these methods, their limitations and future developments. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Degradation of PHLPP2 by KCTD17, via a Glucagon-Dependent Pathway, Promotes Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, KyeongJin; Ryu, Dongryeol; Dongiovanni, Paola; Ozcan, Lale; Nayak, Shruti; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Valenti, Luca; Auwerx, Johan; Pajvani, Utpal B

    2017-12-01

    and in liver biopsies patients with NAFLD, compared with liver tissues from healthy control mice or patients without steatosis. Knockdown of KCTD17 with small hairpin RNA in primary hepatocytes increased PHLPP2 protein but not Phlpp2 mRNA, indicating that KCTD17 mediates PHLPP2 degradation. KCTD17 knockdown in obese mice prevented PHLPP2 degradation and decreased expression of lipogenic genes. In mouse models of obesity, we found that PHLPP2 degradation induced lipogenesis without affecting gluconeogenesis. KCTD17, which is up-regulated in liver tissues of obese mice and patients with NAFLD, binds to phosphorylated PHLPP2 to target it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; this increases expression of genes that regulate lipogenesis to promote hepatic steatosis. Inhibitors of this pathway might be developed for treatment of patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  16. A non-canonical RNA degradation pathway suppresses RNAi-dependent epimutations in the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Silvia; Nicolás, Francisco E; Lee, Soo Chan; Vila, Ana; Cervantes, Maria; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M; Cardenas, Maria E; Heitman, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified. Thus, mutations that specifically block the mRNA degradation pathway, such as those in the genes r3b2 and rdrp3, enhance the production of drug resistant epimutants, similar to the phenotype previously described for mutation of the gene rdrp1. Our genetic analysis also revealed two new specific components of the epimutation pathway related to the quelling induced protein (qip) and a Sad-3-like helicase (rnhA), as mutations in these genes prevented formation of drug-resistant epimutants. Remarkably, drug-resistant epimutant production was notably increased in M. circinelloides f. circinelloides isolates from humans or other animal hosts. The host-pathogen interaction could be a stressful environment in which the phenotypic plasticity provided by the epimutant pathway might provide an advantage for these strains. These results evoke a model whereby balanced regulation of two different RNAi pathways is determined by the activation of the RNAi-dependent epimutant pathway under stress conditions, or its repression when the regular maintenance of the mRNA degradation pathway operates under non-stress conditions.

  17. A non-canonical RNA degradation pathway suppresses RNAi-dependent epimutations in the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Calo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified. Thus, mutations that specifically block the mRNA degradation pathway, such as those in the genes r3b2 and rdrp3, enhance the production of drug resistant epimutants, similar to the phenotype previously described for mutation of the gene rdrp1. Our genetic analysis also revealed two new specific components of the epimutation pathway related to the quelling induced protein (qip and a Sad-3-like helicase (rnhA, as mutations in these genes prevented formation of drug-resistant epimutants. Remarkably, drug-resistant epimutant production was notably increased in M. circinelloides f. circinelloides isolates from humans or other animal hosts. The host-pathogen interaction could be a stressful environment in which the phenotypic plasticity provided by the epimutant pathway might provide an advantage for these strains. These results evoke a model whereby balanced regulation of two different RNAi pathways is determined by the activation of the RNAi-dependent epimutant pathway under stress conditions, or its repression when the regular maintenance of the mRNA degradation pathway operates under non-stress conditions.

  18. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pretreatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, through pretreatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical, and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB, a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pretreated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the presence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  19. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  20. Anaerobic degradation of diethyl phthalate and phthalic acid during incubation of municipal solid waste from a biogas digestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejlertsson, J.; Houwen, F.P.; Svensson, B.H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology

    1996-11-01

    Degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and phthalic acid (PA) was investigated in diluted and homogenized municipal solid waste treated in a biogas digester. Complete degradation for both DEP and PA occurred at the concentrations investigated (50-250 mg/l). PA was shown to form an obligatory intermediate in stoichiometric amounts during DEP transformation. Mono-ethyl phthalate was also observed as an intermediate, though in concentrations below 40 mg/l. The formation of methane (and carbon dioxide) from DEP and PA took place within 80-100 days of incubation, of which at least 75% or more of the maximally expected methane was recovered. Two analytical procedures were compared in this paper: PAE-analysis by spectrophotometer and HPLC. 12 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.

  2. REGγ regulates ERα degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bi, Jiong [Laboratory of General Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cui, Youhong [Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Jiang, Jun, E-mail: jcbd@medmail.com.cn [Breast Disease Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • High expression of REGγ is correlated with ERα status and poor clinical features. • Cell growth, mobility and invasion are significantly impaired by REGγ knockdown. • REGγ indirectly regulates ERα protein expression. - Abstract: REGγ is a proteasome coactivator which regulates proteolytic activity in eukaryotic cells. Abundant lines of evidence have showed that REGγ is over expressed in a number of human carcinomas. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of cancer is still unclear. In this study, by examining 200 human breast cancer specimens, we demonstrated that REGγ was highly expressed in breast cancers, and the expression of REGγ was positively correlated with breast cancer patient estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status. Moreover, the expression of REGγ was found positively associated with poor clinical features and low survival rates in ERα positive breast cancer patients. Further cell culture studies using MCF7 and BT474 breast cancer cell lines showed that cell proliferation, motility, and invasion capacities were decreased significantly by REGγ knockdown. Lastly, we demonstrated that REGγ indirectly regulates the degradation of ERα protein via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide the evidence that REGγ expression was positively correlated with ERα status and poor clinical prognosis in ERα positive breast cancer patients. As well, we disclose a new connection between the two molecules that are both highly expressed in most breast cancer cases.

  3. The mitochondrial translocator protein, TSPO, inhibits HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Dang, Ying; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is necessary for viral entry and replication. Currently, it is still unclear how this process is regulated. The glycoprotein folding in the ER is controlled by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, which specifically targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Previously, we reported that HIV-1 replication is restricted in the human CD4(+) T cell line CEM.NKR (NKR). To understand this mechanism, we first analyzed cellular protein expression in NKR cells and discovered that levels of the mitochondrial translocator protein TSPO were upregulated by ∼64-fold. Notably, when NKR cells were treated with TSPO antagonist PK-11195, Ro5-4864, or diazepam, HIV restriction was completely disrupted, and TSPO knockdown by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) achieved a similar effect. We next analyzed viral protein expression, and, interestingly, we discovered that Env expression was specifically inhibited. Both TSPO knockdown and treatment with TSPO antagonist could restore Env expression in NKR cells. We further discovered that Env proteins were rapidly degraded and that kifunensine, an ERAD pathway inhibitor, could restore Env expression and viral replication, indicating that Env proteins were misfolded and degraded through the ERAD pathway in NKR cells. We also knocked out the TSPO gene in 293T cells using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]/CRISPR-associated-9) technology and found that TSPO could similarly inhibit Env expression in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TSPO inhibits Env protein expression through the ERAD pathway and suggest that mitochondria play an important role in regulating the Env folding process. The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is absolutely required for viral infection, and an understanding of its expression pathway in infected cells will identify new targets for antiretroviral therapies. Env proteins

  4. Influence of nutrients on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor degrading sulfate-laden organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, S K; Tare, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of the nutrients iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and molybdenum (Mo) on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor metabolizing synthetic sulfate-laden organics at varying operating conditions during a period of 540 days. A bench-scale model of a UASB reactor was operated at a temperature of 35 degrees C for a chemical oxygen demand-to-sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio of 8.59 to 2.0, a sulfate loading rate of 0.54 to 1.88 kg SO4(2-)/m3 x d, and an organic loading rate of 1.9 to 5.75 kg COD/m3 x d. Biomass was characterized in terms of total methanogenic activity, acetate-utilizing methanogenic activity, total sulfidogenic activity, acetate-utilizing sulfidogenic activity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nickel and cobalt limitation appears to affect the activity of hydrogen-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (HMPB) significantly without having an appreciable effect on the activity of acetate-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (AMPB). Nickel and cobalt supplementation resulted in increased availability and, consequently, restoration of biomass activity and process performance. Iron limitation and sulfidogenic conditions resulted in the growth of low-density, hollow, fragile granules that washed out, causing process instability and performance deterioration. Iron and cobalt supplementation indicated significant stimulation of AMPB with slight inhibition of HMPB. Examination of biomass through SEM indicated a population shift with dominance of sarcina-type organisms and the formation of hollow granules. Granule disintegration was observed toward the end of the study.

  5. Limonene dehydrogenase hydroxylates the allylic methyl group of cyclic monoterpenes in the anaerobic terpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes-Cala, Edinson; Liebeke, Manuel; Markert, Stephanie; Harder, Jens

    2018-05-01

    The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprene and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen. The purified limonene:ferrocenium oxidoreductase activity hydroxylated the methyl group of limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohex-1-ene) yielding perillyl alcohol ([4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]methanol). The enzyme had a dithiothreitol:perillyl alcohol oxidoreductase activity yielding limonene. Mass spectrometry and molecular size determinations revealed a heterodimeric enzyme comprising CtmA and CtmB. Recently the two proteins had been identified by transposon mutagenesis and proteomics as part of the cyclic terpene metabolism ( ctm ) in Castellaniella defragrans and were annotated as FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the protein domain family phytoene dehydrogenases and related proteins (COG1233). CtmAB is the first heterodimeric enzyme in this protein superfamily. Flavins in the purified CtmAB are oxidized by ferrocenium and are reduced by limonene. Heterologous expression of CtmA, CtmB and CtmAB in E. coli demonstrated that limonene dehydrogenase activity required both subunits carrying each a flavin cofactor. Native CtmAB oxidized a wide range of monocyclic monoterpenes containing the allylic methyl group motif (1-methyl-cyclohex-1-ene). In conclusion, we have identified CtmAB as a hydroxylating limonene dehydrogenase and the first heteromer in a family of FAD-dependent dehydrogenases acting on allylic methylene or methyl CH-bonds. We suggest a placement in EC 1

  6. Anaerobic degradation of anionic surfactants by indigenous microorganisms from sediments of a tropical polluted river in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS is widely used in the formulation of domestic and industrial cleaning products, the most synthetic surfactants used worldwide. These products can reach water bodies through the discharge of untreated sewage or non-effective treatments. This study evaluates the ability of the microorganisms found in the Tietê river sediment to degrade this synthetic surfactant. The experiment was conducted in a bioreactor, operated in batch sequences under denitrifying conditions, with cycles of 24 hours and stirring at 150rpm, using 430mL of sediments and 1 070mL of a synthetic substrate consisting of yeast extract, soluble starch, sodium bicarbonate and sucrose. LAS was added at different concentrations of 15mg/L and 30mg/L. The reactor operation was divided into the biomass adaptation to the synthetic substrate without LAS and three experimental conditions: a addition of 15mg/L of LAS; b 50% reduction the co-substrate concentration and 15mg/L of LAS, and c addition of 30mg/L of LAS and 100% co-substrate concentration. The results showed that the degradation efficiency of LAS was directly related to the addition of co-substrates and the population of denitrifying bacteria. The removal of LAS and nitrate can be achieved simultaneously in wastewater with low organic loads. The reduction in the co-substrates concentration was directly influenced by the number of denitrifying bacteria (2.2x10(13 to 1.0x10(8MPN/gTVS, and consequently, LAS degradation (60.1 to 55.4%. The sediment microorganisms in the Tietê river can be used as an alternative inoculum in the treatment of wastewater with nitrate and LAS contamination.

  7. Increase of anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter in full-scale biogas plants by mechanical maceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    of a macerator make it attractive to use this pretreatment method for a more complete degradation of particulate organic matter. investigation of the size distribution of the fibers showed that a change in biogas potential was not correlated to a smaller size of the fibers. Results from the macerators indicate......% by pretreatment of the whole feed in the macerator before the reactor was observed. implementation concepts with a treatment of the fibers alone after separation from the manure showed to be not efficient due to a low recovery of organic matter in the fibers by the separation unit. The low operational costs...

  8. Degraded iota-carrageenan can induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Han, Ya-Xin; Han, Xiao-Rui

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Therefore, using both in vitro and in vivo assays, the effects of degraded iota-Carrageenan (ι-CGN) on a human osteosarcoma cell line, HOS, were examined. Degraded ι-CGN was observed to induce apoptosis and G(1) phase arrest in HOS cells. Moreover, degraded ι-CGN suppressed tumor growth in established xenograft tumor models. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher than that of mice bearing tumors treated with native ι-CGN or PBS. In addition, the formation of intratumoral microvessels was inhibited following treatment with degraded ι-CGN. In Western blot assays, degraded ι-CGN was found to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of degraded ι-CGN toward the OS cell line, HOS. Moreover, valuable insight into the mechanisms mediated by degraded ι-CGN was obtained, potentially leading to the identification of novel treatments for OS. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results in other cell types, particularly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  9. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Liang; Hu, Jia; Weng, Yuxiong; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Sirtuin 6 prevents matrix degradation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Liang [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Hu, Jia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Weng, Yuxiong [Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Jia, Jie [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zhang, Yukun, E-mail: zhangyukuncom@126.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is marked by imbalanced metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs. This study aimed to determine whether sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, protects the NP from ECM degradation in IDD. Our study showed that expression of SIRT6 markedly decreased during IDD progression. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, prevented IL-1β-induced NP ECM degradation. SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in NP cells caused ECM degradation. Moreover, SIRT6 physically interacted with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) catalytic subunit p65, transcriptional activity of which was significantly suppressed by SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 prevented NP ECM degradation in vitro via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect depended on its deacetylase activity. - Highlights: • SIRT6 expression is decreased in degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. • SIRT6 overexpression lowers IL-1β-induced matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 inhibition induces matrix degradation of NP. • SIRT6 prevents matrix degradation of NP via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  11. Chemotaxis and degradation of organophosphate compound by a novel moderately thermo-halo tolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain BUR11: evidence for possible existence of two pathways for degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Pailan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An organophosphate (OP degrading chemotactic bacterial strain BUR11 isolated from an agricultural field was identified as a member of Pseudomonas genus on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize parathion, chlorpyrifos and their major hydrolytic intermediates as sole source of carbon for its growth and exhibited positive chemotactic response towards most of them. Optimum concentration of parathion for its growth was recorded to be 200 ppm and 62% of which was degraded within 96 h at 37 °C. Growth studies indicated the strain to be moderately thermo-halo tolerant in nature. Investigation based on identification of intermediates of parathion degradation by thin layer chromatography (TLC, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, gas chromatography (GC and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS provided evidence for possible existence of two pathways. The first pathway proceeds via 4-nitrophenol (4-NP while the second proceeds through formation of 4-aminoparathion (4-APar, 4-aminophenol (4-AP and parabenzoquinone (PBQ. This is the first report of chemotaxis towards organophosphate compound by a thermo-halo tolerant bacterium.

  12. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton using modified iron-carbon as catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation: influence factors, mechanism and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Ma, Liang; Yang, Jie; Yu, Fangke

    2015-03-01

    Modified iron-carbon with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was firstly investigated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) catalyst for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in near neutral pH condition. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the effects of some important operating parameters such as current intensity and pH on the 2,4-DCP degradation were investigated. After the catalyst modification with 20% PTFE, the degradation performance maintained well with much lower iron leaching, and at current intensity 100 mA, initial pH 6.7, catalyst loading 6 g/L, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP could exceed 95% within 120 min treatment. Two-stage pseudo first-order kinetics of 2,4-DCP degradation was observed, including a slow anodic oxidation stage (first-stage) and much faster heterogeneous EF oxidation (second-stage), in which the automatic drop of pH in the first-stage initiated the Fe(2+) release from micro-electrolysis and thus benefited to the subsequent EF reaction. Aromatic intermediates such as 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,6-dichlororesorcinol and 2-chlorohydroquinone were detected by GC-MS. Oxalic acid, acetic acid, formic acid and Cl(-) were quantified by ion chromatograph. Based on these analysis as well as the detection of H₂O₂ and OH, a possible mechanism and degradation pathway for 2,4-DCP were proposed. This work demonstrated that such a heterogeneous EF using cheap modified Fe-C catalyst was promising for organic wastewater treatment in initial neutral pH condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of hydroxycinnamic acid degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum reveals a coenzyme A-dependent, beta-oxidative deacetylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-ketopropionyl-CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)-CoA β-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent β-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials.

  14. The N-end rule pathway catalyzes a major fraction of the protein degradation in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, V.; Lecker, S. H.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, overall protein degradation involves the ubiquitin-proteasome system. One property of a protein that leads to rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation is the presence of a basic, acidic, or bulky hydrophobic residue at its N terminus. However, in normal cells, substrates for this N-end rule pathway, which involves ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) E214k and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) E3alpha, have remained unclear. Surprisingly, in soluble extracts of rabbit muscle, we found that competitive inhibitors of E3alpha markedly inhibited the 125I-ubiquitin conjugation and ATP-dependent degradation of endogenous proteins. These inhibitors appear to selectively inhibit E3alpha, since they blocked degradation of 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, but did not affect the degradation of proteins whose ubiquitination involved other E3s. The addition of several E2s or E3alpha to the muscle extracts stimulated overall proteolysis and ubiquitination, but only the stimulation by E3alpha or E214k was sensitive to these inhibitors. A similar general inhibition of ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins was observed with a dominant negative inhibitor of E214k. Certain substrates of the N-end rule pathway are degraded after their tRNA-dependent arginylation. We found that adding RNase A to muscle extracts reduced the ATP-dependent proteolysis of endogenous proteins, and supplying tRNA partially restored this process. Finally, although in muscle extracts the N-end rule pathway catalyzes most ubiquitin conjugation, it makes only a minor contribution to overall protein ubiquitination in HeLa cell extracts.

  15. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation – Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. ► Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. ► Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. ► Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (−0.1 to −2.4 kg NO 3 - eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (−0.4 to −1.0 kg SO 2 - eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (−790 to −960 kg CO 2 - eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (−1.7 to −3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The

  16. Enhanced anaerobic degradation of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater by integrated UASB system with Fe-C micro-electrolysis assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun; Xu, Hao; Fang, Fang; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2016-12-01

    Coupling of the Fe-C micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) into the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was developed for enhanced Fischer-Tropsch wastewater treatment. The COD removal efficiency and methane production in R 3 with IC-ME assisted both reached up to 80.6 ± 1.7% and 1.38 ± 0.11 L/L·d that higher than those values in R 1 with GAC addition (63.0 ± 3.4% and 0.95 ± 0.09 L/L·d) and R 2 with ZVI addition (74.5 ± 2.8% and 1.21 ± 0.09 L/L·d) under the optimum HRT (5 d). The Fe corrosion as electron donor reduced the ORP values and stimulated the activities of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to lower H 2 partial pressure in R 2 and R 3 . Additionally, Fe 2+ as by-product of iron corrosion, its presence could effectively increase the percentage of protein content in tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) to promote better bioflocculation, increasing to 90.5 mg protein/g·VSS (R 2 ) and 106.3 mg protein/g·VSS (R 3 ) while this value in R1 was simply 56.6 mg protein/g·VSS. More importantly, compared with R 1 , the excess accumulation of propionic acid and butyric acid in system was avoided. The macroscopic galvanic cells around Fe-C micro-electrolysis carriers in R 3 , that larger than microscopic galvanic cells in R 2 , further accelerate to transfer the electrons from anodic Fe to cathodic carbon that enhance interspecies hydrogen transfer, making the decomposition of propionic acid and butyric acid more thermodynamically feasible, finally facilitate more methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  18. Reaction pathway of the degradation of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid by sulfate radical generated by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criquet, Justine; Leitner, Nathalie Karpel Vel

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) in aqueous solutions by ionizing radiation was studied. The phenolic pollutant was easily removed by the electron beam irradiation, as more than 80% of the initial 100 µM introduced was degraded for a dose of 600 Gy. It was shown that the addition of persulfate, producing the sulfate radical as additional reactive species, induced a change in the reaction pathway. LC–MS analyses were performed in order to identify the different by-products formed. In the absence of persulfate, the main by-product formed was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while in presence of persulfate, 1,4-benzoquinone was detected and the hydroxylated by-products were not present. A reaction pathway of HBA degradation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals was proposed from the identification of the chemical structure of the different by-products detected. The influences of pH and dissolved oxygen were also studied. A high decline of HBA degradation was observed at pH 11 compared to pH 4.5, this decrease was minimized in the presence of persulfate. The dissolved oxygen concentration was found to be a limiting parameter of HBA degradation, however an excess of dissolved oxygen in solution did not improve the degradation to a large extent. - Highlights: • p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) is easily removed by e-beam irradiation. • The sulfate radicals formed from persulfate induce loss of the benzoic acid skeleton. • The dissolved oxygen concentration is a limiting parameter of the HBA degradation. • The effect of pH is minimized in presence of persulfate

  19. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-κB pathway through IκB degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-κB in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-κB activation was characterized by translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-κB-regulated gene expression. NF-κB activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-κB activation. Degradation of IκB protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of IκBα (IκBαDN) significantly suppressed NF-κB activation induced by PRRSV. However, IκBαDN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-κB DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-κB was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-κB-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-κB activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV

  20. Enrichment of Bacteria From Eastern Mediterranean Sea Involved in Lignin Degradation via the Phenylacetyl-CoA Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Woo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of allochthonous terrestrial organic matter, such as recalcitrant lignin and hemicellulose from plants, occurs in the ocean. We hypothesize that bacteria instead of white-rot fungi, the model organisms of aerobic lignin degradation within terrestrial environments, are responsible for lignin degradation in the ocean due to the ocean’s oligotrophy and hypersalinity. Warm oxic seawater from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was enriched on lignin in laboratory microcosms. Lignin mineralization rates by the lignin-adapted consortia improved after two sequential incubations. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing detected a higher abundance of aromatic compound degradation genes in response to lignin, particularly phenylacetyl-CoA, which may be an effective strategy for marine microbes in fluctuating oxygen concentrations. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing detected a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria bacteria such as taxonomic families Idiomarinaceae, Alcanivoraceae, and Alteromonadaceae in response to lignin. Meanwhile, fungal Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes remained at very low abundance. Our findings demonstrate the significant potential of bacteria and microbes utilizing the phenylacetyl-CoA pathway to contribute to lignin degradation in the Eastern Mediterranean where environmental conditions are unfavorable for fungi. Exploring the diversity of bacterial lignin degraders may provide important enzymes for lignin conversion in industry. Enzymes may be key in breaking down high molecular weight lignin and enabling industry to use it as a low-cost and sustainable feedstock for biofuels or other higher-value products.

  1. A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

  2. A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi, E-mail: shuh@biochem.chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

  3. Hydrogen "leakage" during methanogenesis from methanol and methylamine: implications for anaerobic carbon degradation pathways in aquatic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Hoehler, Tori Michael; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    to drive systematic variations in pore water H2 concentrations. Specifically, increasing sulfate concentrations and decreasing temperatures both resulted in decreasing H2 concentrations. The ratio of CO2 and CH4 produced from 14C-labelled methylamine and methanol showed a direct correlation with the H2...

  4. Diclofenac degradation in water by FeCeOx catalyzed H2O2: Influencing factors, mechanism and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yucan; Huang, Ting; Chang, Huazhen

    2017-07-15

    The degradation of diclofenac in a like Fenton system, FeCeO x -H 2 O 2 , was studied in details. The influencing factors, reaction kinetics, reaction mechanism and degradation pathways of diclofenac were investigated. The optimum conditions were at a solution pH of 5.0, H 2 O 2 concentration of 3.0mmol/L, diclofenac initial concentration of 0.07mmol/L, FeCeO x dosage of 0.5g/L, and 84% degradation of diclofenac was achieved within 40min. The kinetics of FeCeO x catalyzed H 2 O 2 process involved adsorption-dominating and degradation-dominating stages and fitted pseudo-second order model and pseudo-first order model, respectively. Singlet oxygen 1 O 2 was the primary intermediate oxidative species in the degradation process; superoxide radical anion O 2 - also participated in the reaction. The surface cerium and iron sites and the oxygen vacancies in the FeCeO x catalyst were proposed to play an important role in H 2 O 2 decomposition and active species generation. The detected intermediates were identified as hydroxylated derivatives (m/z of 310, 326 and 298), quinone imine compounds (m/z of 308, 278 and 264) and hydroxyl phenylamine (m/z of 178). The majority intermediates were hydroxylated derivatives and the minority was hydroxyl phenylamine. The degradation pathways were proposed to involve hydroxylation, decarboxylation, dehydrogenation and CN bond cleavage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of competing anaerobic and aerobic pathways in umpolung amide synthesis allows for site-selective amide 18O-labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleford, Jessica P.; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of umpolung amide synthesis was probed by interrogating potential sources for the oxygen of the product amide carbonyl that emanates from the α-bromo nitroalkane substrate. Using a series of 18O-labeled substrates and reagents, evidence is gathered to advance two pathways from the putative tetrahedral intermediate. Under anaerobic conditions, a nitro-nitrite isomerization delivers the amide oxygen from nitro oxygen. The same homolytic nitro-carbon fragmentation can be diverted by capture of the carbon radical intermediate with oxygen gas (O2) to deliver the amide oxygen from O2. This understanding was used to develop a straightforward protocol for the preparation of 18O-labeled amides in peptides by simply performing the umpolung amide synthesis reaction under an atmosphere of . PMID:22184227

  6. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-29

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  7. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor. PMID:27021522

  8. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  9. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  10. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Decomposition of the β-Blocker Metoprolol in Aqueous Titanium Dioxide Suspensions: Kinetics, Intermediates, and Degradation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the photocatalytic degradation of the β-blocker metoprolol (MET using TiO2 suspended as catalyst. A series of photoexperiments were carried out by a UV lamp, emitting in the 250–400 nm range, providing information about the absorption of radiation in the photoreactor wall. The influence of the radiation wavelength on the MET photooxidation rate was investigated using a filter cutting out wavelengths shorter than 280 nm. Effects of photolysis and adsorption at different initial pH were studied to evaluate noncatalytic degradation for this pharmaceutical. MET adsorption onto titania was fitted to two-parameter Langmuir isotherm. From adsorption results it appears that the photocatalytic degradation can occur mainly on the surface of TiO2. MET removed by photocatalysis was 100% conditions within 300 min, while only 26% was achieved by photolysis at the same time. TiO2 photocatalysis degradation of MET in the first stage of the reaction followed approximately a pseudo-first-order model. The major reaction intermediates were identified by LC/MS analysis such as 3-(propan-2-ylaminopropane-1,2-diol or 3-aminoprop-1-en-2-ol. Based on the identified intermediates, a photocatalytic degradation pathway was proposed, including the cleavage of side chain and the hydroxylation addition to the parent compounds.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Novel Pathway of Salicylate Degradation by Streptomyces sp. Strain WA46

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Daisuke; Vujaklija, Dusica; Davies, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A novel salicylate-degrading Streptomyces sp., strain WA46, was identified by UV fluorescence on solid minimal medium containing salicylate; trace amounts of gentisate were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography when strain WA46 was grown with salicylate. PCR amplification of WA46 DNA with degenerate primers for gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) genes produced an amplicon of the expected size. Sequential PCR with nested GDO primers was then used to identify a salicylate degradation gen...

  13. Degradation pathways of 1-methylphenanthrene in bacterial Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianan; Luo, Lijuan; Chen, Baowei; Sha, Sha; Qing, Qing; Tam, Nora F Y; Zhang, Yong; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-30

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant in petroleum, and alkylated phenanthrenes are considered as the primary PAHs during some oil spill events. Bacterial strain of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, was efficient to degrade 1-methylphenanthrene (1-MP). A detailed metabolism map of 1-MP in this strain was delineated based on analysis of metabolites with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). 1-MP was initially oxidized via two different biochemical strategies, including benzene ring and methyl-group attacks. Benzene ring attack was initiated with dioxygenation of the non-methylated aromatic ring via similar degradation pathways of phenanthrene (PHE) by bacteria. For methyl-group attack, mono oxygenase system was involved and more diverse enzymes were needed than that of PHE degradation. This study enhances the understanding of the metabolic pathways of alkylated PAHs and shows the significant potential of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 for the bioremediation of alkylated PAHs contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photolytic and photocatalytic degradation of quinclorac in ultrapure and paddy field water: identification of transformation products and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Agüera, Ana; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    Quinclorac (QNC) is an effective but rather persistent herbicide commonly used in rice production. This herbicide presents a mean persistence in the environment so its residues are considered of environmental relevance. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate its environmental behavior and degradation. In the present work, direct photolysis and TiO(2) photocatalysis of the target compound in ultrapure and paddy field water were investigated. After 10h photolysis in ultrapure water, the concentration of QNC declined 26% and 54% at 250 and 700 W m(-2), respectively. However, the amount of quinclorac in paddy field water remained almost constant under the same irradiation conditions. QNC dissipated completely after 40 min of TiO(2) photocatalysis in ultrapure water, whereas 130 min were necessary to degrade 98% of the initial concentration in paddy field water. Possible QNC photolytic and photocatalytic degradation pathways are proposed after structure elucidation of the main transformation products, through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and exact mass measurements. Pyridine ring hydroxylation at C-9 followed by ring opening and/or oxidative dechlorination were the key steps of QNC degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactive lysophospholipids generated by hepatic lipase degradation of lipoproteins lead to complement activation via the classical pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanchao; Paik, David C; Barile, Gaetano R

    2014-09-09

    We determined bioactivity of lysophospholipids generated by degradation of the low-density (LDL), very low-density (VLDL), and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins with hepatic lipase (HL), cholesterol esterase (CE), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). The LDL, VLDL, and HDL were treated with HL, CE, and Lp-PLA2 after immobilization on plates, and complement activation studies were performed with diluted human serum. Complement component 3 (C3) fixation, a marker for complement activation, was determined with a monoclonal anti-human C3d antibody. Enzymatic properties of HL and CE were assayed with triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine substrates for triglyceride hydrolase and phospholipase A activities. The ARPE-19 cells were used for viability studies. The HL degradation of human lipoproteins LDL, VLDL, or HDL results in the formation of modified lipoproteins that can activate the complement pathway. Complement activation is dose- and time-dependent upon HL and occurs via the classical pathway. Enzymatic studies suggest that the phospholipase A1 activity of HL generates complement-activating lysophospholipids. C-reactive protein (CRP), known to simultaneously interact with complement C1 and complement factor H (CFH), further enhances HL-induced complement activation. The lysophospholipids, 1-Palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-Oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, can be directly cytotoxic to ARPE-19 cells. The HL degradation of lipoproteins, known to accumulate in the outer retina and in drusen, can lead to the formation of bioactive lysophospholipids that can trigger complement activation and induce RPE cellular dysfunction. Given the known risk associations for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with HL, CRP, and CFH, this study elucidates a possible damage pathway for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in genetically predisposed individuals, that HL activity may lead to accumulation of lysophospholipids to initiate complement

  16. Identification and characterization of the furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural degradation pathways of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, F.; De Winde, J.H. [Bio-Based Sustainable Industrial Chemistry (B-Basic), Delft University of Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC, Delft (Netherlands); Wierckx, N. [Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, P.O. Box 5057, 2600 GB, Delft (Netherlands); Ruijssenaars, H.J. [Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Quality of Life, Department of Bioconversion, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC, Delft (Netherlands); O' Neal Ingram, L. (ed.) [University of Florida, Gainesville, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2010-03-16

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates pose significant problems for the production of second-generation biofuels and biochemicals. Among these inhibitors, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF) and furfural are specifically notorious. In this study, we describe the complete molecular identification and characterization of the pathway by which Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 metabolizes HMF and furfural. The identification of this pathway enabled the construction of an HMF and furfural-metabolizing Pseudomonas putida. The genetic information obtained furthermore enabled us to predict the HMF and furfural degrading capabilities of sequenced bacterial species that had not previously been connected to furanic aldehyde metabolism. These results pave the way for in situ detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which is a major step toward improved efficiency of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstock.

  17. Identification and characterization of the furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural degradation pathways of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Frank; Wierckx, Nick; de Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

    2010-01-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates pose significant problems for the production of second-generation biofuels and biochemicals. Among these inhibitors, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and furfural are specifically notorious. In this study, we describe the complete molecular identification and characterization of the pathway by which Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 metabolizes HMF and furfural. The identification of this pathway enabled the construction of an HMF and furfural-metabolizing Pseudomonas putida. The genetic information obtained furthermore enabled us to predict the HMF and furfural degrading capabilities of sequenced bacterial species that had not previously been connected to furanic aldehyde metabolism. These results pave the way for in situ detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which is a major step toward improved efficiency of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstock. PMID:20194784

  18. Microbial degradation pathways of the herbicide dichlobenil in soils with different history of dichlobenil-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtze, Maria S.; Hansen, Hans Christian B.; Juhler, Rene K.; Sorensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This is the first detailed study of metabolite production during degradation of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil). Degradation of dichlobenil and three potential metabolites: 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) and ortho-chlorobenzamide (OBAM) was studied in soils either previously exposed or not exposed to dichlobenil using a newly developed HPLC method. Dichlobenil was degraded in all four soils; BAM and 2,6-DCBA were only degraded in soils previously exposed to dichlobenil (100% within 35-56 days and 85-100% in 56 days, respectively), and OBAM in all four soils (25-33% removal in 48 days). BAM produced from dichlobenil was either hydrolyzed to 2,6-DCBA or dechlorinated to OBAM, which was further hydrolyzed to ortho-chlorobenzoic acid. BAM was rapidly mineralized in previously exposed soils only. All potential metabolites and the finding that BAM was a dead-end metabolite of dichlobenil in soils not previously exposed to dichlobenil needs to be included in risk assessments of the use of dichlobenil. - BAM produced from dichlobenil was either hydrolyzed to 2,6-DCBA or dechlorinated to OBAM, which was further hydrolyzed to ortho-chlorobenzoic acid

  19. Microbial degradation pathways of the herbicide dichlobenil in soils with different history of dichlobenil-exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtze, Maria S. [Department of Natural Sciences, Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark) and Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark) and Section of Genetics and Microbiology, Department of Ecology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: msh@geus.dk; Hansen, Hans Christian B. [Department of Natural Sciences, Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Juhler, Rene K. [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sorensen, Jan [Section of Genetics and Microbiology, Department of Ecology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    This is the first detailed study of metabolite production during degradation of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil). Degradation of dichlobenil and three potential metabolites: 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) and ortho-chlorobenzamide (OBAM) was studied in soils either previously exposed or not exposed to dichlobenil using a newly developed HPLC method. Dichlobenil was degraded in all four soils; BAM and 2,6-DCBA were only degraded in soils previously exposed to dichlobenil (100% within 35-56 days and 85-100% in 56 days, respectively), and OBAM in all four soils (25-33% removal in 48 days). BAM produced from dichlobenil was either hydrolyzed to 2,6-DCBA or dechlorinated to OBAM, which was further hydrolyzed to ortho-chlorobenzoic acid. BAM was rapidly mineralized in previously exposed soils only. All potential metabolites and the finding that BAM was a dead-end metabolite of dichlobenil in soils not previously exposed to dichlobenil needs to be included in risk assessments of the use of dichlobenil. - BAM produced from dichlobenil was either hydrolyzed to 2,6-DCBA or dechlorinated to OBAM, which was further hydrolyzed to ortho-chlorobenzoic acid.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic performance and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B over hierarchical double-shelled zinc nickel oxide hollow sphere heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jiabin; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres heterojunction were prepared by calcination of the metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sacrificial template in air via a one-step solvothermal method. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-vis light irradiation were also investigated. NiO/ZnO microsphere comprised a core and a shell with unique hierarchically porous structure. The photocatalytic results showed that NiO/ZnO hollow spheres exhibited excellent catalytic activity for RhB degradation, causing complete decomposition of RhB (200 mL of 10 g/L) under UV-vis light irradiation within 3 h. Furthermore, the degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the intermediates during the photodegradation process using liquid chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The improvement in photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the p-n heterojunction in the NiO/ZnO hollow spheres with hierarchically porous structure and the strong double-shell binding interaction, which enhances adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface and facilitates the electron/hole transfer within the framework. The degradation mechanism of pollutant is ascribed to the hydroxyl radicals (rad OH), which is the main oxidative species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. This work provides a facile and effective approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides heterojunction with high photocatalytic activity and thus can be potentially used in the environmental purification.

  1. p-Nitrophenol degradation by electro-Fenton process: Pathway, kinetic model and optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, J; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2017-10-01

    The chemical process scale-up, from lab studies to industrial production, is challenging and requires deep knowledge of the kinetic model and the reactions that take place in the system. This knowledge is also useful in order to be employed for the reactor design and the determination of the optimal operational conditions. In this study, a model substituted phenol such as p-nitrophenol was degraded by electro-Fenton process and the reaction products yielded along the treatment were recorded. The kinetic model was developed using Matlab software and was based on main reactions that occurred until total mineralization which allowed predicting the degradation pathway under this advanced oxidation process. The predicted concentration profiles of p-nitrophenol, their intermediates and by-products in electro-Fenton process were validated with experimental assays and the results were consistent. Finally, based on the developed kinetic model the degradation process was optimized using central composite design taking as key parameters the ferrous ion concentration and current density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Stolte, Stefan [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); UFT-Centre of Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Siedlecka, Ewa Maria, E-mail: ewa.siedlecka@ug.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of sulfonamides at BDD electrode: Kinetics, reaction pathway and eco-toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan; Siedlecka, Ewa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SNs were electrochemically oxidized at BDD in one compartment reactor. • The efficiency of SN degradation was the highest in effluents from municipal WWTP. • The electro-degradation SNs based on oxidation but reduction was also possible. • Electrochemical oxidation of SNs led in some cases to mixtures toxic to L. minor. - Abstract: The investigation dealt with electrochemical oxidation of five sulfonamides (SNs): sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMN) and sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in aqueous solution at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. All studied sulfonamides were degraded according to a pseudo first order kinetics. The structure of SNs had no significant effect on the values of pseudo first order rate constants. Increased degradation efficiency was observed in higher temperature and in acidic pH. Due to the presence of chlorine and nitrate SNs were more effectively oxidized from municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents than from pure supporting electrolyte Na 2 SO 4 . The intermediates identified by LC–MS and GC–MS analysis suggested that the hydroxyl radicals attack mainly the S-N bond, but also the aromatic ring systems (aniline, pyrimidine or triazole) of SNs. Finally, the toxicity of the SNs solutions and effluents after electrochemical treatment was assessed through the measurement of growth inhibition of green algae (Scenedesmus vacualatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). Toxicity of SMR, STZ, SMN solutions before and after electrochemical oxidation and SDM solution after the process in L. minor test was observed. No significant toxicity of studied SNs was observed in algae test

  4. New Biochemical Pathway for Biphenyl Degradation in Plants: Structural, Mechanistic and Biotechnological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacios, L. F.; Campos, V. M.; Merino, I.; Gomez, L.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PVBs) and other structurally-related xenobiotics are amongst the most relevant organic pollutants known today. while some bacterial species can metabolize PCBs, with varying efficiency, no catabolic pathways have yet been described in plants. This is so despite the great potential of (at least some) plant species for soil and groundwater decontamination, a technology known as phyto remediation. (Author)

  5. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  6. Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential.

  7. Bifurcated Degradative Pathway of 3-Sulfolactate in Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM via Sulfoacetaldehyde Acetyltransferase and (S)-Cysteate Sulfolyase ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, Karin; Mayer, Jutta; Buhmann, Matthias; Weinitschke, Sonja; Smits, Theo H. M.; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the genome sequence of the aerobic, marine bacterium Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM were interpreted such that 3-sulfolactate would be degraded as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth via a novel bifurcated pathway including two known desulfonative enzymes, sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.3.15) (Xsc) and cysteate sulfo-lyase (EC 4.4.1.25) (CuyA). Strain ISM utilized sulfolactate quantitatively with stoichiometric excretion of the sulfonate sulfur as sulfate. A combination of enzyme assays, analytical chemistry, enzyme purification, peptide mass fingerprinting, and reverse transcription-PCR data supported the presence of an inducible, tripartite sulfolactate uptake system (SlcHFG), and a membrane-bound sulfolactate dehydrogenase (SlcD) which generated 3-sulfopyruvate, the point of bifurcation. 3-Sulfopyruvate was in part decarboxylated by 3-sulfopyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.79) (ComDE), which was purified. The sulfoacetaldehyde that was formed was desulfonated by Xsc, which was identified, and the acetyl phosphate was converted to acetyl-coenzyme A by phosphate acetyltransferase (Pta). The other portion of the 3-sulfopyruvate was transaminated to (S)-cysteate, which was desulfonated by CuyA, which was identified. The sulfite that was formed was presumably exported by CuyZ (TC 9.B.7.1.1 in the transport classification system), and a periplasmic sulfite dehydrogenase is presumed. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that transporter SlcHFG is rare but that SlcD is involved in three different combinations of pathways, the bifurcated pathway shown here, via CuyA alone, and via Xsc alone. This novel pathway involves ComDE in biodegradation, whereas it was discovered in the biosynthesis of coenzyme M. The different pathways of desulfonation of sulfolactate presumably represent final steps in the biodegradation of sulfoquinovose (and exudates derived from it) in marine and aquatic environments. PMID:19581363

  8. Catabolite-mediated mutations in alternate toluene degradative pathways in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, M B; Phipps, D W; Ridgway, H F

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida 54g grew on mineral salts with toluene and exhibited catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) activity, indicating a meta pathway. After 10 to 15 days on toluene, nondegrading (Tol-) variants approached nearly 10% of total CFU. Auxotrophs were not detected among variants, suggesting selective loss of catabolic function(s). Variant formation was substrate dependent, since Tol- cells were observed on neither ethylbenzene, glucose, nor peptone-based media nor when toluene catabolism was suppressed by glucose. Unlike wild-type cells, variants did not grow on gasoline, toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, benzoate, or catechol, suggesting loss of meta pathway function. Catabolic and C23O activities were restored to variants via transfer of a 78-mDa TOL-like plasmid from a wild-type Tol+ donor. Tests for reversion of variants to Tol+ were uniformly negative, suggesting possible delection or excision of catabolic genes. Deletions were confirmed in some variants by failure to hybridize with a DNA probe specific for the xylE gene encoding C23O. Cells grown on benzoate remained Tol+ but were C23O- and contained a plasmid of reduced size or were plasmid free, suggesting an alternate chromosomal catabolic pathway, also defective in variants. Cells exposed to benzyl alcohol, the initial oxidation product of toluene, accumulated > 13% variants in 5 days, even when cell division was repressed by nitrogen deprivation to abrogate selection processes. No variants formed in identical ethylbenzene-exposed controls. The results suggest that benzyl alcohol mediates irreversible defects in both a plasmid-associated meta pathway and an alternate chromosomal pathway. PMID:7642499

  9. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterkamp, M.J.; Boeren, S.; Atashgahi, S.; Plugge, C.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In

  10. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  11. Interacting signal pathways control defense gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to cell wall-degrading enzymes from Erwinia carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Setterblad, C; Vidal, S; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    We have characterized the role of salicylic acid (SA)-independent defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Use of pathway-specific target genes as well as signal mutants allowed us to elucidate the role and interactions of ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), and SA signal pathways in this response. Gene expression studies suggest a central role for both ethylene and JA pathways in the regulation of defense gene expression triggered by the pathogen or by plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (CF) secreted by the pathogen. Our results suggest that ethylene and JA act in concert in this regulation. In addition, CF triggers another, strictly JA-mediated response inhibited by ethylene and SA. SA does not appear to have a major role in activating defense gene expression in response to CF. However, SA may have a dual role in controlling CF-induced gene expression, by enhancing the expression of genes synergistically induced by ethylene and JA and repressing genes induced by JA alone.

  12. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  13. ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGRADATION OF CONTAMINANTS AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION UNDER THERMOPHILIC AND MESOPHILIC CONDITIONS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sayara, T.; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Sarra, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2015), s. 153-165 ISSN 1582-9596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : anaerobic digestion * central composite design * PAH-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.008, year: 2015

  14. Does tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway mediate the association between pro-inflammatory immune activity and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, Jacqueline; Doornbos, Bennard; Roest, Annelieke M; Duivis, Hester E; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kema, Ido P; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that induced tryptophan (TRP) degradation through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is implicated in the relation between depression and inflammation. We investigated the role of tryptophan degradation in the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and hypothesized that tryptophan degradation would mediate (part of) this association. 2812 Participants of NESDA were included in this study including 1042 persons with current major depressive disorder (MDD). Assessments of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, KYN and TRP were obtained from fasting blood samples at the baseline assessment. Tryptophan degradation was estimated by calculating the ratio [KYN/TRP]. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Significant associations between inflammation and depressive symptoms were found for CRP and IL-6, for the total group and the subgroup of patients with current MDD. Adjustment for KYN/TRP did not attenuate these associations. There were no significant indirect effects for CRP on depressive symptoms mediated by KYN/TRP for the whole group (B=-0.032; 95% CI: -0.103 to 0.028) and for the subgroup of patients with current MDD (B=0.059; 95% CI: -0.037 to 0.165). Also IL-6 did not indirectly affect depressive symptoms through KYN/TRP in the total group (B=-0.023; 95% CI: -0.093 to 0.045) and in the MDD subgroup B=0.052; 95% CI: -0.019 to 0.144). Finally, no significant relation between depressive symptoms and KYN/TRP was found in the whole group (β=-0.019, p=0.311) nor in the subgroup with MDD (β=0.025, p=0.424). We did not find indications for tryptophan degradation, measured by KYN/TRP, to mediate the relationship between inflammation and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trafficking and degradation pathways in pathogenic conversion of prions and prion-like proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Guiliana Soraya; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2015-09-02

    Several neurodegenerative diseases such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are caused by the conversion of cellular proteins to a pathogenic conformer. Despite differences in the primary structure and subcellular localization of these proteins, which include the prion protein, α-synuclein and amyloid precursor protein (APP), striking similarity has been observed in their ability to seed and convert naïve protein molecules as well as transfer between cells. This review aims to cover what is known about the intracellular trafficking of these proteins as well as their degradation mechanisms and highlight similarities in their movement through the endocytic pathway that could contribute to the pathogenic conversion and seeding of these proteins which underlies the basis of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical and structural characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae oxamate amidohydrolase in the uric acid degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Katherine A.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2016-05-25

    HpxW from the ubiquitous pathogenKlebsiella pneumoniaeis involved in a novel uric acid degradation pathway downstream from the formation of oxalurate. Specifically, HpxW is an oxamate amidohydrolase which catalyzes the conversion of oxamate to oxalate and is a member of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily. HpxW is autoprocessed from an inactive precursor to form a heterodimer, resulting in a 35.5 kDa α subunit and a 20 kDa β subunit. Here, the structure of HpxW is presented and the substrate complex is modeled. In addition, the steady-state kinetics of this enzyme and two active-site variants were characterized. These structural and biochemical studies provide further insight into this class of enzymes and allow a mechanism for catalysis consistent with other members of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily to be proposed.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AAMS amidohydrolase, the final enzyme in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Yoshida, Hiromi; Chu, Huy Nhat; Yoshikane, Yu; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant α-(N-acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid amidohydrolase from M. loti MAFF303099 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected at 2.7 Å resolution. α-(N-Acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid (AAMS) amidohydrolase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, which is involved in a degradation pathway of vitamin B 6 and catalyzes the degradation of AAMS to acetic acid, ammonia, carbon dioxide and succinic semialdehyde, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. To elucidate the reaction mechanism based on the tertiary structure, the recombinant enzyme was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as precipitant. A crystal of the enzyme belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 393.2, b = 58.3, c = 98.9 Å, β = 103.4°, and diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The V M value and calculation of the self-rotation function suggested that three dimers with a threefold symmetry were possibly present in the asymmetric unit

  18. Biochemical, transcriptional and translational evidences of the phenol-meta-degradation pathway by the hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Comte

    Full Text Available Phenol is a widespread pollutant and a model molecule to study the biodegradation of monoaromatic compounds. After a first oxidation step leading to catechol in mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, two main routes have been identified depending on the cleavage of the aromatic ring: ortho involving a catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12D and meta involving a catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23D. Our work aimed at elucidating the phenol-degradation pathway in the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2. For this purpose, the strain was cultivated in a fermentor under different substrate and oxygenation conditions. Indeed, reducing dissolved-oxygen concentration allowed slowing down phenol catabolism (specific growth and phenol-consumption rates dropped 55% and 39%, respectively and thus, evidencing intermediate accumulations in the broth. HPLC/Diode Array Detector and LC-MS analyses on culture samples at low dissolved-oxygen concentration (DOC  =  0.06 mg x L(-1 suggested, apart for catechol, the presence of 2-hydroxymuconic acid, 4-oxalocrotonate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate, three intermediates of the meta route. RT-PCR analysis on oxygenase-coding genes of S. solfataricus 98/2 showed that the gene coding for the C23D was expressed only on phenol. In 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF analysis, the C23D was found and identified only on phenol. This set of results allowed us concluding that S. solfataricus 98/2 degrade phenol through the meta route.

  19. Degradation of a cationic dye (Rhodamine 6G) using hydrodynamic cavitation coupled with other oxidative agents: Reaction mechanism and pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoriya, Sunil; Bargole, Swapnil; Saharan, Virendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, decolorization and mineralization of a cationic dye, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), has been carried out using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). Two cavitating devices such as slit and circular venturi were used to generate cavitation in HC reactor. The process parameters such as initial dye concentration, solution pH, operating inlet pressure, and cavitation number were investigated in detail to evaluate their effects on the decolorization efficiency of Rh6G. Decolorization of Rh6G was marginally higher in the case of slit venturi as compared to circular venturi. The kinetic study showed that decolorization and mineralization of the dye fitted first-order kinetics. The loadings of H 2 O 2 and ozone have been optimized to intensify the decolorization and mineralization efficiency of Rh6G using HC. Nearly 54% decolorization of Rh6G was obtained using a combination of HC and H 2 O 2 at a dye to H 2 O 2 molar ratio of 1:30. The combination of HC with ozone resulted in 100% decolorization in almost 5-10min of processing time depending upon the initial dye concentration. To quantify the extent of mineralization, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis was also performed using various processes and almost 84% TOC removal was obtained using HC coupled with 3g/h of ozone. The degradation by-products formed during the complete degradation process were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and a detailed degradation pathway has been proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of sulfadimethoxine catalyzed by laccase with soybean meal extract as natural mediator: Mechanism and reaction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shangtao; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2017-08-01

    Natural laccase-mediator systems have been well recognized as an eco-friendly and energy-saving approach in environmental remediation, whose further application is however limited by the high cost of natural mediators and relatively long treatment time span. This study evaluated the water extract of soybean meal, a low-cost compound system, in mediating the laccase catalyzed degradation of a model contaminant of emerging concern, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and demonstrated it as a promising alternative mediator for soil and water remediation. Removal of 73.3% and 65.6% was achieved in 9 h using soybean meal extract (SBE) as the mediating system for laccase-catalyzed degradation of sulfadimethoxine at the concentration of 1 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. Further degradation of sulfadimethoxine was observed with multiple SBE additions. Using SBE as mediator increased the 9-h removal of SDM at 1 ppm initial concentration by 52.9%, 49.4%, and 36.3% in comparison to the system mediated by 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), p-Coumaric acid (COU) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), respectively. With the detection of stable coupling products formed with radical scavenger (5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, DMPO), three phenolic compounds (vanillin, apocynin, and daidzein) in SBE were confirmed to serve as mediators for Trametes versicolor laccase. Reaction pathways were proposed based on the results of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. SO 2 excursion happened during SDM transformation, leading to elimination of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, as a natural, phenol rich, and affordable compound system, the future application of SBE in wastewater and soil remediation is worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NIK is required for NF-κB-mediated induction of BAG3 upon inhibition of constitutive protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapino, F; Abhari, B A; Jung, M; Fulda, S

    2015-03-12

    Recently, we reported that induction of the co-chaperone Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is critical for recovery of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells after proteotoxic stress upon inhibition of the two constitutive protein degradation pathways, that is, the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Bortezomib and the aggresome-autophagy system by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor ST80. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms mediating BAG3 induction under these conditions. Here, we identify nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (NIK) as a key mediator of ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated NF-κB activation and transcriptional upregulation of BAG3. ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment upregulates mRNA and protein expression of NIK, which is accompanied by an initial increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, NIK silencing by siRNA abolishes NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction by ST80/Bortezomib. Furthermore, ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment stimulates NF-κB transcriptional activity and upregulates NF-κB target genes. Genetic inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or by knockdown of p65 blocks the ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated upregulation of BAG3 mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, inhibition of lysosomal activity by Bafilomycin A1 inhibits ST80/Bortezomib-stimulated IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation and BAG3 upregulation, indicating that IκBα is degraded via the lysosome in the presence of Bortezomib. Thus, by demonstrating a critical role of NIK in mediating NF-κB activation and BAG3 induction upon ST80/Bortezomib cotreatment, our study provides novel insights into mechanisms of resistance to proteotoxic stress in RMS.

  2. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speece, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH 4 and CO 2 . Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  3. Polysorbates 20 and 80 used in the formulation of protein biotherapeutics: structure and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Bruce A

    2008-08-01

    Polysorbates 20 and 80 (Tween 20 and Tween 80) are used in the formulation of biotherapeutic products for both preventing surface adsorption and as stabilizers against protein aggregation. The polysorbates are amphipathic, nonionic surfactants composed of fatty acid esters of polyoxyethylene sorbitan being polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate for polysorbate 20 and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate for polysorbate 80. The polysorbates used in the formulation of biopharmaceuticals are mixtures of different fatty acid esters with the monolaurate fraction of polysorbate 20 making up only 40-60% of the mixture and the monooleate fraction of polysorbate 80 making up >58% of the mixture. The polysorbates undergo autooxidation, cleavage at the ethylene oxide subunits and hydrolysis of the fatty acid ester bond. Autooxidation results in hydroperoxide formation, side-chain cleavage and eventually formation of short chain acids such as formic acid all of which could influence the stability of a biopharmaceutical product. Oxidation of the fatty acid moiety while well described in the literature has not been specifically investigated for polysorbate. This review focuses on the chemical structure of the polysorbates, factors influencing micelle formation and factors and excipients influencing stability and degradation of the polyoxyethylene and fatty acid ester linkages.

  4. Microbial oil-degradation under mild hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa): which pathways are impacted in piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Mapelli, Francesca; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills represent an overwhelming carbon input to the marine environment that immediately impacts the sea surface ecosystem. Microbial communities degrading the oil fraction that eventually sinks to the seafloor must also deal with hydrostatic pressure, which linearly increases with depth. Piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are ideal candidates to elucidate impaired pathways following oil spills at low depth. In the present paper, we tested two strains of the ubiquitous Alcanivorax genus, namely A. jadensis KS_339 and A. dieselolei KS_293, which is known to rapidly grow after oil spills. Strains were subjected to atmospheric and mild pressure (0.1, 5 and 10 MPa, corresponding to a depth of 0, 500 and 1000 m, respectively) providing n-dodecane as sole carbon source. Pressures equal to 5 and 10 MPa significantly lowered growth yields of both strains. However, in strain KS_293 grown at 10 MPa CO2 production per cell was not affected, cell integrity was preserved and PO43− uptake increased. Analysis of its transcriptome revealed that 95% of its genes were downregulated. Increased transcription involved protein synthesis, energy generation and respiration pathways. Interplay between these factors may play a key role in shaping the structure of microbial communities developed after oil spills at low depth and limit their bioremediation potential. PMID:27020120

  5. Microbial oil-degradation under mild hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa): which pathways are impacted in piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria?

    KAUST Repository

    Scoma, Alberto

    2016-03-29

    Oil spills represent an overwhelming carbon input to the marine environment that immediately impacts the sea surface ecosystem. Microbial communities degrading the oil fraction that eventually sinks to the seafloor must also deal with hydrostatic pressure, which linearly increases with depth. Piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria are ideal candidates to elucidate impaired pathways following oil spills at low depth. In the present paper, we tested two strains of the ubiquitous Alcanivorax genus, namely A. jadensis KS_339 and A. dieselolei KS_293, which is known to rapidly grow after oil spills. Strains were subjected to atmospheric and mild pressure (0.1, 5 and 10 MPa, corresponding to a depth of 0, 500 and 1000 m, respectively) providing n-dodecane as sole carbon source. Pressures equal to 5 and 10 MPa significantly lowered growth yields of both strains. However, in strain KS_293 grown at 10 MPa CO2 production per cell was not affected, cell integrity was preserved and PO43− uptake increased. Analysis of its transcriptome revealed that 95% of its genes were downregulated. Increased transcription involved protein synthesis, energy generation and respiration pathways. Interplay between these factors may play a key role in shaping the structure of microbial communities developed after oil spills at low depth and limit their bioremediation potential.

  6. Oxidation of indometacin by ferrate (VI): kinetics, degradation pathways, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlei; Wang, Yahui; Liu, Guoguang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Fengliang; Ma, Jingshuai; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Haijin; Lv, Wenying

    2017-04-01

    The oxidation of indometacin (IDM) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was investigated to determine the reaction kinetics, transformation products, and changes in toxicity. The reaction between IDM and Fe(VI) followed first-order kinetics with respect to each reactant. The apparent second-order rate constants (k app ) decreased from 9.35 to 6.52 M -1  s -1 , as the pH of the solution increased from 7.0 to 10.0. The pH dependence of k app might be well explained by considering the species-specific rate constants of the reactions of IDM with Fe(VI). Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that the oxidation products were primarily derived from the hydrolysis of amide linkages, the addition of hydroxyl groups, and electrophilic oxidation. The toxicity of the oxidation products was evaluated using the Microtox test, which indicated that transformation products exhibited less toxicity to the Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis calculated by the ecological structure activity relationship (ECOSAR) revealed that all of the identified products exhibited lower acute and chronic toxicity than the parent pharmaceutical for fish, daphnid, and green algae. Furthermore, Fe(VI) was effective in the degradation IDM in water containing carbonate ions or fulvic acid (FA), and in lake water samples; however, higher Fe(VI) dosages would be required to completely remove IDM in lake water in contrast to deionized water.

  7. Degradation of Organic UV filters in Chlorinated Seawater Swimming Pools: Transformation Pathways and Bromoform Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasfi, Tarek; Coulomb, Bruno; Ravier, Sylvain; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2017-12-05

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in sunscreens and other personal-care products to protect against harmful effects of exposure to UV solar radiation. Little is known about the fate of UV filters in seawater swimming pools disinfected with chlorine. The present study investigated the occurrence and fate of five commonly used organic UV filters, namely dioxybenzone, oxybenzone, avobenzone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene, in chlorinated seawater swimming pools. Pool samples were collected to monitor the variation of UV filter concentrations during pool opening hours. Furthermore, laboratory-controlled chlorination experiments were conducted in seawater spiked with UV filters to investigate the reactivity of UV filters. Extracts of chlorination reaction samples were analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry and electron-capture detection to identify the potentially formed byproducts. In the collected pool samples, all the UV filters except dioxybenzone were detected. Chlorination reactions showed that only octocrylene was stable in chlorinated seawater. The four reactive UV filters generated brominated transformation products and disinfection byproducts. This formation of brominated products resulted from reactions between the reactive UV filters and bromine, which is formed rapidly when chlorine is added to seawater. Based on the identified byproducts, the transformation pathways of the reactive UV filters were proposed for the first time. Bromoform was generated by all the reactive UV filters at different yields. Bromal hydrate was also detected as one of the byproducts generated by oxybenzone and dioxybenzone.

  8. Methylmercury degradation and exposure pathways in streams and wetlands impacted by historical mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Patrick M., E-mail: pmdon@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N., University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N., University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Singer, Michael Bliss [University of St Andrews, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, North St., St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Earth Research Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 91306 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tsui, Martin T.K. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations and Hg stable isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg) were measured in sediment and aquatic organisms from Cache Creek (California Coast Range) and Yolo Bypass (Sacramento Valley). Cache Creek sediment had a large range in THg (87 to 3870 ng/g) and δ{sup 202}Hg (− 1.69 to − 0.20‰) reflecting the heterogeneity of Hg mining sources in sediment. The δ{sup 202}Hg of Yolo Bypass wetland sediment suggests a mixture of high and low THg sediment sources. Relationships between %MMHg (the percent ratio of MMHg to THg) and Hg isotope values (δ{sup 202}Hg and Δ{sup 199}Hg) in fish and macroinvertebrates were used to identify and estimate the isotopic composition of MMHg. Deviation from linear relationships was found between %MMHg and Hg isotope values, which is indicative of the bioaccumulation of isotopically distinct pools of MMHg. The isotopic composition of pre-photodegraded MMHg (i.e., subtracting fractionation from photochemical reactions) was estimated and contrasting relationships were observed between the estimated δ{sup 202}Hg of pre-photodegraded MMHg and sediment IHg. Cache Creek had mass dependent fractionation (MDF; δ{sup 202}Hg) of at least − 0.4‰ whereas Yolo Bypass had MDF of + 0.2 to + 0.5‰. This result supports the hypothesis that Hg isotope fractionation between IHg and MMHg observed in rivers (− MDF) is unique compared to + MDF observed in non-flowing water environments such as wetlands, lakes, and the coastal ocean. - Highlights: • Mercury isotope ratios were measured in sediment and biota from Central California. • The isotopic composition of MMHg was estimated in streams and wetlands. • Mercury isotopes suggest multiple exposure pathways in these habitats. • Mass dependent fractionation between IHg and MMHg is different in streams.

  9. Methylmercury degradation and exposure pathways in streams and wetlands impacted by historical mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Singer, Michael Bliss; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Tsui, Martin T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations and Hg stable isotope ratios (δ"2"0"2Hg and Δ"1"9"9Hg) were measured in sediment and aquatic organisms from Cache Creek (California Coast Range) and Yolo Bypass (Sacramento Valley). Cache Creek sediment had a large range in THg (87 to 3870 ng/g) and δ"2"0"2Hg (− 1.69 to − 0.20‰) reflecting the heterogeneity of Hg mining sources in sediment. The δ"2"0"2Hg of Yolo Bypass wetland sediment suggests a mixture of high and low THg sediment sources. Relationships between %MMHg (the percent ratio of MMHg to THg) and Hg isotope values (δ"2"0"2Hg and Δ"1"9"9Hg) in fish and macroinvertebrates were used to identify and estimate the isotopic composition of MMHg. Deviation from linear relationships was found between %MMHg and Hg isotope values, which is indicative of the bioaccumulation of isotopically distinct pools of MMHg. The isotopic composition of pre-photodegraded MMHg (i.e., subtracting fractionation from photochemical reactions) was estimated and contrasting relationships were observed between the estimated δ"2"0"2Hg of pre-photodegraded MMHg and sediment IHg. Cache Creek had mass dependent fractionation (MDF; δ"2"0"2Hg) of at least − 0.4‰ whereas Yolo Bypass had MDF of + 0.2 to + 0.5‰. This result supports the hypothesis that Hg isotope fractionation between IHg and MMHg observed in rivers (− MDF) is unique compared to + MDF observed in non-flowing water environments such as wetlands, lakes, and the coastal ocean. - Highlights: • Mercury isotope ratios were measured in sediment and biota from Central California. • The isotopic composition of MMHg was estimated in streams and wetlands. • Mercury isotopes suggest multiple exposure pathways in these habitats. • Mass dependent fractionation between IHg and MMHg is different in streams.

  10. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  11. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  13. Aqueous photochemical degradation of hydroxylated PAHs: Kinetics, pathways, and multivariate effects of main water constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Linke; Na, Guangshui [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Chang-Er [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Ju, Maowei; Wang, Ying; Li, Kai [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: pzhang@nmemc.org.cn [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Yao, Ziwei [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-03-15

    PAHs. • Hydroxylated PAHs intrinsically photodegrade fast in sunlit surface waters. • Reaction types and transformation pathways of 9-Hydroxyfluorene were clarified. • Photolysis kinetics was affected by multivariate effects of main water constituents. • The photomodified toxicity of 9-Hydroxyfluorene was examined using Vibrio fischeri.

  14. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  15. Degradation of γ-HCH spiked soil using stabilized Pd/Fe0 bimetallic nanoparticles: Pathways, kinetics and effect of reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ritu; Misra, Virendra; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study explores the potential of CMC-Pd/nFe 0 to degrade γ-HCH in spiked soil. ► Sorption–desorption characteristics and partitioning of γ-HCH is investigated. ► Three degradation pathways has been proposed and discussed. ► γ-HCH degradation mechanism and kinetics is elucidated. ► Activation energy reveals that γ-HCH degradation is a surface mediated reaction. - Abstract: This study investigates the degradation pathway of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) in spiked soil using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized Pd/Fe 0 bimetallic nanoparticles (CMC-Pd/nFe 0 ). GC–MS analysis of γ-HCH degradation products showed the formation of pentachlorocyclohexene, tri- and di-chlorobenzene as intermediate products while benzene was formed as the most stable end product. On the basis of identified intermediates and final products, degradation pathway of γ-HCH has been proposed. Batch studies showed complete γ-HCH degradation at a loading of 0.20 g/L CMC-Pd/nFe 0 within 6 h of incubation. The surface area normalized rate constant (k SA ) was found to be 7.6 × 10 −2 L min −1 m −2 . CMC-Pd/nFe 0 displayed ∼7-fold greater efficiency for γ-HCH degradation in comparison to Fe 0 nanoparticles (nFe 0 ), synthesized without CMC and Pd. Further studies showed that increase in CMC-Pd/nFe 0 loading and reaction temperature facilitates γ-HCH degradation, whereas a declining trend in degradation was noticed with the increase in pH, initial γ-HCH concentration and in the presence of cations. The data on activation energy (33.7 kJ/mol) suggests that γ-HCH degradation is a surface mediated reaction. The significance of the study with respect to remediation of γ-HCH contaminated soil using CMC-Pd/nFe 0 has been discussed.

  16. Fibrin(ogen) is internalized and degraded by activated human monocytoid cells via Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18): a nonplasmin fibrinolytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D I; Ezratty, A M; Francis, S A; Rennke, H; Loscalzo, J

    1993-10-15

    Fibrin(ogen) (FGN) is important for hemostasis and wound healing and is cleared from sites of injury primarily by the plasminogen activator system. However, there is emerging evidence in plasminogen activator-deficient transgenic mice that nonplasmin pathways may be important in fibrin(ogen)olysis, as well. Given the proximity of FGN and monocytes within the occlusive thrombus at sites of vascular injury, we considered the possibility that monocytes may play an ancillary role in the degradation and clearance of fibrin. We found that monocytes possess an alternative fibrinolytic pathway that uses the integrin Mac-1, which directly binds and internalizes FGN, resulting in its lysosomal degradation. At 4 degrees C, FGN binds to U937 monocytoid cells in a specific and saturable manner with a kd of 1.8 mumol/L. Binding requires adenosine diphosphate stimulation and is calcium-dependent. At 37 degrees C, FGN and fibrin monomer (FM) are internalized and degraded at rates of 0.37 +/- 0.13 and 0.55 +/- 0.03 microgram/10(6) cells/h by U937 cells, 1.38 +/- 0.02 and 1.20 +/- 0.30 microgram/10(6) cells/h by THP-1 cells, and 2.10 +/- 0.20 and 2.52 +/- 0.18 micrograms/10(6) cells/h by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The serine protease inhibitors, PPACK and aprotinin, and the specific elastase inhibitor, AAPVCK, do not significantly inhibit degradation. However, degradation is inhibited by chloroquine, suggesting that a lysosomal pathway is involved. Factor X, a competitive ligand with FGN for the Mac-1 receptor, also blocks degradation, as does a monoclonal antibody to the alpha-subunit of Mac-1. Autoradiography of radioiodinated, internalized FGN shows that FGN proteolysis by the pathway produces a unique degradation pattern distinct from that observed with plasmin. In a fibrin clot lysis assay, Mac-1-mediated fibrinolysis contributed significantly to total fibrinolysis. In summary, FGN is internalized and degraded by activated human monocytoid cells via

  17. Effects of calcium oxide treatment at varying moisture concentrations on the chemical composition, in situ degradability, in vitro digestibility and gas production kinetics of anaerobically stored corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H T; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Li, S L; Yang, H J; Bi, Y L; Doane, P H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by in situ and in vitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72 h (GP72h ) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15 days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p  0.01) in these in situ degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72 h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p > 0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Identification of genes specifically required for the anaerobic metabolism of benzene in Geobacter metallireducens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Although the biochemical pathways for the anaerobic degradation of many of the hydrocarbon constituents in petroleum reservoirs have been elucidated, the mechanisms for anaerobic activation of benzene, a very stable molecule, are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter...... metallireducens can anaerobically oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor and that phenol is an intermediate in benzene oxidation. In an attempt to identify enzymes that might be involved in the conversion of benzene to phenol, whole-genome gene transcript abundance...... was compared in cells metabolizing benzene and cells metabolizing phenol. Eleven genes had significantly higher transcript abundance in benzene-metabolizing cells. Five of these genes had annotations suggesting that they did not encode proteins that could be involved in benzene metabolism and were not further...

  19. Genome analysis of a Limnobacter sp. identified in an anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Limnobacter genus are widespread in a variety of environments, yet knowledges upon their metabolic potentials and mechanisms of environmental adaptation are limited. In this study, a cell aggregate containing Limnobacter and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME was captured from an enriched anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM microbial community. A genomic bin of Limnobacter was obtained and analyzed, which provides the first metabolic insights into Limnobacter from an AOM environment. This Limnobacter was found to contain genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citrate cycle, citronellol degradation, and transporters of various organic substances, indicating a potentially heterotrophic lifestyle. A number of genes involved in sulfur oxidization, oxidative phosphorylation and ethanol fermentation that serve both aerobic and anaerobic purposes have been found in Limnobacter. This work suggests that in the AOM environment, Limnobacter strains may live on the organic substances produced through AOM activity and subsequently may contribute to the AOM community by providing sulfate from sulfur oxidation.

  20. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentation of cellulose. Annual report for 1990, 1992, 1993 and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Wiegel, J.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Mortenson, L.E.

    1993-08-31

    This report focuses on the bioconversion of cellulose to methane by various anaerobes. The structure and enzymatic activity of cellulosome and polycellulosome was studied in Clostridium thermocellum. The extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of plant material and the physiology of fermentation was investigated in anaerobic fungi. Enzymes dealing with CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, as well as electron transport and energy generation coupled to the acetyl-CoA autotrophic pathway was studied in acetogenic clostridia.

  1. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  2. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosedale, Merrie; Wu, Hong; Kurtz, C. Lisa; Schmidt, Stephen P.; Adkins, Karissa; Harrill, Alison H.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  3. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  4. Anaerobic 4-hydroxyproline utilization: Discovery of a new glycyl radical enzyme in the human gut microbiome uncovers a widespread microbial metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yolanda Y; Martínez-Del Campo, Ana; Balskus, Emily P

    2018-02-06

    The discovery of enzymes responsible for previously unappreciated microbial metabolic pathways furthers our understanding of host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. We recently identified and characterized a new gut microbial glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) responsible for anaerobic metabolism of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (Hyp). Hyp dehydratase (HypD) catalyzes the removal of water from Hyp to generate Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). This enzyme is encoded in the genomes of a diverse set of gut anaerobes and is prevalent and abundant in healthy human stool metagenomes. Here, we discuss the roles HypD may play in different microbial metabolic pathways as well as the potential implications of this activity for colonization resistance and pathogenesis within the human gut. Finally, we present evidence of anaerobic Hyp metabolism in sediments through enrichment culturing of Hyp-degrading bacteria, highlighting the wide distribution of this pathway in anoxic environments beyond the human gut.

  5. Entrapment and degradation of particulate organics in anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. Kenkisei ryudosho ni yoru fuyusei yuki kokeibutsu no hosoku to bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, N. (Nagaoka National College of Technology, Niigata (Japan)); Harada, H.; Momonoi, K. (Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan))

    1993-08-10

    A start-up experiment on an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor has been performed using simulated wastewater added with cellulose as a suspended substance to discuss behavior of suspended base materials and change in bacterial phases of biofilm constituting bacteria cluster. Cellulose removal efficiency of the reactor was 98% of a volumetric load of up to 2 g COD[center dot]1[sup -1][center dot]d[sup -1] performing efficient decomposition including methane. Cellulose content in the fluidized bed increased to 3% to 16% of the fluidized bed MLVSS with increase in a volumetric load from 3 to 10 g COD[center dot]1[sup -1][center dot]d[sup -1]. Bacteria, of which activity changes largely with growth of biofilms among other anaerobic bacteria clusters, are acid producing bacteria and acetic acid-selective methane bacteria, which have grown to 31 times and 70 times at maximum respectively as compared to their species sludge. Sludge resident time in the reactor has dropped rapidly from 80 days to 2.6 days as a result of accumulation of cellulose in the biofilms. The cellulose decomposing activity of the biofilms increases as the biofilms grow. The maximum value was 0.20 Cellulose[center dot]g[sup -1] VSS[center dot]d[sup -1]. 19 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  7. Chemotaxis and degradation of organophosphate compound by a novel moderately thermo-halo tolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain BUR11: evidence for possible existence of two pathways for degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Pailan, Santanu; Saha, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    An organophosphate (OP) degrading chemotactic bacterial strain BUR11 isolated from an agricultural field was identified as a member of Pseudomonas genus on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize parathion, chlorpyrifos and their major hydrolytic intermediates as sole source of carbon for its growth and exhibited positive chemotactic response towards most of them. Optimum concentration of parathion for its growth was recorded to be 200 ppm and 62% of which was degrad...

  8. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Sharma, Deepak; Varney, Rebecca; Simmons, Blake A.; Isern, Nancy G.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Robinson, Errol W.

    2013-08-29

    The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have examined differential expression of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth on lignin. After 48 hours of growth, we used transcriptomics and proteomics to define the enzymes and other regulatory machinery that these organisms use to degrade lignin, as well as metabolomics to measure lignin degradation and monitor the use of lignin and iron as terminal electron acceptors that facilitate more efficient use of carbon. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

  9. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  11. Photolysis of model emerging contaminants in ultra-pure water: kinetics, by-products formation and degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Rodriguez, Elena

    2013-02-01

    The photolysis of five frequent emerging contaminants (Benzotriazole, Chlorophene, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl) was investigated in ultrapure water under monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm and by a combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The results revealed that the photolysis rates followed first-order kinetics, with rate constant values depending on the nature of the specific compound, the pH, and the presence or absence of the scavenger tert-butanol. Quantum yields were also determined and values in the range of 53.8 × 10⁻³ - 9.4 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Benzotriazole, 525 × 10⁻³ - 469 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Chlorophene, 2.8 × 10⁻³ - 0.9 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for DEET, 108 × 10⁻³ - 165 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Methylindole, and 13.8 × 10⁻³ - 15.0 × 10⁻³ mol E⁻¹ for Nortriptyline were obtained. The study also found that the UV/H₂O₂ process enhanced the oxidation rate in comparison to direct photolysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) technique was applied to the concentrations evaluation and further identification of the parent compounds and their by-products, which allowed the proposal of the degradation pathways for each compound. Finally, in order to assess the aquatic toxicity in the photodegradation of these compounds, the Vibrio fischeri acute toxicity test was used, and the results indicated an initial increase of this parameter in all cases, followed by a decrease in the specific case of Benzotriazole, DEET, Methylindole, and Chlorophene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfamethoxazole in poultry wastewater: Identification, treatability and degradation pathway determination in a membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Raju C; Kumar, Mathava

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in a real-time poultry wastewater was identified via HPLC analysis. Subsequently, SMX removal from the poultry wastewater was investigated using a continuous-mode membrane-photocatalytic slurry reactor (MPSR). The real-time poultry wastewater was found to have an SMX concentration of 0-2.3 mg L(-1). A granular activated carbon supported TiO2 (GAC-TiO2) was synthesized, characterized and used in MPSR experiments. The optimal MPSR condition, i.e., HRT ∼ 125 min and catalyst dosage 529.3 mg L(-1), for complete SMX removal was found out using unconstrained optimization technique. Under the optimized condition, the effect of SMX concentration on MPSR performance was investigated by synthetic addition of SMX (i.e., 1, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg L(-1)) into the wastewater. Interestingly, complete removals of total volatile solids (TVS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and SMX were observed under all SMX concentrations investigated. However, a decline in SMX removal rate and proportionate increase in transmembrane-pressure (TMP) were observed when the SMX concentration was increased to higher levels. In the MPSR, the SMX mineralization was through one of the following degradation pathways: (i) fragmentation of the isoxazole ring and (ii) the elimination of methyl and amide moieties followed by the formation of phenyl sulfinate ion. These results show that the continuous-mode MPSR has great potential in the removal for SMX contaminated real-time poultry wastewater and similar organic micropollutants from wastewater.

  13. The anaerobic linalool metabolism in Thauera linaloolentis 47 Lol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulla, Robert; Cala, Edinson Puentes; Markert, Stephanie; Schweder, Thomas; Harder, Jens

    2016-04-27

    The betaproteobacterium Thauera linaloolentis 47Lol(T) was isolated on the tertiary monoterpene alcohol (R,S)-linalool as sole carbon and energy source under denitrifying conditions. Growth experiments indicated the formation of geraniol and geranial. Thus, a 3,1-hydroxyl-Δ(1)-Δ(2)-mutase (linalool isomerase) activity may initiate the degradation, followed by enzymes of the acyclic terpene utilization (Atu) and leucine/isovalerate utilization (Liu) pathways that were extensively studied in Pseudomonas spp. growing on citronellol or geraniol. A transposon mutagenesis yielded 39 transconjugants that could not grow anaerobically on linalool and nitrate in liquid medium. The deficiencies were apparently based on gene functions required to overcome the toxicity of linalool, but not due to inactivation of genes in the degradation pathway. Growing cultures formed geraniol and geranial transiently, but also geranic acid. Analysis of expressed proteins detected several enzymes of the Atu and Liu pathways. The draft genome of T. linaloolentis 47Lol(T) had atu and liu genes with homology to those of Pseudomonas spp.. The in comparison to monoterpenes larger toxicity of monoterpene alcohols is defeated by several modifications of the cellular structure and metabolism in Thauera linaloolentis 47Lol(T). The acyclic terpene utilization pathway is used in T. linaloolentis 47Lol(T) during growth on (R,S)-linalool and nitrate under anoxic conditions. This is the first experimental verification of an active Atu pathway outside of the genus Pseudomonas.

  14. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  15. Intracellular collagen degradation mediated by uPARAP/Endo180 is a major pathway of extracellular matrix turnover during malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curino, Alejandro C; Engelholm, Lars H; Yamada, Susan S

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that uPARAP/Endo180 can mediate the cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of collagen by cultured fibroblasts. Here, we show that uPARAP/Endo180 has a key role in the degradation of collagen during mammary carcinoma progression. In the normal murine mammary gland, uPARAP/...

  16. Studies about behavior of microbial degradation of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Makiko

    2003-02-01

    Some of TRU waste include organic compounds, thus these organic compounds might be nutrients for microbial growth at disposal site. This disposal system might be exposed to high alkali condition by cement compounds as engineering barrier material. In the former experimental studies, it has been supposed that microbial exist under pH = 12 and the microbial activity acclimated to high alkali condition are able to degrade asphalt under anaerobic condition. Microbes are called extremophile that exist in cruel habitat as high alkali or reductive condition. We know less information about the activity of extremophile, though any recent studies reveal them. In this study, the first investigation is metabolic pathway as microbial activity, the second is microbial degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, and the third is microbial activity under high alkali. Microbial metabolic pathway consist of two systems that fulfill their function each other. One system is to generate energy for microbial activities and the other is to convert substances for syntheses of organisms' structure materials. As these systems are based on redox reaction between substances, it is made chart of the microbial activity region using pH, Eh, and depth as parameter, There is much report that microbe is able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic or molecular O 2 utilizing condition. For degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, supplying electron acceptor is required. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia has important role, too. Alcalophile has individual transporting system depending Na + and acidic compounds contained in cell wall. Generating energy is key for survival and growth under high alkali condition. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia are effective for microbial degradation of aromatic compounds under high alkali and reductive condition, and utilizable electron acceptor and degradable organic compounds are required for keeping microbial activity and

  17. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  19. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M DeAngelis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to examine the increased growth of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 when grown on media amended with lignin compared to unamended growth. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. We detected significant lignin degradation over time by absorbance, and also used metabolomics to demonstrate increased xylose utilization in lignin-amended compared to unamended growth. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

  20. Degradation mechanisms of Microcystin-LR during UV-B photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes: Byproducts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bo-Ram; Kim, Tae-Kyoung; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Choi, Jaewon; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-10-01

    The removal and degradation pathways of microcystin-LR (MC-LR, [M+H] +  = 995.6) in UV-B photolysis and UV-B/H 2 O 2 processes were examined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The UV/H 2 O 2 process was more efficient than UV-B photolysis for MC-LR removal. Eight by-products were newly identified in the UV-B photolysis ([M+H] +  = 414.3, 417.3, 709.6, 428.9, 608.6, 847.5, 807.4, and 823.6), and eleven by-products were identified in the UV-B/H 2 O 2 process ([M+H] +  = 707.4, 414.7, 429.3, 445.3, 608.6, 1052.0, 313.4, 823.6, 357.3, 245.2, and 805.7). Most of the MC-LR by-products had lower [M+H] + values than the MC-LR itself during both processes, except for the [M+H] + value of 1052.0 during UV-B photolysis. Based on identified by-products and peak area patterns, we proposed potential degradation pathways during the two processes. Bond cleavage and intramolecular electron rearrangement by electron pair in the nitrogen atom were the major reactions during UV-B photolysis and UV-B/H 2 O 2 processes, and hydroxylation by OH radical and the adduct formation reaction between the produced by-products were identified as additional pathways during the UV-B/H 2 O 2 process. Meanwhile, the degradation by-products identified from MC-LR during UV-B/H 2 O 2 process can be further degraded by increasing H 2 O 2 dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lysine-Less Variants of Spinal Muscular Atrophy SMN and SMNΔ7 Proteins Are Degraded by the Proteasome Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sánchez-Lanzas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is due to mutations affecting the SMN1 gene coding for the full-length protein (survival motor neuron; SMN and the SMN2 gene that preferentially generates an exon 7-deleted protein (SMNΔ7 by alternative splicing. To study SMN and SMNΔ7 degradation in the cell, we have used tagged versions at the N- (Flag or C-terminus (V5 of both proteins. Transfection of those constructs into HeLa cells and treatment with cycloheximide showed that those protein constructs were degraded. Proteasomal degradation usually requires prior lysine ubiquitylation. Surprisingly, lysine-less variants of both proteins tagged either at N- (Flag or C-terminus (V5 were also degraded. The degradation of the endogenous SMN protein, and the protein constructs mentioned above, was mediated by the proteasome, as it was blocked by lactacystin, a specific and irreversible proteasomal inhibitor. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that SMN and SMNΔ7 proteasomal degradation did not absolutely require internal ubiquitylation nor N-terminal ubiquitylation (prevented by N-terminal tagging. While the above conclusions are firmly supported by the experimental data presented, we discuss and justify the need of deep proteomic techniques for the study of SMN complex components (orphan and bound turn-over to understand the physiological relevant mechanisms of degradation of SMN and SMNΔ7 in the cell.

  2. α-Amino acid containing degradable polymers as functional biomaterials: rational design, synthetic pathway, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanli; Meng, Fenghua; Dias, Aylvin A; Hendriks, Marc; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2011-06-13

    Currently, biomedical engineering is rapidly expanding, especially in the areas of drug delivery, gene transfer, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. A prerequisite for further development is the design and synthesis of novel multifunctional biomaterials that are biocompatible and biologically active, are biodegradable with a controlled degradation rate, and have tunable mechanical properties. In the past decades, different types of α-amino acid-containing degradable polymers have been actively developed with the aim to obtain biomimicking functional biomaterials. The use of α-amino acids as building units for degradable polymers may offer several advantages: (i) imparting chemical functionality, such as hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, and thiol groups, which not only results in improved hydrophilicity and possible interactions with proteins and genes, but also facilitates further modification with bioactive molecules (e.g., drugs or biological cues); (ii) possibly improving materials biological properties, including cell-materials interactions (e.g., cell adhesion, migration) and degradability; (iii) enhancing thermal and mechanical properties; and (iv) providing metabolizable building units/blocks. In this paper, recent developments in the field of α-amino acid-containing degradable polymers are reviewed. First, synthetic approaches to prepare α-amino acid-containing degradable polymers will be discussed. Subsequently, the biomedical applications of these polymers in areas such as drug delivery, gene delivery and tissue engineering will be reviewed. Finally, the future perspectives of α-amino acid-containing degradable polymers will be evaluated.

  3. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan, Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that during growth under anaerobic or oxygen-limited conditions Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway common to many methylotrophic anaerobes, in which formaldehyde produced from pyruvate is condensed with glycine to form serine. The serine is then transformed through hydroxypyruvate and glycerate to enter central metabolism at phosphoglycerate. To examine its use of the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway under anaerobic conditions, we grew S. oneidensis MR-1 on [1-13C] lactate as the sole carbon source with either trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) or fumarate as an electron acceptor. Analysis of cellular metabolites indicates that a large percentage (>75 percent) of lactate was partially oxidized to either acetate or pyruvate. The 13C isotope distributions in amino acids and other key metabolites indicate that, under anaerobic conditions, a complete serine pathway is not present, and lactate is oxidized via a highly reversible serine degradation pathway. The labeling data also suggest significant activity in the anaplerotic (malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxylase) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) reactions. Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often observed to be incomplete in many other anaerobes (absence of 2-oxoglutaratede hydrogenase activity), isotopic labeling supports the existence of a complete TCA cycle in S. oneidensis MR-1 under TMAO reduction condition

  4. Degradation of chlorobenzoates and chlorophenols by methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik-Maarsen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with chlorinated organic compounds mainly results from (agro)industrial activity. In many studies, biodegradation is examined under anaerobic conditions, because highly chlorinated compounds are more easily degradable under anaerobic than under aerobic

  5. Interaction between Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways and an anti-cancer strategy via degradations of β-catenin and RAS by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Ro, Eun Ji; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2018-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways play important roles in the tumorigenesis of many different types of cancer, most notably colorectal cancer (CRC). Genes for these two pathways, such as adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) and KRAS are frequently mutated in human CRC, and involved in the initiation and progression of the tumorigenesis, respectively. Moreover, recent studies revealed interaction of APC and KRAS mutations in the various stages of colorectal tumorigenesis and even in metastasis accompanying activation of the cancer stem cells (CSCs). A key event in the synergistic cooperation between Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways is a stabilization of both β-catenin and RAS especially mutant KRAS by APC loss, and pathological significance of this was indicated by correlation of increased β-catenin and RAS levels in human CRC where APC mutations occur as high as 90% of CRC patients. Together with the notion of the protein activity reduction by lowering its level, inhibition of both β-catenin and RAS especially by degradation could be a new ideal strategy for development of anti-cancer drugs for CRC. In this review, we will discuss interaction between the Wnt/β-catenin and RAS-ERK pathways in the colorectal tumorigenesis by providing the mechanism of RAS stabilization by aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin. We will also discuss our small molecular anti-cancer approach controlling CRC by induction of specific degradations of both β-catenin and RAS via targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathway especially for the KYA1797K, a small molecule specifically binding at the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS)-domain of Axin.

  6. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, V S

    1992-10-09

    The degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria is now known to be an important mechanism of bioremediation. In an experimental study, a mixed phototrophic culture was found to metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation on a benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate medium for 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Radioisotopic studies showed [sup 14]C-3-chlorobenzoate was converted by the isolate to [sup 14]CO[sub 2] and cell biomass in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a cosubstrate red light. Cyclohexane carboxylate was able to replace the cosubstrate, benzoate. The isolate also metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of pimelic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium succinate; however, the metabolic rate was reduced. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated the intracellular presence of 3-chlorobenzoate and benzoyl-CoA. Cell-free extracts produced benzoate and benzoyl-CoA. A probable route of 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism via dehalogenation followed by steps similar to the benzoate reductive ring fission pathway is suggested. Comparison of kinetic coefficients showed a higher affinity of the isolate for benzoate. Isolates from representative samples of various freshwater and wastewater ecosystems indicated widespread ecological distribution of R. palustris and the common occurrence of the 3-chlorobenzoate metabolic phenotype. R. palustris was found to grow in mixed anaerobic cultures and retained its 3-chlorobenzoate degradation property. 91 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  9. Microbial oil-degradation under mild hydrostatic pressure (10 MPa): which pathways are impacted in piezosensitive hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria?

    KAUST Repository

    Scoma, Alberto; Barbato, Marta; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Mapelli, Francesca; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    . Analysis of its transcriptome revealed that 95% of its genes were downregulated. Increased transcription involved protein synthesis, energy generation and respiration pathways. Interplay between these factors may play a key role in shaping the structure

  10. Distribution of the Coenzyme M Pathway of Epoxide Metabolism Among Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Degrading Mycobacterium Strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    ...) and ethene assimilation pathways of Mycobacterium strain JS6O. In the present study, EaCoMT activity and genes were investigated in 10 different mycobacteria isolated on VC or ethene from diverse environmental samples...

  11. Identification and characterization of the furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural degradation pathways of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, F.; Wierckx, N.; Winde, de, J.H.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates pose significant problems for the production of second-generation biofuels and biochemicals. Among these inhibitors, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) and furfural are specifically notorious. In this study, we describe the complete molecular identification and characterization of the pathway by which Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 metabolizes HMF and furfural. The identification of this pathway enabled the construction of an HMF an...

  12. tRNA-dependent cysteine biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase cysteine contents by preventing it from thermal degradation: thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ge; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    Although cysteine (Cys) is beneficial to stabilize protein structures, it is not prevalent in thermophiles. For instance, the Cys contents in most thermophilic archaea are only around 0.7%. However, methanogenic archaea, no matter thermophilic or not, contain relatively abundant Cys, which remains elusive for a long time. Recently, Klipcan et al. correlated this intriguing property of methanogenic archaea with their unique tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthetic pathway. But, the deep reasons underlying the correlation are ambiguous. Considering the facts that free Cys is thermally labile and the tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthesis avoids the use of free Cys, we speculate that the unique Cys biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase Cys contents by preventing it from thermal degradation, which may be relevant to the thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

  13. Synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites used for the photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: Intermediates, reaction pathway, mechanism and bio-toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kefu; Hu, Xin-Yan [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chen, Bor-Yann; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jiajie; Lin, Yu-Jung [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chang, Chang-Tang, E-mail: ctchang73222@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The major photo-catalytic degradation pathway of azo-dye was elaborated according to the identification of by-products from GC–MS and IC analysis. • Comparative assessment on characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was analyzed. • EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to determine the main active oxidative species in the system. • The toxicity effects of degradation intermediates of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) on the cellular respiratory activity were assessed. - Abstract: In this study, a one-step solid dispersion method was used to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) composites with substantially reduced time and energy consumption. A degradation efficiency of more than 95% was achieved within 10 min using 50% PTZ (synthesized TiO{sub 2}/ZSM-5 composites with TiO{sub 2} contents of 50 wt% loaded on ZSM-5) at pH 7 and 25 °C. The possible degradation pathway of azo-dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatography (IC). The bonds between the N atoms and naphthalene groups are likely attacked first and cleaved by hydroxyl radicals, ultimately resulting in the decolorization and mineralization of the azo dye. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of abiotic and biotic dye decolorization was completed. In addition, the toxicity effects of the degradation intermediates of azo-dye RB5 on cellular respiratory activity were analyzed. The bio-toxicity results showed that the decay rate constants of CO{sub 2} production from the azo-dye RB5 samples at different degradation times increased initially and subsequently decreased, indicating that intermediates of higher toxicity could adhere to the catalyst surface and gradually destroyed by further photocatalytic oxidation. Additionally, EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system

  14. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1997-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  15. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1996-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  16. The homogentisate pathway: a central catabolic pathway involved in the degradation of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Olivera, Elías R; Luengo, José M; Fernández, Cristina; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L; Díaz, Eduardo; Miñambres, Baltasar

    2004-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida metabolizes Phe and Tyr through a peripheral pathway involving hydroxylation of Phe to Tyr (PhhAB), conversion of Tyr into 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (TyrB), and formation of homogentisate (Hpd) as the central intermediate. Homogentisate is then catabolized by a central catabolic pathway that involves three enzymes, homogentisate dioxygenase (HmgA), fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (HmgB), and maleylacetoacetate isomerase (HmgC), finally yielding fumarate and acetoacetate. Whereas the phh, tyr, and hpd genes are not linked in the P. putida genome, the hmgABC genes appear to form a single transcriptional unit. Gel retardation assays and lacZ translational fusion experiments have shown that hmgR encodes a specific repressor that controls the inducible expression of the divergently transcribed hmgABC catabolic genes, and homogentisate is the inducer molecule. Footprinting analysis revealed that HmgR protects a region in the Phmg promoter that spans a 17-bp palindromic motif and an external direct repetition from position -16 to position 29 with respect to the transcription start site. The HmgR protein is thus the first IclR-type regulator that acts as a repressor of an aromatic catabolic pathway. We engineered a broad-host-range mobilizable catabolic cassette harboring the hmgABC, hpd, and tyrB genes that allows heterologous bacteria to use Tyr as a unique carbon and energy source. Remarkably, we show here that the catabolism of 3-hydroxyphenylacetate in P. putida U funnels also into the homogentisate central pathway, revealing that the hmg cluster is a key catabolic trait for biodegradation of a small number of aromatic compounds.

  17. Paracetamol - toxicity and microbial utilization. Pseudomonas moorei KB4 as a case study for exploring degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żur, Joanna; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Marchlewicz, Ariel; Guzik, Urszula

    2018-09-01

    Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, is currently one of the most emerging pollutants worldwide. Besides its wide prevalence in the literature only several bacterial strains able to degrade this compound have been described. In this study, we isolated six new bacterial strains able to remove paracetamol. The isolated strains were identified as the members of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas genera and characterized phenotypically and biochemically using standard methods. From the isolated strains, Pseudomonas moorei KB4 was able to utilize 50 mg L -1 of paracetamol. As the main degradation products, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone were identified. Based on the measurements of specific activity of acyl amidohydrolase, deaminase and hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase and the results of liquid chromatography analyses, we proposed a mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain under co-metabolic conditions with glucose. Additionally, toxicity bioassays and the influence of various environmental factors, including pH, temperature, heavy metals at no-observed-effective-concentrations, and the presence of aromatic compounds on the efficiency and mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain were determined. This comprehensive study about paracetamol biodegradation will be helpful in designing a treatment systems of wastewaters contaminated with paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying Contribution of Synthrophic Acetate Oxidation to Methane Production in Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactors by Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Ward, Alastair James; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    A unique method was developed and applied for monitoring methanogenesis pathways based on isotope labeled substrates combined with online membrane inlet quadrupole mass spectrometry (MIMS). In our study, a fermentation sample from a full-scale biogas plant fed with pig and cattle manure, maize...... silage, and deep litter was incubated with 100 mM of [2-13C] sodium acetate under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. MIMS was used to measure the isotopic distribution of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the degradation of acetate, while excluding interference from water by applying a cold trap. After 6 days...... a new approach for online quantification of the relative contribution of methanogenesis pathways to methane production with a time resolution shorter than one minute. The observed contribution of SAO-HM to methane production under the tested conditions challenges the current widely accepted anaerobic...

  19. Low cost anaerobic system for Indonesia: single baffled septic tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, G; Mathew, K; Ho, Goen

    2003-01-01

    The insertion of a single baffle into a laboratory septic tank to mix incoming feed with sludge has been shown to improve anaerobic degradation of the feed. This is particularly true of soluble organic matter such as glucose. Oil or cellulose fed separately does not undergo degradation. It is expected however that a balanced feed such as sewage will be better degraded.

  20. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set

  1. Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase. SABYASACHI SARKAR. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016,. India. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite produced during acetylene degradation by bacteria either aerobically or anaerobically. Conversion of ...

  2. Degradation of lipid regulators by the UV/chlorine process: Radical mechanisms, chlorine oxide radical (ClO•)-mediated transformation pathways and toxicity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiujuan; Wu, Zihao; Ren, Ziran; Guo, Kaiheng; Hou, Shaodong; Hua, Zhechao; Li, Xuchun; Fang, Jingyun

    2018-06-15

    Degradation of three lipid regulators, i.e., gemfibrozil, bezafibrate and clofibric acid, by a UV/chlorine treatment was systematically investigated. The chlorine oxide radical (ClO • ) played an important role in the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate with second-order rate constants of 4.2 (±0.3) × 10 8  M -1  s -1 and 3.6 (±0.1) × 10 7  M -1  s -1 , respectively, whereas UV photolysis and the hydroxyl radical (HO • ) mainly contributed to the degradation of clofibric acid. The first-order rate constants (k') for the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate increased linearly with increasing chlorine dosage, primarily due to the linear increase in the ClO • concentration. The k' values for gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, and clofibric acid degradation decreased with increasing pH from 5.0 to 8.4; however, the contribution of the reactive chlorine species (RCS) increased. Degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate was enhanced in the presence of Br - , whereas it was inhibited in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The presence of ammonia at a chlorine: ammonia molar ratio of 1:1 resulted in decreases in the k' values for gemfibrozil and bezafibrate of 69.7% and 7%, respectively, but led to an increase in that for clofibric acid of 61.8%. Degradation of gemfibrozil by ClO • was initiated by hydroxylation and chlorine substitution on the benzene ring. Then, subsequent hydroxylation, bond cleavage and chlorination reactions led to the formation of more stable products. Three chlorinated intermediates were identified during ClO • oxidation process. Formation of the chlorinated disinfection by-products chloral hydrate and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone was enhanced relative to that of other by-products. The acute toxicity of gemfibrozil to Vibrio fischeri increased significantly when subjected to direct UV photolysis, whereas it decreased when oxidized by ClO • . This study is the first to report the transformation pathway of a

  3. Unique nonstructural proteins of Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) promote degradation of interferon (IFN) pathway components and IFN-stimulated gene proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Barik, Sailen

    2016-12-01

    Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) is the only virus that shares the Pneumovirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). A deadly mouse pathogen, PVM has the potential to serve as a robust animal model of RSV infection, since human RSV does not fully replicate the human pathology in mice. Like RSV, PVM also encodes two nonstructural proteins that have been implicated to suppress the IFN pathway, but surprisingly, they exhibit no sequence similarity with their RSV equivalents. The molecular mechanism of PVM NS function, therefore, remains unknown. Here, we show that recombinant PVM NS proteins degrade the mouse counterparts of the IFN pathway components. Proteasomal degradation appears to be mediated by ubiquitination promoted by PVM NS proteins. Interestingly, NS proteins of PVM lowered the levels of several ISG (IFN-stimulated gene) proteins as well. These results provide a molecular foundation for the mechanisms by which PVM efficiently subverts the IFN response of the murine cell. They also reveal that in spite of their high sequence dissimilarity, the two pneumoviral NS proteins are functionally and mechanistically similar.

  4. Coformer selection based on degradation pathway of drugs: a case study of adefovir dipivoxil-saccharin and adefovir dipivoxil-nicotinamide cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Gao, Jing; Liu, Ziling; Kan, Hongliang; Zu, Hui; Sun, Wanjin; Zhang, Jianjun; Qian, Shuai

    2012-11-15

    Adefovir dipivoxil (AD) is a bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) prodrug of adefovir with chemical stability problem. It undergoes two degradation pathways including hydrolysis and dimerization during storage. Pharmaceutical cocrystallization exhibits a promising approach to enhance aqueous solubility as well as physicochemical stability. In this study we attempted to prepare and investigate the physiochemical properties of AD cocrystals, which were formed with two coformers having different acidity and alkalinity (weakly acidic saccharin (SAC) and weakly basic nicotinamide (NCT)). The presence of different coformer molecules along with AD resulted in altered physicochemical properties. AD-SAC cocrystal showed great improvement in solubility and chemical stability, while AD-NCT did not. Several potential factors giving rise to different solid-state properties were summarized. Different coformers resulted in different cocrystal formation, packing style and hydrogen bond formation. This study could provide the coformer selection strategy based on degradation pathways for some unstable drugs in pharmaceutical cocrystal design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation and degradation pathways of intermediate products formed during the hydropyrolysis of glucose as a model substance for wet biomass in a tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinag, A. [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Kruse, A.; Schwarzkopf, V. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie - CPV, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-12-10

    In this study, glucose as a model substance for cellulose is pyrolyzed in supercritical water. The experiments are conducted in a continuously operated tubular reactor. From the usage of model substances, key information on the degradation pathway of biomass in supercritical water can be obtained. With this knowledge, it is tried to optimize a new method for gasification of wet biomass considering high yields of hydrogen and methane and also the suppressing of tar and char formation. The gaseous products mainly contain hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and a small amount of carbon monoxide. The effect of experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature and reaction time, on the degradation of glucose is investigated in the experiments. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the gas and liquid phases formed are determined. The results show that only the amount of phenols increases with increasing temperature in the liquid phase. No complete gasification of glucose is achieved in the studied temperature range between 400 C and 500 C. The addition of alkali salts leads to a higher gas generation and to a decrease in carbon monoxide concentration via water-gas-shift reaction. A lower furfural concentration is obtained in the presence of KHCO{sub 3}. Furthermore, this study shows that there is a wide conformity between the results of real and model biomass. A simplified scheme for glucose degradation is also presented with the help of the results found. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Pathways of 3-biofules (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) production from petrochemical industry wastewater via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor inoculated with mixed culture bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elreedy, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Enitan, Abimbola; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-energy production from MEG contaminated wastewater via AnPBBR, was assessed. • Maximum concurrent H_2 and CH_4 production of 6.57 and 3.57 L/d were obtained. • Maximum ethanol generation of 237.13 mg/L was observed at a HRT of 9 h. • At OLRs up to 4 gCOD/L/d, MEG biodegradability of 71–98% was achieved. • AnPBBR economically achieved shorter payback period (6.25 y), compared to ABR. - Abstract: Simultaneous production of 3-biofuels (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) as by-products of the biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater containing MEG via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor (AnPBBR), was extensively investigated. A four-chambered reactor supported by polyurethane sheets, was operated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 h and different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.67, 1, 2 and 4 gCOD/L/d. The maximum specific H_2 and CH_4 production rates of 438.07 ± 43.02 and 237.80 ± 21.67 ml/L/d were respectively achieved at OLR of 4 gCOD/L/d. The residual bio-ethanol significantly increased from 57.15 ± 2.31 to 240.19 ± 34.69 mg/L at increasing the OLR from 0.67 to 4 gCOD/L/d, respectively. The maximum MEG biodegradability of 98% was attained at the lowest OLR. Compartment-wise profiles revealed that the maximum H_2 and ethanol production were achieved at HRT of 9 h (1st compartment), while the CH_4 production was peaked at HRTs of 27 and 36 h (last two compartments). Kinetic studies using Stover–Kincannon and completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in series models were successfully applied to the AnPBBR overall and compartment-to-compartment performance, respectively. The economic evaluation strongly revealed the potentials of using AnPBBR for simultaneous treatment and bio-energy production from petrochemical wastewater as compared to the classical anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Microbial analysis using Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed a diversity of bacterial community in AnPBBR. Proteobacteria (36

  7. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  8. Arctigenin promotes degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase through CHIP-associated proteasome pathway and suppresses its enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangyang; Li, Guilan; Lü, Chaotian; Xu, Hui; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-10-01

    Arctigenin, a natural dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Previous works showed that arctigenin decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS at transcription level. However, whether arctigenin could regulate iNOS at the post-translational level is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that arctigenin promoted the degradation of iNOS which is expressed under LPS stimulation in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. Such degradation of iNOS protein is due to CHIP-associated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependency. Furthermore, arctigenin decreased iNOS phosphorylation through inhibiting ERK and Src activation, subsequently suppressed iNOS enzyme activity. In conclusion, our research displays a new finding that arctigenin can promote the ubiqitination and degradation of iNOS after LPS stimulation. iNOS activity regulated by arctigenin is likely to involve a multitude of crosstalking mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic desulphurisation of thiophenes by mixed microbial communities from oilfields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Ivanova, A.E.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures obtained from oil fields degraded various thiophenic compounds i.e. thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, with the concomitant formation of sulphide using hydrogen, lactate and ethanol as possible electron donors. It was demonstrated that dibenzothiophene was

  10. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  11. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Lili; Chen Ying; Liu Tianyu; Wang Zhengtao

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 μM)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 μM clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 μM) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway

  12. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  13. Detoxification of carbaryl by anaerobic gastrointestinal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszewski, S.J.; Harkin, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria originating from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were tested in vitro for their ability to hydrolyze carbaryl, the most widely used carbamate insecticide. Carbaryl hydrolysis prevents acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Degradation of [1- 14 C]naphthyl N-methylcarbamate was assessed through the use of carbon-and nitrogen-free enrichment cultures as well as a cometabolic enrichment culture. The carbon-free enrichment culture showed the greatest ability to hydrolyze carbaryl. Two facultative anaerobes, identified as DF-3 and Citrobacter freundii were isolated. Cell-free extracts from these bacteria were able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, 1-naphthyl acetate and carbaryl. This investigation suggests carbaryl degradation could occur prior to gastrointestinal absorption. Human GIT organisms are also widespread in anaerobic environments. Microbial hydrolysis of a xenobiotic can be an important reaction in the anaerobic environments of man or nature

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of (emerging) organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Ferdinand; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation. This review provides a comprehensive survey of characteristic anaerobic biotransformation reactions for a variety of well-studied, structurally rather simple contaminants (SMOCs) bearing one or a few different functional groups/structural moieties. Furthermore it summarizes anaerobic degradation studies of more complex contaminants with several functional groups (CMCs), in soil, sediment and wastewater treatment. While strictly anaerobic conditions are able to promote the transformation of several aerobically persistent contaminants, the variety of observed reactions is limited, with reductive dehalogenations and the cleavage of ether bonds being the most prevalent. Thus, it becomes clear that the transferability of degradation mechanisms deduced from culture studies of SMOCs to predict the degradation of CMCs, such as EOCs, in environmental matrices is hampered due the more complex chemical structure bearing different functional groups, different environmental conditions (e.g. matrix, redox, pH), the microbial community (e.g. adaptation, competition) and the low concentrations typical for EOCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  16. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  17. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  18. Downregulation of miR-221-3p contributes to IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation by directly targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Feng-Chao; Pang, Yong; Li, Dong-Ya; Yao, Sheng-Cheng; Sun, Shao-Song; Guo, Kai-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with OA, but little is known of their function in chondrocyte ECM degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of miRNAs in OA. miRNA expression profile was determined in OA cartilage tissues and controls, employing Solexa sequencing and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). According to a modified Mankin scale, cartilage degradation was evaluated. Functional analysis of the miRNAs on chondrocyte ECM degradation was performed after miRNA transfection and IL-1β treatment. Luciferase reporter assays and western blotting were employed to determine miRNA targets. Expression of miR-221-3p was downregulated in OA cartilage tissues, which was significantly correlated with a modified Mankin scale. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, miR-221-3p was shown to significantly affect matrix synthesis gene expression and chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Using SW1353 and C28I2 cells, SDF1 was identified as a target of miR-221-3p. SDF1 overexpression resulted in increased expression of catabolic genes such as MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 in response to IL-1β, but these effects were moderated by miR-221-3p. SDF1 treatment antagonized this effect, while knockdown of SDF1 by shSDF1 induced inhibitory effects on the expression of CXCR4 and its main target genes, similar to miR-221-3p. The results indicate that upregulation of miR-221-3p could prevent IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach for OA. miR-221-3p is downregulated in human cartilage tissues. miR-221-3p levels are associated with cartilage degeneration grade. miR-221-3p upregulation prevents IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Protection of ECM degradation by miR-223-3p occurs via SDF1/CXCR4

  19. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  20. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  2. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  3. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  4. Anaerobes in pleuropulmonary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.

  5. Skp2 regulates androgen receptor through ubiquitin-mediated degradation independent of Akt/mTOR pathways in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Lu, Wenfu; Yang, Qing; Yu, Xiuping; Matusik, Robert J; Chen, Zhenbang

    2014-04-01

    The intervention of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in patients has been commonly depending on androgen deprivation therapy. Despite of tremendous research efforts, however, molecular mechanisms on AR regulation remain poorly understood, particularly for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Targeting AR and associated factors is considered an effective strategy in PCa treatment. Human prostate cancer cells were used in this study. Manipulations of Skp2 expression were achieved by Skp2 shRNA/siRNA or overexpression of plasmids. Dual luciferase reporter assay was applied for AR activity assessment. Western blot, ubiquitination assay, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence were applied to detect the proteins. Our results demonstrated that Skp2 directly involves the regulation of AR expression through ubiquitination-mediated degradation. Skp2 interacted with AR protein in PCa cells, and enforced expression of Skp2 resulted in a decreased level and activity of AR. By contrast, Skp2 knockdown increased the protein accumulation and activity of AR. Importantly, changes of AR contributed by Skp2 led to subsequent alterations of PSA level in PCa cells. AR ubiquitination was significantly increased upon Skp2 overexpression but greatly reduced upon Skp2 knockdown. AR mutant at K847R abrogated Skp2-mediated ubiquitination of AR. NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, remarkably inhibited Skp2 level with a striking elevation of AR. The results indicate that Skp2 is an E3 ligase for proteasome-dependent AR degradation, and K847 on AR is the recognition site for Skp2-mediated ubiquitination. Our findings reveal an essential role of Skp2 in AR signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Heterogeneous photo-Fenton decolorization of Orange II over Al-pillared Fe-smectite: Response surface approach, degradation pathway, and toxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiyuan; Li, Yanli [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Xiang, Luojing [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, ENSIP, B1, 1 rue Marcel Doré, TSA 41105, Poitiers 86073 Cedex 9 (France); Huang, Qianqian; Qiu, Juanjuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sivaiah, Matte Venkata; Baron, Fabien; Barrault, Joel; Petit, Sabine [Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, ENSIP, B1, 1 rue Marcel Doré, TSA 41105, Poitiers 86073 Cedex 9 (France); Valange, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.valange@univ-poitiers.fr [Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, ENSIP, B1, 1 rue Marcel Doré, TSA 41105, Poitiers 86073 Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Al-pillared Fe-smectite was synthesized and used as the photo-Fenton catalyst. • Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of reaction parameters. • The main intermediate products were identified by GC–MS technique. • A possible degradation pathway of Orange II was proposed. • All the generated products of Orange II were less toxic than the original dye. - Abstract: A ferric smectite clay material was synthesized and further intercalated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillars for the first time with the aim of evaluating its ability to be used as heterogeneous catalyst for the photo-Fenton decolorization of azo dye Orange II. UV irradiation was found to enhance the activity of the catalyst in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Catalyst loading of 0.5 g/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 13.5 mM yielded a remarkable color removal, accompanied by excellent catalyst stability. The decolorization of Orange II followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics for initial dye concentrations from 20 to 160 mg/L. The central composite design (CCD) based on the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of several operating parameters, namely initial pH, catalyst loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration, on the decolorization efficiency. The RSM model was derived and the response surface plots were developed based on the results. Moreover, the main intermediate products were separated and identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and a possible degradation pathway was proposed accordingly. The acute toxicity experiments illustrated that the Daphniamagna immobilization rate continuously decreased during 150 min reaction, indicating that the effluent was suitable for sequential biological treatment.

  7. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam; Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge; González-Pérez, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Sánchez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X_m_a_x), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t_1_/_2) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X_m_a_x occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t_1_/_2 were 0.024 h"−"1 and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.

  8. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam [Doctorado en Biología Experimental, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-I) (Mexico); Facultad de Agrobiología, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala, San Pedro Xalcatzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala CP 90180 (Mexico); González-Pérez, Manuel [Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla CP 72410 (Mexico); Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, D.F (Mexico); Sánchez, Carmen, E-mail: sanher6@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala CP. 90062 (Mexico)

    2016-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X{sub max}), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X{sub max} occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t{sub 1/2} were 0.024 h{sup −1} and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.

  9. Gene mdpC plays a regulatory role in the methyl-tert-butyl ether degradation pathway of Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Geetika; Schmidt, Radomir; Scow, Kate M; Denison, Michael S; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2015-04-01

    Among the few bacteria known to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a sole carbon source, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized organism with a sequenced genome; however, knowledge of the genetic regulation of its MTBE degradation pathway is limited. We investigated the role of a putative transcriptional activator gene, mdpC, in the induction of MTBE-degradation genes mdpA (encoding MTBE monooxygenase) and mdpJ (encoding tert-butyl alcohol hydroxylase) of strain PM1 in a gene-knockout mutant mdpC(-). We also utilized quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays targeting genes mdpA, mdpJ and mdpC to determine the effects of the mutation on transcription of these genes. Our results indicate that gene mdpC is involved in the induction of both mdpA and mdpJ in response to MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) exposure in PM1. An additional independent mechanism may be involved in the induction of mdpJ in the presence of TBA. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. How early studies on secreted and membrane protein quality control gave rise to the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway: the early history of ERAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Patrick G; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    All newly synthesized proteins are subject to quality control check-points, which prevent aberrant polypeptides from harming the cell. For proteins that ultimately reside in the cytoplasm, components that also reside in the cytoplasm were known for many years to mediate quality control. Early biochemical and genetic data indicated that misfolded proteins were selected by molecular chaperones and then targeted to the proteasome (in eukaryotes) or to proteasome-like particles (in bacteria) for degradation. What was less clear was how secreted and integral membrane proteins, which in eukaryotes enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), were subject to quality control decisions. In this review, we highlight early studies that ultimately led to the discovery that secreted and integral membrane proteins also utilize several components that constitute the cytoplasmic quality control machinery. This component of the cellular quality control pathway is known as ER associated degradation, or ERAD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electroacupuncture inhibits apoptosis in annulus fibrosis cells through suppression of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in a rat model of cervical intervertebral disc degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment with electroacupuncture (EA inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in annulus fibrosis (AF cells in a rat model of cervical intervertebral disc degradation induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study, of which 30 underwent surgery to induce cervical intervertebral disc degradation, 10 rats received EA at acupoints Dazhui (DU 14 and Shousanli (LI 10. TUNEL staining was measured to assess apoptosis in AF cells, immunohistochemistry was used to examine Bcl-2 and Bax expression, colorimetric assays were used to determine caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and RT-PCR and western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of Crk and ERK2. Treatment with EA reduced the number of AF-positive cells in TUNEL staining, increased Bcl-2-positive cells and decreased Bax-positive cells in immunohistochemical staining, significantly inhibited the activation of caspases-9 and -3, and enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of Crk and ERK2. Our data show that EA inhibits AF cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway and up-regulates Crk and ERK2 expression. These results suggest that treatment with may be a good alternative therapy for preventing cervical spondylosis.

  12. Nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor: Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production associated anaerobic ammonium oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, P.; Harris, E. J.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Mohn, J.; Siegrist, H.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong greenhouse gas and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. In biological wastewater treatment N2O can be produced via several pathways. This study investigates the dynamics of N2O emissions from a nitritation-anammox reactor, and links its interpretation to the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic signature of the emitted N2O. A 400-litre single-stage nitritation-anammox reactor was operated and continuously fed with digester liquid. The isotopic composition of N2O emissions was monitored online with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS; Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Waechter et al., 2008). Dissolved ammonium and nitrate were monitored online (ISEmax, Endress + Hauser), while nitrite was measured with test strips (Nitrite-test 0-24mgN/l, Merck). Table 1. Summary of experiments conducted to understand N2O emissions Experimental conditions O2[mgO2/L] NO2-[mgN/L] NH4+[mgN/L] N2O/NH4+[%] Normal operation production pathway, which is hypothesized to be mediated by anammox activity (Figure 1). A less likely explanation is that the SP of N2O was increased by partial N2O reduction by heterotrophic denitrification. Various experiments were conducted to further investigate N2O formation pathways in the reactor. Our data reveal that N2O emissions increased when reactor operation was not ideal, for example when dissolved oxygen was too high (Table 1). SP measurements confirmed that these N2O peaks were due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor (Figure 1; Table 1). Overall, process control via online N2O monitoring was confirmed to be an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. ReferencesWaechter H. et al. (2008) Optics Express, 16: 9239-9244. Wunderlin, P et al. (2013) Environmental Science & Technology 47: 1339-1348.

  13. Decomposition of acetaminophen in water by a gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with TiO2-rGO nanocomposite: Mechanism and degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guyu; Sun, Yabing, E-mail: sybnju@163.com; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yu, Zhongqing

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Graphene Oxide-based catalyst was first applied with dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The TiO{sub 2}-rGO showed efficient synergistic effect with gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The property changes of TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite after plasma treatment were characterized. • The mechanism and possible pathways of APAP degradation in plasma/TiO{sub 2}-rGO system were proposed. - Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) served as the model pollutant to evaluate the feasibility of pollutant removal by gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with the titanium dioxide-reduced Graphene Oxide (TiO{sub 2}-rGO) nanocomposite. TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite was prepared using the modified hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM and XPS before and after plasma process. The results indicated that the APAP degradation efficiency was significantly improved to 92% after 18 min of discharge plasma treatment coupling 0.25 g L{sup −1} TiO{sub 2}-rGO 5% wt at 18 kV, compared with the plasma alone and plasma combined with P25 TiO{sub 2}. The degradation mechanism for APAP in this system was studied by investigating the effects of the operational variables (e.g. discharge voltage and pH value) and the amount of the generated active species; and the results showed that O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields were influenced notably by adding TiO{sub 2}-rGO. Also, it was observed that, compared with unused TiO{sub 2}-rGO, the photocatalytic performance of used TiO{sub 2}-rGO declined after several recirculation times due to the further reduction of Graphene Oxide in plasma system. Finally, intermediate products were analyzed by UV–vis spectrometry and HPLC/MS, and possible transformation pathways were identified with the support of theoretically calculating the frontier electron density of APAP.

  14. Digestion and degradation, air for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of dead biomass is a natural gasification process, an anaerobic crematorium producing a very useful end-product composed of methane and carbon dioxide, generally polluted with small amounts of some malodorous and quite toxic volatile S-compounds. It leads to the production of

  15. Transport and degradation of dissolved organic matter and associated freshwater pathways in the Laptev Sea (Siberian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelemann, Jens; Janout, Markus; Koch, Boris; Bauch, Dorothea; Hellmann, Sebastian; Eulenburg, Antje; Heim, Birgit; Kassens, Heidemarie; Timokhov, leonid

    2016-04-01

    The Siberian shelves are seasonally ice-covered and characterized by large freshwater runoff rates from some of the largest rivers on earth. These rivers also provide a considerable amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the Arctic Ocean. With an annual load of about 6 Tg DOC a-1 the Lena River contributes nearly 20 percent of the annual DOC discharge to the Arctic Ocean. We present a comprehensive dataset collected during multiple Laptev Sea expeditions carried out in spring, summer and fall (2010-15) in order to explore the processes controlling the dispersal and degradation of DOM during the river water's passage across the shelf. Our investigations are focused on CDOM (Colored Dissolved Organic Matter), which resembles the DOC concentration, interacts with solar radiation and forms a major fraction of the organic matter pool. Our results show an inverse correlation between salinity and CDOM, which emphasizes its terrigenous source. Further, the spectral slope of CDOM absorption indicates that photochemical bleaching is the main process that reduces the CDOM absorption (~ 20%) in freshwater along its transport across the shelf. The distribution of the Lena river water is primarily controlled by winds in summer. During summers with easterly or southerly winds, the plume remains on the central and northern Laptev shelf, and is available for export into the Arctic Basin. The CDOM-rich river water increases the absorption of solar radiation and enhances warming of a shallow surface layer. This emphasizes the importance of CDOM for sea surface temperatures and lateral ice melt on the shelf and adjacent basin. DOC concentrations in freshwater vary seasonally and become larger with increasing discharge. Our data indicate that the CDOM concentrations are highest during the freshet when landfast ice is still present. Subsequent mixing with local sea ice meltwater lowers CDOM to values that are characteristic for the Lena freshwater during the rest of the year.

  16. A model for the catabolism of rhizopine in Rhizobium leguminosarum involves a ferredoxin oxygenase complex and the inositol degradative pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, M; de Majnik, J; Wexler, M; Fry, J; Poole, P S; Murphy, P J

    1998-11-01

    Rhizopines are nodule-specific compounds that confer an intraspecies competitive nodulation advantage to strains that can catabolize them. The rhizopine (3-O-methyl-scyllo-inosamine, 3-O-MSI) catabolic moc gene cluster mocCABRDE(F) in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 1a is located on the Sym plasmid. MocCABR are homologous to the mocCABR gene products from Sinorhizobium meliloti. MocD and MocE contain motifs corresponding to a TOL-like oxygenase and a [2Fe-2S] Rieske-like ferredoxin, respectively. The mocF gene encodes a ferredoxin reductase that would complete the oxygenase system, but is not essential for rhizopine catabolism. We propose a rhizopine catabolic model whereby MocB transports rhizopine into the cell and MocDE and MocF (or a similar protein elsewhere in the genome), under the regulation of MocR, act in concert to form a ferredoxin oxygenase system that demethylates 3-O-MSI to form scyllo-inosamine (SI). MocA, an NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase, and MocC continue the catabolic process. Compounds formed then enter the inositol catabolic pathway.

  17. Characterization of 3-ketosteroid 9{alpha}-hydroxylase, a Rieske oxygenase in the cholesterol degradation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capyk, Jenna K; D'Angelo, Igor; Strynadka, Natalie C; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2009-04-10

    KshAB (3-Ketosteroid 9alpha-hydroxylase) is a two-component Rieske oxygenase (RO) in the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the enzyme has been implicated in pathogenesis, it has largely been characterized by bioinformatics and molecular genetics. Purified KshB, the reductase component, was a monomeric protein containing a plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and FAD. KshA, the oxygenase, was a homotrimer containing a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster and mononuclear ferrous iron. Of two potential substrates, reconstituted KshAB had twice the specificity for 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione as for 4-androstene-3,17-dione. The transformation of both substrates was well coupled to the consumption of O(2). Nevertheless, the reactivity of KshAB with O(2) was low in the presence of 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, with a k(cat)/K(m)(O(2)) of 2450 +/- 80 m(-1) s(-1). The crystallographic structure of KshA, determined to 2.3A(,) revealed an overall fold and a head-to-tail subunit arrangement typical of ROs. The central fold of the catalytic domain lacks all insertions found in characterized ROs, consistent with a minimal and perhaps archetypical RO catalytic domain. The structure of KshA is further distinguished by a C-terminal helix, which stabilizes subunit interactions in the functional trimer. Finally, the substrate-binding pocket extends farther into KshA than in other ROs, consistent with the large steroid substrate, and the funnel accessing the active site is differently orientated. This study provides a solid basis for further studies of a key steroid-transforming enzyme of biotechnological and medical importance.

  18. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces - insights into an AT-rich genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Matthew J; Theodorou, Michael K; Brookman, Jayne L

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic gut fungi occupy a unique niche in the intestinal tract of large herbivorous animals and are thought to act as primary colonizers of plant material during digestion. They are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi but molecular analysis of this group has been hampered by difficulties in their culture and manipulation, and by their extremely high A+T nucleotide content. This study begins to answer some of the fundamental questions about the structure and organization of the anaerobic gut fungal genome. Directed plasmid libraries using genomic DNA digested with highly or moderately rich AT-specific restriction enzymes (VspI and EcoRI) were prepared from a polycentric Orpinomyces isolate. Clones were sequenced from these libraries and the breadth of genomic inserts, both genic and intergenic, was characterized. Genes encoding numerous functions not previously characterized for these fungi were identified, including cytoskeletal, secretory pathway and transporter genes. A peptidase gene with no introns and having sequence similarity to a gene encoding a bacterial peptidase was also identified, extending the range of metabolic enzymes resulting from apparent trans-kingdom transfer from bacteria to fungi, as previously characterized largely for genes encoding plant-degrading enzymes. This paper presents the first thorough analysis of the genic, intergenic and rDNA regions of a variety of genomic segments from an anaerobic gut fungus and provides observations on rules governing intron boundaries, the codon biases observed with different types of genes, and the sequence of only the second anaerobic gut fungal promoter reported. Large numbers of retrotransposon sequences of different types were found and the authors speculate on the possible consequences of any such transposon activity in the genome. The coding sequences identified included several orphan gene sequences, including one with regions strongly suggestive of structural proteins such as collagens

  19. A review on the bioenergetics of anaerobic microbial metabolism close to the thermodynamic limits and its implications for digestion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Yang, Peixian; Singh, Shubham; Zhuang, Huichuan; Xu, Linji; Chen, Wen-Hsing; Dolfing, Jan; Li, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Huiping; Chu, Wei; Lee, Po-Heng

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of the energetics of anaerobic digestion systems can reveal how microorganisms cooperate efficiently for cell growth and methane production, especially under low-substrate conditions. The establishment of a thermodynamically interdependent partnership, called anaerobic syntrophy, allows unfavorable reactions to proceed. Interspecies electron transfer and the concentrations of electron carriers are crucial for maintaining this mutualistic activity. This critical review summarizes the functional microorganisms and syntroph partners, particularly in the metabolic pathways and energy conservation of syntrophs. The kinetics and thermodynamics of propionate degradation to methane, reversibility of the acetate oxidation process, and estimation of microbial growth are summarized. The various routes of interspecies electron transfer, reverse electron transfer, and Poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate formation in the syntrophic community are also reviewed. Finally, promising and critical directions of future research are proposed. Fundamental insight in the activities and interactions involved in AD systems could serve as a guidance for engineered systems optimization and upgrade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High Doses Gamma Radiolysis of PVC: Mechanisms of Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombani, J.

    2006-01-01

    PVC radiolysis leads to the formation of various degradation products: radicals, gas, oxidized products or polyenes. In order to predict the formation of the degradation products with regard to irradiation and ageing parameters, it is important to improve the understanding of the radiolysis mechanisms of PVC. Thus, we used several analytical techniques (Electron Spin Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Size Exclusion Chromatography) to get information on PVC samples irradiated at high doses (up to 4MGy) under different conditions. Gamma irradiation induces the formation of various radicals into PVC. Older studies were generally focused on the effect of low dose and/or low temperature irradiations on PVC. We present here ESR signals of PVC irradiated at high doses and at room temperature. We show that peroxyl radicals are producted by radiolysis under aerobe conditions and that polyenyl radicals are formed under anaerobe conditions. PVC radiolysis induces gas production and especially hydrogen chloride. Production of hydrogen chloride is well known until 1 MGy. We have studied by FTIR, the evolution of the quantity of HCl produced until 4 MGy. We show that higher irradiation dose leads to the lower radiolytic yield of HCl (G(HCl)). Moreover, G(HCl) obtained in aerobe conditions is about fourfold as great as G(HCl) observed in anaerobe radiolysis. Propagation and termination reactions induce degradation products: polyene sequences and crosslinking reactions are observed under anaerobe conditions; oxidized products with addition of chain scissions are formed under aerobe conditions. Although the literature about PVC radiolysis is rich, the main reacting pathways are not well established. Moreover the high doses studies are almost non-existent. We show by FTIR that aerobe radiolysis induces formation of ketons and acids. NMR experiments confirme these results but also focuse on small acids formed (with 2, 3 or 4 carbons). The

  1. Gamma-Glutamylpolyamine Synthetase GlnA3 Is Involved in the First Step of Polyamine Degradation Pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor M145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor M145 was shown to be able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of polyamines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, or spermine, as a sole nitrogen source. However, hardly anything is known about polyamine utilization and its regulation in streptomycetes. In this study, we demonstrated that only one of the three proteins annotated as glutamine synthetase-like protein, GlnA3 (SCO6962, was involved in the catabolism of polyamines. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of glnA3 was strongly induced by exogenous polyamines and repressed in the presence of ammonium. The ΔglnA3 mutant was shown to be unable to grow on defined Evans agar supplemented with putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine as sole nitrogen source. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the ΔglnA3 mutant accumulated polyamines intracellularly, but was unable to degrade them. In a rich complex medium supplemented with a mixture of the four different polyamines, the ΔglnA3 mutant grew poorly showing abnormal mycelium morphology and decreased life span in comparison to the parental strain. These observations indicated that the accumulation of polyamines was toxic for the cell. An in silico analysis of the GlnA3 protein model suggested that it might act as a gamma-glutamylpolyamine synthetase catalyzing the first step of polyamine degradation. GlnA3-catalyzed glutamylation of putrescine was confirmed in an enzymatic in vitro assay and the GlnA3 reaction product, gamma-glutamylputrescine, was detected by HPLC/ESI-MS. In this work, the first step of polyamine utilization in S. coelicolor has been elucidated and the putative polyamine utilization pathway has been deduced based on the sequence similarity and transcriptional analysis of homologous genes expressed in the presence of polyamines.

  2. Oxidation of Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate in aqueous solution by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate: Kinetics, water matrix effects, degradation products and reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxin; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility of UV-activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) technology for the degradation of Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in an aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The conditions of [PMS] 0 : [TCEP] 0  = 20:1, T = 25 ± 2 °C and pH = 5.5 ± 0.5 cause a 94.6% removal of TCEP (1 mg L -1 ) after 30 min of Hg lamp irradiation. The effects of operating parameters (the oxidant doses, pH and presence of typical cations (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , NH 4 + ), anions (Cl - , HCO 3 - , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- ) and humic acid (HA)) were evaluated. It was found that an increase of the PMS dose and the presence of Fe 3+ could accelerate the reaction, while the anions and HA inhibited the reaction. Meanwhile, TCEP removal in various water matrices was compared, and the order for TCEP removal was as follows: ultrapure water > tap water > synthetic water > secondary clarifier effluent > Jiuxiang river water. Twenty-two oxidation products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and the degradation pathways mainly involved radicals' addition and CO bond cleavage. Furthermore, ECOSAR analysis revealed that the intermediate products during the TCEP oxidation process were generally not harmful to three typical aquatic species. Hence, UV/PMS can be used as an efficient technology to treat TCEP-containing water and wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  4. Diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil remediation by titanium dioxide (P25) photocatalysis: Degradation pathway, optimization of operating parameters and effects of soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, A-nan [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Teng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Xue-feng [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wu, Long-hua; Huang, Yu-juan [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yong-ming, E-mail: ymluo@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is formed during the leakage of arsenic chemical weapons in sites and poses a high risk to biota. However, remediation methods for DPAA contaminated soils are rare. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process by nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was applied to degrade DPAA in soil. The degradation pathway was firstly studied, and arsenate was identified as the final product. Then, an orthogonal array experimental design of L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}, only 9 experiments were needed, instead of 81 experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time, was used to optimize the operational parameters soil:water ratio, TiO{sub 2} dosage, irradiation time and light intensity to increase DPAA removal efficiency. Soil:water ratio was found to have a more significant effect on DPAA removal efficiency than other properties. The optimum conditions to treat 4 g soil with a DPAA concentration of 20 mg kg{sup −1} were found to be a 1:10 soil: water ratio, 40 mW cm{sup −2} light intensity, 5% TiO{sub 2} in soil, and a 3-hour irradiation time, with a removal efficiency of up to 82.7%. Furthermore, this method (except for a change in irradiation time from 3 to 1.5 h) was validated in nine different soils and the removal efficiencies ranged from 57.0 to 78.6%. Removal efficiencies were found to be negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, organic matter content, pH and total phosphorus content. Finally, coupled with electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement, these soil properties affected the generation of OH• by TiO{sub 2} in soil slurry. This study suggests that TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation is a promising treatment for removing DPAA from soil. - Highlights: • DPAA was degraded into arsenate through TiO{sub 2} (P25) photocatalytic oxidation. • Soil/water ratio was more influential on the removal of DPAA in soil by TiO{sub 2} (P25). • Soil properties affected the adsorption of DPAA and the generation of OH• by Ti

  5. Diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil remediation by titanium dioxide (P25) photocatalysis: Degradation pathway, optimization of operating parameters and effects of soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A-nan; Teng, Ying; Hu, Xue-feng; Wu, Long-hua; Huang, Yu-juan; Luo, Yong-ming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is formed during the leakage of arsenic chemical weapons in sites and poses a high risk to biota. However, remediation methods for DPAA contaminated soils are rare. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process by nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO_2) was applied to degrade DPAA in soil. The degradation pathway was firstly studied, and arsenate was identified as the final product. Then, an orthogonal array experimental design of L_9(3)"4, only 9 experiments were needed, instead of 81 experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time, was used to optimize the operational parameters soil:water ratio, TiO_2 dosage, irradiation time and light intensity to increase DPAA removal efficiency. Soil:water ratio was found to have a more significant effect on DPAA removal efficiency than other properties. The optimum conditions to treat 4 g soil with a DPAA concentration of 20 mg kg"−"1 were found to be a 1:10 soil: water ratio, 40 mW cm"−"2 light intensity, 5% TiO_2 in soil, and a 3-hour irradiation time, with a removal efficiency of up to 82.7%. Furthermore, this method (except for a change in irradiation time from 3 to 1.5 h) was validated in nine different soils and the removal efficiencies ranged from 57.0 to 78.6%. Removal efficiencies were found to be negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, organic matter content, pH and total phosphorus content. Finally, coupled with electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement, these soil properties affected the generation of OH• by TiO_2 in soil slurry. This study suggests that TiO_2 photocatalytic oxidation is a promising treatment for removing DPAA from soil. - Highlights: • DPAA was degraded into arsenate through TiO_2 (P25) photocatalytic oxidation. • Soil/water ratio was more influential on the removal of DPAA in soil by TiO_2 (P25). • Soil properties affected the adsorption of DPAA and the generation of OH• by TiO_2.

  6. Isolation of the phe-operon from G. stearothermophilus comprising the phenol degradative meta-pathway genes and a novel transcriptional regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiss Monika

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacillus stearothermophilus is able to utilize phenol as a sole carbon source. A DNA fragment encoding a phenol hydroxylase catalyzing the first step in the meta-pathway has been isolated previously. Based on these findings a PCR-based DNA walk was performed initially to isolate a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase for biosensoric applications but was continued to elucidate the organisation of the genes encoding the proteins for the metabolization of phenol. Results A 20.2 kb DNA fragment was isolated as a result of the DNA walk. Fifteen open reading frames residing on a low-copy megaplasmid were identified. Eleven genes are co-transcribed in one polycistronic mRNA as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. Ten genes encode proteins, that are directly linked with the meta-cleavage pathway. The deduced amino acid sequences display similarities to a two-component phenol hydroxylase, a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, a 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, a 2-oxopent-4-dienoate hydratase, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase, a 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate aldolase, an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, a plant-type ferredoxin involved in the reactivation of extradiol dioxygenases and a novel regulatory protein. The only enzymes missing for the complete mineralization of phenol are a 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde hydrolase and/or 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Conclusion Research on the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds on a sub-cellular level has been more intensively studied in gram-negative organisms than in gram-positive bacteria. Especially regulatory mechanisms in gram-positive (thermophilic prokaryotes remain mostly unknown. We isolated the first complete sequence of an operon from a thermophilic bacterium encoding the meta-pathway genes and analyzed the genetic organization. Moreover, the first transcriptional regulator of the phenol metabolism in gram-positive bacteria was identified. This is a first step to elucidate

  7. Salubrinal Suppresses IL-17-Induced Upregulation of MMP-13 and Extracellular Matrix Degradation Through the NF-kB Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhixiao; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Yuanqiang; Liu, Yi; Li, Jingkun; Cheng, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the process of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). This study examined the effect of IL-17 on the regulation of MMP-13 and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc (IVD). We then examined whether salubrinal, a known inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation, inhibited the IL-17-induced changes mentioned above. Furthermore, we demonstrated a potential therapeutic role for salubrinal in alleviating the chronic inflammatory-dependent degenerative state commonly observed in IDD. After inflammatory distress with IL-17, RT-PCR and western blot were employed to investigate the expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (COL2A1), collagen type I (COL1A1), and aggrecan (ACAN) in nucleus pulpous (NP) tissue. Activation of the NF-kB pathway was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry following IL-17 treatment. We also examine the level of eIF2α phosphorylation after IL-17 treatment with or without salubrinal. Then, we investigated interactions of the NF-kB pathway to eIF2α phosphorylation. Moreover, we employed salubrinal and a specific inhibitor of NF-kB (BAY11-7082) to evaluate their effects on IL-17-driven regulation of MMP-13 and the ECM, as well as on the activation of NF-kB. The results showed that IL-17 increased the production of MMP-13 and decreased expression of COL2A1 and ACAN via the NF-kB pathway. Either IL-17 or salubrinal increased the level of eIF2α phosphorylation, but the effects of BAY11-7082 on the level of p-eIF2α were not detectable. BAY11-7082 and salubrinal significantly suppressed IL-17-driven intervertebral disc degeneration. Furthermore, salubrinal produced stronger effects than BAY11-7082. These results imply the potential involvement of IL-17 in IDD through activation of NF-kB signaling, which successively upregulated the expression of MMP-13 and led to the degradation of the ECM. Furthermore, salubrinal can inhibit this

  8. The Quest for Converting Biorenewable Bifunctional α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone into Degradable and Recyclable Polyester: Controlling Vinyl-Addition/Ring-Opening/Cross-Linking Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-10-04

    α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), a naturally occurring and biomass-sourced bifunctional monomer, contains both a highly reactive exocyclic C═C bond and a highly stable five-membered γ-butyrolactone ring. Thus, all previous work led to exclusive vinyl-addition polymerization (VAP) product P(MBL)VAP. Now, this work reverses this conventional chemoselectivity to enable the first ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of MBL, thereby producing exclusively unsaturated polyester P(MBL)ROP with Mn up to 21.0 kg/mol. This elusive goal was achieved through uncovering the thermodynamic, catalytic, and processing conditions. A third reaction pathway has also been discovered, which is a crossover propagation between VAP and ROP processes, thus affording cross-linked polymer P(MBL)CLP. The formation of the three types of polymers, P(MBL)VAP, P(MBL)CLP, and P(MBL)ROP, can be readily controlled by adjusting the catalyst (La)/initiator (ROH) ratio, which is determined by the unique chemoselectivity of the La–X (X = OR, NR2, R) group. The resulting P(MBL)ROP is degradable and can be readily postfunctionalized into cross-linked or thiolated materials but, more remarkably, can also be fully recycled back to its monomer thermochemically. Computational studies provided the theoretical basis for, and a mechanistic understanding of, the three different polymerization processes and the origin of the chemoselectivity.

  9. Heterogeneous photo-Fenton decolorization of Orange II over Al-pillared Fe-smectite: response surface approach, degradation pathway, and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyuan; Li, Yanli; Xiang, Luojing; Huang, Qianqian; Qiu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Hui; Sivaiah, Matte Venkata; Baron, Fabien; Barrault, Joel; Petit, Sabine; Valange, Sabine

    2015-04-28

    A ferric smectite clay material was synthesized and further intercalated with Al2O3 pillars for the first time with the aim of evaluating its ability to be used as heterogeneous catalyst for the photo-Fenton decolorization of azo dye Orange II. UV irradiation was found to enhance the activity of the catalyst in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Catalyst loading of 0.5g/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 13.5mM yielded a remarkable color removal, accompanied by excellent catalyst stability. The decolorization of Orange II followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics for initial dye concentrations from 20 to 160mg/L. The central composite design (CCD) based on the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of several operating parameters, namely initial pH, catalyst loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration, on the decolorization efficiency. The RSM model was derived and the response surface plots were developed based on the results. Moreover, the main intermediate products were separated and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a possible degradation pathway was proposed accordingly. The acute toxicity experiments illustrated that the Daphniamagna immobilization rate continuously decreased during 150min reaction, indicating that the effluent was suitable for sequential biological treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Quest for Converting Biorenewable Bifunctional α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone into Degradable and Recyclable Polyester: Controlling Vinyl-Addition/Ring-Opening/Cross-Linking Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xiaoyan; Hong, Miao; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene Y X

    2016-01-01

    α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), a naturally occurring and biomass-sourced bifunctional monomer, contains both a highly reactive exocyclic C═C bond and a highly stable five-membered γ-butyrolactone ring. Thus, all previous work led to exclusive vinyl-addition polymerization (VAP) product P(MBL)VAP. Now, this work reverses this conventional chemoselectivity to enable the first ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of MBL, thereby producing exclusively unsaturated polyester P(MBL)ROP with Mn up to 21.0 kg/mol. This elusive goal was achieved through uncovering the thermodynamic, catalytic, and processing conditions. A third reaction pathway has also been discovered, which is a crossover propagation between VAP and ROP processes, thus affording cross-linked polymer P(MBL)CLP. The formation of the three types of polymers, P(MBL)VAP, P(MBL)CLP, and P(MBL)ROP, can be readily controlled by adjusting the catalyst (La)/initiator (ROH) ratio, which is determined by the unique chemoselectivity of the La–X (X = OR, NR2, R) group. The resulting P(MBL)ROP is degradable and can be readily postfunctionalized into cross-linked or thiolated materials but, more remarkably, can also be fully recycled back to its monomer thermochemically. Computational studies provided the theoretical basis for, and a mechanistic understanding of, the three different polymerization processes and the origin of the chemoselectivity.

  11. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion.

  12. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  13. Semi-technical experiments in the mechanical solubilization of excess sludge with subsequent anaerobic stabilization; Halbtechnische Versuche zum mechanischen Aufschluss von Ueberschussschlaemmen mit anschliessender anaerober Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmowski, L.; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Winter, A.; Dichtl, N. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany); Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Within the framework of this project, the influence of the mechanical disintegration of different types of sludge on their anaerobic degradation behaviour and dewatering properties was investigated on a semi-technical scale. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurde in halbtechnischem Versuchsmassstab der Einfluss der mechanischen Desintegration verschiedener Schlaemme auf ihr anaerobes Abbauverhalten und ihr Entwaesserungsverhalten untersucht. (orig.)

  14. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolicpathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using gaschromatography-mass spectrometry and fourier transform-ion cyclotronresonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan,Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-07-11

    It has been proposed that during growth under anaerobic oroxygen-limited conditions Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses theserine-isocitrate lyase pathway common to many methylotrophic anaerobes,in which formaldehyde produced from pyruvate is condensed with glycine toform serine. The serine is then transformed through hydroxypyruvate andglycerate to enter central metabolism at phosphoglycerate. To examine itsuse of the serine-isocitrate lyase pathway under anaerobic conditions, wegrew S. oneidensis MR-1 on [1-13C]lactate as the sole carbon source witheither trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) or fumarate as an electron acceptor.Analysis of cellular metabolites indicates that a large percentage(>75 percent) of lactate was partially oxidized to either acetate orpyruvate. The 13C isotope distributions in amino acids and other keymetabolites indicate that, under anaerobic conditions, a complete serinepathway is not present, and lactate is oxidized via a highly reversibleserine degradation pathway. The labeling data also suggest significantactivity in the anaplerotic (malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxylase) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase)reactions. Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often observedto be incomplete in many other anaerobes (absence of 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase activity), isotopic labeling supports the existence of acomplete TCA cycle in S. oneidensis MR-1 under TMAO reductioncondition.

  15. Degradative pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains PSB-4 and T-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, F; Saller, E; Schläfli Oppenberg, H R; Kroneck, P M; Leisinger, T; Cook, A M

    1996-09-01

    Three multicomponent oxygenases involved in the degradation of p-toluenesulfonate and p-toluenecarboxylate and the regulation of their synthesis have been examined in three strains (T-2, PSB-4 and TER-1) of Comamonas testosteroni. Strain T-2 utilizes p-toluenesulfonate as a source of carbon and energy for growth via p-sulfobenzoate and protocatechuate, and p-toluenecarboxylate via terephthalate and protocatechuate, and has the unusual property of requiring the reductase (TsaB) of the toluenesulfonate methyl monooxygenase system (TsaMB) in an incompletely expressed sulfobenzoate dioxygenase system (PsbAC) [Schläfli Oppenberg, H.R., Chen, G., Leisinger, T. & Cook, A. M. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1891-1899]. The independently isolated C. testosteroni PSB-4 utilized only sulfobenzoate and terephthalate via protocatechuate. Mutant TER-1, derived from strain T-2, utilized only terephthalate via protocatechuate. We detected no enzymes of the pathway from toluenesulfonate to sulfobenzoate in strains PSB-4 and TER-1, and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis that the genes (tsaMB) encoding toluenesulfonate monooxygenase were absent. We concluded that, in strain PSB-4, the regulatory unit encoding the genes for the conversion of toluenesulfonate to sulfobenzoate was missing, and that generation of mutant TER-1 involved deletion of this regulatory unit and of the regulatory unit encoding desulfonation of sulfobenzoate. The degradation of sulfobenzoate in strain PSB-4 was catalysed by a fully inducible sulfobenzoate dioxygenase system (PsbACPSB-4), which, after purification of the oxygenase component (PsbAPSB-4), turned out to be indistinguishable from the corresponding component from strain T-2 (PsbAT-2). Reductase PsbCPSB-4, which we could separate but not purify, was active with oxygenase PsbAPSB-4 and PsbAT-2. Oxygenase PsbAPSB-4 was shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to contain a Rieske [2Fe-2S] centre. The enzyme system oxygenating terephthalate

  16. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient degradation of TCE in groundwater using Pd and electro-generated H2 and O2: a shift in pathway from hydrodechlorination to oxidation in the presence of ferrous ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-03-20

    Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in simulated groundwater by Pd and electro-generated H(2) and O(2) is investigated in the absence and presence of Fe(II). In the absence of Fe(II), hydrodechlorination dominates TCE degradation, with accumulation of H(2)O(2) up to 17 mg/L. Under weak acidity, low concentrations of oxidizing •OH radicals are detected due to decomposition of H(2)O(2), slightly contributing to TCE degradation via oxidation. In the presence of Fe(II), the degradation efficiency of TCE at 396 μM improves to 94.9% within 80 min. The product distribution proves that the degradation pathway shifts from 79% hydrodechlorination in the absence of Fe(II) to 84% •OH oxidation in the presence of Fe(II). TCE degradation follows zeroth-order kinetics with rate constants increasing from 2.0 to 4.6 μM/min with increasing initial Fe(II) concentration from 0 to 27.3 mg/L at pH 4. A good correlation between TCE degradation rate constants and •OH generation rate constants confirms that •OH is the predominant reactive species for TCE oxidation. Presence of 10 mM Na(2)SO(4), NaCl, NaNO(3), NaHCO(3), K(2)SO(4), CaSO(4), and MgSO(4) does not significantly influence degradation, but sulfite and sulfide greatly enhance and slightly suppress degradation, respectively. A novel Pd-based electrochemical process is proposed for groundwater remediation.

  18. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  19. Prokaryotic Homologs of the Eukaryotic 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase and 2-Amino-3-Carboxymuconate-6-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase in the 2-Nitrobenzoate Degradation Pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain KU-7†

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Takamichi; Taki, Masami; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Lau, Peter C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2-nitrobenzoic acid degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 proceeds via a novel 3-hydroxyanthranilate intermediate. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a 19-kb DNA locus of strain KU-7 that encompasses the 3-hydroxyanthranilate meta-cleavage pathway genes. The gene cluster, designated nbaEXHJIGFCDR, is organized tightly and in the same direction. The nbaC and nbaD gene products were found to be novel homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase a...

  20. Proteomic analysis of nitrate-dependent acetone degradation by Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Boeren, Sjef; Atashgahi, Siavash; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Stams, Alfons J M

    2015-06-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC grows anaerobically on acetone with nitrate as electron acceptor. Comparative proteomics of cultures of A. denitrificans strain BC grown on either acetone or acetate with nitrate was performed to study the enzymes involved in the acetone degradation pathway. In the proposed acetone degradation pathway, an acetone carboxylase converts acetone to acetoacetate, an AMP-dependent synthetase/ligase converts acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, and an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase cleaves acetoacetyl-CoA to two acetyl-CoA. We also found a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase associated with acetone degradation. This enzyme functioned as a β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase catalyzing the conversion of surplus acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate that may be converted to the energy and carbon storage compound, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. Accordingly, we confirmed the formation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in acetone-grown cells of strain BC. Our findings provide insight in nitrate-dependent acetone degradation that is activated by carboxylation of acetone. This will aid studies of similar pathways found in other microorganisms degrading acetone with nitrate or sulfate as electron acceptor. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  2. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible

  3. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  4. Kinetic study of photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, iomeprol and iopromide assisted by different TiO2 materials--determination of intermediates and reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Tusnelda E; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2004-02-01

    The light-induced degradation of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iomeprol and iopromide under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated in aqueous solutions suspended with different TiO2 materials (P25 and Hombikat UV100). Kinetic studies showed that P25 had a better photocatalytic activity for clofibric acid and carbamazepine than Hombikat UV100. For photocatalytic degradation of iomeprol Hombikat UV100 was more suitable than P25. The results can be explained by the higher adsorption capacity of Hombikat UV100 for iomeprol. The study also focuses on the identification and quantification of possible degradation products. The degradation process was monitored by determination of sum parameters and inorganic ions. In case of clofibric acid various aromatic and aliphatic degradation products have been identified and quantified. A possible multi-step degradation scheme for clofibric acid is proposed. This study proves the high potential of the photocatalytic oxidation process to transform and mineralize environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals and contrast media in water.

  5. Arginine deiminase pathway enzymes: evolutionary history in metamonads and other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Lukáš; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Karnkowska, Anna; Kolisko, Martin; Hroudová, Miluše; Stairs, Courtney W; Simpson, Alastair G B; Keeling, Patrick J; Roger, Andrew J; Čepička, Ivan; Hampl, Vladimír

    2016-10-06

    Multiple prokaryotic lineages use the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway for anaerobic energy production by arginine degradation. The distribution of this pathway among eukaryotes has been thought to be very limited, with only two specialized groups living in low oxygen environments (Parabasalia and Diplomonadida) known to possess the complete set of all three enzymes. We have performed an extensive survey of available sequence data in order to map the distribution of these enzymes among eukaryotes and to reconstruct their phylogenies. We have found genes for the complete pathway in almost all examined representatives of Metamonada, the anaerobic protist group that includes parabasalids and diplomonads. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the presence of the complete pathway in the last common ancestor of metamonads and heterologous transformation experiments suggest its cytosolic localization in the metamonad ancestor. Outside Metamonada, the complete pathway occurs rarely, nevertheless, it was found in representatives of most major eukaryotic clades. Phylogenetic relationships of complete pathways are consistent with the presence of the Archaea-derived ADI pathway in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes, although other evolutionary scenarios remain possible. The presence of the incomplete set of enzymes is relatively common among eukaryotes and it may be related to the fact that these enzymes are involved in other cellular processes, such as the ornithine-urea cycle. Single protein phylogenies suggest that the evolutionary history of all three enzymes has been shaped by frequent gene losses and horizontal transfers, which may sometimes be connected with their diverse roles in cellular metabolism.

  6. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM, and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologs, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. PMID:21895795

  7. Highly enriched Betaproteobacteria growing anaerobically with p-xylene and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Probian, Christina; Wilkes, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the microorganisms capable of anaerobic p-xylene degradation under denitrifying conditions is hitherto unknown. Here, we report highly enriched cultures of freshwater denitrifying bacteria that grow anaerobically with p-xylene as the sole organic carbon source and electron donor. ...

  8. Anaerobic treatment of sludge: focusing on reduction of LAS concentration in sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). LAS12 was used as a model compound and was spiked on sewage sludge. The experiments clearly showed that transformation of LAS12 occurred under anaerobic conditions. The degree...

  9. Nanoscale zerovalent iron-mediated degradation of DDT in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Shi, Nan; Wang, Huifang; Pan, Xiong; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI)-mediated degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was investigated in a spiked soil under different conditions (iron sources, iron dosage, soil moisture, temperature, and soil types) and DDT-contaminated field. The degradation efficiency of p,p'-DDT by nZVI and nZVI coated with sodium oleate (SO-nZVI) was much higher than that by nZVI coated with polyimide (PI-nZVI). The rapid degradation of p,p'-DDT by nZVI only occurred in flooded soil. The degradation half-life of p,p'-DDT decreased significantly from 58.3 to 27.6 h with nZVI dosage from 0.5 to 2.0% and from 46.5 to 32.0 h with temperature from 15 to 35 °C. The degradation efficiency of p,p'-DDT by nZVI differed in Jinhua (JH), Jiaxing (JX), Xiaoshan (XS), Huajiachi (HJC), and Heilongjiang (HLJ) soils. A good correlation was found between the degradation half-life of p,p'-DDT and multiple soil properties. The probable nZVI-mediated degradation pathway of p,p'-DDT in soil was proposed as DDT → DDD/DDE → DDNS → DDOH based on the metabolites identified by GC-MS. The in situ degradation efficiency of residual DDTs in a contaminated field was profoundly enhanced by the addition of nZVI as compared to the control. It is concluded that nZVI might be an efficient agent for the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil under anaerobic environment.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  11. Degradation of phenol via phenylphosphate and carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate by a newly isolated strain of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacterium anilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Beom; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J; Häggblom, Max M

    2009-07-01

    A sulfate-reducing phenol-degrading bacterium, strain AK1, was isolated from a 2-bromophenol-utilizing sulfidogenic estuarine sediment enrichment culture. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA homology, strain AK1 is most closely related to Desulfobacterium anilini strain Ani1 (= DSM 4660(T)). In addition to phenol, this organism degrades a variety of other aromatic compounds, including benzoate, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 2-aminobenzoate, 2-fluorophenol, and 2-fluorobenzoate, but it does not degrade aniline, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-cyanophenol, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, monohalogenated phenols, or monohalogenated benzoates. Growth with sulfate as an electron acceptor occurred with acetate and pyruvate but not with citrate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, glucose, or succinate. Strain AK1 is able to use sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate as electron acceptors. A putative phenylphosphate synthase gene responsible for anaerobic phenol degradation was identified in strain AK1. In phenol-grown cultures inducible expression of the ppsA gene was verified by reverse transcriptase PCR, and 4-hydroxybenzoate was detected as an intermediate. These results suggest that the pathway for anaerobic degradation of phenol in D. anilini strain AK1 proceeds via phosphorylation of phenol to phenylphosphate, followed by carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate. The details concerning such reaction pathways in sulfidogenic bacteria have not been characterized previously.

  12. TOF-SIMS investigation of degradation pathways occurring in a variety of organic photovoltaic devices – the ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Birgitta; Tanenbaum, David; Hermenau, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -depth in the organic solar cells. Various degradation mechanisms were investigated and correlated with cell performance. For example, photo-oxidation of the active material was quantitatively studied as a function of cell performance. The large variety of cell architectures used (some with and some without......-destructive and destructive techniques in order to identify specific degradation mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the photovoltaic response. Work presented herein involves time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in order to study chemical degradation in-plane as well as in...... of organic solar cells....

  13. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  14. The fate of methanol in thermophilic-anaerobic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Methanol is a simple C1-compound, which sustains a complex web of possible degradation routes under anaerobic conditions. Methanol can be the main pollutant in some specific wastewaters, but it is also a compound that may be formed under natural conditions, as intermediate in the decomposition of

  15. Escherichia coli phnN, encoding ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase activity (phosphoribosyl diphosphate forming): dual role in phosphonate degradation and NAD biosynthesis pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Rosenkrantz, Tina J; Haldimann, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    An enzymatic pathway for synthesis of 5-phospho-D-ribosyl alpha-1-diphosphate (PRPP) without the participation of PRPP synthase was analyzed in Escherichia coli. This pathway was revealed by selection for suppression of the NAD requirement of strains with a deletion of the prs gene, the gene...

  16. Degradation kinetics of metronidazole and its mutual prodrug with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Renu Chadha

    present paper utilizes this technique to monitor the hydrolytic degradation of metronidazole ... the antiprotozoal and anaerobic antibacterial effects of metronidazole with ... The catalytic rate constant for hydrogen ion (kH) and hydroxyl ion (kOH) ...

  17. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  18. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  19. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gljzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These 'natural reactors' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic posttreatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery.

  20. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijzen, H.J.

    2002-07-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These ''natural reactors'' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic post-treatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. In conclusion: a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery. (author)

  1. Decolorization of complex dyes and textile effluent by extracellular enzymes of Cyathus bulleri cultivated on agro-residues/domestic wastes and proposed pathway of degradation of Kiton blue A and reactive orange 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was cultivated on low-cost agro-residues, namely wheat bran (WB), wheat straw (WS), and domestic waste orange peel (OP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Of the three substrates, WB and OP served as good materials for the production of laccase with no requirement of additional carbon or nitrogen source. Specific laccase activity of 94.4 U mg -1 extracellular protein and 21.01 U mg -1 protein was obtained on WB and OP, respectively. Maximum decolorization rate of 13.6 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive black 5 and 22.68 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive orange 16 (RO) was obtained with the WB culture filtrate, and 11.7 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive violet 5 was observed with OP culture filtrate. Importantly, Kiton blue A (KB), reported not to be amenable to enzymatic degradation, was degraded by culture filtrate borne activities. Products of degradation of KB and RO were identified by mass spectrometry, and a pathway of degradation proposed. WB-grown culture filtrate decolorized and detoxified real and simulated textile effluents by about 40%. The study highlights the use of inexpensive materials for the production of enzymes effective on dyes and effluents.

  2. Site-specific management of miscanthus genotypes for combustion and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiesel, Andreas; Nunn, Christopher; Iqbal, Yasir; Weijde, Van der Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Özgüven, Mensure; Tarakanov, Ivan; Kalinina, Olena; Trindade, Luisa M.; Clifton-Brown, John; Lewandowski, Iris

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, the perennial C4 grass miscanthus is currently mainly cultivated for energy generation via combustion. In recent years, anaerobic digestion has been identified as a promising alternative utilization pathway. Anaerobic digestion produces a higher-value intermediate (biogas), which can be

  3. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  4. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  5. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huili; Xu Shuxia; Tan Chengxia; Wang Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level.

  6. Community and Proteomic Analysis of Anaerobic Consortia Converting Tetramethylammonium to Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetramethylammonium-degrading methanogenic consortia from a complete-mixing suspended sludge (CMSS and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors were studied using multiple PCR-based molecular techniques and shotgun proteomic approach. The prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes of the consortia were analyzed by quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing, and DGGE-cloning methods. The results showed that methanogenic archaea were highly predominant in both reactors but differed markedly according to community structure. Community and proteomic analysis revealed that Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the major players for the demethylation of methylated substrates and methane formation through the reduction pathway of methyl-S-CoM and possibly, acetyl-CoA synthase/decarbonylase-related pathways. Unlike high dominance of one Methanomethylovorans population in the CMSS reactor, diverse methylotrophic Methanosarcina species inhabited in syntrophy-like association with hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium in the granular sludge of UASB reactor. The overall findings indicated the reactor-dependent community structures of quaternary amines degradation and provided microbial insight for the improved understanding of engineering application.

  7. Community and Proteomic Analysis of Anaerobic Consortia Converting Tetramethylammonium to Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Jeszeová, Lenka; Liu, Bing; Yasui, Hidenari

    2017-01-01

    Tetramethylammonium-degrading methanogenic consortia from a complete-mixing suspended sludge (CMSS) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were studied using multiple PCR-based molecular techniques and shotgun proteomic approach. The prokaryotic 16S rRNA genes of the consortia were analyzed by quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing, and DGGE-cloning methods. The results showed that methanogenic archaea were highly predominant in both reactors but differed markedly according to community structure. Community and proteomic analysis revealed that Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the major players for the demethylation of methylated substrates and methane formation through the reduction pathway of methyl-S-CoM and possibly, acetyl-CoA synthase/decarbonylase-related pathways. Unlike high dominance of one Methanomethylovorans population in the CMSS reactor, diverse methylotrophic Methanosarcina species inhabited in syntrophy-like association with hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium in the granular sludge of UASB reactor. The overall findings indicated the reactor-dependent community structures of quaternary amines degradation and provided microbial insight for the improved understanding of engineering application. PMID:29391857

  8. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  9. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  10. Roles of horizontal gene transfer and gene integration in evolution of 1,3-dichloropropene- and 1,2-dibromoethane-degradative pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, GJ; Kulakov, LA; Larkin, MJ; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E.T.; Janssen, DB

    The haloalkane-degrading bacteria Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB13064, Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170, and Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1 share a highly conserved haloalkane dehalogenase gene (dhaA). Here, we describe the extent of the conserved dhaA segments in these three phylogenetically distinct

  11. Rapid startup of thermophilic anaerobic digester to remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Peng; Bai, Yang; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, Kito; Fan, Chang-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) originating from sewage sludge is highlighted as an eminent health threat. This study established a thermophilic anaerobic digester using one-step startup strategy to quickly remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge. At least 20days were saved in the startup period from mesophilic to thermophilic condition. Based on the results of 16S rDNA amplicons sequencing and predicted metagenomic method, the successful startup largely relied on the fast colonization of core thermophilic microbial population (e.g. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria). Microbial metabolic gene pathways for substrate degradation and methane production was also increased by one-step mode. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR approach revealed that most targeted tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes ARGs (sulI, tetA, tetO, tetX) were substantially removed during thermophilic digestion (removal efficiency>80%). Network analysis showed that the elimination of ARGs was attributed to the decline of their horizontal (intI1 item) and vertical (potential hosts) transfer-related elements under high-temperature. This research demonstrated that rapid startup thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for reducing quantities of various ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrinsic Anaerobic Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Subsurface Plumes and Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanny, M. A.; Nanny, M. A.; Suflita, J. M.; Suflita, J. M.; Davidova, I.; Kropp, K.; Caldwell, M.; Philp, R.; Gieg, L.; Rios-Hernandez, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminating subsurface and marine environments have been found susceptible to anaerobic biodegradation using novel mechanisms entirely distinct from aerobic metabolic pathways. For example, the anaerobic decay of toluene can be initiated by the addition of the aryl methyl group to the double bond of fumarate, resulting in a benzylsuccinic acid metabolite. Our work has shown that an analogous mechanism also occurs with ethylbenzene and the xylene isomers, yielding 3-phenyl-1,2-butane dicarboxylic acid and methylbenzylsuccinic acid, respectively. Moreover, these metabolites have been detected in contaminated environments. Most recently, we have identified metabolites resulting from the initial attack of H26- or D26-n-dodecane during degradation by a sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. Using GC-MS, these metabolites were identified as fatty acids that result from C-H or C-D addition across the double bond of fumarate to give dodecylsuccinic acids in which all 26 protons or deuteriums of the parent alkane were retained. Further, when this enrichment culture was challenged with hexane or decane, hexylsuccinic acid or decylsuccinic acid were identified as resulting metabolites. Similarly, the study of an ethylcyclopentane-degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment produced a metabolite, which is consistent with the addition of fumarate to the parent substrate. These novel anaerobic addition products are characterized by similar, distinctive mass spectral (MS) features (ions specific to the succinic acid portion of the molecule) that can potentially be used to probe contaminated environments for evidence of intrinsic remediation of hydrocarbons. Indeed, analyses of water extracts from two gas condensate-contaminated sites resulted in the tentative detection of alkyl- and cycloalkylsuccinic acids ranging from C3 to C9, including ethylcyclopentyl-succinic acid. In water extracts collected from an area underlying a

  13. Ability of industrial anaerobic ecosystems to produce methane from ethanol in psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabala, Jojo Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The process of anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a natural phenomenon widespread in many ecosystems (eg, marshes, lakes, rice fields, digestive systems of animals and humans). A high microbial diversity is maintained during this process, reflecting a diversity of metabolic pathways involved. When complete, the anaerobic digestion results in the formation of biogas (mixture of methane and carbon dioxide). In terms of biotechnology, anaerobic treatment of organic pollution reduces the volume of waste and generates energy as methane recoverable in several forms (electricity, heat, natural gas, biofuels). Industrial digesters are mostly operated at 35 deg. C or 55 deg. C which requires exogenous energy. The objective of the thesis is to study the adaptability of ecosystems sourced from anaerobic industrial scale reactors treating different range of wastes from different processes to convert ethanol into biogas at various temperatures. The first phase of the study was to adapt, in laboratory reactors ecosystems to their original temperature with a readily biodegradable substrate (ethanol). Then, the performances of microbial communities (the maximum methanogenic potential and degradation kinetics) were estimated on a temperature gradient from 5 deg. C to 55 deg. C in batch reactors. The adaptation phase of the ecosystems in lab-scale reactors showed that the biogas averaged theoretical production and this production was followed by a decrease in reaction time with successive addition of the substrate. In addition, the kinetics of the biogas obtained varied greatly from one ecosystem to another. Molecular fingerprinting profiles (CE-SSCP) of bacterial and archaeal communities were performed at the beginning and at the end of conditioning. These community profiles were compared with each other by principal component analysis (PCA). Bacterial populations that ensured efficient performance were different from those that ensured a good adaptability. In addition, the

  14. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  15. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10 -10 nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  16. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  17. Quantitative Metaproteomics Highlight the Metabolic Contributions of Uncultured Phylotypes in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live H; Frank, Jeremy A; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Pope, Phillip B; Horn, Svein J; Arntzen, Magnus Ø

    2017-01-15

    In this study, we used multiple meta-omic approaches to characterize the microbial community and the active metabolic pathways of a stable industrial biogas reactor with food waste as the dominant feedstock, operating at thermophilic temperatures (60°C) and elevated levels of free ammonia (367 mg/liter NH 3 -N). The microbial community was strongly dominated (76% of all 16S rRNA amplicon sequences) by populations closely related to the proteolytic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus. Multiple Coprothermobacter-affiliated strains were detected, introducing an additional level of complexity seldom explored in biogas studies. Genome reconstructions provided metabolic insight into the microbes that performed biomass deconstruction and fermentation, including the deeply branching phyla Dictyoglomi and Planctomycetes and the candidate phylum "Atribacteria" These biomass degraders were complemented by a synergistic network of microorganisms that convert key fermentation intermediates (fatty acids) via syntrophic interactions with hydrogenotrophic methanogens to ultimately produce methane. Interpretation of the proteomics data also suggested activity of a Methanosaeta phylotype acclimatized to high ammonia levels. In particular, we report multiple novel phylotypes proposed as syntrophic acetate oxidizers, which also exert expression of enzymes needed for both the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and β-oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl coenzyme A. Such an arrangement differs from known syntrophic oxidizing bacteria and presents an interesting hypothesis for future studies. Collectively, these findings provide increased insight into active metabolic roles of uncultured phylotypes and presents new synergistic relationships, both of which may contribute to the stability of the biogas reactor. Biogas production through anaerobic digestion of organic waste provides an attractive source of renewable energy and a sustainable waste management strategy. A comprehensive understanding

  18. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  19. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  20. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  1. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    DNA thermal degradation was shown to occur via a singlet oxygen pathway. A comparative study of the ther- mal degradation of cellular DNA and isolated DNA showed that cellular ..... definite level of energy (e.g. depurination active energy,.

  2. Ferrocene-catalyzed heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation mechanisms and pathways of antibiotics under simulated sunlight: A case study of sulfamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Biaojun; Liu, Xiangliang; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Heming; Zhang, Yuechao; Ning, Ping; Tian, Senlin

    2018-07-05

    Readily-available and efficient catalyst is essential for activating oxidants to produce reactive species for deeply remediating water bodies contaminated by antibiotics. In this study, Ferrocene (Fc) was introduced to establish a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system for the degradation of sulfonamide antibiotics, taking sulfamethoxazole as a representative. Results showed that the removal of sulfamethoxazole was effective in Fc-catalyzed photo-Fenton system. Electron spin resonance and radical scavenging experiments verified that there was a photoindued electron transfer process from Fc to H 2 O 2 and dissolved oxygen resulting in the formation of OH that was primarily responsible for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole. The reactions of OH with substructure model compounds of sulfamethoxazole unveiled that aniline moiety was the preferable reaction site of sulfamethoxazole, which was verified by the formation of hydroxylated product and the dimer of sulfamethoxazole in Fc-catalyzed photo-Fenton system. This heterogeneous photo-Fenton system displayed an effective degradation efficiency even in a complex water matrices, and Fc represented a long-term stability by using the catalyst for multiple cycles. These results demonstrate that Fc-catalyzed photo-Fenton oxidation may be an efficient approach for remediation of wastewater containing antibiotics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Exogenous melatonin suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence by activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase antioxidant pathway and down-regulating chlorophyll degradation in excised leaves of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’ leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8 supplemented with melatonin or water (control and exposed to dark treatment for 8 d. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69 during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant

  4. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  5. Simulation of dual carbon-bromine stable isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Rolle, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We performed a model-based investigation to simultaneously predict the evolution of concentration, as well as stable carbon and bromine isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide) transformation in a closed system. The modelling approach considers bond-cleavage mechanisms during different reactions and allows evaluating dual carbon-bromine isotopic signals for chemical and biotic reactions, including aerobic and anaerobic biological transformation, dibromoelimination by Zn(0) and alkaline hydrolysis. The proposed model allowed us to accurately simulate the evolution of concentrations and isotope data observed in a previous laboratory study and to successfully identify different reaction pathways. Furthermore, we illustrated the model capabilities in degradation scenarios involving complex reaction systems. Specifically, we examined (i) the case of sequential multistep transformation of EDB and the isotopic evolution of the parent compound, the intermediate and the reaction product and (ii) the case of parallel competing abiotic pathways of EDB transformation in alkaline solution.

  6. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  7. Experimental anaerobic digestion generator coupled at a plan plates solar collector; Biodigestor experimental acoplado a coletor solar de placas planas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Tsuneharu [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil); Venanzi, D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Medeiros, J.T.N. de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    Analysis of results of research in course in solar energy used as heat source to anaerobic degradation in organic matter are presented; water is circulated around the generator to rise and maintain a constant process. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs

  8. Aerobic degradation of N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA by Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357 isolated from soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlurrahman Khan

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA is used as an additive to lower the melting temperature of energetic materials in the synthesis of insensitive explosives. Although the biotransformation of MNA under anaerobic condition has been reported, its aerobic microbial degradation has not been documented yet. A soil microcosms study showed the efficient aerobic degradation of MNA by the inhabitant soil microorganisms. An aerobic bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain FK357, able to utilize MNA as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from soil microcosms. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the samples obtained from growth and resting cell studies showed the formation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA, 4-aminophenol (4-AP, and 1, 2, 4-benzenetriol (BT as major metabolic intermediates in the MNA degradation pathway. Enzymatic assay carried out on cell-free lysates of MNA grown cells confirmed N-demethylation reaction is the first step of MNA degradation with the formation of 4-NA and formaldehyde products. Flavin-dependent transformation of 4-NA to 4-AP in cell extracts demonstrated that the second step of MNA degradation is a monooxygenation. Furthermore, conversion of 4-AP to BT by MNA grown cells indicates the involvement of oxidative deamination (release of NH2 substituent reaction in third step of MNA degradation. Subsequent degradation of BT occurs by the action of benzenetriol 1, 2-dioxygenase as reported for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol. This is the first report on aerobic degradation of MNA by a single bacterium along with elucidation of metabolic pathway.

  9. Genetic Evidence for the Physiological Significance of the d-Tagatose 6-Phosphate Pathway of Lactose and d-Galactose Degradation in Staphylococcus aureus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Donald L.; Anderson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated which were unable to utilize d-galactose or lactose, but which were able to utilize all other carbohydrates tested. Growth of the mutants on a peptone-containing medium was inhibited by d-galactose. Of those mutants selected for further study, one (tagI2) was missing d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, one (tagK3) was missing d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and one (tagA4) was missing d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase. Each of these mutants accumulated the substrate of the missing enzyme intracellularly. Spontaneous revertants of each of the mutants simultaneously regained their ability to utilize d-galactose and lactose, lost their sensitivity to d-galactose, regained the missing enzymatic activities, and no longer accumulated intermediates of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. These data support our previous contention that the physiologically significant route for the metabolism of d-galactose and the d-galactosyl moiety of lactose in S. aureus is the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. Furthermore, a mutant constitutive for all three enzymes of this pathway was isolated, indicating that the products of the tagI, tagK, and tagA genes are under common genetic control. This conclusion was supported by the demonstration that d-galactose 6-phosphate isomerase, d-tagatose 6-phosphate kinase, and d-tagatose 1, 6-diphosphate aldolase are coordinately induced in the parental strain. PMID:4277494

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Cytoplasmic Domain Affects ErbB Protein Degradation by the Lysosomal and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic domains of EGF-like ligands, including EGF cytoplasmic domain (EGFcyt, have important biological functions. Using specific constructs and peptides of human EGF cytoplasmic domain, we demonstrate that EGFcyt facilitates lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation, and this coincided with growth inhibition of human thyroid and glioma carcinoma cells. EGFcyt and exon 22–23-encoded peptide (EGF22.23 enhanced procathepsin B (procathB expression and procathB-mediated lysosomal degradation of EGFR/ErbB1 as determined by inhibitors for procathB and the lysosomal ATPase inhibitor BafA1. Presence of mbEGFctF, EGFcyt, EGF22.23, and exon 23-encoded peptides suppressed the expression of the deubiqitinating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1. This coincided with hyperubiquitination of total cellular proteins and ErbB1/2 and reduced proteasome activity. Upon small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenously expressed UCH-L1, a similar hyperubiquitinylation phenotype, reduced ErbB1/2 content, and attenuated growth was observed. The exon 23-encoded peptide region of EGFcyt was important for these biologic actions. Structural homology modeling of human EGFcyt showed that this molecular region formed an exposed surface loop. Peptides derived from this EGFcyt loop structure may aid in the design of novel peptide therapeutics aimed at inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

  11. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  12. [Anaerobic