WorldWideScience

Sample records for anaemia virus isav

  1. Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV-HPR0) is prevalent and geographically structured in Norwegian salmon farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngstad, Trude M; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Hjortaas, Monika J; Devold, Magnus; Aspehaug, Vidar; Larssen, Rolf B; Jansen, Peder A

    2012-11-19

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that has caused epidemic outbreaks in most salmon-producing countries worldwide. The disease is caused by virulent ISA virus (ISAV). Low virulent variants of the virus, characterised by a full-length sequence in the highly polymorphic region of segment 6 in the virus genome, have been reported with increasing frequencies. These variants of the virus, termed HPR0, have been proposed to be ancestors of virulent ISAV. We examined this idea through studies of the phylogeographic and environmental distribution of ISAV-HPR0, as well as phylogeographic associations between virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. Samples from 232 fish groups were screened for ISAV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for detection of ISAV, and the ISAV haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene was characterised for positive samples. A Mantel test was used to test phylogeographic associations between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences. A rank test was used to test associations between HE gene sequences from virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. ISAV-HPR0 was detected in fish groups both in freshwater and marine environments, and in juveniles, on-grown marine salmon and broodstock salmon. Genetic and geographic distances between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences were positively correlated, suggesting that the population of ISAV-HPR0 is geographically structured. Finally, we found a spatial association between fish groups with virulent ISAV (n = 21) and fish groups with ISAV-HPR0 (n = 27), supporting the hypothesis that ISAV-HPR0 may undergo a transition to virulent ISAV.

  2. Investigation into the susceptibility of saithe Pollachius virens to infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and their potential role as a vector for viral transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Raynard, R.; Bruno, D.W.;

    2002-01-01

    Wild-caught saithe Pollachius virens were experimentally exposed to an isolate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) of Norwegian origin. Mortality attributable to ISAV did not occur following exposure by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of virus or by cohabitation with ISAV-infected Atlantic...

  3. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...

  4. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisperger Angelica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish

  5. TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded Atlantic salmon Salmo salar tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, M G; Kibenge, F S; Kibenge, M J; Olmos, P; Ovalle, L; Yañez, A J; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2010-05-18

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of a TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) fish tissues from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with and without clinical signs of infection, and to compare it with histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. Sixteen fish samples obtained in 2007 and 2008 from 4 different farms in Chile were examined. The real-time RT-PCR allowed the detection of ISAV in FFPE samples from 9 of 16 fish, regardless of the organs analyzed, whereas 4 of the real-time RT-PCR negative fish were positive as indicated by histological examination and 3 of the real-time RT-PCR positive fish were negative as indicated by immunohistochemistry evaluation. The presence of ISAV in RT-PCR positive samples was confirmed by amplicon sequencing. This work constitutes the first report on the use of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of ISAV in FFPE sections. The assay is very useful for the examination of archival wax-embedded tissues, and allows for both prospective and retrospective evaluation of tissue samples for the presence of ISAV. However, the method only confirms the presence of the pathogen and should be used in combination with histopathology, which is a more precise tool. The combination of both techniques would be invaluable for confirmatory diagnosis of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), which is essential for solving salmon farm problems.

  6. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of partial surface protein genes from infectious Salmon Anaemia virus (ISAV suggest novel mechanisms involved in transition to virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Markussen

    Full Text Available Uncultivable HPR0 strains of infectious salmon anaemia viruses (ISAVs infecting gills are non-virulent putative precursors of virulent ISAVs (vISAVs causing systemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The transition to virulence involves two molecular events, a deletion in the highly polymorphic region (HPR of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE gene and a Q266→L266 substitution or insertion next to the putative cleavage site (R267 in the fusion protein (F. We have performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS of these gene regions from healthy fish positive for HPR0 virus carrying full-length HPR sampled in a screening program, and a vISAV strain from an ISA outbreak at the same farming site three weeks later, and compared the mutant spectra. As the UDPS data shows the presence of both HE genotypes at both sampling times, and the outbreak strain was unlikely to be directly related to the HPR0 strain, this is the first report of a double infection with HPR0s and vISAVs. For F amplicon reads, mutation frequencies generating L266 codons in screening samples and Q266 codons in outbreak samples were not higher than at any random site. We suggest quasispecies heterogeneity as well as RNA structural properties are linked to transition to virulence. More specifically, a mechanism where selected single point mutations in the full-length HPR alter the RNA structure facilitating single- or sequential deletions in this region is proposed. The data provides stronger support for the deletion hypothesis, as opposed to recombination, as the responsible mechanism for generating the sequence deletions in HE.

  7. Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weli Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.. Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.

  8. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  9. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion.

  10. Infectious salmon anaemia virus replication and induction of alpha interferon in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groman David B

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV, which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of several fish species and it is generally accepted that the ISAV receptor destroying enzyme dissolves this haemagglutination except for Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. Recent work indicates that ISAV isolates that are able to elute from Atlantic salmon erythrocytes cause low mortality in challenge experiments using Atlantic salmon. Previous work on ISAV-induced haemagglutination using the highly pathogenic ISAV strain NBISA01 and the low pathogenic ISAV strain RPC/NB-04-0851, showed endocytosis of NBISA01 but not RPC/NB-04-0851. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess the viral RNA levels in the ISAV-induced haemagglutination reaction samples, and we observed a slight increase in viral RNA transcripts by 36 hours in the haemagglutination reaction with NBISA01 virus when the experiment was terminated. However, a longer sampling interval was considered necessary to confirm ISAV replication in fish erythrocytes and to determine if the infected cells mounted any innate immune response. This study examined the possible ISAV replication and Type I interferon (IFN system gene induction in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes following ISAV haemagglutination. Results Haemagglutination assays were performed using Atlantic salmon erythrocytes and one haemagglutination unit of the two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and RPC/NB-04-0851, of differing genotypes and pathogenicities. Haemagglutination induced by the highly pathogenic NBISA01 but not the low pathogenic RPC/NB-04-0851 resulted in productive infection as evidenced by increased ISAV segment 8 transcripts and increase in the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 by 5 days of incubation. Moreover, reverse transcription (RT quantitative PCR used to compare mRNA levels of key Type I IFN system

  11. Constitutive expression of Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein in CHSE-214 cells confers resistance to infectious salmon anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibenge, Molly J T; Munir, Khalid; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2005-08-26

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a highly fatal viral disease affecting marine-farmed Atlantic salmon which is caused by ISA virus (ISAV), a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. Mx proteins are among the interferon (IFN)-induced proteins responsible for the development of an antiviral state in vertebrate cells. We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells constitutively expressing Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein (ASMx1) to examine the antiviral properties of ASMx1 against two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and HKS-36, having phenotypically different growth properties (cytopathic vs non-cytopathic) in the CHSE-214 cell line. We present evidence that ISAV is sensitive to ASMx1. CHSE-214 cells constitutively expressing ASMx1 showed increased resistance to infection with the cytopathic ISAV strain NBISA01, manifested as delayed development of cytopathic effects (CPE) and significant reduction in the severity of CPE, as well as a 10-fold reduction in virus yield. However, by real-time RT-PCR we observed no significant difference in the mean threshold cycle (Ct) values of ISAV RNA levels, suggesting that the ASMx1 activity on ISAV occurs at the post-transcription steps of virus replication, possibly in the cytoplasm.

  12. Constitutive expression of Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein in CHSE-214 cells confers resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibenge Frederick SB

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is a highly fatal viral disease affecting marine-farmed Atlantic salmon which is caused by ISA virus (ISAV, a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. Mx proteins are among the interferon (IFN-induced proteins responsible for the development of an antiviral state in vertebrate cells. We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214 cells constitutively expressing Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein (ASMx1 to examine the antiviral properties of ASMx1 against two ISAV strains, NBISA01 and HKS-36, having phenotypically different growth properties (cytopathic vs non-cytopathic in the CHSE-214 cell line. We present evidence that ISAV is sensitive to ASMx1. CHSE-214 cells constitutively expressing ASMx1 showed increased resistance to infection with the cytopathic ISAV strain NBISA01, manifested as delayed development of cytopathic effects (CPE and significant reduction in the severity of CPE, as well as a 10-fold reduction in virus yield. However, by real-time RT-PCR we observed no significant difference in the mean threshold cycle (Ct values of ISAV RNA levels, suggesting that the ASMx1 activity on ISAV occurs at the post-transcription steps of virus replication, possibly in the cytoplasm.

  13. Molecular phylodynamics and protein modeling of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro-Nallar Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ISAV is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family that affects salmonids with disastrous results. It was first detected in 1984 in Norway and from then on it has been reported in Canada, United States, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. Recently, an outbreak was recorded in Chile with negative consequences for the local fishing industry. However, few studies have examined available data to test hypotheses associated with the phylogeographic partitioning of the infecting viral population, the population dynamics, or the evolutionary rates and demographic history of ISAV. To explore these issues, we collected relevant sequences of genes coding for both surface proteins from Chile, Canada, and Norway. We addressed questions regarding their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates, and demographic history using modern phylogenetic methods. Results A recombination breakpoint was consistently detected in the Hemagglutinin-Esterase (he gene at either side of the Highly Polymorphic Region (HPR, whereas no recombination breakpoints were detected in Fusion protein (f gene. Evolutionary relationships of ISAV revealed the 2007 Chilean outbreak group as a monophyletic clade for f that has a sister relationship to the Norwegian isolates. Their tMRCA is consistent with epidemiological data and demographic history was successfully recovered showing a profound bottleneck with further population expansion. Finally, selection analyses detected ongoing diversifying selection in f and he codons associated with protease processing and the HPR region, respectively. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the Norwegian origin hypothesis for the Chilean outbreak clade. In particular, ISAV HPR0 genotype is not the ancestor of all ISAV strains, although SK779/06 (HPR0 shares a common ancestor with the Chilean outbreak clade. Our analyses suggest that ISAV shows hallmarks typical of RNA viruses that can be exploited in epidemiological and

  14. Localised Infection of Atlantic Salmon Epithelial Cells by HPR0 Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aamelfot

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is an important, systemic viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Endothelial cells are the main target cells for highly virulent HPR-deleted ISA virus (ISAV types. Here we examine the pathogenesis of non-virulent ISAV HPR0 infections, presenting evidence of an epithelial tropism for this virus type, including actual infection and replication in the epithelial cells. Whereas all HPR0 RT-qPCR positive gills prepared for cryosection tested positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunofluorescent labelling, only 21% of HPR0 RT-qPCR positive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gills were IHC positive, suggesting different methodological sensitivities. Only specific epithelial cell staining was observed and no staining was observed in endothelial cells of positive gills. Furthermore, using an ISAV segment 7 RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated splicing of HPR0, suggesting initial activation of the replication machinery in the epithelial gill cells. Immunological responses were investigated by the expression of interferon-related genes (e.g. Mx and γIP and by ELISA for presence of anti-ISAV antibodies on samples taken sequentially over several months during an episode of transient HPR0 infection. All fish revealed a variable, but increased expression of the immunological markers in comparison to normal healthy fish. Taken together, we conclude that HPR0 causes a localized epithelial infection of Atlantic salmon.

  15. Scientific Opinion on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon is the only species in which the disease infectious salmon anaemia (ISA has been observed naturally. Initial reports of findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV before 2002, did not distinguish between non virulent HPR0 and virulent HPRΔ viruses, thus making interpretation of older findings difficult in the light of current knowledge. Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the relationship between HPR0 and HPRΔ, the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 ISAV, and possible risk factors for such an emergence. HPR0 ISAV does not cause clinical disease in Atlantic salmon; however, it causes a transient subclinical infection and replicates mainly in gills. There is no evidence for HPR0 ISAV leading to natural infection and replication in fish species other than Atlantic salmon. Virulent ISAV have deletions in the HPR region of the HE gene and they have either an insertion or the Q266L mutation in the F gene. The most plausible hypothesis is that virulent ISAV (HPRΔ is derived from HPR0 ISAV. This is further supported by the close association between the genetic relatedness and spatio-temporal distances of virus strains in solitary outbreaks. Epidemiological and historical data from solitary disease outbreaks indicates that the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 is low, but not negligible. The risk factors for HPRΔ emergence from HPR0 are unknown. Nevertheless, any factor that affects virus replication or host susceptibility could possibly influence the risk of emergence. More research is needed on the drivers for transition from HPR0 to HPRΔ and factors affecting host susceptibility and thereby emergence of clinical disease. A quantitative assessment of the different evolutionary forces for ISA would be useful, as well as the prevalence of ISAV HPR0 in farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

  16. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  17. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  18. Characterization of gene expression on genomic segment 7 of infectious salmon anaemia virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Biao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV, an important pathogen of fish that causes disease accompanied by high mortality in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is the only species in the genus Isavirus, one of the five genera of the Orthomyxoviridae family. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; haemagglutinin-esterase (HE protein encoded on segment 6 and fusion (F protein encoded on segment 5. Based on the initial demonstration of two 5'-coterminal mRNA transcripts by RT-PCR, ISAV genomic segment 7 was suggested to share a similar coding strategy with segment 7 of influenza A virus, encoding two proteins. However, there appears to be confusion as to the protein sizes predicted from the two open reading frames (ORFs of ISAV segment 7 which has in turn led to confusion of the predicted protein functions. The primary goal of the present work was to clone and express these two ORFs in order to assess whether the predicted protein sizes match those of the expressed proteins so as to clarify the coding assignments, and thereby identify any additional structural proteins of ISAV. Results In the present study we show that ISAV segment 7 encodes 3 proteins with estimated molecular masses of 32, 18, and 9.5 kDa. The 18-kDa and 9.5-kDa products are based on removal of an intron each from the primary transcript (7-ORF1 so that the translation continues in the +2 and +3 reading frames, respectively. The segment 7-ORF1/3 product is variably truncated in the sequence of ISAV isolates of the European genotype. All three proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum against the 32-kDa product of the primary transcript, as they all share the N-terminal 22 amino acids. This antiserum detected a single 35-kDa protein in Western blots of purified virus, and immunoprecipitated a 32-kDa protein in ISAV-infected TO cells. Immunofluorescence staining of infected cells with the

  19. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  20. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbucura Marlene

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar caused by ISA virus (ISAV, which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I of the highly polymorphic region (HPR group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE

  1. The Detection of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus Using Real-Time Fluorescent Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification%传染性鲑鱼贫血症病毒实时荧光环介导等温扩增检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀杰; 于力; 王津津; 何俊强; 郑晓聪; 贾鹏兰; 文升; 杨锦舜; 刘荭

    2014-01-01

    根据ISAV的基因保守序列,利用LAMP Designer软件设计了6条引物,采用新型的环介导等温扩增设备进行扩增和检测,优化了反应条件,分析了所建立方法的特异性和灵敏度,并与RT-PCR和实时荧光RT-PCR进行比较。研究表明,该方法最适反应温度为64℃,反应10 min就可以观察到明显的扩增。该方法灵敏度高,检测限为78.4 fg RNA,比常规RT-PCR灵敏度高100倍,与实时荧光定量RT-PCR灵敏度相当;特异性好,与传染性胰腺坏死病毒(IPNV)、鲤春病毒血症病毒(SVCV)、出血性败血症病毒(VHSV)、鱼类病毒性神经坏死病病毒(VNNV)、鱼腹水病毒(YAV)等14种主要鱼类病毒没有交叉反应。结果表明,本研究建立了 ISAV 的实时荧光环介导等温扩增检测方法,实验能对整个扩增过程进行实时监测,提高检测灵敏度的同时,防止由于开盖跑电泳或加染料而导致的污染。%The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is classified as an Orthomyxoviridae. Its genome consists of 8 single-stranded negative-sense RNA segments. ISAV is the pathogen of fatal ISA listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). It mainly affects salmon farming in Europe and Northern America, but there has been a high chance of its introduction into China due to the increased salmon importation. Therefore it is very important to establish a rapid and accurate method for ISAV detection. Conventional ISAV detection methods involve cell isolation followed by RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR. Recently Japanese scientists have established a novel technique with high sensitivity and rapidity, namely Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. In this study, LAMP assay was developed for detecting infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Six specific primers were designed according to ISAV genes using LAMP Designer software. A novel LAMP instrument was applied for the amplification and detection. The

  2. Dual Mutation Events in the Haemagglutinin-Esterase and Fusion Protein from an Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus HPR0 Genotype Promote Viral Fusion and Activation by an Ubiquitous Host Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, Mickael; Lester, Katherine; Markussen, Turhan; Falk, Knut; Secombes, Christopher J; McBeath, Alastair; Collet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), deletions in the highly polymorphic region (HPR) in the near membrane domain of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) stalk, influence viral fusion. It is suspected that selected mutations in the associated Fusion (F) protein may also be important in regulating fusion activity. To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in ISAV fusion, several mutated F proteins were generated from the Scottish Nevis and Norwegian SK779/06 HPR0. Co-transfection with constructs encoding HE and F were performed, fusion activity assessed by content mixing assay and the degree of proteolytic cleavage by western blot. Substitutions in Nevis F demonstrated that K276 was the most likely cleavage site in the protein. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions at three sites and two insertions, all slightly upstream of K276, increased fusion activity. Co-expression with HE harbouring a full-length HPR produced high fusion activities when trypsin and low pH were applied. In comparison, under normal culture conditions, groups containing a mutated HE with an HPR deletion were able to generate moderate fusion levels, while those with a full length HPR HE could not induce fusion. This suggested that HPR length may influence how the HE primes the F protein and promotes fusion activation by an ubiquitous host protease and/or facilitate subsequent post-cleavage refolding steps. Variations in fusion activity through accumulated mutations on surface glycoproteins have also been reported in other orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. This may in part contribute to the different virulence and tissue tropism reported for HPR0 and HPR deleted ISAV genotypes.

  3. Definition of sanitary boundaries to prevent ISAv spread between salmon farms in southern Chile based on numerical simulations of currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Gonzalo; Sepúlveda, H. H.; Yannicelli, B.

    2015-06-01

    The infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv) is a pathogen that mainly affects the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). It was detected in Norway in 1984 and in June 2007 appeared in Chile, producing a drop of more than 30% in the country's production level. It is expected that with certain regularity, outbreaks will continue to appear in Chile without the need of reintroducing the virus from foreign countries. We present a numerical study of the influence of winds and tides in the dispersion of lagrangian particles to simulate the transport of ISAv in the Aysen region, in southern Chile. This study combines the use of numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere, lagrangian tracking and biological aspects of ISAv infections. As in previous results, a wider dispersion of ISAv was observed during spring tides. Temporal changes in wind significantly modified the transport of viral particles from an infected center. Under similar forcing conditions, the areas of risk associated to culture sites separated by a few kilometers could be very different. Our main results remark the importance of the use of a detailed knowledge of hydrographic and atmospheric circulation in the definition of boundaries for sanitary management areas. We suggest that a methodology similar to the one presented in this study should be considered to define sanitary strategies to minimize the occurrence of native outbreaks of ISAv.

  4. Spatial and non-spatial risk factors associated with cage-level distribution of infectious salmon anaemia at three Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Merrill, P; Hawkins, L; Giray, C; Wagner, B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) was examined among 80 cages from three Atlantic salmon grow-out farms in Maine, USA that were stocked with smolts from a single hatchery. Cage-level disease was broadly defined as one or more moribund fish testing positive for infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) by RT-PCR and a second confirmatory test (IFAT, culture or genotype sequence). Spatio-temporal and cage-level risks were explored using logistic regression and survival analysis. Non-spatial risk factors associated with ISA, or shortened survival time to disease, included increased predation, trucking company choice for smolt transfers, a finely-sedimented benthic substrate, and smaller average size of smolts at stocking. Univariable analysis identified the time-dependent spatial factor 'adjacency to newly infected cages' to be predictive of new infection in neighbouring cages 11-12 weeks later. However, none of the spatial factors, or their lags retained relevance in multiple-variable models. The results suggest a diffuse distribution of virus exposure throughout infected sites, with host-susceptibility factors probably influencing disease manifestation in individual cages. The narrow focus of the current study may limit application of the findings to other sites and year-classes. However, these data support the relevance of husbandry efforts to optimize fish health in regions affected by ISAV.

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  6. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (Pstress imbalance, exhibiting a significant influence on both SOD and MDA concentrations in the blood (Pstress. Recently infected horses (horses >5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals stress in horses.

  7. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  8. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to infectious salmon anemia virus infection in macrophage-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important pathogen for salmonid aquaculture, however little is known about protective and pathological host responses to infection. We have investigated intracellular responses during cytopathic ISAV infection in the macrophage-l...

  10. 鸡贫血病毒——一个隐性感染的威胁%Chick Anaemia Virus is a hidden menace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen A Lister; 沈权; 何新吾

    2009-01-01

    @@ 鸡贫血病毒(Chick Anaemia Virus,CAV)是一种既可垂直传播又可水平传播的疾病.现在,一个表现出全套临床症状的鸡贫血病毒病已在许多国家中极难见到,但它仍有可能会造成巨大的经济损失.了解疾病的特性及其传播方式将有助于更好地防止鸡受到感染.

  11. Hypocalcaemia in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and pernicious anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, A. A.; Maharaj, D

    1988-01-01

    A 71 year old woman presented with hypocalcaemia in association with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and pernicious anaemia. The hypocalcaemia resolved only when the haemolytic anaemia and pernicious anaemia were successfully treated. The possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  12. ANAEMIA DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Sanam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional anaemia due to iron and folate deficiency is a major global Public Health problem. South Asia ranks among the regions, which have the highest prevalence of anaemia in the world and India perhaps has the highest prevalence of anaemia among the South Asian countries. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50% of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. Many times anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for maternal deaths. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. Maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in preganancy can lead to substantial reduction in under nutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  13. The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization for the detection of measles virus and chicken anaemia virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.; McQuaid, S. [Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.]|[Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Microwave irradiation was investigated as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Two probe/tissue systems were used: a single-stranded RNA probe for the detection of measles virus nucleocapsid genome in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain tissue, and a double stranded DNA probe for chicken anaemia virus in thymus of chicken infected with the virus. Microwaving, when used as sold pretreatment, was not as effective as the more traditional enzyme pretreatments for in situ hybridization. However, when used in combination with existing pretreatments, a significant increase was found in hybridization signal in both brain and thymus tissue. This was emphasized when combination enzyme/microwave pretreatments were used prior to detection of measles virus by in situ hybridization in a series of five archival subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases. The use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing in situ hybridization methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. (Author).

  14. Pre-operative anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated.

  15. Aplastic anaemia: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sleijfer (Stefan); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAplastic anaemia is featured by bone marrow hypocellularity and peripheral pancytopenia and is a potentially fatal disease. In recent years, insight in it pathogenesis has increased. It appears that activated autoreactive T lymphocytes induce apoptosis of haematopoietic

  16. Haemolytic anaemia after cisplatin treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J A; Aroney, R S; Dalley, D N

    1981-01-01

    Normochromic or normocytic anaemia is a common side effect of treatment with cisplatin. Two patients treated with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 in combination with vinblastine, bleomycin, and actinomycin D developed haemolytic anaemia. Neither patient had evidence of haemolysis before treatment, and in both cases severe haemolytic anaemia developed after several courses of cisplatin and when the cancer had regressed almost completely. The importance of haemolysis in the development of anaemia after cis...

  17. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  18. Secuelas de la violencia colectiva: hablan las víctimas del estudio ISAVIC Sequelae of collective violen victims' voices in the ISAVIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A pesar de la importancia de la violencia colectiva en la salud, aún quedan muchas lagunas sobre la naturaleza de las lesiones que produce y su relación con el bienestar y la calidad de vida de sus víctimas. Durante los años 2005-2008 se realizó en el País Vasco el estudio ISAVIC para estimar los efectos de este tipo de violencia en la salud. El estudio intentó comprender las características de las secuelas de la violencia colectiva en la salud de las víctimas a partir de sus percepciones. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de 36 víctimas primarias, a través de redes de contactos y mediadores. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas, analizadas en función del modelo conceptual del estudio. Resultados: Los testimonios sugieren que las víctimas han experimentado un proceso traumático de gran intensidad que no han superado en su totalidad y que es causa de una importante pérdida de calidad de vida. Se describen las principales limitaciones funcionales observadas en términos físicos, emocionales y sociales. Conclusiones: Los resultados cualitativos son coherentes con los obtenidos mediante instrumentos estandarizados, a los que dotan de mayor sentido al explicar la naturaleza de las limitaciones de la salud. También permiten intuir algunas de las relaciones entre las diferentes limitaciones funcionales y su impacto en la calidad de vida. Conviene verificar los resultados con muestras más amplias de víctimas y profundizar en el estudio de la relación entre violencia y salud, incluyendo el impacto del contexto social.Objective: Despite the significant influence of collective violence on the health status of its victims, there are still many gaps in our understanding of the nature of the functional limitations this violence produces and its impact on victims' wellbeing and quality of life. The ISAVIC study was carried out in the autonomous region of the Basque Country from 2005-2008 to

  19. Individualizing anaemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M

    2010-12-01

    Individualized strategies for managing renal anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) need to be advanced. Recent outcomes from clinical studies prompted a narrowing of the guideline-recommended haemoglobin target (11-12 g/dL) due to increased mortality and morbidity when targeting higher haemoglobin concentrations. Maintaining a narrow target is a clinical challenge, as haemoglobin concentration tends to fluctuate. The goal of individualized treatment is to achieve the haemoglobin target at the lowest ESA dose while avoiding significant fluctuations in haemoglobin concentrations and persistently low or high concentrations. This may require changes to the ESA dose and dosing frequency over the course of treatment.

  20. U.S. response to a report of infectious salmon anemia virus in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Kevin H; Gustafson, Lori; Warg, Janet; Whaley, Janet; Purcell, Maureen K.; Rolland, Jill B.; Winton, James R.; Snekvik, Kevin; Meyers, Theodore; Stewart, Bruce; Kerwin, John; Blair, Marilyn; Bader, Joel; Evered, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Federal, state, and tribal fishery managers, as well as the general public and their elected representatives in the United States, were concerned when infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was suspected for the first time in free-ranging Pacific Salmon collected from the coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. This article documents how national and regional fishery managers and fish health specialists of the U.S. worked together and planned and implemented actions in response to the reported finding of ISAV in British Columbia. To date, the reports by Simon Fraser University remain unconfirmed and preliminary results from collaborative U.S. surveillance indicate that there is no evidence of ISAV in U.S. populations of free-ranging or marine-farmed salmonids on the west coast of North America.

  1. Pulse oximetry in severe anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsing, T; Rosenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was performed in two patients with acute and chronic anaemia (haemoglobin concentrations: 2.9 mmol/l (4.7 g/dl) and 1.9 mmol/l (3.0 g/dl), respectively) using a Radiometer OXI and a Nellcor N-200 pulse oximeter. The two oximeters read...... alternating different values in the two patients. In conclusion, pulse oximeters are able to give a value for oxygen saturation even at extreme anaemia, and when a high value is given, it possibly reflects arterial oxygen saturation. The value of pulse oximetry in severe anaemia is discussed....

  2. Identification of the 3' and 5' terminal sequences of the 8 rna genome segments of european and north american genotypes of infectious salmon anemia virus (an orthomyxovirus and evidence for quasispecies based on the non-coding sequences of transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveroll Angela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anemia (ISA virus (ISAV is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. This virus, which was first characterized following its isolation in cell culture in 1995, belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative sense, each with one to three open reading frames flanked by 3' and 5' non-coding regions (NCRs. Although the terminal sequences of other members of the family Orthomyxoviridae such as Influenzavirus A have been extensively analyzed, those of Isavirus remain largely unknown, and the few reported are from different ISAV strains and on different ends of the different RNA segments. This paper describes a comprehensive analysis of the 3' and 5' end sequences of the eight RNA segments of ISAV of both European and North American genotypes, and evidence of quasispecies of ISAV based on sequence variation in the untranslated regions (UTRs of transcripts. Results Two different ISAV strains and two different RNA preparations were used in this study. ISAV strain ADL-PM 3205 ISAV-07 (ADL-ISAV-07 of European genotype was the source of total RNA extracted from ISAV-infected TO cells, which contained both viral mRNA and cRNA. ISAV strain NBISA01 of North American genotype was the source of vRNA extracted from purified virus. The NCRs of each segment were identified by sequencing cDNA prepared by three different methods, 5' RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends, 3' RACE, and RNA ligation mediated PCR. Sequence analysis of five clones each derived from one RT-PCR product from each NCR of ISAV transcripts of segments 1 to 8 revealed significant heterogeneity among the clones of the same segment end, providing unequivocal evidence for presence of intra-segment ISAV quasispecies. Both RNA preparations (mRNA/cRNA and vRNA yielded complementary sequence information, allowing the

  3. 免疫失败种鸡群中鸡贫血病毒感染的检测%Detection of chicken anaemia virus infection in immuno-suppressed breeders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳龙; 赵文明; 吉荣; 金文杰; 秦爱建; 崔治中

    2002-01-01

    @@ 鸡贫血病毒(chick anaemia virus,CAV)是鸡传染性贫血的病原,它是圆环病毒科的代表成员,为单股负链环状DNA病毒,基因组全长约为2 300 bp[1,2].CAV可引起雏鸡的再生障碍性贫血和全身淋巴组织萎缩,尤其是胸腺萎缩[3].1周龄以内的雏鸡CAV感染后易导致死亡,而1周龄以上的鸡感染后几乎不引发CAV典型临床症状.但由于全身性淋巴组织萎缩,尤其是骨髓和胸腺细胞发生了G1期阻滞而导致增殖性细胞大量减少和凋亡[4],CAV感染群极易并发或继发其他疾病,以及常引起疫苗免疫失败等情况.CAV既可水平传播,又可垂直传播,这对于种鸡群而言,CAV感染的预防显得尤为重要.

  4. Combined use of the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines to enhance the detection of infectious salmon anemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J.B.; Bouchard, D.; Coll, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease primarily affecting commercially farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in seawater. The disease has been reported in portions of Canada, the United Kingdom, the Faroe Islands, and the United States. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of ISA, has also been isolated from several asymptomatic marine and salmonid fish species. Diagnostic assays for the detection of ISAV include virus isolation in cell culture, a reverse transcriptase-PCR, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Virus isolation is considered the gold standard, and 5 salmonid cell lines are known to support growth of ISAV. In this study, the relative performance of the salmon head kidney 1 (SHK-1), Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK), and CHSE-214 cell lines in detecting ISAV was evaluated using samples from both experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Interlaboratory comparisons were conducted using a quality control-quality assurance ring test. Both the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines performed well in detecting ISAV, although the SHK-1 line was more variable in its sensitivity to infection and somewhat slower in the appearance of cytopathic effect. Relative to the SHK-1 and ASK lines, the CHSE-214 cell line performed poorly. Although the ASK line appeared to represent a good alternative to the more commonly used SHK-1 line, use of a single cell line for diagnostic assays may increase the potential for false-negative results. Thus, the SHK-1 and ASK cell lines can be used in combination to provide enhanced ability to detect ISAV.

  5. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I. M.; Johansen, M. E.; Mogensen, U. B.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized...... that HS-related fatigue may be partly due to anaemia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and anaemia. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based and population-based cross-sectional study investigating the red blood cell profile, i.e. haemoglobin. RESULTS: We...... revealed that 60% had normocytic anaemia and 40% microcytic anaemia, in concordance with anaemia of inflammation. CONCLUSION: In contrast to our hypothesis, this study showed that HS is not associated with anaemia. Thus, anaemia may not be the cause of the described fatigue in HS patients. Furthermore...

  6. ¿Cómo influye la violencia colectiva en la salud?: Modelo conceptual y diseño del estudio ISAVIC How does collective violence shape the health status of its victims?: Conceptual model and design of the ISAVIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La investigación epidemiológica de la violencia colectiva (con fines políticos, sociales o económicos es muy incipiente a pesar de su creciente reconocimiento como un problema de salud pública. Este artículo describe el modelo conceptual y el diseño de una de las primeras investigaciones realizadas en España para medir el Impacto en la SAlud de la VIolencia Colectiva (estudio ISAVIC. Métodos: A partir de una amplia revisión no sistemática de la literatura se describe el alcance global de dicho impacto y se propone un marco teórico que describe la relación. La revisión identifica las posibles consecuencias de la violencia colectiva en las dimensiones física, emocional y social de la salud. El modelo sirve de base para establecer el diseño del estudio y sus instrumentos de medida. Resultados: Se describe el conjunto de posibles secuelas producidas por la violencia colectiva y se propone un marco relacional y temporal. El modelo considera el efecto en víctimas primarias y secundarias, y su relación con el medio social. Se diseña un estudio empírico con una metodología mixta para estimar la magnitud y la naturaleza de la posible afectación de la salud por la violencia colectiva. Conclusiones: El estudio ISAVIC señala la coherencia del modelo diseñado, apoyando que la violencia colectiva puede afectar a las principales dimensiones de la salud en relación con el marco social donde opera. Es necesario validar estos resultados con nuevos estudios.Objectives: Epidemiologic research on collective violence (violence exerted by and within groups in pursuit of political, social or economic goals is very scarce despite its growing recognition as a major public health issue. This paper describes the conceptual model and design of one of the first research studies conducted in Spain aiming to assess the impact of collective violence in the health status of its victims (study known as ISAVIC, based on its Spanish title Impacto

  7. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

    2010-01-01

    La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

  8. Haemoglobin and anaemia in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lifson, Alan R; Touloumi, Giota;

    2011-01-01

    Data from randomized trials on the development of anaemia after interruption of therapy are not well-described.......Data from randomized trials on the development of anaemia after interruption of therapy are not well-described....

  9. [A neonate with anaemia of prematurity: zinc protoporphyrin identifies iron deficiency anaemia without iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feen, Diederik E; van Hillegersberg, Jacqueline L A M; Schippers, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common problem in premature infants and is generally easy to treat with iron supplementation. If the anaemia persists despite appropriate correction of deficiencies, more extensive evaluation is required. We describe a case of a premature male infant with a production-deficient anaemia without metabolic deficiencies, eventually identified as anaemia of prematurity. This type of anaemia is commonly diagnosed but its highly variable and complex aetiology and phenotype are often poorly understood. A probable explanation for the anaemia of prematurity in this case was a transient iron incorporation defect, identifiable by high levels of zinc protoporphyrin.

  10. Prevalence of antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV in broiler breeders in Southern Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV em matrizes de corte no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicks infected during the first two weeks of life with chicken anaemia virus (CAV manifest clinical disease that can be avoided if the breeder hens transfer enough antibodies to their progeny. The objective of the present work was to establish the prevalence and titer of anti-CAV antibodies in some Brazilian broiler hen breeder flocks and verify in which phase of life the birds were infected. A total of 1,709 serum samples from 12 broiler hen flocks vaccinated against CAV and 64 unvaccinated flocks were analyzed for CAV antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All non-vaccinated breeder flocks were found to be infected with CAV, with 89% of the hens tested presenting antibodies, 52% of these with titers considered high enough to protect their progeny against CAV infection. Likewise, all vaccinated hens had antibody titer to CAV capable of conferring protection to their progeny. Thus, vaccination of hens seems capable of conferring protection to chicks against clinically apparent CAV-associated disease.A doença clínica causada pelo vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV ocorre quando os pintos são infectados durante as primeiras duas semanas de vida e pode ser prevenida se as matrizes transferirem anticorpos suficientes para a sua progênie. Em vista disso, este estudo foi realizado visando determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o CAV em alguns lotes de matrizes pesadas no Brasil. Buscou-se ainda verificar em que fase da vida as reprodutoras seriam infectadas e quais seriam os títulos de anticorpos nessas aves. Um total de 1709 amostras de soro de 64 lotes de reprodutoras não vacinadas e 12 lotes de reprodutoras vacinadas contra o CAV foram analisados por ELISA. Todos os lotes de aves não vacinadas apresentaram anticorpos. Dentre esses, 89% dos indivíduos foram positivos, 52% com títulos de anticorpos capazes de conferir proteção a sua progênie contra o CAV. Igualmente, todos os lotes de matrizes vacinadas

  11. Infectious salmon anemia virus segment 7 ORF1 and segment 8 ORF2 proteins inhibit IRF mediated activation of the Atlantic salmon IFNa1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Robertsen, Børre

    2016-05-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus, which may cause multisystemic disease and high mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). This suggests that ISAV encodes proteins that antagonize the type I interferon (IFN-I) system, which is of crucial importance in innate antiviral immunity. To find out how ISAV might inhibit IFN-I synthesis, we have here studied whether the two ISAV proteins s7ORF1 and s8ORF2 might interfere with activation of the IFNa1 promoter mediated by overexpression of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) or by the IFN promoter activation protein IPS-1. The IRF tested were IRF1, IRF3, IRF7A and IRF7B. Promoter activation was measured using a luciferase reporter assay where Atlantic salmon TO cells were co-transfected with the IFNa1 promoter reporter plasmid together with an IRF plasmid and the s7ORF1 or the s8ORF2 construct or a control plasmid. The results showed that s7ORF1 significantly inhibited IRF3 and IRF7B induced IFN promoter activity, while s8ORF2 significantly inhibited IRF1 and IRF3 induced promoter activity. Neither s7ORF1 nor s8ORF2 inhibited IPS-1 mediated promoter activation. Immunoprecipitation data suggest that both s7ORF1 and s8ORF2 can bind to all four IRFs. Taken together, this study thus shows that the ISAV proteins s7ORF1 and s8ORF2 antagonizes IFN-I transcription activation mediated by the IRFs. As such this work provides further insight into the pathogenic properties of ISAV.

  12. Red cell indices for distinguishing macrocytosis of aplastic anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P K; Saxena, Renu; Karan, A S; Choudhry, V P

    2003-07-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia and aplastic anaemia are important causes of pancytopenia in India. Since both may have presence of macrocytes, peripheral smear examination alone may pose a difficulty in distinction between the two in the absence of macro-ovalocytes and hypersegmented neutrophils. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of red cell indices in differentiation between macrocytosis of aplastic anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia. Haemogram from 25 cases each of biopsy proven megaloblastic anaemia and aplastic anaemia were reviewed. It was observed that MCV was greater than 97 fl in 15 cases of aplastic anemia (mean MCV 109.7 fl), and 25 cases of megaloblastic anaemia (mean MCV 113.2 fl). Hb, MCV & MCHC were comparable in the two groups. However, mean RDW in megaloblastic anaemia (mean 87.7 fl) was significantly higher than those in aplastic anaemia (mean 71.4 fl). The difference in RDW of patients with megaloblastic anaemia and aplastic anaemia was statistically significant. We conclude that RDW can be of help to differentiate between the two conditions.

  13. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old. Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2% adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%; 129 (20.0% and 37 (5.7% had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7, rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9, female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3, educational level ≥ secondary level vs. P = 0.8 and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1 were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting.

  14. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  15. Current And Future Diagnostics Of Anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Stouten (Karlijn)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAnaemia is often encountered in general practice but the prevalence of the different aetiology remains elusive. We analysed a large database of general practice patients newly diagnosed with anaemia, allowing for the detailed study of the prevalence of a wide range of causes and a th

  16. Anaemia and IBD - an overlooked problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Dorrit; Bager, Palle

      Aim: To evaluate the process of introducing screening tools and treatment algorithms' for anaemia: detection, management and monitoring for IBD patients in an outpatient setting.   Background: Prevalence of anaemia among IBD patients have wide estimates (8,8 % - 73,7%). A reduced production...... of erythrocytes due to inflammatory inhibition of the bone marrow (chronic inflammatory anaemia) and/or lack of "building material" such as iron, folate or Vitamin-B12 are often found in IBD patients - especially Crohn´s disease patients. Furthermore blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding is seen. Anaemia...... due to iron deficiency can be treated with oral- or intravenous iron replacement. To systematize management of anaemia in IBD patients' different tools has been developed at Aarhus University Hospital since 2006.   Patients and Methods: Data related to 111 IBD-patients treated with intravenous iron...

  17. Expert services for rare anaemias across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Gulbis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New challenges and priorities are given in the EU Health programme 2007-2013. The objectives of the programme are to improve citizens’ health security, to promote health to improve prosperity and solidarity, and to generate and disseminate health knowledge. If challenges and priorities have been defined globally for rare diseases by the European Commission, persons involved in rare anaemias have taken the opportunity to contribute to the empowerment of patients with rare anaemias. One of the ENERCA partners objectives was the mapping of existing centres that take care of patients with rare anaemias in Europe. Another goal was to obtain a directory of facilities available per centre for patients with rare anaemias. We thought that with those results it could realistically help to define a consensus regarding the criteria to be recognised as a centre of expertise for haemoglobinopathies and very rare anaemias.

  18. 鸡贫血病病毒VP2基因在大肠杆菌中的表达及其特性%Expression of Chicken Anaemia Virus(CAV) VP2 Gene in E. coli and It's Biological Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳龙; 秦爱建; 金文杰; 叶建强; 吉荣; 崔治中; 段玉友

    2003-01-01

    将鸡贫血病病毒(chicken anaemia virus,CAV)VP2基因克隆入表达性载体pGEX-5X-3,在大肠杆菌以谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)融合蛋白的形式获得了表达.以此表达产物免疫小鼠,制备抗CAV VP2的多克隆抗体.通过对CAV感染的MSB1细胞作间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)检测,结果为阳性,这表明表达产物保留了CAV相关的抗原特性.本研究为进一步探索CAV VP2的生物学特性奠定了基础.

  19. Ferritin and iron studies in anaemia and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying Y; Uprichard, James

    2017-01-01

    Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red cells necessary to meet the body's physiological requirements is insufficient. Iron deficiency anaemia and the anaemia of chronic disease are the two most common causes of anaemia worldwide;(1) iron homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. An understanding of how iron studies can be used to distinguish between these diseases is therefore essential not only for diagnosis but also in guiding management. This review will primarily focus on iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease; however, iron overload in anaemia will also be briefly discussed.

  20. Cerebral microcirculation during experimental normovolaemic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eBellapart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is accepted amongst critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anaemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anaemia. Experimental studies suggest that anaemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion amongst critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anaemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anaesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anaemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anaemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anaemia does not result in short term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain.

  1. Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N.B.; Kristensen, M.T.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: the impact of anaemia on the outcome after a hip fracture surgery is controversial, but anaemia can potentially decrease the physical performance and thereby impede post-operative rehabilitation. We therefore conducted a prospective study to establish whether anaemia affected functional...... was measured on each of the first three post-operative days, and anaemia defined as Hb ..., respectively. A significant association between anaemia and the ability to walk independently before the correction of anaemia was present on each of the 3 days separately (P

  2. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  3. [Tutankhamun and sickle-cell anaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pays, J-F

    2010-12-01

    After casting doubt on malaria as the cause of death for Tutankhamun, the author points out that the hypothesis of homozygotic sickle-cell anaemia, or a double HbS/β₀thal heterozygosis, is hardly more credible. To have any chance of being valid, any such hypothesis would have to involve a combination of at least three rare factors: survival until the age of 19 of a subject with homozygotic sickle-cell anaemia, with a probability at birth as to a life expectancy of more than five years probably standing at less than 5%, and with, for all bone sequelae and anomalies, osteonecrosis whose location is characteristic, not of sickle-cell anaemia, but rather of a case of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome, which is also rare, but which is on the other hand fully compatible with the condition of the mummy's skeleton.

  4. PERINATAL OUTCOME IN SEVERE ANAEMIA COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Devi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia is the commonest global public health problem and especially harmful when the pregnancy is complicated by anaemia. Women in reproductive age group are more vulnerable for iron deficiency anaemia with an estimated prevalence of around 70 to 80% in pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyse the foetal outcome in the hospitalised pregnant women with severe anaemia. This is a prospective study carried out at maternity ward of Government G eneral H ospital, Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh, India over a period of one year from October 2007 to September 2008. RESULTS: Total of 9731 deliveries occurred during the study period, 282 (2.89 % were severely anaemic at the time of delivery. Majority of the women w ere of 20 - 24 years age (68.4% with second gravidas 37.5%, term gestation 52.1%, preterm deliveries 47.9%, lower socio - economic status 87.6% and Unbooked cases 67.4% and low birth weight in 53.2% cases, intra uterine growth retardation and intra uterine foetal death contributes to 12.8% and 16.7% cases respectively. A total of 36 (12.8% neonates required admission in neonatal intensive care unit and 16(5.7% of them died. CONCLUSION: Severe anaemia during pregnancy has adverse perinatal outcome in the fo rm of low birth weight, preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death. Regular iron supplementation during the antenatal period, management of anaemia and improving the nutritional status of the mother will improve the adverse neona tal outcome and decreases perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  5. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the mag...

  6. A canine model of normovolaemic acute anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Spotswood

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a non-terminal, acute normovolaemic anaemia model in dogs that has minimal effects on patient well-being. Eleven normal Beagle dogs were used. About 20 % of the circulating blood volume was removed from the jugular vein 1-3 times per day over a 3-4 day period until a haematocrit (Ht of 13-17 % was obtained. Normovolaemia was maintained by replacing the volume deficit of the red blood cells with Ringer's lactate and re-infusing the plasma. Full blood count and Ht were monitored twice daily. The 13-17 % Ht was reached within 3-4 days with the number of phlebotomies ranging from four to seven. The model was primarily developed to determine echocardiographic values as well as Doppler abdominal splanchnic blood flow parameters in anaemic dogs as part of a study that will compare these results to similar studies in babesiosis-induced anaemia. The model may also be useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiology of anaemia in dogs or as a model for anaemia in humans.

  7. Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mihir B; Nanjapp, Veena; Devaraj, H S; Sindhu, K S

    2013-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia is a rare presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma though its association with Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma is well known. It is usually detected at the time of diagnosis when it accompanies Hodgkin's and rarely precedes it. It is a warm immune hemolytic anemia which is responsive to steroids and rituximab. We hereby report a case of advanced Hodgkin's disease who presented as AIHA.

  8. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor P Doherty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the magnitude and duration of these effects are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the red blood cell incorporation of oral administered stable isotopes of iron and compared incorporation between age matched 18 to 36 months old children with either anaemia post-malaria (n = 37 or presumed iron deficiency anaemia alone (n = 36. All children were supplemented for 30 days with 2 mg/kg elemental iron as liquid iron sulphate and administered (57Fe and (58Fe on days 1 and 15 of supplementation respectively. (57Fe and(58Fe incorporation were significantly reduced (8% vs. 28%: p<0.001 and 14% vs. 26%: p = 0.045 in the malaria vs. non-malaria groups. There was a significantly greater haemoglobin response in the malaria group at both day 15 (p = 0.001 and 30 (p<0.000 with a regression analysis estimated greater change in haemoglobin of 7.2 g/l (s.e. 2.0 and 10.1 g/l (s.e. 2.5 respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Post-malaria anaemia is associated with a better haemoglobin recovery despite a significant depressant effect on oral iron incorporation which may indicate that early erythropoetic iron need is met by iron recycling rather than oral iron. Supplemental iron administration is of questionable utility within 2 weeks of clinical malaria in children with mild or moderate anaemia.

  9. Recovery from post-operative anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, J P; Wells, A W; Whitehead, S; Brewster, N

    2005-10-01

    Acceptance of lower transfusion thresholds and shorter post-operative stays results in patients leaving hospital after surgery with lower haemoglobin (Hb) than previously. We undertook a prospective observational study to assess the haematological response to post-operative anaemia and to determine the utility of quality of life (QoL) measures in assessing the impact of anaemia on such patients. Thirty patients undergoing unilateral hip arthroplasty had blood samples taken and QoL questionnaires administered pre-operatively and at 7, 28 and 56 days post-operatively. Increased erythropoiesis was evident at day 7 post-operatively. Approximately two-thirds of the post-operative Hb deficit was corrected by day 28. There was evidence of functional iron deficiency in more than one-quarter of patients at day 56. QoL scores used did not show any relationship with Hb in the post-operative period. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) levels increased in proportion to the degree of post-operative anaemia. We concluded that substantial recovery of Hb occurs between day 7 and day 28 post-operatively. Complete recovery of Hb may be delayed beyond day 56 due to development of iron deficiency. Patients are at significant risk of developing post-operative iron deficiency depending on operative blood loss and pre-operative iron stores. Increased red cell 2,3DPG may offset the effect of anaemia on oxygen delivery. We found no evidence that anaemia produces a measurable effect on chosen QoL scores in the post-operative period.

  10. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN GUNTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanindra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  11. Sideroblastic anaemia. A review of seven paediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, B C; Schretlen, E D

    1982-03-01

    Sideroblastic Anaemias are characterised by a) chronic hypochromic anemia, b) ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, c) an increase in total body iron, d) ineffective erythropoiesis and e) often abnormal concentrations of F.E.P. A classification of Sideroblastic Anaemia is given and the pathophysiology of Sideroblastic Anaemia is discussed. A series of seven paediatric cases with Sideroblastic Anaemia is presented and the results of studies of the iron, vitamin B6 and porphyrin metabolism are discussed. In two cases arguments for an ALA-synthetase deficiency are given. All five males were diagnosed as hereditary X-linked Sideroblastic Anaemia, one female as I.R.S.A. and the other female, who showed the features of the X-linked type, as congenital Sideroblastic Anaemia.

  12. An uncommon cause of anaemia: Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.

  13. Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Noyes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa. In cattle, anaemia is the key feature of disease and persists after parasitaemia has declined to low or undetectable levels, but treatment to clear the parasites usually resolves the anaemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The progress of anaemia after Trypanosoma congolense infection was followed in three mouse strains. Anaemia developed rapidly in all three strains until the peak of the first wave of parasitaemia. This was followed by a second phase, characterized by slower progress to severe anaemia in C57BL/6, by slow recovery in surviving A/J and a rapid recovery in BALB/c. There was no association between parasitaemia and severity of anaemia. Furthermore, functional T lymphocytes are not required for the induction of anaemia, since suppression of T cell activity with Cyclosporin A had neither an effect on the course of infection nor on anaemia. Expression of genes involved in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism was followed in spleen, liver and kidney tissues in the three strains of mice using microarrays. There was no evidence for a response to erythropoietin, consistent with anaemia of chronic disease, which is erythropoietin insensitive. However, the expression of transcription factors and genes involved in erythropoiesis and haemolysis did correlate with the expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il6 and Ifng. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The innate immune response appears to be the major contributor to the inflammation associated with anaemia since suppression of T cells with CsA had no observable effect. Several transcription factors regulating haematopoiesis, Tal1, Gata1, Zfpm1 and Klf1 were expressed at consistently lower levels in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that these mice have a lower haematopoietic capacity and therefore less ability to recover from

  14. Malaria, anaemia and antimalarial drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obonyo, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria-associated anaemia is a potentially preventable cause of severe morbidity and mortality in children < 5years of age, in areas of high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional study of 3586 children, 80% were anaemic (haemoglobin [Hb]<11g/dL) and 3% had severe anaemia

  15. Cytogenetic profile of aplastic anaemia in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Five (11.9% patients with acquired aplastic anaemia had chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy was found to be the commonest abnormality. Cytogenetic abnormalities may be significant in acquired aplastic anaemia although further studies on a large sample are required to confirm the findings.

  16. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy in Enugu, south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekejindu, I M; Udigwe, G O; Chijioke, I R C

    2006-03-01

    Malaria and anaemia contribute tremendously to maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to document the magnitude of the problem in pregnancy with a view to identifying areas of intervention. The subjects were 108 consecutive pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years recruited from the antenatal clinics. 23 (21.3%) had malaria, 35 (32.4%) had anaemia while 20(18.5%) had both malaria and anaemia. The highest incidence of malaria occurred in the second trimester, while anaemia was most prevalent in the third trimester (62.86%) and among primigravidae (37.14%). All the cases of malaria were due to plasmodium falciparum. Six out of the 20 women with both anemia and malaria were admitted and treated. Two low birth weight babies were delivered among the malaria and anaemia group. The incidence rates of malaria and anaemia were 215 and 327 per 1000 pregnant women respectively while the incidence rate of anaemia due to malaria was 571 per 1000 infected pregnant women. There is a need for a more effective intervention to reduce the incidence of both malaria and anaemia in pregnancy.

  17. The Fanconi anaemia pathway: new players and new functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Sarangi, Prabha; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    The Fanconi anaemia pathway repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in the genome. Our understanding of this complex pathway is still evolving, as new components continue to be identified and new biochemical systems are used to elucidate the molecular steps of repair. The Fanconi anaemia pathway uses components of other known DNA repair processes to achieve proper repair of ICLs. Moreover, Fanconi anaemia proteins have functions in genome maintenance beyond their canonical roles of repairing ICLs. Such functions include the stabilization of replication forks and the regulation of cytokinesis. Thus, Fanconi anaemia proteins are emerging as master regulators of genomic integrity that coordinate several repair processes. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the functions of the Fanconi anaemia pathway in ICL repair, together with an overview of its connections with other repair pathways and its emerging roles in genome maintenance.

  18. Iron in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias may develop from increased iron absorption secondary to hepcidin suppression, and/or from repeated blood transfusions. While the accumulation of body iron load from blood transfusion is inevitable and predictable from the variable rates of transfusion in the different conditions, there are some important differences in the distribution of iron overload and its consequences between these. Transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT is the best described condition in which transfusional overload occurs. Initially iron loads into macrophages, subsquently hepatocytes, and then the endocrine system including the anterior pituiatry and finally the myocardium. The propensity to extrahepatic iron spread increases with rapid transfusion and with inadequate chelation therapy but there is considerable interpatient and interpopulation variability in this tendency. The conduits though which iron is delivered to tissues is through non transferrin iron species (NTBI which are taken into liver, endocrine tissues and myocardium through L-type calcium channells and possibly through other channells. Recent work by the MSCIO group1 suggests that levels of NTBI are determined by three mechanisms: i increasing with iron overload; ii increasing with ineffective erythropoieis; iii and decreasing when level of transferrin iron utilisation is high. In TDT all three mechanisms increase NTBI levels because transferrin iron utilisation is suppressed by hypertransfusion. It is hypothesized that the transfusion regimen and target mean Hb may have a key impact on NTBI levels because high transfusion regimes may suppress the ‘sink’ effect of the erythron though decreased clearance of transferrin iron. In sickle cell disease (SCD without blood transfusion the anaemia results mainly from haemolysis rather than from ineffective erythropoiesis.2 Thus there is a tendency to iron depletion because of urinary iron loss from

  19. Anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis: can we afford to ignore it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, E; Vagadia, V; Scott, K; Francis, G; Saravanan, V; Heycock, C; Rynne, M; Hamilton, J; Kelly, C A

    2011-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Anaemia is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinicians may focus on rheumatological issues and assume anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). This study challenged this assumption and investigated the causes of anaemia in a large cohort of RA patients to assess its implications. METHODS The hospital where the study was conducted monitors regular full blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) monthly in all RA patients on disease modifying drugs to assess efficacy and safety. A computerised system identifies and records abnormal results. The database for 2009 was interrogated to find all patients with two consecutive haemoglobin values anaemia (IDA), ACD, macrocytic anaemia (MCA) or another cause. All results of further tests investigating the anaemia were recorded. RESULTS Among 2000 RA patients on the system, 199 (10%) were identified as having anaemia over a year. Of these, 90 had IDA, 78 had ACD, 25 had MCA, and 6 had postoperative anaemia. Among 90 patients with IDA, investigations were performed in 53, with 23 normal. An explanation for IDA was found in 30: gastrointestinal bleeding in 25, gynaecological blood loss in 3, and urinary bleeding in 2. Among 78 patients with ACD, response to intensification of RA treatment occurred in 45, but erythropoietin therapy was required in 9. Within the 25 patients with MCA, 12 had unrecognised vitamin B(12) deficiency, 4 drug induced changes, 3 myeloid malignancy, 2 hypothyroidism, and 2 alcoholism. CONCLUSIONS Anaemia in RA is common, multifactorial, and potentially both serious and correctable. Established malignancy was present in 10 patients and premalignancy in a further 10 (10% of total). Treatable causes were commonly identified. Clinicians need to investigate the nature and cause of persistent anaemia, and must not assume it to be simply ACD without evidence.

  20. Anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia among young adolescent girls from the peri urban coastal area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Yustina Anie Indriastuti; Muslimatun, Siti; Achadi, Endang L; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is still a widespread problem. Among adolescent girls, it will bring negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the different nutritional and iron status characteristics of young adolescent girls 10-12 years old with iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia without iron deficiency in the rural coastal area of Indonesia. Anaemic girls (N =133) were recruited out of 1358 girls from 34 elementary schools. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor and zinc protophorphyrin were determined for iron status, whilst weight and height were measured for their nutritional status. General characteristics and dietary intake were assessed through interview. Out of 133 anaemic subjects, 29 (21.8%) suffered from iron deficiency anaemia, which was not significantly related to age and menarche. About 50% were underweight and stunted indicating the presence of acute and chronic malnutrition. The proportion of thinness was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among subjects who suffered from iron deficiency anaemia (51.7% vs. 29.8%). Furthermore, thin subjects had a 5 fold higher risk of suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (P< 0.05) than non-thin subjects (OR: 5.1; 95%CI 1.34-19.00). Further study was recommended to explore other factors associated with anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia, such as the thalassemia trait and vitamin A deficiency. The current iron-folate supplementation program for pregnant women should be expanded to adolescent girls.

  1. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia causes a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia. Cardiac output at rest is not usually increased in most chronic anaemia until haemoglobin levels fall below 7 g/dL, but abnormal rise in output with exercise may occur with levels as high as 10 g/dL. The increase in cardiac output has been observed to correlate well with the degree of anaemia. Other compensatory mechanisms to chronic anaemia available to the body include decreased circulation time and increased tissue oxygen uptake. The latter is facilitated by a shift to the right of the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve. Cardiomegaly may also be as a result of the increased workload on the heart from the increased viscosity of blood in anaemia patients. Anaemia in the elderly is an extremely common problem that is associated with increased mortality and poorer health-related quality of life, regardless of the underlying cause of the low haemoglobin. A study of anaemia in elderly patients found a wide variation in prevalence, ranging from 2.9% to 61% in men and 3.3% to 41% in women. Higher rates were found in hospitalised patients than in community dwellers. It is easy to overlook anaemia in the elderly, since such symptoms as fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath may be attributed to the ageing process itself. Our objective is to show the prevalence of anaemia even in a tertiary health care centre. METHODS One hundred patients were identified who were admitted in the Department of Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences. Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The study was conducted from Jan 2014 To Jan 2015. Patients having haemoglobin less than 10 g% in the medical wards were enrolled in the study. RESULTS Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The average haemoglobin was 6.4 g%, the lowest being 2.8 g%. Peripheral blood smear showed hypochromic picture in 58, macrocytic picture in

  2. Prolactinoma presenting as chronic anaemia with osteoporosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley John P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Unexplained anaemia is a rare mode of presentation for prolactinoma. We describe a case of a man, with chronic anaemia ascribed to old age. Six years later, he was evaluated and diagnosed with a prolactinoma and resultant osteoporosis. Prolactinoma in old people may present insidiously with chronic anaemia and osteoporosis with or without sexual dysfunction. Case presentation We describe the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who presented with mild anaemia and tiredness. His anaemia was investigated and ascribed to senescence. Endocrine causes were not considered or tested for. Six years later, he was again referred. Reassessment and direct questioning revealed long-standing sexual dysfunction. It was also discovered that our patient had fractured his radius twice, with minor trauma, during the preceding year. His serum prolactin was massively increased and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the head demonstrated a pituitary mass consistent with a prolactinoma. Dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed osteoporosis. Treatment of the prolactinoma led to a reduction in his serum prolactin with a rise in his haemoglobin to normal levels. This suggested that the prolactinoma was present during the initial presentation and was the cause of his anaemia. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of fully evaluating and investigating unexplained anaemia in older people and that endocrine causes should be considered. Osteoporosis also requires evaluation with secondary causes considered.

  3. Recurrent aphthous ulcers in Fanconi's anaemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otan, Feyza; Açikgöz, Gokhan; Sakallioglu, Umur; Ozkan, Burcu

    2004-05-01

    Fanconi's anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is clinically characterized by aplastic anaemia, congenital malformations of the renal, cardiac, skeletal and skin structures, and an increased predisposition to malignancies. Patients with FA often present with bleeding and infection, which are symptoms related to thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. There are few reports of the oral manifestations of FA. We describe oral aphthous ulcerations in two siblings with FA. There was a rapid improvement and healing of ulcers after blood transfusions and increased haemoglobin levels. This may support the role of severe anaemia in oral ulcerations.

  4. [Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førland, Elizabeth Siren Bjerga; Lindberg, Mats Jacob Hermansson

    2015-08-10

    Nutritional deficiency anaemia in vegans is common and usually due to lack of vitamin B12, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal-based food products. In this case report we present a 39-year-old male vegan with severe macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to severe vitamin D deficiency. We want to emphasize the importance of a detailed nutritional history for patients with anaemia, and the need for vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements for people who comply with a vegan diet.

  5. IS OBESITY ASSOCIATED WITH ANAEMIA IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Chan

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated that overall adiposity correlates positively with inflammation but this is not applicable to indices of visceral fat. However, no correlation was established between obesity and anaemia in this study.

  6. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RA PATIENTS WITH ANAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sizikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia. Clinical and laboratory data including the percentage of the main lymphocyte subclasses, phagocyte and DTH-effector activity, serum concentration of immunoglobulins, the percentage of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4 and percent of monocytes producing TNF. We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. We also revealed some significant immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia, including percent of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

  7. Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Seales Dawn; Nwagbara Emeka; Jones-LeCointe Altheia; Ezenwaka Chidum E; Okali Fidelis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were meas...

  8. Anaemia and radiation therapy; Anemie et radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, F. [Clinique d' Oncologie et de Radiotherapie, INSERM U619, 37 - Tours (France); Lartigau, E. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2004-11-01

    Anaemia is frequent in cancer and may increase tumour hypoxia that stimulates angiogenesis. However, erythropoietin is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis which seems to improve quality of life in cancer patients. Two recent phase III randomized studies showed negative results using erythropoietin in head and neck cancer patients and in metastatic breast cancer patients with impaired specific survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments have provided erythropoietin-receptor expression in endothelial cancer cells including malignant tumours of the breast, prostate, cervix, lung, head and neck, ovary, melanoma, stomach, gut, kidney etc. Biologic effect of erythropoietin and its receptor linkage induces proliferation of human breast cancer and angiogenesis and may limit anti-tumour effect of cancer treatment, in part, by tumour vascularization improvement. In addition, the use of exogenous erythropoietin could be able to favour tumour progression by improving tumour oxygenation and nutriment supply. If erythropoietin receptor were functional in human cancer. the assessment of erythropoietin receptor expression on tumour cell may help to select patients benefiting from exogenous erythropoietin. However. the relationship between erythropoietin receptor expression, tumour growth and exogenous erythropoietin. requires more studies. The results of recent clinical trials suggest that using erythropoietin should be avoided in non-anemic patients and discussed in patients receiving curative therapy. (authors)

  9. STUDY OF ANAEMIA AS AN INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTOR IN CVA : ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify anaemia as an individual risk factor in CVA patients , in rural population , Chidambaram. In our study a total of 50 patients were identified in a 3 month non - invasive prospective observational study. The risk factors such as anaemia , diabetes , hypertension , smoking and alcohol consumption , were compared. In our study out of 41 males and 9 females the incidence rate of anaemia was found to be more in males than females. Microcytic Hypochromic anaemia and Dimorphic anaemia are the common types of anaemia identified. The stroke incidence rate was found to be more in hypertensive patients , secondary to anaemia and equal in both alcoholic and non - alcoholic patients. Anaemia was found to be the most common risk factor for stroke followed by hypertension in rural population.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anaemia among African Americans in a US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M; Alvarez, Jessica A; Martin, Greg S; Zughaier, Susu M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-06-14

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the US population and is associated with numerous diseases, including those characterised by inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the link between vitamin D status and anaemia, hypothesising that lower vitamin D status would be associated with increased odds of anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of race in the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of generally healthy adults in Atlanta, GA (n 638). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) anaemia in bivariate analysis (OR 2·64, 95% CI 1·43, 4·86). There was significant effect modification by race (P= 0·003), such that blacks with 25(OH)D anaemia (OR 6·42, 95% CI 1·88, 21·99), v. blacks with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, controlling for potential confounders; this association was not apparent in whites. When categorised by subtype of anaemia, blacks with 25(OH)D anaemia with inflammation than blacks with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (OR 8·42, 95% CI 1·96, 36·23); there was no association with anaemia without inflammation. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation, among blacks in a generally healthy adult US cohort.

  11. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities on anaemia in Ugandan villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, G.F.; Bulte, E.H.; Kontoleon, A.A.; Kabatereine, N.B.; Dunne, D.; Fenwick, A.; Tukahebwa, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia remains an intractable public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing largely to its complex and multifactorial causes. The absolute number of anaemia cases has increased by 50% in SSA from the year 1990 to 2010. To administer the appropriate treatment, identification of anaemia at

  12. Inflammation and anaemia in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Lennaert; Belonje, Anne M. S.; Voors, Adriaan A.; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Ghosh, Sudip; Kim, Joseph; Hillege, Hans L.; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aims Anaemia in heart failure (HF) is associated with a poor prognosis. Although inflammation is assumed to be an important cause of anaemia, the association between anaemia and inflammatory markers in patients with HF has not been well established. Methods Data from a multicentre randomised clinica

  13. Determination of buoyant density and sensitivity to chloroform and freon for the etiological agent of infectious salmonid anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, K.E.; Hjeltnes, B.; Uglenes , I.; Winton, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma was collected from Atlantic salmon Salrno salar with acute infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and used to challenge Atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal injection. Treatment of plasma with the lipid solvent, chloroform, showed that the etiological agent of ISA contained essential lipids, probably as a viral envelope. Some infectivity remained following treatment with freon. Injection challenges using fractions from equilibrium density gradient centrifugation of plasma from fish with acute ISA revealed a band of infectivity in the range 1.184 to 1.262 g cm-3. The band was believed to conta~n both complete ISA-virus particles and infectious particles lacking a complete envelope, nucleocapsid or genome. Density gradient centrifugation of infectious plasma for enrichment of the putative ISA virus appeared to offer a suitable method for obtaining virus-specific nucleic acid for use in the construction of cDNA libraries. 

  14. Human fascioliasis and anaemia in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abdel-Mageed, A A; El Beshbishi, S N; Azab, M S; Abou El Hasan, M; Arafa, Wafaa A S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    Fasciola infection (fascioliasis) appeared to be endemic in Egypt. Stool samples of fourty eight patients were coprologically diagnosed. According to Fasciola egg counting per gram stool, the severity of infection was divided into light infection in 60.5%, moderate in 27.1% and severe infection in 12.5%. No significant correlation was detected between severity of infection and patients' sex. Complete blood picture, reticylocytic count, serum iron, immunological assays as anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti-body, anti-DNA tests and rheumatoid factor and occult blood in stool were investigated. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was detected in 62.5% of the fascioliasis patients, microcytic hypochromic anaemia in 31.3% and macrocytic one in 6.3%. Highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.68) was detected between haemoglobin concentration and egg count per gram faeces. Human fascioliasis was associated with normocytic normochromic anaemia and to a lesser extent microcytic hypochromic anemia.

  15. Pica and refractory iron deficiency anaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Garnier Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Pica, the ingestion of substances that are inappropriate for consumption, is associated with iron deficiency and may be under-diagnosed. Case presentation A 34-year-old woman presented with iron deficiency anaemia refractory to treatment for more than a decade. The clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and laboratory investigations were consistent with pica. Subsequent geophysical analysis confirmed that the ingested material was kaolin, a negatively charged silicate. Conclusion Prolonged unexplained iron deficiency anaemia should prompt clinicians to remember and inquire about pica. In our patient, this would have averted numerous unnecessary investigations and prevented a decade-long suffering.

  16. Anaemia and cognitive performances in the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andro, M; Le Squere, P; Estivin, S; Gentric, A

    2013-09-01

    Anaemia defined as a haemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women is common in older people and associated with numerous health consequences. The aim of this study was to systematically review all published data from the past 30 years that studied the association between anaemia and cognitive performance in people aged 65 years and over. An English and French Medline and Cochrane Library search ranging from 1979 to 2011 indexed under the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms 'haemoglobin' or 'anaemia' combined with the terms 'dementia' or 'cognition disorders' or 'memory disorders' or 'orientation' or 'executive functions' or 'attention' or 'brain' or 'neuropsychological tests' was performed. Ninety-eight studies were selected. The following specific conditions were excluded: cancer, chronic kidney diseases, chronic heart disease and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Five observational studies and six prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis. According to the studies, the number of participants ranged from 302 to 2250 community-dwelling older people aged 55 years or over. Four studies considered the association between haemoglobin concentration and global cognitive functions, another three examined the association between haemoglobin concentration and the incidence of dementia, and four studies evaluated some specific aspects of cognition. A significant positive association was shown between anaemia and global cognitive decline as well as the incidence of dementia. A significant association was also shown between anaemia and executive functions. This systematic review shows a probable association between anaemia and cognitive performances, particularly with executive functions.

  17. Pathophysiological mechanisms of severe anaemia in Malawian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Boele van Hensbroek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiological mechanisms (red cell production failure [RCPF], haemolysis and blood loss to severe anaemia in Malawian children in whom etiological factors have been described previously. More complex associations between etiological factors and the mechanisms were explored using structural equation modelling. In 235 children with severe anaemia (haemoglobin<3.2 mMol/L [5.0 g/dl] studied, RCPF, haemolysis and blood loss were found in 48.1%, 21.7% and 6.9%, respectively. The RCPF figure increased to 86% when a less stringent definition of RCPF was applied. RCPF was the most common mechanism in each of the major etiological subgroups (39.7-59.7%. Multiple aetiologies were common in children with severe anaemia. In the final model, nutritional and infectious factors, including malaria, were directly or indirectly associated with RCPF, but not with haemolysis. CONCLUSION: RCPF was the most common pathway leading to severe anaemia, from a variety of etiological factors, often found in combination. Unlike haemolysis or blood loss, RCPF is a defect that is likely to persist to a significant degree unless all of its contributing aetiologies are corrected. This provides a further explanation for the limited success of the single factor interventions that have commonly been applied to the prevention or treatment of severe anaemia. Our findings underline the need for a package of measures directed against all of the local aetiologies of this often fatal paediatric syndrome.

  18. Manifestation of pernicious anaemia as hyperpigmentation of palms and soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Vaddadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency produces various manifestations involving CNS, heart, skin, blood and female reproductive systems. It is seen most commonly in the older individuals, malabsorptive states and #8201;(>60% of all cases and vegetarians. Pernicious anaemia may be confused to Addison's disease as both may present with similar clinical features. Hereby we report a case of pernicious anaemia presenting with dermatological manifestation in the form of deep pigmentation of both palms of and both soles respectively, cortisol levels normal so Addition's disease ruled out. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1746-1748

  19. EVALUATION OF ANAEMIA USING RED CELL AND RETICULOCYTE PARAMETERS USING AUTOMATED HAEMATOLOGY ANALYSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of current models of Automated Haematology Analysers help in calculating the haemoglobin contents of the mature Red cells, Reticulocytes and percentages of Microcytic and hypochromic Red cells. This has helped the clinician in reaching early diagnosis and management of Different haemopoietic disorders like Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Thalassaemia and anaemia of chronic diseases. AIM This study is conducted using an Automated Haematology Analyser to evaluate anaemia using the Red Cell and Reticulocyte parameters. Three types of anaemia were evaluated; iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of long duration and anaemia associated with chronic disease and Iron deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS The blood samples were collected from 287 adult patients with anaemia differentiated depending upon their iron status, haemoglobinopathies and inflammatory activity. Iron deficiency anaemia (n=132, anaemia of long duration (ACD, (n=97 and anaemia associated with chronic disease with iron deficiency (ACD Combi, (n=58. Microcytic Red cells, hypochromic red cells percentage and levels of haemoglobin in reticulocytes and matured RBCs were calculated. The accuracy of the parameters was analysed using receiver operating characteristic analyser to differentiate between the types of anaemia. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There was no difference in parameters between the iron deficiency group or anaemia associated with chronic disease and iron deficiency. The hypochromic red cells percentage was the best parameter in differentiating anaemia of chronic disease with or without absolute iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 70.4%. CONCLUSIONS The parameters of red cells and reticulocytes were of reasonably good indicators in differentiating the absolute iron deficiency anaemia with chronic disease.

  20. Algorithm for the diagnosis of anaemia without laboratory facilities among small children in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would...... help to detect moderate and/or severe anaemia in children in rural Tanzania....

  1. STUDY ON TRENDS OF ANAEMIA PREVALENCE: REDUCED PREVALENCE: MYTH OR REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Natarajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the existing prevalence of anaemia in antenatal patients attending OP at GRH, Madurai and to stress that it still holds an important antenatal complication. METHODOLOGY It is an observational study taken at GRH on all antenatal patients attending OPD to find out prevalence of anaemia among them. RESULTS The prevalence of anaemia was found to be 91.42% indicating that 9 out of 10 patients attending the OPD are anaemic. CONCLUSION In spite of all government initiatives, though the prevalence of severe anaemia might have decreased, but the prevalence of mild and moderate anaemia still remains fairly high.

  2. Anaemia, a common but often unrecognized risk in diabetic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelousi, A; Larger, E

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia in patients with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is a frequent clinical finding. The mechanisms of anaemia are multifactorial and often not very well understood. Iatrogenic causes, including oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, and renal insufficiency are the major causes of anaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with type 1, the cause is often an associated autoimmune disease, and screening for autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anaemia, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, coeliac disease and Addison's disease is recommended. Other rare causes - including G6PD deficiency, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia - should be suspected in young patients or when the classical causes are excluded. Early detection and recognition of the cause(s) of anaemia in patients with diabetes could help to prevent other clinical manifestations as well as the complications of diabetes.

  3. Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seales Dawn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for glucose, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and complete blood count. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin 2. Comparisons for within- and between-gender, between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were performed using Student's t-test while chi-square test was employed for categorical variables. Results The diabetic patients were older than the non-diabetic subjects. While male non-diabetic subjects had significantly higher red blood cell count (RBC, haemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations than non-diabetic female subjects (p 2, p Conclusion A high prevalence of anaemia was identified in this group of type 2 diabetic patients previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. It is therefore recommended that diagnostic laboratories in developing countries and elsewhere should include complete blood count in routine laboratory investigations in the management of diabetic patients.

  4. Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA, malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria.

  5. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Severe Anaemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. van Hensbroek; J.C.J. Calis; K.S. Phiri; R. de Vet; F. Munthali; R. Kraaijenhagen; H. van den Berg; B. Faragher; I. Bates; M.E. Molyneux

    2010-01-01

    Background: Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success. Methods and Findings: We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiologic

  6. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53(Δ31), a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  8. SPORTS ANAEMIA IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES: A PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil B Warkar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes require a very efficient oxygen transport system for maximal aerobic power during physical work performance. Many studies carried on endurance athletes suggested low levels of red blood cell markers leading to misconception of existence of so called sports anaemia in athletes. Sometimes athletes are on needless iron supplementation and are concern about anaemia. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the red cell population markers and to study the sports anaemia phenomenon in endurance athletes and the underlying responses responsible for ot. 60 male endurance track and field runners age group 18-21 were selected from the local city based club named Vasant Desai Krida Sangh Akola and were compared with the age, height sex matched non athletes students of Govt. Medical College Akola. The seven red blood cell markers were studied from the blood samples taken from the cubital vein under standard conditions. The blood variables for both the groups were analyzed with an automatic cell counter. The mean values of Hb(12.27 gm% +/- 0.782, RBC count in(3.64millions per cu mm+/-0.52, hematocrit ( 41.58 % +/- 1.32, mean corpuscular Hb conc (MCHC 29.49% +/- 1.198 were all very significantly lower ( p<0.0001 as compare to controls. Whereas the plasma volume (58.412% +/- 1.32, Mean Corpuscular volume (MCV 115.06 cu microns+/- 11.54, Mean Hb conc (MCH 33.998 picogms+/- 2.608, were significantly increased in endurance athletes. Though decrease in Hb conc, Low RBC count and less hematocrit in endurance athletes indicate presence of anaemia in them but it’s not a true anaemia as it is also confirmed by MCV, MCH, MCHC values between the two groups. The significant differences between the groups are due to the response to endurance training leading to hemo dilutional anaemia caused by plasma volume expansion which increases the blood volume in endurance athletes helping them for better oxygen supply and aerobic power needed

  9. Response of iron overload to deferasirox in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias: equivalent effects on serum ferritin and labile plasma iron for haemolytic or production anaemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Beris, Photis; Forni, Gian Luca; Taher, Ali; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Thein, Swee Lay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives It is widely assumed that, at matched transfusional iron-loading rates, responses to chelation therapy are similar, irrespective of the underlying condition. However, data are limited for rare transfusion-dependent anaemias, and it remains to be elucidated if response differs, depending on whether the anaemia has a primary haemolytic or production mechanism. Methods The efficacy and safety of deferasirox (Exjade®) in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias were evaluated over 1 yr, with change in serum ferritin as the primary efficacy endpoint. Initial deferasirox doses were 10–30 mg/kg/d, depending on transfusion requirements; 34 patients had production anaemias, and 23 had haemolytic anaemias. Results Patients with production anaemias or haemolytic anaemias had comparable transfusional iron-loading rates (0.31 vs. 0.30 mL red blood cells/kg/d), mean deferasirox dosing (19.3 vs. 19.0 mg/kg/d) and baseline median serum ferritin (2926 vs. 2682 ng/mL). Baseline labile plasma iron (LPI) levels correlated significantly with the transfusional iron-loading rates and with serum ferritin levels in both cohorts. Reductions in median serum ferritin levels were initially faster in the production than the haemolytic anaemias, but at 1 yr, similar significant reductions of 940 and 617 ng/mL were attained, respectively (−26.0% overall). Mean LPI decreased significantly in patients with production (P < 0.0001) and haemolytic (P = 0.037) anaemias after the first dose and was maintained at normal mean levels (<0.4 μm) subsequently. The most common drug-related, investigator-assessed adverse events were diarrhoea (n = 16) and nausea (n = 12). Conclusions At matched transfusional iron-loading rates, the responses of rare transfusion-dependent anaemias to deferasirox are similar at 1 yr, irrespective of the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:21649735

  10. Systematic review of anaemia and inflammatory markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepers, Andrea Thives de Carvalho; Menezes, Marcia Margarete; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the relevant published articles on the prevalence of anaemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its relationship with inflammatory markers. The upregulation of erythropoietin in anaemia maintains homeostasis. However, anaemic COPD patients do not respond to increased levels of erythropoietin. The increased levels could be an indicator of the peripheral erythropoietin resistance in COPD. Anaemia and inflammation are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in these patients. The understanding of anaemia in chronic inflammation is that anaemia is at least partially due to the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to improvements in the management, prognosis, and survival of patients with COPD and anaemia.

  11. Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V; Goka, B Q;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a major complication of malaria but little is known about its pathogenesis. Experimental models have implicated tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in induction of bone-marrow suppression and eythrophagocytosis. Conversely, interleukin 10 (IL-10), which mediates feed......-back regulation of TNF, stimulates bone-marrow function in vitro and counteracts anaemia in mice. We investigated the associations of these cytokines with malarial anaemia. METHODS: We enrolled 175 African children with malaria into two studies in 1995 and 1996. In the first study, children were classified...... as having severe anaemia (n=10), uncomplicated malaria (n=26), or cerebral anaemia (n=41). In the second study, patients were classified as having cerebral malaria (n=33) or being fully conscious (n=65), and the two groups were subdivided by measured haemoglobin as normal (>110 g/L), moderate anaemia (60...

  12. Fungal arthritis of the hip in patient with aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Calloch, Ronan; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Guillerm, Gaëlle; Tonnelier, Jean Marie

    2013-08-13

    Aplastic anaemia is a rare and serious disease characterised by severe immunosuppression due to prolonged neutropenia and the use of immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antithymocyte globulin. Candida species are pathogens of low virulence colonising the skin and the digestive tract of many healthy individuals. Nonetheless, the incidence of invasive candidal infection is increasing. The widespread use of central intravascular catheters, invasive procedures, broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppresion predisposes patients to these infections. Eye, skin, cardiac, liver, spleen and brain infection are the most common sites of invasive candidiasis. Bone and joint infections are less frequent and Candida hip septic arthritis is extremely rare. We present here a patient treated for aplastic anaemia, who developed fungal arthritis of the hip and systemic candidaemia.

  13. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anaemia on foetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sikka, M; Sood, S K

    1995-07-01

    One hundred and two pregnant women and their neonates were examined to evaluate the effect of maternal haemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc) and iron deficiency anaemia on the placental weight and the foetal outcome. Haematological and serum ferritin values were determined. It was observed that 34.3% of the pregnant women were anaemic. Maternal Hb conc. and serum ferritin showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most important cause of anaemia amongst them. The maternal Hb conc. showed a significant correlation with placental weight (p < 0.05), birth weight (p < 0.01), Apgar score (p < 0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (p < 0.001). The study did not reveal any association between high Hb and adverse foetal outcome.

  14. The clinical and radiological features of Fanconi's anaemia pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kerviler, E.; Guermazi, A.; Zagdanski, A.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Frija, J

    2000-05-01

    Fanconi's anaemia is a severe refractory anaemia, associated with congenital malformations in approximately two-thirds of cases. Although these malformations may involve every organ system, suggestive dysmorphic features include growth retardation, radial ray deformities and urinary malformations. These malformations are not specific for Fanconi's anaemia, but should be recognized during pregnancy, or later in childhood, and suggest the possibility of inherited haematopoiesis disorders. De Kerviler, E. (2000)

  15. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  16. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Kriplani; Reeta Mahey; Biswa Bhusan Dash; Vidushi Kulshreshta; Nutan Agarwal; Neerja Bhatla

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was under...

  17. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: Looking Beyond Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher C Y; Ng, Austin C C; Kritharides, Leonard; Sindone, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient in many cellular processes. Iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is common in patients with chronic heart failure. Observational studies have shown iron deficiency to be associated with worse clinical outcomes and mortality. The treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure patients using intravenous iron alone has shown promise in several clinical trials, although further studies which include larger populations and longer follow-up times are needed.

  18. Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia with the natural hematinic Carbaodeim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, Mugahid Faroug; Swar, Mohammed Osman; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently seen in the paediatric age group. Modifying the treatment options according to the affected area resources will help accessibility and compliance to treatment. Response of children with Iron deficiency anaemia to a natural hematinic (Carboadeim) versus iron syrup plus folic acid treatment was compared in this study. This is a prospective, interventional, controlled, hospital-based study conducted among children with iron deficiency anaemia residing in Hussein Village, Gezira State who attended Giad Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control received iron supplements and folic acid, and the case received a combination of carrots, baobab (Adansonia digitata) and godeim (Grewia tenax) which is known as (Carboadeim). Blood tests were taken for investigations at start of treatment, after 7-10 days, 6 weeks and 3 months. Complete blood count, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin were taken as indicators. The mean haemoglobin level initially in the cases and controls was 7.38 and 7.35 gm/dL, respectively; after three months the mean was 11.67 and 11.384 gm/dL, respectively. The mean serum ferritin in the case and control groups was found to be 10.30 and 10.87 ng/ml, respectively at the start of treatment; and after 3 months they were reported to be 44.34 and 75.7 ng/ml confirming the positive response to treatment by Carboadeim. In conclusion Carboadeim is a naturally available and cost-effective hematinic blend that might be added to the food menu as a supplement as well as a treatment of nutritional anaemia in children.

  19. Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia with the natural hematinic Carbaodeim*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, Mugahid Faroug; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently seen in the paediatric age group. Modifying the treatment options according to the affected area resources will help accessibility and compliance to treatment. Response of children with Iron deficiency anaemia to a natural hematinic (Carboadeim) versus iron syrup plus folic acid treatment was compared in this study. This is a prospective, interventional, controlled, hospital-based study conducted among children with iron deficiency anaemia residing in Hussein Village, Gezira State who attended Giad Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control received iron supplements and folic acid, and the case received a combination of carrots, baobab (Adansonia digitata) and godeim (Grewia tenax) which is known as (Carboadeim). Blood tests were taken for investigations at start of treatment, after 7–10 days, 6 weeks and 3 months. Complete blood count, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin were taken as indicators. The mean haemoglobin level initially in the cases and controls was 7.38 and 7.35 gm/dL, respectively; after three months the mean was 11.67 and 11.384 gm/dL, respectively. The mean serum ferritin in the case and control groups was found to be 10.30 and 10.87 ng/ml, respectively at the start of treatment; and after 3 months they were reported to be 44.34 and 75.7 ng/ml confirming the positive response to treatment by Carboadeim. In conclusion Carboadeim is a naturally available and cost-effective hematinic blend that might be added to the food menu as a supplement as well as a treatment of nutritional anaemia in children. PMID:27651552

  20. Kawasaki disease and acute haemolytic anaemia after two IVIG infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Telcharova-Mihaylovska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is one of the most common vasculitis disorders of childhood, affecting predominantly medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. For treatment, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is indicated. IVIG infusions are usually safe and well tolerated even though serious complications can be observed. We present a brief overview of KD and report a two-year-old girl with KD and two IVIG infusions (Gammagard® because of persistent fever after the completion of the first IVIG. Haemolytic anaemia developed after IVIG retreatment. The direct antiglobulin test after haemolysis was positive. The etiology of the haemolysis was related to the presence of transient, passively acquired antibodies that cause a direct antibody-mediated attack. There are few reports of haemolytic anaemia after IVIG infusions. The haemolysis in KD is dose-dependent and occurs more frequently after the second IVIG dose. Non-0 blood group patients are at greater risk. Another factor increasing the risk of haemolysis is also the presence of anaemia due to inflammation in KD.

  1. Sheehan's syndrome as a rare cause of anaemia secondary to hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Deniz; Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Bahceci, Mithat; Arikan, Senay; Bahceci, Selen; Pasa, Semir

    2009-05-01

    Although its exact mechanism is unclear, anaemia is well recognised as a feature of hypopituitarism; and anaemia is associated with Sheehan's syndrome (SS). We aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of anaemia and other haematological changes among patients with Sheehan's syndrome, in comparison with healthy controls. Sixty-five SS patients and 55 age-matched female healthy controls were included. Biochemical and hormonal assessments and haematological evaluations were carried out, and groups were compared. The mean number of red blood cells, as well as mean haemoglobin, iron and erythropoietin levels, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation were all significantly lower in SS patients compared to controls. SS patients had significantly higher rates of anaemia (80.0% vs. 25.5%, p = 0.0001), iron deficiency (44.6% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.001), leukopenia (20.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.015), thrombocytopenia (9.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.028) and bicytopenia (21.5% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Anaemic SS patients had normochromic-normocytic anaemia (55%) or hypochromic-microcytic anaemia (45%). Anaemia is frequently associated with Sheehan's syndrome and responds to appropriate replacement therapy. Hypopituitarism should be considered as a possible cause of anaemia, and a hormone examination should be undertaken promptly, particularly in patients with anaemia resistant to therapy and/or with a history suggestive of Sheehan's syndrome.

  2. Anaemia and long term mortality in heart failure patients: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Valeur, Nana;

    2010-01-01

    Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.......Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up....

  3. Anaemia in infancy in rural Bangladesh: contribution of iron deficiency, infections and poor feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Kennedy, Andrew; Rohner, Fabian; Ruel, Marie; Menon, Purnima

    2014-01-14

    Few data exist on the aetiology of anaemia and Fe deficiency (ID) during early infancy in South Asia. The present study aimed to determine the contribution of ID, infections and feeding practices to anaemia in Bangladeshi infants aged 6-11 months. Baseline data from 1600 infants recruited into a cluster-randomised trial testing the effectiveness of micronutrient powder sales by frontline health workers on the prevalence of anaemia were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for anaemia and ID, and population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed to estimate the proportion of anaemia that might be prevented by the elimination of individual risk factors. It was found that 68 % of the infants were anaemic, 56 % were Fe deficient, and one-third had evidence of subclinical infections. The prevalence of anaemia and ID increased rapidly, until 8-9 months of age, while that of subclinical infections was constant. ID (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·6-5·0; Panaemia, in addition to age and male sex. Similarly, subclinical infections, age and male sex were significant risk factors for ID. Previous-day consumption of Fe-rich foods was very low and not associated with anaemia or ID. The PAF of anaemia attributable to ID was 67 % (95 % CI 62, 71) and that of subclinical infections was 16 % (95 % CI 11, 20). These results suggest that a multipronged strategy that combines improvements in dietary Fe intake alongside infection control strategies is needed to prevent anaemia during infancy in Bangladesh.

  4. Prevalence and Severity of Anaemia Stratified by Age and Gender in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR, 9.8–12.4 in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6–14.2 in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  5. Prevalence & etiology of nutritional anaemias in early childhood in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomber, S; Kumar, S; Rusia, U; Gupta, P; Agarwal, K N; Sharma, S

    1998-06-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the prevalence and etiology of nutritional anaemia among preschool children from an urban slum. Randomly selected 300 children aged 3 months-3 yr were analysed over a period of one year for estimating prevalence of nutritional anaemia. Prevalence was also assessed by the rise in haemoglobin after 8 wk of haematinic supplementation in 159 of the 300 subjects. Ninety anaemic children were evaluated for the etiology of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia, as judged by WHO recommended 'cut-off' value of haemoglobin < 11 g/dl, was 76 per cent while comparable value of 74.8 per cent was derived by response to haematinic supplementation. Pure iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was detected in 41.4 per cent (37/90) of anaemic children. Vitamin B12 deficiency alone or in combination with iron was diagnosed in 14.4 and 22.2 per cent anaemic children respectively. Similarly folate deficiency, IDA with infection and anaemia of chronic diseases (ACD) was diagnosed in 2.2, 3.3 and 12.2 per cent cases respectively. Childhood anaemia continues to be a significant public health problem in preschoolers and iron deficiency is by far the commonest nutritional cause of anaemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency per se or in combination with iron is an important yet not commonly recognised cause of anaemias in preschool children in the community.

  6. High Incidence of Zidovudine Induced Anaemia in HIV Infected Patients in Southern Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Kaibalya Ranjan; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Hui, P K; Behera, S K; Nayak, S N

    2015-06-01

    Zidovudine (AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was the first breakthrough in AIDS therapy in 1990.This study was conducted with an aim to determine prevalence of AZT induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on AZT containing anti retroviral therapy(ART) regimen and also to find out any risk factor for causing AZT induced anaemia. Study was carried out in ART centre, M.K.C.G, MCH, Berhampur between Jan 2009 and Dec 2011. HIV infected patients registered at ART centre were treated according to National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines. Patients (n = 1221) with Hb >8 gm/dl were prescribed AZT based ART regimen. Patients having anaemia (<8 gm/dl) were excluded from the study. Correlation of baseline characteristics (age, sex, weight, Hb level, CD4 count, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage) with risk of developing anaemia was also calculated. 178 (14.6 %) patients on AZT regimen developed anaemia. Patients with low CD4 count were more prone to develop severe anaemia. Age, sex, weight, WHO clinical stage had no relation with development of anaemia. Incidence of AZT induced anaemia was very high and patients having low CD4 count were more susceptible to develop anaemia.

  7. Lack of efficacy of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) treatment in acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia, including refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Hanson, Curtis A; Steensma, David P

    2011-06-01

    Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is commonly used to treat acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia (AISA, including refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts), but the efficacy of this therapy in an unselected AISA population (i.e. patients without confirmed ALAS2 or other pyridoxine-responsive germline mutations) has not been established. We reviewed clinical data from 231 patients with AISA and found that 42% of 203 evaluable patients had been treated with pyridoxine. Only 6.8% of pyridoxine-treated patients experienced a haemoglobin improvement (≥ 1.5 g/dL) meeting 2006 International Working Group for Myelodysplastic Syndromes standardised response criteria. As some patients received combination therapy with erythropoietin or other agents, improvement could be attributed to pyridoxine monotherapy in only one patient (1.4%). Smaller, less meaningful increments in haemoglobin levels of 0.5 g/dL were observed in 13.5% of patients. Response to therapy did not correlate with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk group or multilineage vs unilineage dysplasia. New symptomatic peripheral neuropathy was noted in 2.3% of patients treated with pyridoxine. In this large series of unselected patients with sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine therapy was ineffective and was associated with a risk of adverse effects. Pyridoxine therapy should be reserved for patients with known or suspected pyridoxine-responsive mutations.

  8. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Delvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354 frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101 and CC genotypes (rs1127354, respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101 showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475. In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295. For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women.

  9. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Nathália; da Costa, Vanessa Duarte; da Costa, Maristella Matos; Villar, Livia Melo; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes; Esberard, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá; Flores, Priscila Pollo; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; de Almeida, Adilson José; Lampe, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV)-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354) frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb) levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity) was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101) and CC genotypes (rs1127354), respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101) showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475). In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295). For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women. PMID:26154744

  10. Sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O

    2016-01-01

    Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women.

  11. Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia is described. The most probable mechanism for the hypercoagulable state was thrombocytosis associated with iron deficiency anaemia. The other possible contributing factor might have been the diuretic therapy during the phase of relapse.

  12. Aplastic crisis and leg ulceration: two rare complications of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J; Singhal, S; Mehta, B C

    1992-07-01

    Aplastic crisis as a result of parvovirus infection is seen in a number of haematologic disorders characterized by decreased red cell survival, and leg ulceration due to unknown causes is seen in a number of haemolytic anaemias. Neither of the two has been reported in a case of sideroblastic anemia. We report one case with each of these complications in association with sideroblastic anaemia.

  13. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Katherine; Kotecha, Dipak; Walters, Julia A. E.; Manzano, Luis; Palazzuoli, Alberto; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Flather, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Anaemia is a common (12-55%) co-morbid condition and is associated with worsening symptoms and increased mortality. Anaemia is treatable and can be targeted in the treatment of patients with CHF. Erythrop

  14. Pallor as a sign of anaemia in small Tanzanian children at different health care levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Sørensen, Jeff E; Bjorkman, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among small children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied the performance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) recommended assessment of no/some/severe pallor as predictor of anaemia in health surveys at community...

  15. Beyond the cardiorenal anaemia syndrome : recognizing the role of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdougall, Iain C.; Canaud, Bernard; de Francisco, Angel L. M.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ponikowski, Piotr; Silverberg, Donald; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Anker, Stefan D.

    2012-01-01

    Growing awareness that heart failure, renal impairment, and anaemia are frequent co-morbidities which can exacerbate one another in a vicious circle of clinical deterioration has led to the concept of the cardiorenal anaemia syndrome (CRAS). The role of iron deficiency within this complex interplay

  16. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  17. The additive burden of iron deficiency in the cardiorenal-anaemia axis : scope of a problem and its consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; Bruguera, Jordi; Rozentryt, Piotr; Polonski, Lech; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Comin-Colet, Josep; van der Meer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aims Iron deficiency (ID), anaemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common co-morbidities in chronic heart failure (CHF) and all independent predictors of unfavourable outcome. The combination of anaemia and CKD in CHF has been described as the cardiorenal-anaemia syndrome. However, the role of

  18. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia: a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional anaemia

  19. L-Leucine improves the anaemia in models of Diamond Blackfan anaemia and the 5q- syndrome in a TP53-independent way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, Anupama; Payne, Elspeth M; Abayasekara, Nirmalee; Hurst, Slater N; Raiser, David M; Look, A Thomas; Berliner, Nancy; Ebert, Benjamin L; Khanna-Gupta, Arati

    2014-11-01

    Haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and upregulation of the tumour suppressor TP53 have been shown to be the common basis for the anaemia observed in Diamond Blackfan anaemia and 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome. We previously demonstrated that treatment with L-Leucine resulted in a marked improvement in anaemia in disease models. To determine if the L-Leucine effect was Tp53-dependent, we used antisense MOs to rps19 and rps14 in zebrafish; expression of tp53 and its downstream target cdkn1a remained elevated following L-leucine treatment. We confirmed this observation in human CD34+ cells. L-Leucine thus alleviates anaemia in RP-deficient cells in a TP53-independent manner.

  20. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, psurgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis pbariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  1. Epidemiological Profile of Anaemia among Rural School Going Adolescents of District Bareilly, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Agarwal, Hari Shankar Joshi, Syed Esam Mahmood, Arun Singh, Mahendra Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 58.67%. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher among the females (65.11%. Higher prevalence of anaemia was found among adolescents aged between 10-14 years (59.58%, Hindus (62.04%, middle socio-economic class (78.89% and joint families (59.63%. Higher prevalence was also found among those adolescents whose mothers and fathers were educated upto primary level (58.87% and 60.83% respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of anaemia was found, especially among the female adolescents. Adequate food consumption and regular intake of iron and vitamin C rich foods during early childhood period, de-worming, food fortification, supplementary feeding and nutrition education of parents can prevent nutritional anaemia in adolescents. "

  2. Fatal cold agglutinin-induced haemolytic anaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reverberi Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cold agglutinin disease usually develops as a result of the production of a specific immunoglobulin M auto-antibody directed against the I/i and H antigens, precursors of the ABH and Lewis blood group substances, on red blood cells. Autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other infections can be associated with the production of cold agglutinins. In its classic presentation with haemolytic anaemia and Raynaud's syndrome, cold agglutinin disease is usually idiopathic. Several factors play a role in determining the ability of a cold agglutinin to induce a haemolytic anaemia such as antibody concentration and temperature range, in particular the highest temperature at which antibodies interact with red blood cells. Case presentation A 48-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital with symptoms of extreme asthenia caused by severe anaemia. The transfusion of red blood cells (O Rh-positive, started as prescribed by the emergency guidelines in force without pre-transfusion tests, induced fatal haemolysis because of the presence of high levels of anti-H antibodies in his blood, that reacted with the large amount of H antigen in universal (0 red blood cells. Conclusion Emergency transfusion of universal red blood cells (0 Rh-positive or negative is usually accepted by the international guidelines in force in emergency departments. In this report we describe a rare complication caused by the very high concentration in the recipient of cold agglutinins and the activation of the complement system, responsible for red blood cell lysis and consequent fatal cardiovascular shock. We conclude that emergency transfusion of universal red blood cells (0 Rh-positive or negative may be dangerous and its risk should be assessed against the risk of delaying transfusion until the pre-transfusion tests are completed.

  3. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  4. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

  5. Study of sickle cell anaemia with clinical and hematological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara M.

    2016-01-01

    Results: Males were 154 and females were 146. Degree of anaemia was severe in females when compared to males. Of 52 cases subjected for electrophoresis 36 were homozygous, 15 were heterozygous and 1 case Sickle thalassemia. 7 cases showed HbF above 5%. Conclusions: Most of the patients were under 40 yrs suggesting decreased survival after that age. An increased level of HbF was associated with better prognosis suggesting the need to target at drugs which increase HbF. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 246-251

  6. Rituximab-based immunosuppression for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Johanna; Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Molinari, Angelo C; Micalizzi, Concetta; Banov, Laura; Schmidt, Madalina; Caprino, Daniela; Marinelli, Doretta; Gallisai, Domenico; Dufour, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    We report a case series of four infants with severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) who responded to treatment with rituximab and cyclosporine after having failed first line therapy with high-dose steroid (prednisolone 4-8 mg/kg/d). Rituximab was started at 11-90 d from onset due to continued haemolysis; three infants also received cyclosporine A. Three of four infants reached complete response, defined as normal haemoglobin, reticulocytes and negative indices of haemolysis, at 7-21 months from diagnosis. In long-term follow-up two infants remained disease-free with normal immunology, one had undefined immunodeficiency and one had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  7. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Nuno; Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-08-11

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae.

  8. Association of household environment and prevalence of Anaemia among children under-5 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu eBaranwal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study explores the association between the household environment and the prevalence of anaemia among children under the age of five years in India.Data and methodology: The study is based on 52,868 children under the age of five years, included in India’s National Family Health Survey-3. The outcome variable was the prevalence of anaemia. To understand the role of environment in determining child anaemia, step wise logistic regression models consisting of environmental, child, socio-economic and media exposure variables were applied.Results: The occurrence of childhood anaemia was higher in the North Eastern and Eastern regions compared to all other regions of India. Unclean fuel use, poor toilet facilities, staying in non-concrete house, exposure to smoking were important variables determining the prevalence of anaemia. Smoking when it was controlled with only socio economic factors showed lesser impact on anaemia but when it got adjusted with socio-economic, child and media variables together it showed an important impact as it increased the risk of anaemia. Conclusion: Children under five years of age generally stay inside their house and are more exposed to the household environment. Thus, among these children there are multiple risk factors causing anaemia along with the nutritional deficiencies. Better resources are needed to educate the public and to increase awareness for improved hygiene, sanitation and housing facilities, health and nutrition etc. Along with a wider programme to manage nutritional deficiency anaemia in children less than five years, there should be a holistic approach towards anaemia control inculcating household environmental conditions and socio economic determinants.

  9. Risk factors for fetal anaemia in a malarious area of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, B J; Kalanda, B F; Verhoeff, F H; Chimsuku, L H; Broadhead, R L

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of infants born with low cord haemoglobin (fetal anaemia) is high in areas where malaria and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy are common. The objective of the present study was to determine risk factors for fetal anaemia in an area of high malaria transmission in southern Malawi. A case control study was undertaken with fetal anaemia defined as cord haemoglobin (Hb) < 12.5 g/dl. Between March 1993 and July 1994, pregnant women attending the study hospitals for the first time in that pregnancy were enrolled. Data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, previous obstetric history and current pregnancy were collected. Malaria parasitaemia, Hb levels and iron status were measured in maternal blood at recruitment and delivery and in umbilical venous blood. Fetal anaemia occurred in 23.4% of babies. Mean (SD) cord Hb was 13.6 g/dl (1.83). Factors associated with fetal anaemia were: birth in the rainy season [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.73-3.14], pre-term delivery (AOR 1.60, 1.03-2.49), infant Hb < 14 g/dl at 24 hours (AOR 2.35, 1.20-4.59), maternal Hb at delivery < 8 g/dl (AOR 1.61, 1.10-2.42) or <11 g/dl (AOR 1.60, 1.10-2.31). A higher prevalence of fetal anaemia occurred with increasing peripheral Plasmodium falciparum parasite density (p=0.03) and geometric mean placental parasite densities were higher in babies with fetal anaemia than in those without (3331 vs 2152 parasites/microl, p=0.07). Interventions should aim to reduce fetal anaemia by improving malaria and anaemia control in pregnancy and by addressing the determinants of pre-term delivery.

  10. A fast-track anaemia clinic in the Emergency Department: feasibility and efficacy of intravenous iron administration for treating sub-acute iron deficiency anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Fabra-Cadenas, Sara; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martínez-Virto, Ana; García-Erce, José A.; Muñoz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant anaemia, requiring red blood cell transfusions, is frequently observed in Emergency Departments (ED). To optimise blood product use, we developed a clinical protocol for the management of iron-deficiency anaemia in a fast-track anaemia clinic within the ED. Materials and methods From November 2010 to January 2014, patients presenting with sub-acute, moderate-to-severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) and confirmed or suspected iron deficiency were referred to the fast-track anaemia clinic. Those with absolute or functional iron deficiency were given intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose 500–1,000 mg/week and were reassessed 4 weeks after receiving the total iron dose. The primary study outcome was the haematological response (Hb≥12 g/dL and/or Hb increment ≥2 g/dL). Changes in blood and iron parameters, transfusion rates and IV iron-related adverse drug effects were secondary outcomes. Results Two hundred and two anaemic patients with iron deficiency (150 women/52 men; mean age, 64 years) were managed in the fast-track anaemia clinic, and received a median IV iron dose of 1,500 mg (1,000–2,000 mg). Gastro-intestinal (44%) or gynaecological (26%) bleeding was the most frequent cause of the anaemia. At follow-up (183 patients), the mean Hb increment was 3.9±2.2 g/dL; 84% of patients were classified as responders and blood and iron parameters normalised in 90%. During follow-up, 35 (17%) patients needed transfusions (2 [range: 1–3] units per patient) because they had low Hb levels, symptoms of anaemia and/or were at risk. Eight mild and one moderate, self-limited adverse drug effects were witnessed. Discussion Our data support the feasibility of a clinical protocol for management of sub-acute anaemia with IV iron in the ED. IV iron was efficacious, safe and well tolerated. Early management of anaemia will improve the use of blood products in the ED. PMID:26674819

  11. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF AETIOLGY OF ANAEMIA IN ADOLOSCENT GIRLS PRESENTING TO A TERITIARY CARE HOS PITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchasheelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Anaemia is a very common problem in our country and iron deficiency is the most common cause especially in the adolescent age group o f girls .Auto-immune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA is an acquired type of haemolytic anaemia, ca used by autoantibodies directed against the red cells. We hereby report a cross sectional study of chronic severe anaemia, which presented to our hospital for evaluation.5 patients o f the 36 patients evaluated over a period of 3 months were found to have a haemolytic anaemia.2 patients had beta thalassemia minor and 3 patients had autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with wa rm antibodies. Treatment with prednisolone resulted in significant improvement of t he haematological parameters in these 3 patients along with blood transfusion. Alternative a etiological causes of anaemia should be considered in patients with microcytic hypochromic an aemia for proper management of patients.

  12. Magnitude of Maternal Anaemia in Rural Burkina Faso: Contribution of Nutritional Factors and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal anaemia is a worldwide public health problem affecting particularly developing countries. In Burkina Faso, little data is available for rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of maternal anaemia and the risk factors associated with it in the rural health district of Hounde in Burkina Faso but also to define better control measures of maternal anaemia. Methods. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 had a sample of 3,140 pregnant women attending antenatal care in all the 18 primary health care facilities of the district. The women’s characteristics and their knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STI were collected. Also, physical and gynaecological examination, completed by vaginal, cervix, blood, and stool samplings, were collected. Results. A prevalence of 63.1% was recorded for maternal anaemia. Geophagy rate was 16.3% and vitamin A deficiency 69.3%. In addition, anaemia was independently associated with low education, low brachial perimeter, geophagy, and primigravida. But no statically significant relationship was found between maternal anaemia and infectious diseases or vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion. The magnitude of maternal anaemia was found to be higher in rural Hounde health district and should be addressed by adequate policy including education and the fight against malnutrition.

  13. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-08-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance of such effects is then performed and correlated with the general classification criteria used for this endpoint. This review intends to give guidance when carrying out an assessment for classification for this endpoint and to allow for better transparency in the decision-making process on when to classify based on the presence of haemolytic anaemia in repeated dose toxicity studies. The extended classification criteria for haemolytic anaemia outlined in this review were accepted by the EU Commission Working Group on the Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Substances in September 2004.

  14. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children older adults. Children iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  15. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  16. A STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In this tertiary care hospital, one of the common condition of all the patients attending the hospital is Anaemia, which is a decrease in haemoglobin content or decrease in haematocrit below the lower limit of the 95% reference range for the individual’s age and sex. The patient presents with varied symptoms of different grades, depending on the severity of anaemia, in different clinical settings. Common presenting symptoms of anaemia are generalised weakness, malaise, loss of appetite and muscular pains. METHODS All the patient samples received at the central laboratory for haemogram, complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination over the period of two years between June 2014 to May 2016 were included in the study. Anaemia cases were diagnosed depending on the criteria of the definition of anaemia, and morphological typing of anaemia was done based on the peripheral smear examination of all the cases with decreased haemoglobin level. Standard cell counter was used to estimate the Hb and other red cell indices, and corroborated with peripheral blood smear examination by standard Romanowsky stains. RESULTS A total of 810 cases of anaemia were diagnosed over the period of two years, of which morphological typing yielded 685 cases of Microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, 15 cases of Dimorphic anaemia, 22 cases of Macrocytic anaemia and 88 cases of Normocytic and normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION Anaemia is one of the most common problems of patients attending this tertiary care hospital, and detection and morphological typing of anaemia is very helping in guiding the clinicians in diagnosis and further management of anaemias for better patient care.

  17. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  18. Iron deficiency and anaemia in heart failure: understanding the FAIR-HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Costello, José; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction has traditionally focused on erythropoietin-stimulating agents. However, recent studies have shown that treatment with intravenous (IV) iron can improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with CHF and iron deficiency (ID), with or without anaemia. The management of ID is becoming an important therapeutic target in patients with CHF, and in this article, we will review iron metabolism in the context of anaemia and heart failure. We will also focus on the importance of diagnosing and treating ID, preferably with IV iron preparations, in patients with CHF.

  19. International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, M; Acheson, A G; Auerbach, M

    2017-01-01

    Despite current recommendations on the management of pre-operative anaemia, there is no pragmatic guidance for the diagnosis and management of anaemia and iron deficiency in surgical patients. A number of experienced researchers and clinicians took part in an expert workshop and developed...... the following consensus statement. After presentation of our own research data and local policies and procedures, appropriate relevant literature was reviewed and discussed. We developed a series of best-practice and evidence-based statements to advise on patient care with respect to anaemia and iron deficiency...

  20. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative importance of living in an urban versus rural setting and malaria in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anaemia (MA and anaemia respectively in apparently healthy primary school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 727 school children aged between four and 15 years living in an urban (302 and rural (425 settings in the Mount Cameroon area. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Based on haemoglobin (Hb measurements, children with malaria parasitaemia were stratified into MA (Hb<11 g/dL; mild MA (Hb of 8-10.9 g/dL; moderate MA (Hb of 6.1-7.9 g/dL and severe MA (Hb≤6 g/dL. Evaluation of potential determinants of MA and anaemia was performed by multinomial logistic-regression analysis and odds ratios used to evaluate risk factors.Out of the 727 children examined, 72 (9.9% had MA. The prevalence of MA and anaemia were significantly higher (χ2 = 36.5, P <0.001; χ2 = 16.19, P <0.001 respectively in children in the urban (17.9%; 26.8% respectively than in the rural area (4.2%; 14.8% respectively. Majority of the MA cases were mild (88.9%, with moderate (5.6% and severe MA (5.6% occurring in the urban area only. The age group ≤6 years was significantly (P <0.05 associated with both MA and anaemia. In addition, low parasite density was associated with MA while malaria parasite negative and microcytosis were associated with anaemia.Malarial anaemia and anaemia display heterogeneity and complexity that differ with the type of settlement. The presence of severe MA and the contributions of the age group ≤6 years, low parasite density and microcytosis to the public health problem of MA and anaemia are noteworthy.

  1. Treatment for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Norgaard, Astrid; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl;

    2015-01-01

    /L) or less, for which treatment was initiated within six weeks after childbirth.Non-randomised trials, quasi-randomised trials and trials using a cross-over design were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. We...... be interpreted in the light of any concurrent symptoms. Symptoms include fatigue, breathlessness, and dizziness. Treatment options include oral or intravenous iron, erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production, and substitution by red blood cell transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy...... and harms of the available treatment modalities for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (9 April 2015); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Portal (ICTRP), and the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences...

  2. Fluctuating anaemia in treated HIV patients: could be a PICA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajana, Faiza; Pasquet, Armelle; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    HIV infected patients are frequently exposed to anaemia, due to antiretroviral agents and/or prophylactic treatment of opportunistic infections. Anemia due to PICA, unusually evoked in our western countries, could be a more frequent situation than imagined. We report two cases of fluctuating anemia with no HIV or iatrogenic origin, observed in two HIV infected women, 47 years old and 33 years old respectively, coming from Africa and treated with antiretroviral agents. The anemia was explained by a culturally sanctioned practice of kaolin ingestion, in the broader context of PICA and resolved after the withdrawal of kaolin ingestion. PICA, and in particular kaolin ingestion, must be investigated when HIV infected patients came from Africa and presented significative unexplained anemia.

  3. Role of malaria induced oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanbi OM; Odaibo AB; Olatoregun R; Ademowo AB

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the role of oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy.Methods:Blood samples were collected from pregnant and non-pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic and medical check at Comprehensive Health Center, Akungba-Akoko and Iwaro General Hospital in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were prepared and used for malaria parasite counts. Haemoglobin level was determined by colorimetric method using Drabkin's solution. Oxidative status was determined using malondiadelhyde level as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, while ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione levels were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods.Results: Mean parasite density was significantly higher in pregnant women than non-pregnant women (P<0.05). Haemoglobin level was significantly reduced in malaria positive pregnant and non-pregnant women than malaria negative (8.3-10.0 g/dL) (P<0.05). The oxidative status indicated that malondialdehyde(MDA) was significantly increased in pregnant [(2.5±0.7) nmol/mL] than non-pregnant women [(1.8±0.1) nmol/mL] (P<0.05), while Vit C and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels were significantly reduced in pregnant than non-pregnant women(P<0.05). There was an inverse correlation between Hb and MDA levels in pregnant women studied. Positive correlation was observed between the mean MDA level and parasite density (r = 0.53). The Hb level decreased as the parasite density and MDA level increased in pregnant women.Conclusions:This study shows that oxidative stress, caused by malaria infection could be part of the contributing factors responsible for anaemia in pregnancy.

  4. Haemolytic anaemia as first manifestation of Wilson's disease: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; De, Dibyendu; Das, Shubhabrata

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease can have different manifestations like jaundice, cirrhosis of liver, extrapyramidal symptoms and dementia. Haemolytic anaemia may occur but it is commonly associated with florid manifestation of liver disease. Sometimes, liver cell necrosis can release huge free copper ions in blood, giving rise to oxidant damage to erythrocytes. Oxidative damage to cell membrane, haemoglobin and erythrocyte metabolism causes haemolytic crisis. In some cases, liver involvement is subclinical, but nonetheless, free copper is released from necrosed hepatocytes and causes oxidative damage to erythrocytes.We had two cases of Wilson's disease with initial presentation as severe haemolytic anaemia and no other clinical feature suggestive of Wilson's disease was present. In unclear cause of haemolytic anaemia, especially in adolescents or young adults, Wilson's disease should be considered. As Wilson disease is rare and its initial presentation with haemolytic anaemia is rarer, high level of suspicion is required to diagnose it.

  5. Milk versus medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in hospitalised infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, C.; Grant, C.; Taua, N; Wilson, C.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare iron fortified follow-on milk (iron follow-on), iron fortified partially modified cows' milk (iron milk), and iron medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hospitalised infants.

  6. Reductions in Anaemia and Fatigue are Associated with Improvements in Productivity in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Cancer-related anaemia is associated with fatigue that adversely affects patients' everyday functioning and wellbeing. We explore the impact of fatigue on patient productivity and caregiver burden. Methods: The analyses are based on data from a randomised, open-label, active-controlled, dose-finding trial of darbepoetin alfa among solid-tumour cancer patients with anaemia, who are receiving chemotherapy. Fatigue is assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Fa...

  7. Morphological differentiation of severe aplastic anaemia from hypocellular refractory cytopenia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Irith; Führer, Monika; Behrendt, Sonja;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood.......To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood....

  8. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Findings Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusion Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes. PMID:26513151

  9. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goylette F Chami

    Full Text Available The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women.We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5-90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated.Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001 with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008 more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001 of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002 of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002 was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001.Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes.

  10. The prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in pregnant women in a rural Indian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggest that the very high prevalence of anaemia early in pregnancy (74.8% is an indication of the failure of World Health Organisation and national programmes to tackle the issue in this group. Those pregnant for the first time are at greatest risk of developing anaemia. A highly significant association was found with the mother‘s age, educational and socio-economic status, religion, parity and Body Mass Index (BMI.

  11. Reporting new cases of anaemia in primary care settings in Crete, Greece: a rural practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of anaemia represents an important task within primary care settings. This study reports on the frequency of new cases of anaemia among patients attending rural primary care settings in Crete (Greece and to offer an estimate of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA frequency in this study group. Methods All patients attending the rural primary health care units of twelve general practitioners (GPs on the island of Crete for ten consecutive working days were eligible to participate in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb levels were measured by portable analyzers. Laboratory tests to confirm new cases of anaemia were performed at the University General Hospital of Heraklion. Results One hundred and thirteen out of 541 recruited patients had a low value of Hb according to the initial measurement obtained by the use of the portable analyzer. Forty five (45.5% of the 99 subjects who underwent laboratory testing had confirmed anaemia. The mean value of the Hb levels in the group with confirmed anaemia, as detected by the portable analyzer was 11.1 g/dl (95% Confidence Interval (CI from 10.9 to 11.4 and the respective mean value of the Hb levels obtained from the full blood count was 11.4 g/dl (95% CI from 11.2 to 11.7 (P = 0.01. Sixteen out of those 45 patients with anaemia (35.6% had IDA, with ferritin levels lower than 30 ng/ml. Conclusion Keeping in mind that this paper does not deal with specificity or sensitivity figures, it is suggested that in rural and remote settings anaemia is still invisible and point of care testing may have a place to identify it.

  12. TO STUDY THE INCIDENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IDENTIFY AS RISK FACTOR IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Periasamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVE To identify the incidence of anaemia and to identity anaemia itself as a risk factors in coronary artery disease in rural population. METHODS AND MATERIALS A prospective observational study done in patients admitted with evidence of coronary artery disease in Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital from January 2016 to April 2016. Patients with age more than 18 years, both gender, evidence of coronary artery disease were included and secondary case for anaemia were excluded. A detailed clinical history and examination, blood count with smear study was done. RESULT In our present study, male predominance (72% with more common in age group between (51-60 years 36%. Mean haemoglobin level in our study showed 11.70 g/dL. The incidence of anaemia was 80% with varying severity 7-9 (2%, 9-11 (32%, 11-13 (46%, >13(20% and smear showed microcytic hypochromic dominated with 52%. CONCLUSION Incidence of anaemia observed in rural population with reference to significances of role as risk factor yet to be studied with detailed study. It is important also to investigate secondary cause of anaemia.

  13. Risk of Anaemia in Population of Healthy Young People Inhabiting a Region in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite unbelievable but significant percentage of young healthy women is at risk of anaemia despite proper nutritional state. In this study we decided to determine the lack or excess of which nutrients in a diet can lead to any effects. The major cause of anaemia is not, as in many studies on nutritional status, the deficiency in iron in a diet. Iron intake in women with anaemia exceeded AI (Adequate Intake level. 120 people took part in the study. Average HGB concentration in female group amounted to 12.45 g/dL and in male group to 14.35 g/dL. Anaemia was determined in 29% women and 4.2% men. In group of women with anaemia a statistically higher intake of SFA, cholesterol, and sucrose and lower intake of pyridoxine, folacin, niacin, and vitamin E, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mg were determined. In a group of men with low haemoglobin concentration a statistically higher intake of sucrose but lower intake of fat, especially SFA and MUFA, vitamin C and zinc were observed. Therefore, together with anaemia in the group of women there are coexisting deficiencies in other nutrients, as compared to the group of men. Prevention in both groups should include various supplements.

  14. Exploring socioeconomic vulnerability of anaemia among women in eastern Indian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (educational attainment, mass media exposure and high socioeconomic status. Urban poor women and adolescent ever-married women had very high odds of being anaemic. New programme strategies are needed, particularly those that improve iron storage and enhance the overall nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.

  15. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion versus red blood cell transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no randomized trials comparing intravenous iron to RBC transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of randomizing women with severe postpartum anaemia secondary to postpartum...... and a higher Hb in weeks 3-12. CONCLUSION: This pilot study shows that intravenous iron could be an attractive alternative to RBC transfusion in severe postpartum anaemia, and that a larger trial is needed and feasible....

  16. Recurrent life-threatening reactions to platelet transfusion in an aplastic anaemia patient with a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Bates, G; Richardson, D; Burrows, L

    2014-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with non-severe aplastic anaemia when she presented with anaemia and thrombocytopenia. She developed recurrent life-threatening hypotensive reactions during transfusion of leukodepleted platelet concentrates, and washed platelet concentrates prevented the development of such reactions subsequently. A paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone was detected on investigating for aplastic anaemia, which has been speculated to play a role in the recurrent hypotensive reactions.

  17. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnatambi Narayanan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is the most widespread nutrition problem in the world and has predominance in developing countries like India, particularly in children and women. The magnitude of anaemia has been well-documented in pregnant women and infants, but there is scarce data on the prevailing occurrence of anaemia in school children. The current study was undertaken to know the point prevalence of anaemia and the comparative effectiveness of twice a week iron supplementation program to daily supplementation program in enhancing the hemoglobin levels in children aged 10-14 years with different grades of anemia in high schools in and around Kakinada, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS A total of 400 children in the age group of 10-14 years were included in this study from both government and private schools by random sampling. After estimating the point prevalence of anaemia by Sahli’s method all the children were given a single dose anti-helminthic and the children who were anaemic were further randomly divided into two subgroups A and B and allotted to either a daily or a twice weekly iron supplementation regimen respectively. The haemoglobin was again assessed after three months. RESULTS Point prevalence of anaemia among these children was 95.75%. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher amongst girls (97.8% as compared to boys (93.9%. Prevalence of anaemia was nearly equal in government (96% and private (95.5% schools. Mean improvement in Hb% of 2.23gm% and 1.98gm% was seen in daily and weekly twice iron groups respectively with no significant difference between two groups. Reduction in prevalence of anemia was 86% in daily iron and 80% in weekly twice iron regimen group. Daily iron group experienced more side effects (15.1% when compared to weekly twice iron group (8.1%. CONCLUSION This study shows that the point prevalence of anaemia in school children is high. Supervised iron and folic acid therapy twice a week is as effective as

  18. Prognostic analysis of refractory anaemia in adult myelodysplastic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-qin; CHEN Zi-xing; CHEN Shu-chang; LIN Guo-wei; JI Mei-rong; LIANG Jian-ying; LIU Dun-dan; LI De-gao; MA Yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) display a very diverse pattem. In this study, we investigated prognostic factors and survival rate in adult patients with MDS refractory anaemia (MDS-RA) diagnosed according to French-American-British classification and evaluated the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) for Chinese patients.Methods A multi-center study on diagnosis of MDS-RA was conducted to charactedze the clinical features of Chinese MDS patients. The morphological criteria for the diagnosis of MDS-RA were first standardized. Clinical data of 307 MDS-RA patients collected from Shanghai, Suzhou and Beijing from 1995 to 2006 were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curve, log rank and Cox regression model.Results The median age of 307 MDS-RA cases was 52 years. The frequency of 2 or 3 lineage cytopenias was 85.6%. Abnormal karyotype occurred in 35.7% of 235 patients. There were 165 cases (70.2%) in the good IPSS cytogenetic subgroup, 44 cases (18.7%) intermediate and 26 cases (11.1%) poor. IPSS showed 20 (8.5%) categodzed as low dsk,195 cases (83.0%) as intermediate-I risk and 20 cases (8.5%) as intermediate-ll dsk. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year survival rates were 90.8%, 85.7%, 82.9%, 74.9% and 71.2% respectively. Fifteen cases (4.9%) transformed to acute myeloid leukaemia (median time 15.9 months, range 3-102 months). Lower white blood ceil count (<1.5x109/L), platelet count (<30x109/L) and cytogenetic abnormalities were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis, but age (≥65 years), IPSS cytogenetic subgroup and IPSS risk subgroup were not independent prognostic factors associated with survival time.Conclusions Chinese patients were younger, and had lower incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities, more severe cytopenias but a more favourable prognosis than Western patients. The major prognostic factors were lower white blood cell count, lower platelet count and fewer abnormal karyotypes. The intemational prognostic scodng

  19. Association of aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's disease with HLA-DRB1 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, F; Sobhani, M; Vaziri, M Z; Bagheri, N; Sabaghi, F; Talebian, A

    2008-12-01

    One of the most fascinating areas of research within the field of histocompatibility at present time concerns an observation that a major human histocompatibility system, human leucocyte antigen (HLA), is deeply involved in the development of a great number of diseases. Major histocompatibility complex is the most polymorphic system in the genome of different species. Recognition of HLA alleles could be useful in transplantation and disease studies. Genetic construct of HLA DRB1 was studied in Iranian normal populations and patients with aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's disease. DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 466 normal, 35 aplastic anaemia and 10 Fanconi's individuals. Then DRB1 gene polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method. The HLA DRB1 gene analysis showed increase of DRB1*07 in aplastic anaemia patients compared to normal population (P = 0.02). According to this study, the frequency of DRB1*07 in normal individuals was 8.3, and in aplastic anaemia patients, 15.7%. Additionally, the frequency of DRB1*04 in normal, aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's individuals was 10, 5.7 and 20%, respectively. Our results of investigation showed correlation between some HLA alleles with the studied diseases. We reported the frequency of various DR types in aplastic and Fanconi's patients. This study could imply the possible role of HLA-DRB1*07 in the incidence of aplastic anaemia. Moreover, the frequency of DRB1*04, DRB1*03 and DRB1*15 alleles showed intermediate correlation with Fanconi's anaemia.

  20. Pathogenesis of the erythroid failure in Diamond Blackfan anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieff, Colin A; Yang, Jing; Merida-Long, Lilia B; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-02-01

    Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a severe congenital failure of erythropoiesis. Despite mutations in one of several ribosome protein genes, including RPS19, the cause of the erythroid specificity is still a mystery. We hypothesized that, because the chromatin of late erythroid cells becomes condensed and transcriptionally inactive prior to enucleation, the rapidly proliferating immature cells require very high ribosome synthetic rates. RNA biogenesis was measured in primary mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells; during the first 24 h, cell number increased three to fourfold while, remarkably, RNA content increased sixfold, suggesting an accumulation of an excess of ribosomes during early erythropoiesis. Retrovirus infected siRNA RPS19 knockdown cells showed reduced proliferation but normal differentiation, and cell cycle analysis showed a G1/S phase delay. p53 protein was increased in the knockdown cells, and the mRNA level for p21, a transcriptional target of p53, was increased. Furthermore, we show that RPS19 knockdown decreased MYB protein, and Kit mRNA was reduced, as was the amount of cell surface KIT protein. Thus, in this small hairpin RNA murine model of DBA, RPS19 insufficient erythroid cells may proliferate poorly because of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, and also because of decreased expression of the key erythroid signalling protein KIT.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of megaloblastic anaemia type 1 in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchlaka, Chiraz; Maktouf, Chokri; Mahjoub, Bahri; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Sfar, M Tahar; Sioud, Mahbouba; Gueddich, Neji; Belhadjali, Zouheir; Rebaï, Ahmed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Dellagi, Koussay

    2007-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia 1 (MGA1) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by selective intestinal vitamin B12 malabsorption and proteinuria. More than 200 MGA1 patients have been identified worldwide, but the disease is relatively prevalent in Finland, Norway and several Eastern Mediterranean regions. MGA1 is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutations in either the cubilin (CUBN) or the amnionless (AMN) gene. In the present study we investigated the molecular defect underlying MGA1 in nine Tunisian patients belonging to six unrelated consanguineous families. Haplotype and linkage analyses, using microsatellite markers surrounding both CUBN and AMN genes, indicated that four out of the six families were likely to be linked to the CUBN gene. Patients from these families were screened for the Finnish, Mediterranean and Arabian mutations already published. None of the screened mutations could be detected in our population. One family showed a linkage to AMN gene. Direct screening of the AMN gene allowed the identification of the c.208-2A>G mutation, previously described in a Jewish Israeli patient of Tunisian origin and in Turkish patients. This suggests that the c.208-2A>G mutation may derive from a single Mediterranean founder ancestor. For the last family, haplotype analysis excluded both CUBN and AMN genes, suggesting the existence of a third locus that may cause MGA1.

  2. Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P<0.05. Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (P<0.05. Iron (P=0.0072 decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin (P=0.0143 and TIBC (P=0.0143 increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8% participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9% for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8% for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3% for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia. Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation.

  3. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children’s anaemia risk in northern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in anaemia endemicity; and (ii develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15, S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86% were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  4. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children's anaemia risk in northern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Langa, Antonio; Pedro, João Mário; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Vaz Nery, Susana

    2013-05-01

    Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i) quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in anaemia endemicity; and (ii) develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15), S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86%) were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  5. CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Toyin Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. Results: The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/μL vs 920 ± 364cells/μL. Conclusion: It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  6. The impact of anaemia and intravenous iron replacement therapy on outcomes in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Maurice; Klein, Andrew A; Richards, Toby

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia is common in patients with cardiac disease and also in those undergoing cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that preoperative anaemia is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality following surgery. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the impact of anaemia and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation on outcomes in cardiac surgery. Sixteen studies examined preoperative anaemia in detail. One study examined the role of preoperative IV iron administration and a further three, the effect of postoperative iron supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb) levels and the need for transfusion. Preoperative anaemia was associated with higher mortality, more postoperative blood transfusions, longer intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital stay and also a greater incidence of postoperative cardiovascular events. In the single study that examined preoperative IV iron in combination with erythropoietin treatment, there was decreased blood transfusion, shorter hospital stay and an increase in patient survival. However, this was a small retrospective cohort study, with the observation and treatment groups analysed over different time periods. Postoperative administration of IV iron therapy, either alone or in combination with erythropoietin, was not effective in raising Hb levels or reducing red cell concentrate transfusion. On the basis of currently available evidence, the effect of perioperative administration of IV iron to cardiac surgery patients, alone or in combination with erythropoietin, remains unproven. Well-designed and appropriately powered prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate perioperative iron supplementation in the context of cardiac surgery.

  7. Feeding ragworm (Nereis virens Sars) to common sole (Solea solea L.) alleviates nutritional anaemia and stimulates growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.; Blonk, R.J.W.; Palstra, A.P.; Sobotta, Tim; Mongile, Fulvio; Schneider, O.; Planas, J.V.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Common sole fed with commercial pellets develop anaemia and are restricted in their growth performance. The anaemia can be the result of a difference in feed intake, a nutritional deficiency, an inflammatory response to infection or combinations of these aspects. In this study, it was investigated w

  8. Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijiti, Peierdun; Yuexin, Zhang; Min, Liu; Wubuli, Maimaitili; Kejun, Pan; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-03-01

    We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that Uyghur ethnicity, female gender, lower CD4 count, lower body mass index value, self-reported tuberculosis infection, and oral candidiasis were associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia, whereas higher serum alanine aminotransferase level was associated with a lower prevalence of anaemia. The results suggest that the overall prevalence of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection is high in Xinjiang, China, but severe anaemia is uncommon. Patients in China should be routinely checked for anaemia prior to combined antiretroviral therapy initiation, and healthcare providers should carefully select the appropriate first-line combined antiretroviral therapy regimens for anaemic patients.

  9. Anaemia and renal dysfunction are independently associated with BNP and NT-proBNP levels in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenhuis, Jochern; Voors, Adriaan A.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hoes, Arno W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Kragten, Johannes A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anaemia may affect 13-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) levels, but this has not been well described in heart failure (1417) patients without the exclusion of patients with renal dysfunction. Aims: To study the influence of both anaemia and renal function o

  10. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.A.; Khan, N.C.; Burema, J.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anae

  11. Long-term clearance of [57Co]cyanocobalamin in vegans and pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, S; Spinks, T; Ranicar, A; Short, M D; Hoffbrand, A V

    1980-01-01

    1. Whole-body counting has been used to monitor the clearance of [57Co]cyanocobalamin in normal subjects, vegans and patients with pernicious anaemia. After oral administration of 57Co-labelled cyanocobalamin (1 microgram/1 muCi), subjects were counted for radioactivity monthly for a maximum period of 1 year. 2. The results obtained were consistent with a monoexponential clearance model and a least squares fit showed that there was no significant difference between the mean clearance rates for the vegans and normal subjects. 3. The patients with pernicious anaemia cleared the vitamin significantly more quickly than the normal control subjects. 4. This may be due to failure to reabsorb biliary vitamin B12 in pernicious anaemia because of the absence of intrinsic factor.

  12. Anemia de Fanconi: Consideraciones actuales Updating Fanconi’s anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagaseta de Ilurdoz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available La anemia de Fanconi (AF es un síndrome de inestabilidad cromosómica, autosómico recesivo, caracterizado por una hipersensibilidad del DNA a agentes clastogénicos. Clínicamente presenta una insuficiencia medular progresiva, diversas anomalías congénitas e incremento en la predisposición a padecer enfermedades malignas. Se han definido ocho grupos de complementación y se han clonado los genes correspondientes a seis de ellos. Recientes avances en biología molecular han permitido investigar la relación entre el genotipo de AF y la naturaleza y severidad del fenotipo clínico. El tratamiento de la AF es también objeto de una intensa investigación que actualmente se centra en el trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos, con éxito especialmente en caso de donante hermano HLA-idéntico, y en la terapia génica todavía en fase de investigación clínica.Fanconi’s anaemia (FA is an autosomal recessive syndrome associated with chromosomal instability, and hypersensitivity of the DNA to claustrogenic agents. Clinically it presents a progressive marrow insufficiency, different congenital anomalies and an predisposition to malignancy. Eight complementation groups have been defined and the genes corresponding to six of them have been cloned. Recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the relationship between the FA genotype and the nature and severity of the clinical phenotype. The treatment of FA is also the object of intense research that is currently centred on the transplant of hematopoyetic progenitors, especially successful in cases of an HLA-identical brother or sister donor, and in gene therapy, which is still in the phase of clinical research.

  13. A swollen knee in a patient with refractory anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bordin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CASE REPORT A 63-year old man with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts and a history of heart failure, diabetes and hyperuricaemia, presented with pain, warmth and swelling in the left knee. Blood sample showed white cell blood count 3,840/μL (normal formula, haemoglobin 7.1 g/dL, platelets 117,000/L, eritrosedimentation rate 66 mm/h, normal serum creatinine and uric acid. He had no history of neutropenia, fever or recurrent infections. X-ray of the knee did not show any erosion or lytic lesion. Arthrocentesis produced turbid fluid, with elevated cell count (81,000/μL, mainly polimorphonuclear cells, no urate crystals, normal chemical pattern, sterile culture. Synovial fluid smear showed a huge neutrophilic cellularity with scattered mononuclear cells looking like medullar myeloid blasts. The microscopic examination identified a myeloid infiltration as the cause of arthritis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Rheumatic phenomena in myelodysplastic syndromes have a prevalence of 10% and include vasculitis, neuropaties, glomerulonephritis, lupus-like syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, lung infiltrates and arthritis. The pathogenesis is usually autoimmune, as in all paraneoplastic syndromes. In our case, arthritis was due to a direct invasion of blasts. This phenomenon is rarely observed in acute leukemias and was not described yet in myelodysplastic syndromes. Synovial fluid analysis is critical to define the ethiology of an articular effusion, microscopical examination is strongly recommended but it is not always carried out. This case shows how simple diagnostic tests can easily disclose rare conditions.

  14. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Siekmans

    Full Text Available Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anaemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention. Cross-sectional data on the nutrition and health status of children 24-59 mo (N=2405 were obtained in 2000 and 2004 from program evaluation surveys in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania. Linear regression models estimated the association between haemoglobin and immediate, underlying and basic causes of child anaemia and variation in this association between years. Lower haemoglobin levels were observed in children assessed in 2000 compared to 2004 (difference -3.30 g/L, children from Tanzania (-9.15 g/L and Malawi (-2.96 g/L compared to Ghana, and the youngest (24-35 mo compared to oldest age group (48-59 mo; -5.43 g/L. Children who were stunted, malaria positive and recently ill also had lower haemoglobin, independent of age, sex and other underlying and basic causes of anaemia. Despite ongoing morbidity, risk of lower haemoglobin decreased for children with malaria and recent illness, suggesting decreased vulnerability to their anaemia-producing effects. Stunting remained an independent and unbuffered risk factor. Reducing chronic undernutrition is required in order to further reduce child vulnerability and ensure maximum impact of anaemia control programs. Buffering the impact of child morbidity on haemoglobin levels, including malaria, may be achieved in certain settings.

  15. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.

  16. The role of chemotherapy in gastric cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a previously well 46-year-old man who presented with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) of unknown origin. After extensive investigations, he was diagnosed with cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (CR-MAHA) secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma. Initial treatment with plasmapheresis was ineffective, but the patient’s haematological abnormalities improved markedly with chemotherapy directed against his gastric cancer. Our case amplifies previous experience of gastric cancer-associated MAHA which responded to treatment with chemotherapy. We review current understanding of the proposed pathophysiology of CR-MAHA and conclude that this condition is ideally treated with chemotherapy.

  17. Impact of socio demographic factors on the severity of maternal anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarisha Bhandiwad

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with several social and demographic factors. Strategies must be taken from the conceptional level itself by providing proper antenatal counseling and women should be economically empowered and good antenatal care must be made available and accessible to all of them. Even with routine iron prophylaxis in pregnancy, still the prevalence of anaemia is high, so should we consider one or two doses of routine parenteral iron therapy for all pregnant women? [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 868-872

  18. Ibrutinib Is Effective in the Treatment of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinier, Aliénor; Delwail, Vincent; Puyade, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare but life-threatening complication. To date, there are no relevant data for treatment of AIHA in MCL. Ibrutinib, which has been approved for relapse/refractory MCL, is an immunomodulatory drug inhibiting Th2 activation and consequently the production of autoantibodies. We report a case of MCL with AIHA in which this form of anaemia was not controlled with the usual chemotherapy. Ibrutinib was used when MCL with AIHA relapsed, and it allowed rapid remission of AIHA and rapid discontinuation of steroid therapy.

  19. Anaemia in diabetic renal failure: is there a role for early erythropoietin treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaterusso, Cataldo; Pertica, Nicoletta; Lupo, Antonio; Ortalda, Vittorio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The mortality rate in diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is seven times higher than end-stage renal disease mainly because of cardiac causes. Anaemia may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease in CKD. Anaemia occurs at an earlier stage of CKD in diabetic individuals than in those with other causes of CKD. Observational findings support the unfavourable influence of anaemia on mortality in CKD patients, and the combination of anaemia and CKD in diabetics identifies a group with a particularly high mortality risk. While the effect of erythropoietin on these patients' quality of life is known, its impact on mortality and CV risk is uncertain. The recent Anaemia Correction in Diabetes (ACORD) trial in diabetic CKD patients, which targeted haemoglobin levels of 13-15 mg/dl, disclosed no statistically significant favourable or adverse effects on mortality or morbidity over the 2-year follow-up, while other studies endeavouring to nearly normalize haemoglobin have reportedly proved risky. Even if anaemia is causally involved, the pathogenesis of CV disease in diabetics with CKD is so complex that addressing just one factor (anaemia) may not suffice to prevent CV risk, and normalizing haemoglobin levels may even be harmful.

  20. Prevention of post-operative anaemia in hip and knee arthroplasty - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Nissa; Troelsen, Anders; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and minimised the length of stay. A similar result was found for fibrin spray in total hip arthroplasty. However, for total knee arthroplasty, the outcome was blurred. Tourniquet use was uniformly not significant in the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid is useful in managing anaemia and blood...

  1. A Study of Awareness of Nutrition & Anaemia among College Going Students of Mahila College of Bhavnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Patel, Harsha Solanki, Vibha Gosalia, Falguni Vora, M. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lives of young population are characterized by limited education, lack of knowledge pertaining to health aspects & also limited influence on decisions affecting their lives. Thus, awareness is one major factor for development of this group of population. Aim & Objectives: 1 To study awareness regarding nutrition & anaemia amongst young college going students. 2 To assess the impact of health awareness programme on knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Materials & Method: Present cross-sectional study was con-ducted among representative group of 68 young girls from Mrs. N.C.Gandhi & Mrs. B.V.Gandhi Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Bhavnagar city. Pre test was carried out before beginning the programme followed by post test to assess the impact of health awareness programme. Health Awareness programme was carried out by Department of PSM, Government Medical College of Bhavnagar on 24th January 2012 on Nutrition & anaemia. Results: The knowledge of girls regarding health aspects im-proved significantly after intervention. There was a considerable increase in the awareness levels of girls with regard to knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Conclusion: The informative & educable intervention definitely has a positive effect on awareness levels which would eventually encourage expansion of knowledge & positive health habits.

  2. Guidelines on anaemia : effect on primary-care midwives in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P; Fleuren, M; Wensing, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: to assess the adherence and perceived barriers for implementation of a clinical-practice guideline on anaemia, which was the first national guideline for primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. Design: cross-sectional survey study. Setting: primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. Pa

  3. Guidelines on anaemia: effect on primary-care midwives in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Fleuren, M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence and perceived barriers for implementation of a clinical-practice guideline on anaemia, which was the first national guideline for primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. PA

  4. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whi

  5. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  6. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure...

  7. Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused

  8. Oral vitamin B12 replacement for the treatment of pernicious anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Qiu Hua Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with pernicious anaemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anaemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anaemia, the recommended dosage and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from 1 January 1980 to 31 March 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomised controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000mcg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anaemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 intramuscular injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options.

  9. Subclinical anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Patients with chronic hypoxaemia develop secondary polycythaemia that improves oxygen-carrying capacity. Therefore, normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in the presence of chronic arterial hypoxaemia in cystic fibrosis constitute \\'relative anaemia\\'. We sought to determine the cause of this relative anaemia in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied haematological indices and oxygen saturation in healthy volunteers (n=17) and in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=15). Patients with cystic fibrosis had lower resting arterial oxygen saturation when compared with normal volunteers (P<0.0001), and exercise led to a greater reduction in arterial oxygen saturation (P<0.0001). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis did not significantly differ from normal volunteers. Serum iron (P=0.002), transferrin (P=0.02), and total iron-binding capacity (P=0.01) were lower in patients with cystic fibrosis. There were no significant differences in serum ferritin, percentage iron saturation, serum erythropoietin or red cell volume between the groups. The data presented demonstrate a characteristic picture of anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis, except for normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values. Normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis appear to represent a combination of the effects of arterial hypoxaemia promoting polycythaemia, counterbalanced by chronic inflammation promoting anaemia of chronic disease.

  10. Anaemia is associated with shorter leucocyte telomere length in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Liza S. M.; Huzen, Jardi; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Codd, Veryan; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Benus, Germaine F. J. D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is highly prevalent and associated with poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Reduced erythroid proliferation capacity of haematopoietic progenitor cells is associated with reduced telomere length, a marker of cellular ageing. We hypothesize that short telomere le

  11. Screening of aplastic anaemia-related genes in bone marrow CD4+ T cells by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Miao; LIU Wen-li; FU Jin-rong; SUN Han-ying; ZHOU Jian-feng; XU Hui-zhen

    2007-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia. However, the mechanisms of over-proliferation, activation, infiltration of bone marrow and damage to haematopoietic cells of CD4+ T cells in aplastic anaemia are unclear. Therefore, we screened differentially expressed genes of bone marrow CD4+ T cells of aplastic anaemia patients and normal donors by suppressive subtractive hybridization to investigate the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia.Methods The bone marrow mononuclear cells of a first visit aplastic anaemia patient and a healthy donor of the same age and sex were isolated using lymphocyte separating medium by density gradient centrifugation. With the patients as "tester" and donor as "driver", their CD4+T cells were separated with magnetic bead sorting and a cDNA library established by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Then 15 of the resulting subtracted cDNA clones were randomly selected for DNA sequencing and homological analysis. With semiquantitative RT-PCR, bone marrow samples from 20 patients with aplastic anaemia and 20 healthy donors assessed the expression levels of differentially expressed genes from SSH library.Results PCR detected 89 clones in the library containing an inserted fragment of 100 bp to 700 bp. Among 15 sequenced clones, 12 were known genes including 3 repeated genes. Compared with normal donors, there were 9/12 genes over-expressed in bone marrow CD4+T cells of patients with aplastic anaemia. The effects of these genes included protein synthesis, biology oxidation, signal transduction, proliferative regulation and cell migration. Not all these genes had been reported in the mechanisms of haematopoietic damage mediated by CD4+ T cells in aplastic anaemia.Conclusions Screening and cloning genes, which regulate functions of CD4+ T cells, are helpful in elucidating the mechanisms of over proliferation, activation, infiltrating bone marrow and damaging haematopoietic cells of CD4+ T cells in

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (p<0.001). Anaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (p<0.05). Conclusions S.mansoni, undernutrition and anaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should

  13. Anaemia in a phase 2 study of a blood stage falciparum malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guindo Aldiouma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300, no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin Methods To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis. Results A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20] was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect. Conclusions While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely

  14. Severe anaemia is not associated with HIV-1 env gene characteristics in Malawian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachala David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is the most common haematological complication of HIV and associated with a high morbidity and a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated anaemia is poorly understood and may include a direct effect of HIV on erythropoiesis. In vitro studies have suggested that specific HIV strains, like X4 that uses the CXCR4 co-receptor present on erythroid precursors, are associated with diminished erythropoiesis. This co-receptor affinity is determined by changes in the hypervariable loop of the HIV-1 envelope genome. In a previous case-control study we observed an association between HIV and severe anaemia in Malawian children that could not be fully explained by secondary infections and micronutrient deficiencies alone. We therefore explored the possibility that alterations in the V1-V2-V3 fragment of HIV-1 were associated with severe anaemia. Methods Using peripheral blood nucleic acid isolates of HIV-infected children identified in the previous studied we assessed if variability of the V1-V2-V3 region of HIV and the occurrence of X4 strains were more common in HIV-infected children with (cases, n = 29 and without severe anaemia (controls, n = 30. For 15 cases bone marrow isolates were available to compare against peripheral blood. All children were followed for 18 months after recruitment. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that HIV-1 subtype C was present in all but one child. All V1-V2-V3 characteristics tested: V3 charge, V1-V2 length and potential glycosylation sites, were not found to be different between cases and controls. Using a computer model (C-PSSM four children (7.8% were identified to have an X4 strain. This prevalence was not different between study groups (p = 1.00. The V3 loop characteristics for bone marrow and peripheral blood isolates in the case group were identical. None of the children identified as having an X4 strain developed a (new episode of severe anaemia during follow up. Conclusion

  15. Prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people in a rural Ugandan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Mugisha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in high income countries have shown that anaemia is a common medical condition among older people, but such data are scarce in Africa. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people. METHODS: Participants were aged (≥ 50 years recruited from a general population cohort from January 2012 to January 2013. Blood samples were collected for assessing hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, serum folate, C-reactive protein, malaria infection and stool samples for assessment of hookworm infection. HIV status was assessed using an algorithm for HIV rapid testing. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors for anaemia. RESULTS: In total, 1449 people participated (response rate 72.3%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 20.3 % (95% CI 18.2-22.3%, and this was higher for males (24.1%, 95% CI=20.7-27.7% than females (17.5%, 95% CI=15.0-20.1%. In males, the prevalence of anaemia increased rapidly with age almost doubling between 50 and 65 years (p-trend<0.001. Unexplained anaemia was responsible for more than half of all cases (59.7%. Anaemia was independently associated with infections including malaria (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.78-6.82, HIV (OR 2.17, 1.32-3.57 heavy hookworm infection (OR 3.45, 1.73-6.91, low fruit consumption (OR 1.55, 1.05-2.29 and being unmarried (OR 1.37 , 95% CI 1.01-1.89. However, the odds of anaemia were lower among older people with elevated blood pressure (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. CONCLUSION: Anaemia control programmes in Uganda should target older people and should include interventions to treat and control hookworms and educational programs on diets that enhance iron absorption. Clinicians should consider screening older people with HIV or malaria for anaemia. Further studies should be done on unexplained anaemia and serum ferritin levels that predict

  16. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5% school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5% young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2% boys and 296 (53.8% girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6% and hookworm infection (13.5%. It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032 compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002, non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013, low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015, T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008 and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032 were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33-2.58; p<0.001 was a significant predictor for IDA in these children. CONCLUSION: It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

  17. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  18. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia....... The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... parasites. There was no significant difference in malaria infection (prevalence, parasite density and frequency of malaria attacks) and in the prevalence of anaemia between the repeated and single dose anthelmintic treatment groups at 12 and 24 months follow up (p>0.05). However, overall...

  19. Anaemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; McMurray, John J V;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), mortality is inversely related to haemoglobin (hgb) concentration. We investigated the prognostic importance of anaemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) with and without HF...

  20. Preoperative anaemia and newly diagnosed cancer 1 year after elective total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. C.; Jans; Kehlet, H.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered...... gastrointestinal (GI) cancer requiring further investigation. However, the association between preoperative anaemia and cancer 1 year after elective total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is unknown. We evaluated 1-year cancer diagnoses, particularly GI cancers, in anaemic and non-anaemic THA and TKA......·3%) and 79 (1·6%) new cancers in anaemic and non-anaemic patients, respectively (OR: 1·38; 95% CI: 0·81-2·35, P = 0·228). After propensity matching of 661 anaemic and 1305 non-anaemic patients, we found no association between preoperative anaemia and cancer (OR: 0·94; 95% CI: 0·51-1·73, P = 0·837) or with GI...

  1. The influence of anaemia on stroke prognosis and its relation to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Kristensen, S R; Mickley, H;

    2007-01-01

    Anaemia is a negative prognostic factor for patients with heart failure and impaired renal function, but its role in stroke patients is unknown. Furthermore, anaemia has been shown to influence the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), but this is only investigated...... in patients with heart failure, not in stroke patients. Two-hundred-and-fifty consecutive, well-defined ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Mortality was recorded at 6 months follow-up. Anaemia was diagnosed in 37 patients (15%) in whom stroke severity was worse than in the non-anaemic group, whilst...... the prevalence of renal affection, smoking and heart failure was lower. At 6 months follow-up, 23 patients were dead, and anaemia had an odds ratio of 4.7 when adjusted for age, Scandinavian Stroke Scale and a combined variable of heart and/or renal failure and/or elevation of troponin T using logistic...

  2. CD19 (+) CD56 (–) myeloma arising in a patient who failed two courses of immunosupressive therapy for aplastic anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Ruiz, M Amparo; Miranda, G Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with severe aplastic anaemia and without a compatible bone marrow transplant donor are treated with immunosuppressive therapy. These patients are found with time to develop a clonal disease such as myelodysplasia or paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. However, the development of plasma cell dyscrasias is rare. We report the case here of a patient treated with immunosuppressive therapy who went on to develop myeloma 11 months after being diagnosed with severe aplastic anaemia. We include here a review of the literature. PMID:28275389

  3. The impact of renal insufficiency and anaemia on survival in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease, and anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the community setting, little data exists about the risk associated with milder levels of anaemia when it is present concurrently with CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and anaemia in patients with CVD in the community and to examine whether the presence of anaemia was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study and involved a random sample of 35 general practices in the West of Ireland. A practice-based sample of 1,609 patients with established cardiovascular disease was generated in 2000\\/2001 and followed for five years. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. Statistical analysis involved using one-way ANOVA and Chi-squared tests for baseline data and Cox proportional-hazards models for mortality data. RESULTS: Of the study sample of 617 patients with blood results, 33% (n = 203) had CKD while 6% (n = 37) had CKD and anaemia. The estimated risk of death from any cause, when compared to patients with cardiovascular disease only, was almost double (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.98) for patients with both CVD and CKD and was over 4 times greater (HR = 4.33, 95% CI 1.76 to 10.68) for patients with CVD, CKD and anaemia. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiovascular disease in the community, chronic kidney disease and anaemia occur commonly. The presence of chronic kidney disease carries an increased mortality risk which increases in an additive way with the addition of anaemia. These results suggest that early primary care diagnosis and management of this high risk group may be worthwhile.

  4. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali; Yeldu Mohammed Haruna; Erhabor Osaro; Imrana Sani; Abubakar Wase; Onuigwe Festus; Okwesili Augustine; Isaac Zama; Yakubu Abdulrahaman; Dallatu Kabiru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7%) family replacement donors and 2 (1.3%) voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland). Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kit-ACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA). Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL) was evident in 24 (16%) and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL) in 5 (10%) of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00) compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20) respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10) compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13) (P=0.01). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01). Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for regular

  5. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for

  6. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  7. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  8. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Kevin; Maher, Michael M. [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); O' Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  9. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  10. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  11. Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Brock, Hugh S.; Melah, George S.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Crossey, Michael J.; Glew, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit and for measurement of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine...

  12. Disease-corrected haematopoietic progenitors from Fanconi anaemia induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raya, Ángel; Rodríguez-Pizà, Ignasi; Guenechea, Guillermo; Vassena, Rita; Navarro, Susana; Barrero, María José; Consiglio, Antonella; Castellà, Maria; Río, Paula; Sleep, Eduard; González, Federico; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Garreta, Elena; Aasen, Trond; Veiga, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has enabled the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cells and provided valuable experimental platforms to model human disease. Patient-specific iPS cells are also thought to hold great therapeutic potential, although direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that, on correction of the genetic defect, somatic cells from Fanconi anaemia patients can be reprogrammed to pluripotency to generate patient-specific iPS cells....

  13. Aggressive Recurrence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a patient with Fanconi’s Anaemia (FA)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi’s Anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease for which the incidence of head and neck cancer can be increased 700-fold1. We report a case of a 31-year old Caucasian male with FA who initially presented in July 2007 with oral squamous cell carcinoma for which he received radical surgery and radiotherapy. He was disease-free until August 2015 when he presented with an extremely aggressive recurrence.

  14. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE RURAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a global public health problem particularly in developing countries. A major contributory factor to maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To find the prevalence and seve rity of anaemia and evaluate the multiple causal factors among pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross sectional study was conducted in pregnant women attending outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from J uly 1 st 2013 to J une 30 th 2015 Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital , a tertiary care rural hospital in C hidambaram . A pre - designed Performa was utilized to obtain relevant information about demographic and patients’ obstetric characteristics. They were screened for anaemia using cyanmethemoglobin method during their first antenatal visit. RESULTS : The prevalence of anaemia was found to be (1202/1434 83.8% of which mild 27.2%, moderate 60.3% and severe was 12.5% ( A ccording to WHO criteria based on Hb level. Majority were between 20 - 25yrs of age (87861.2% in third trimester (95666.7% were unbooked (91263.5%, illiterate (67747.3% and belonged to low socioeconomic class (109276.1%. Multiparity (92864.7%, pregnancy spacing interval less than 1yr (38841.8%, poor nutrition (6724 6.8% were the most common risk factors. CONCLUSION : In our study, the prevalence rate is still very high in spite of the various preventive strategies as awareness is less among the population . Major factors responsible were multiparity, illiteracy, povert y, late antenatal booking, inadequate spacing between pregnancies. Adequate antenatal care and proper education helps to increase the awareness.

  15. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  16. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural India: a longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishu Mangla

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is a significantly high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas of India. Our study has also enlisted a few socio demographic factors that contribute to such high prevalence of this disease. Programs focused on target population need to be planned and implemented with active participation of locals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3500-3505

  17. Optimal and continuous anaemia control in a cohort of dialysis patients in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Denes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD recommend a minimal haemoglobin (Hb target of 11 g/dL. Recent surveys indicate that this requirement is not met in many patients in Europe. In most studies, Hb is only assessed over a short-term period. The aim of this study was to examine the control of anaemia over a continuous long-term period in Switzerland. Methods A prospective multi-centre observational study was conducted in dialysed patients treated with recombinant human epoetin (EPO beta, over a one-year follow-up period, with monthly assessments of anaemia parameters. Results Three hundred and fifty patients from 27 centres, representing 14% of the dialysis population in Switzerland, were included. Mean Hb was 11.9 ± 1.0 g/dL, and remained stable over time. Eighty-five % of the patients achieved mean Hb ≥ 11 g/dL. Mean EPO dose was 155 ± 118 IU/kg/week, being delivered mostly by subcutaneous route (64–71%. Mean serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were 435 ± 253 μg/L and 30 ± 11%, respectively. At month 12, adequate iron stores were found in 72.5% of patients, whereas absolute and functional iron deficiencies were observed in only 5.1% and 17.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes unexpectedly influenced Hb towards higher levels (12.1 ± 0.9 g/dL; p = 0.02. One year survival was significantly higher in patients with Hb ≥ 11 g/dL than in those with Hb Conclusion In comparison to European studies of reference, this survey shows a remarkable and continuous control of anaemia in Swiss dialysis centres. These results were reached through moderately high EPO doses, mostly given subcutaneously, and careful iron therapy management.

  18. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulevskaya, G; Oburra, H; Aluoch, J R

    1996-07-01

    The auditory function of sixty two Kenyan sickle cell anaemia patients aged seven to thirty years was compared to age-matched fifty five healthy controls with haemoglobin AA. Sensorineural hearing loss of 30 db and above was demonstrated in 25 (40%) of sickle cell anaemia patients and in three (5.5%) control subjects. Both sexes were equally affected. Bilateral lesion registered in 16%. Hearing threshold level was normal in 97% of the sickle cell group. High frequencies were commonly affected with hearing loss of 30-40 db. Two cases with severe unilateral deafness at all frequencies had severe recruitment suggestive of cochlea lesion. There were no cases of acoustic reflex decay in all study patients. The hearing loss was of slow onset. The high risk of deafness in Kenyan sickle cell anaemia patients may be a reflection of the severe course of the disease due to specific Kenyan haematological profile (haplotype 20 with low Hb F level), the level of medical care available and the geographical distribution in the tropics together with other factors.

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  20. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tertiary Health Care Setup in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha Mahashabde, Vinod K Arora, Shireen Sharma, Ahmed Shahjada, H M Dabhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnancy accounts for one fifth of maternal death worldwide. The association between anaemia and adverse pregnancy outcome, higher incidence of preterm & low birth weight deliveries has been demonstrated. However, nutritional anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the India’s major public health problems, despite of the fact that this problem is largely preventable. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia and socio-demographic factors. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who came to outpatient unit of obstetrics and gynecology department during March- May 2013 by using pre-designed, pretested structured schedule. Written consent was taken. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 20. Result: - Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 63%.It was seen that 23% of women were illiterate and 58.7% of them belong to upper lower class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation, age at first pregnancy and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anae-mia in pregnancy. Conclusion: - A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

  1. The effects of co-infection with human parvovirus B19 and Plasmodium falciparum on type and degree of anaemia in Ghanaian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwabena Obeng Duedu; Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe; Patrick Ferdinand Ayeh-Kumi; Raymond Bedu Affrim; Theophilus Adiku

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determin the extent to which parvovirus B19 (B19V) and co-infection of B19V and malaria contribute to risk of anaemia in children. Methods: B19V DNA and malaria parasites were screened for 234 children at the PML Children’s Hospital in Accra. The role of B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria in anaemia was evaluated by analysing full blood cell counts, malaria and B19V DNA results from these children. Results: The prevalence of B19V, malaria and co-infection with B19V and malaria was 4.7%, 41.9%and 2.6%, respectively. Malaria posed a greater risk in the development of mild anaemia compared to severe anaemia (OR=5.28 vrs 3.15) whereas B19V posed a higher risk in the development of severe anaemia compared to mild anaemia (OR=4.07 vrs 1.00) from a non-anaemic child. Persons with co-infection with B19V and malaria had 2.23 times the risk (95%CI=0.40-12.54) of developing severe anaemia should they already have a mild anaemia. The degree of anaemia was about three times affected by co-infection (Pillai’s trace=0.551, P=0.001) as was affected by malaria alone (Pillai’s trace=0.185, P=0.001). B19V alone did not significantly affect the development of anaemia in a non-anaemic child. Microcytic anaemia was associated with B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria more than normocytic normochromic anaemia. Conclusions: B19V was associated with malaria in cases of severe anaemia. The association posed a significant risk for exacerbation of anaemia in mild anaemic children. B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria may be associated with microcytic anaemia rather than normocytic normochromic anaemia as seen in cases of B19V infection among persons with red cell abnormalities.

  2. Coeliac disease as the cause of resistant sideropenic anaemia in children with Down's syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coeliac disease (CD is a permanent intolerance of gluten, i.e. of gliadin and related proteins found in the endosperm of wheat, rye and barley. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, autoimmune nature, predominantly asymptomatic or atypical clinical course, as well as by high prevalence in patients with Down's syndrome (DS and some other diseases. Outline of Cases. We are presenting a girl and two boys, aged 6-7 (X=6.33 years with DS and CD recognized under the feature of sideropenic anaemia resistant to oral therapy with iron. Beside mental retardation, low stature and the morphological features characteristic of DS, two patients had a congenital heart disease; one ventricular septal defect and the other atrioventricular canal. In two patients, trisomy on the 21st chromosome pair (trisomy 21 was disclosed in all cells, while one had a mosaic karyotype. All three patients had classical laboratory parameters of sideropenic anaemia: blood Hb 77-89 g/l (X=81.67, HCT 0.26-0.29% (X=0.28, MCV 69-80 fl (X=73, MCH 24.3-30 pg (X=26.77 and serum iron 2-5 μmol/L (X=4.0. Beside anaemia and in one patient a mild isolated hypertransaminasemia (AST 67 U/l, ALT 62 U/l, other indicators of CD were not registered in any of the children. In addition, in all three patients, we also detected an increased level of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (atTG of IgA class (45-88 U/l so that we performed endoscopic enterobiopsy in order to reliably confirm the diagnosis of CD. In all three patients, the pathohistological finding of the duodenal mucosa specimen showed mild to moderate destructive enteropathy associated with high intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, cryptic hyperplasia and lympho-plasmocytic infiltration of the stroma. In all three patients, the treatment with a strict gluten-free diet and iron therapy applied orally for 3-4 months resulted in blood count normalization and the correction of sideropenia. Serum level of the at

  3. Prevention of the recurrence of anaemia in Gambian children following discharge from hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa A Bojang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic countries, children who have experienced an episode of severe anaemia are at increased risk of a recurrence of anaemia. There is a need to find ways of protecting these at risk children from malaria and chemoprevention offers a potential way of achieving this objective. METHODS: During the 2003 and 2004 malaria transmission seasons, 1200 Gambian children with moderate or severe anaemia (Hb concentration <7 g/dL were randomised to receive either monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP or placebo until the end of the malaria transmission season in which they were enrolled, in a double-blind trial. All study subjects were treated with oral iron for 28 days and morbidity was monitored through surveillance at health centres. The primary endpoint was the proportion of children with moderate or severe anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of clinical episodes of malaria during the surveillance period, outpatient attendances, the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly, nutritional status at the end of the malaria transmission season and compliance with the treatment regimen. RESULTS: The proportions of children with a Hb concentration of <7 g/dL at the end of the malaria transmission season were similar in the two study groups, 14/464 (3.0% in children who received at least one dose of SP and 16/471 (3.4% in those who received placebo, prevalence ratio 0.89 (0.44,1.8 P = 0.742. The protective efficacy of SP against episodes of clinical malaria was 53% (95% CI 37%, 65%. Treatment with SP was safe and well tolerated; no serious adverse events related to SP administration were observed. Mortality following discharge from hospital was low among children who received SP or placebo (6 in the SP group and 9 in the placebo group respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment with SP did not reduce the proportion of previously anaemic children with moderate or severe anaemia

  4. Parvovirus B19 infection and severe anaemia in Kenyan children: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuju James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During acute Human parvovirus B19 (B19 infection a transient reduction in blood haemoglobin concentration is induced, due to a 5-7 day cessation of red cell production. This can precipitate severe anaemia in subjects with a range of pre-existing conditions. Of the disease markers that occur during B19 infection, high IgM levels occur closest in time to the maximum reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Previous studies of the contribution of B19 to severe anaemia among young children in Africa have yielded varied results. This retrospective case/control study seeks to ascertain the proportion of severe anaemia cases precipitated by B19 among young children admitted to a Kenyan district hospital. Methods Archival blood samples from 264 children under 6 years with severe anaemia admitted to a Kenyan District Hospital, between 1999 and 2004, and 264 matched controls, were tested for B19 IgM by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and 198 of these pairs were tested for B19 DNA by PCR. 536 samples were also tested for the presence of B19 IgG. Results 7 (2.7% cases and 0 (0% controls had high B19 IgM levels (Optical Density > 5 × cut-off value (McNemar's exact test p = 0.01563, indicating a significant association with severe anaemia. The majority of strongly IgM positive cases occurred in 2003. 10/264 (3.7% cases compared to 5/264 (1.9% controls tested positive for B19 IgM. This difference was not statistically significant, odds ratio (OR = 2.00 (CI95 [0.62, 6.06], McNemar's exact test p = 0.3018. There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the B19 IgG (35 (14.8% vs 32 (13.6%, OR = 1.103 (CI95 [0.66, 1.89], McNemar's exact test, p = 0.7982, or the detection of the B19 DNA (6 (3.0% vs 5 (2.5%, OR = 1.2 (CI95 [0.33, 4.01], McNemar's exact test p = 1. Conclusions High B19 IgM levels were significantly associated with severe anaemia, being found only among the cases. This suggests that 7/264 (2.7% of cases of severe

  5. Anaemia, iron deficiency and a common polymorphism of iron-regulation, TMPRSS6 rs855791, in Rwandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, Ina; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Zeile, Irene; Musemakweri, Andre; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia in children living in sub-Saharan Africa is common, but its causes are diverse. In 545 children below 5 years of age from rural southern Rwanda, we assessed the role of iron deficiency (ID) and of the TMPRSS6 736(V) (rs855791) allele, known to reduce iron status and haemoglobin (Hb) levels, in anaemia and Hb concentrations. Anaemia (Hb anaemia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67) to an extent comparable with α(+) -thalassaemia, breastfeeding, inflammation and low household income, but the odds were substantially higher in Plasmodium falciparum infection (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3). These findings were verified in a multivariate analysis of Hb concentrations. The TMPRSS6 736(V) allele only tended to be associated with low Hb levels. TMPRSS6 736(V) is comparatively rare among Rwandan children and may only slightly contribute to low Hb concentrations. Preventable causes of anaemia, notably ID and P. falciparum infection, largely outweigh its impact and need to be addressed to improve the haematological status of children in the study area.

  6. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  7. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  8. The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Aleksandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to present some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

  9. Ferric carboxymaltose: a review of its use in iron-deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2009-01-01

    Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject(R)), a novel iron complex that consists of a ferric hydroxide core stabilized by a carbohydrate shell, allows for controlled delivery of iron to target tissues. Administered intravenously, it is effective in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia, delivering a replenishment dose of up to 1000 mg of iron during a minimum administration time of carboxymaltose rapidly improves haemoglobin levels and replenishes depleted iron stores in various populations of patients with iron-deficiency anaemia, including those with inflammatory bowel disease, heavy uterine bleeding, postpartum iron-deficiency anaemia or chronic kidney disease. It was well tolerated in clinical trials. Ferric carboxymaltose is, therefore, an effective option in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia in patients for whom oral iron preparations are ineffective or cannot be administered. Ferric carboxymaltose is a macromolecular ferric hydroxide carbohydrate complex, which allows for controlled delivery of iron within the cells of the reticuloendothelial system and subsequent delivery to the iron-binding proteins ferritin and transferrin, with minimal risk of release of large amounts of ionic iron in the serum. Intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose results in transient elevations in serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, and, ultimately, in the correction of haemoglobin levels and replenishment of depleted iron stores. The total iron concentration in the serum increased rapidly in a dose-dependent manner after intravenous administration of ferric carboxymaltose. Ferric carboxymaltose is rapidly cleared from the circulation and is distributed primarily to the bone marrow ( approximately 80%) and also to the liver and spleen. Repeated weekly administration of ferric carboxymaltose does not result in accumulation of transferrin iron in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia. Intravenously administered ferric carboxymaltose was effective in

  10. Anaemia in chronic heart failure is not only related to impaired renal perfusion and blunted erythropoietin production, but to fluid retention as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Visser, Folkert W.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Smilde, Tom D. J.; Lipsic, Erik; Navis, Gerjan; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is prevalent in the chronic heart failure (CHF) population, but its cause is often unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relation between anaemia, renal perfusion, erythropoietin production, and fluid retention in CHF patients. Methods and results We studied 97 patients wit

  11. Design of the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF) : a Phase III, anaemia correction, morbidity-mortality trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMurray, John J. V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Polu, Krishna R.; Solomon, Scott D.; Sun, Yan; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Wasserman, Scott M.; Young, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) and anaemia have greater functional impairment, worse symptoms, increased rates of hospital admission, and a higher risk of death, compared with non-anaemic HF patients. Whether correcting anaemia can improve outcomes is unknown. The Reduction of Events with Darbepoe

  12. Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Soares Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb in children aged 1-4 y (preschool children in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1-4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003-2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR(2-10, and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l, in males (93 g/l, and for children 1-2 y (88 g/l. In West Africa, severe malnutrition, Pf PR(2-10, and biological synergisms between S. haematobium and hookworm infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk; an estimated 36.8%, 14.9%, 3.7%, 4.2%, and 0.9% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria, S. haematobium infections, hookworm infections, and S. haematobium/hookworm coinfections, respectively. A large spatial cluster of low mean Hb (95% was predicted for an area shared by Burkina Faso and Mali. We estimate that in 2011, approximately 6.7 million children aged 1-4 y are anaemic in the three study countries. CONCLUSIONS: By

  13. Disease management mitigates risk of pathogen transmission from maricultured salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Simon R. M.; Bruno, David W.; Madsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Open marine net pens facilitate virus and sea lice transfer, occasionally leading to infections and outbreaks of disease in farmed salmon. A review of 3 salmon pathogens (infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], salmon alphavirus [SAV] and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis) shows...... that increased risk of exposure to neighbouring farms is inversely related to distance from and directly related to biomass at the source of infection. Epidemiological techniques integrating data from oceanography, diagnostics and pathogen shedding rates and viability contribute to improved understanding...... of pathogen transmission pathways among farms and permit the designation of areas of risk associated with sources of infection. Occupation of an area of risk may increase the likelihood of exposure, infection and disease among susceptible fish. Disease mitigation in mariculture occurs at 2 scales: area...

  14. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines on anaemia management in chronic kidney disease: a European Renal Best Practice position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Bárány, Peter; Covic, Adrian; De Francisco, Angel; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Goldsmith, David; Hörl, Walter; London, Gerard; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group has produced comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for the management of anaemia in CKD patients. These guidelines addressed all of the important points related to anaemia management in CKD patients, including therapy with erythropoieis stimulating agents (ESA), iron therapy, ESA resistance and blood transfusion use. Because most guidelines were 'soft' rather than 'strong', and because global guidelines need to be adapted and implemented into the regional context where they are used, on behalf of the European Renal Best Practice Advisory Board some of its members, and other external experts in this field, who were not participants in the KDIGO guidelines group, were invited to participate in this anaemia working group to examine and comment on the KDIGO documents in this position paper. In this article, the group concentrated only on those guidelines which we considered worth amending or adapting. All guidelines not specifically mentioned are fully endorsed.

  15. Increased microerythrocyte count in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia contributes to protection against severe malarial anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya J I Fowkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heritable haemoglobinopathy alpha(+-thalassaemia is caused by the reduced synthesis of alpha-globin chains that form part of normal adult haemoglobin (Hb. Individuals homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia have microcytosis and an increased erythrocyte count. Alpha(+-thalassaemia homozygosity confers considerable protection against severe malaria, including severe malarial anaemia (SMA (Hb concentration 1.1 x 10(12/l as a result of the reduced mean cell Hb in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia. In addition, children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia require a 10% greater reduction in erythrocyte count than children of normal genotype (p = 0.02 for Hb concentration to fall to 50 g/l, the cutoff for SMA. We estimated that the haematological profile in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia reduces the risk of SMA during acute malaria compared to children of normal genotype (relative risk 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-1.12, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: The increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia may contribute substantially to their protection against SMA. A lower concentration of Hb per erythrocyte and a larger population of erythrocytes may be a biologically advantageous strategy against the significant reduction in erythrocyte count that occurs during acute infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This haematological profile may reduce the risk of anaemia by other Plasmodium species, as well as other causes of anaemia. Other host polymorphisms that induce an increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis may confer a similar advantage.

  16. Nutritional anaemia in 11-year-old schoolchildren in the western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparelli, R D; van der Westhuyzen, J; Steyn, N P; Baynes, R D; MacFarlane, B J; Green, A; Bothwell, T H

    1988-04-16

    A nutritional anaemia survey was carried out on 610 11-year-old coloured, black and white schoolchildren in urban and rural communities in the western Cape. The mean (+/- 1 SD) haemoglobin concentration was 13.0 +/- 1.2 g/dl. The coloured and black subgroups considered together had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentration than the white subgroup (12.8 +/- 1.2 g/dl v. 13.4 +/- 1.0 g/dl) (F = 37.47; P less than 0.0001). The urban population as a whole had a significantly lower geometric mean (1 SD range) serum ferritin concentration than the rural population (25.6 (13.5-48.6) micrograms/l v. 34.1 (21.3-54.6) micrograms/l) (F = 42.94; P less than 0.0001). The lowest geometric mean serum ferritin values were found in the urban coloured (23.1 (11.5-46.4) micrograms/l) and urban black schoolchildren (23.7 (13.2-42.6) micrograms/l), with figures of less than 12 micrograms/l in 11.7% and 12.5% respectively. Although 28% of the children had red cell folate values below the recommended lower limit of normal (175 ng/ml), probability plot analysis of the data suggested that folate deficiency was not a major problem in the study population. The calculated daily iron and folate intakes were below the age-related recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all the subgroups, yet anaemia was relatively uncommon. These findings suggest that the RDA values are too high. Overall the prevalence of nutritional anaemia was low and only the urban coloured subgroup showed significant second populations with low haemoglobin and serum ferritin measurements.

  17. [Is there still a role for recombinant erythropoietin in the management of anaemia of critical illness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Ramón Leal-Noval, Santiago; García-Erce, José Antonio

    2009-05-23

    There is a high prevalence of anaemia among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and it may have a negative effect on patient's outcome. The most common treatment for anaemia in the ICU patient is allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT), yet it has been found to be a risk factor associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. As a reduction of erythropoietin secretion and action is observed in most ICU patients, the administration of (rHuEPO) has emerged as a therapeutic option. Unfortunately, the results from different studies show that rHuEPO treatment results in a small reduction of ABT requirements when "restrictive" transfusion criteria are applied, which has only been supported by three of the studies. Yet this did not result in a decreased mortality rate, except for patients with a diagnosis on admission of trauma in two studies, even though one study reported a dose-dependent increase of thrombotic vascular events among patients without thromboprophylaxis. Altogether, clinical data suggest a role for rHuEPO in the treatment of anaemia in trauma patients, especially in those sustaining neurotrauma, whereas for non-trauma patients without an approved indication, rHuEPO administration is an expensive approach, does not seem to improve outcome, and might result in serious adverse effects. Consequently, more basic and clinical studies are required to ascertain which patients are more likely to benefit from these treatments, as well as to identify the optimal doses and administration schedules, and iron administration.

  18. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  19. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85% at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU, whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome.

  20. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia--a rare combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Saera; Baig, Muhammad Shakil; Humail, Syed Mujahid; Riaz, Amir

    2009-06-01

    Primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (PAPS) and Autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a very rare combination. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS) with underlying SLE, however, has a well documented association with Coomb's positive Auoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia. We describe a young girl with PAPS presenting with deep venous thrombosis, livedo reticularis and features of AIHA. The patient was refractory to treatment for 5 years however, her condition improved dramatically with anticoagulants, corticosteroid therapy and the addition of hydroxychloroquine and azathioprin. We have also discussed hydroxychloroquine therapy in PAPS which is not yet fully established and the probability of this patient developing other autoimmune disorders in future.

  1. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Million

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9% were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007, those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01 and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001 had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, PAscaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care

  2. Unraveling the Fanconi anaemia-DNA repair connection through DNA helicase and translocase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L H

    2005-08-16

    How the Fanconi anaemia (FA) chromosome stability pathway functions to cope with interstrand crosslinks and other DNA lesions has been elusive, even after FANCD1 proved to be BRCA2, a partner of Rad51 in homologous recombination. The identification and characterization of two new Fanconi proteins having helicase motifs, FANCM and FANCJ/BRIP1/BACH1, implicates the FANC nuclear core complex as a participant in recognizing or processing damaged DNA, and the BRIP1 helicase as acting independently of this complex.

  3. Aplastic anaemia preceding acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an adult with isolated deletion of chromosome 9q.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2008-12-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) can precede acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in 2% of children but this is rarely reported to occur in adults. A 21-year-old male presented with bone marrow failure and bone marrow biopsy showed a profoundly hypocellular marrow. He recovered spontaneously but represented 2 months later when he was diagnosed with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Chromosomal examination revealed 46,XY,del(9)(q13q34). To the best of our knowledge this is the first case to be reported of aplasia preceding ALL with 9q minus as the sole chromosomal abnormality.

  4. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Kriplani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001 after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l (P<0.001. Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%.Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and

  6. A phase III randomized trial comparing glucocorticoid monotherapy versus glucocorticoid and rituximab in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgens, Henrik Sverre; Frederiksen, Henrik; Hasselbalch, Hans C;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone and ritu......The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone...

  7. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants' Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and anaemia of daily iron-folic acid (IFA, twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam.Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (<20 weeks gestation from 50 randomly-selected communes participated, and in the CRT 1,258 pregnant women (<16 weeks gestation in 104 communes were allocated randomly to trial arms. The main outcome was six-month-old infant Hb concentration. Baseline data included women's socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, Hb and serum ferritin. Mean differences in infant Hb and odds ratios of infant anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18; weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12 and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27 were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43, weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54 and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48 groups than in the OS.Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants

  8. Cormic index profile of children with sickle cell anaemia in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akodu, Samuel Olufemi; Njokanma, Olisamedua Fidelis; Kehinde, Omolara Adeolu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sickle cell disorders are known to have a negative effect on linear growth. This could potentially affect proportional growth and, hence, Cormic Index. Objective. To determine the Cormic Index in the sickle cell anaemia population in Lagos. Methodology. A consecutive sample of 100 children with haemoglobin genotype SS, aged eight months to 15 years, and 100 age and sex matched controls (haemoglobin genotype AA) was studied. Sitting height (upper segment) and full length or height were measured. Sitting height was then expressed as a percentage of full length/height (Cormic Index). Results. The mean Cormic Index decreased with age among primary subjects (SS) and AA controls. The overall mean Cormic Index among primary subjects was comparable to that of controls (55.0 ± 4.6% versus 54.5 ± 5.2%; 54.8 ± 4.5% versus 53.6 ± 4.9%) in boys and girls, respectively. In comparison with AA controls, female children with sickle cell anaemia who were older than 10 years had a significantly lower mean Cormic Index. Conclusion. There was a significant negative relationship between Cormic Index and height in subjects and controls irrespective of gender. Similarly, a significant negative correlation existed between age, sitting height, subischial leg length, weight, and Cormic Index in both subjects and controls.

  9. Cormic Index Profile of Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi Akodu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell disorders are known to have a negative effect on linear growth. This could potentially affect proportional growth and, hence, Cormic Index. Objective. To determine the Cormic Index in the sickle cell anaemia population in Lagos. Methodology. A consecutive sample of 100 children with haemoglobin genotype SS, aged eight months to 15 years, and 100 age and sex matched controls (haemoglobin genotype AA was studied. Sitting height (upper segment and full length or height were measured. Sitting height was then expressed as a percentage of full length/height (Cormic Index. Results. The mean Cormic Index decreased with age among primary subjects (SS and AA controls. The overall mean Cormic Index among primary subjects was comparable to that of controls (55.0±4.6% versus 54.5±5.2%; 54.8±4.5% versus 53.6±4.9% in boys and girls, respectively. In comparison with AA controls, female children with sickle cell anaemia who were older than 10 years had a significantly lower mean Cormic Index. Conclusion. There was a significant negative relationship between Cormic Index and height in subjects and controls irrespective of gender. Similarly, a significant negative correlation existed between age, sitting height, subischial leg length, weight, and Cormic Index in both subjects and controls.

  10. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  11. Disease-corrected haematopoietic progenitors from Fanconi anaemia induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Angel; Rodríguez-Pizà, Ignasi; Guenechea, Guillermo; Vassena, Rita; Navarro, Susana; Barrero, María José; Consiglio, Antonella; Castellà, Maria; Río, Paula; Sleep, Eduard; González, Federico; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Garreta, Elena; Aasen, Trond; Veiga, Anna; Verma, Inder M; Surrallés, Jordi; Bueren, Juan; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2009-07-02

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has enabled the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent cells and provided valuable experimental platforms to model human disease. Patient-specific iPS cells are also thought to hold great therapeutic potential, although direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that, on correction of the genetic defect, somatic cells from Fanconi anaemia patients can be reprogrammed to pluripotency to generate patient-specific iPS cells. These cell lines appear indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells and iPS cells from healthy individuals. Most importantly, we show that corrected Fanconi-anaemia-specific iPS cells can give rise to haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid and erythroid lineages that are phenotypically normal, that is, disease-free. These data offer proof-of-concept that iPS cell technology can be used for the generation of disease-corrected, patient-specific cells with potential value for cell therapy applications.

  12. [Double contours and companion shadows in the skull associated with anaemias (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, F; Celik, E

    1978-12-01

    Lateral X-ray pictures of the skull in certain several and chronic disorders of the blood as thalassaemia, congenital haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell anaemia and iron deficiency disease show frequently changes of the outlines of the cranial bones. They consist of a double contour of the outer cranial border and on the interior side below the sagittal sutura of a band-like shadow or of multiple stripes and lines running parallel to the carnial vault. They concern the parietal bones and may extend from the bregma till to the lamda or occupy only a part of this distance. The roentgenological features are due to the enlargement of the crainal bones, the bulging out of both parietal bondes, the sometimes enlarged and deepened borders of the sulcus sagittalis superior and particularly to the furrow and depression on the skull above the sagittal suture caused by the protruding parietal bones on both sides. As these different abnormal structures must be passed by the picturing X-ray, effects of superposition and interference are produced. Longitudinal ridges or bony edges which could explain the roentgenological findings could not be established. Since the peculiar alterations of the cranial bones are mainly found in the mentioned blood disorders, where they are caused by the overgrowing red marrow, they also display the same roentgenological features. These features are, therefore, a characteristic sign of these diseases.

  13. Anaemia and fever in Kidney transplant. The role of human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodis López, Yanet; Santana Estupiñán, Raquel; Marrero Robayna, Silvia; Gallego Samper, Roberto; Henríquez Palop, Fernando; Rivero Vera, José Carlos; Camacho Galán, Rafael; Pena López, María José; Sablón González, Nery; González Cabrera, Fayna; Oliva Dámaso, Elena; Vega Díaz, Nicanor; Rodríguez Pérez, José Carlos

    2016-11-16

    Infections remain an issue of particular relevance in renal transplant patients, particularly viral infections. Human parvovirus B19 infection causes severe refractory anaemia, pancytopenia and thrombotic microangiopathy. Its presence is recognized by analysing blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by the discovery of typical giant proerythroblasts in the bone marrow. We report the case of a 65 year-old man with a history of deceased donor renal transplant in September 2014. At 38 days after the transplant, the patient presented progressive anaemia that was resistant to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. At 64 days after transplant, hyperthermia occurred with progressive deterioration of the patient's general condition. The viral serology and the first blood PCR for human parvovirus B19 were both negative. At 4 months and 19 days after, a bone marrow biopsy was conducted, showing giant erythroblasts with nuclear viral inclusions that were compatible with parvovirus; a PCR in the tissue confirmed the diagnosis. A second blood PCR was positive for parvovirus. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and the temporary discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil, a complete remission of the disease occurred, although the blood PCR for parvovirus B19 remained positive, so monitoring is necessary for future likely recurrence.

  14. Oxpentifylline versus placebo in the treatment of erythropoietin-resistant anaemia: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassett Robert G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main hypothesis of this study is that Oxpentifylline administration will effectively treat erythropoietin- or darbepoietin-resistant anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients. Methods/design Inclusion criteria are adult patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (including dialysis patients with significant anaemia (haemoglobin ≤ 110 g/L for at least 3 months for which there is no clear identifiable cause and that is unresponsive to large doses of either erythropoietin (≥ 200 IU/kg/week or darbepoetin (≥ 1 μg/kg/week. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either placebo (1 tablet daily or oxpentifylline (400 mg daily per os for a period of 4 months. During this 4 month study period, haemoglobin measurements will be performed monthly. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in haemoglobin level between the 2 groups at the end of the 4 month study period, adjusted for baseline values. Secondary outcome measures will include erythropoiesis stimulating agent dosage, Key's index (erythropoiesis stimulating agent dosage divided by haemoglobin concentration, and blood transfusion requirement. Discussion This investigator-initiated multicentre study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists and their chronic kidney disease patients determine whether oxpentifylline represents a safe and effective strategy for treating erythropoiesis stimulating agent resistance in chronic kidney disease. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12608000199314.

  15. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paes, Geert; Paepe, Dominique; Meyer, Evelyne;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) is often challenging because all currently available tests have their limitations. Dogs with IMHA often have an increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (OF), a characteristic that is sometimes used in the diagnosis of IMHA...

  16. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  17. Immune haemolytic anaemia associated with ampicillin dependent warm antibodies and high titre cold agglutinins in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Sørensen, P G

    1984-01-01

    A case of severe immune haemolytic anaemia in a 54-year-old man suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia is presented. A strongly positive direct Coombs test with erythrocyte bound IgG, C3d and C4 was demonstrated during the haemolytic process. Further, serologic investigations revealed ampicillin...

  18. Sustained postoperative anaemia is associated with an impaired outcome after coronary artery bypass graft surgery : insights from the IMAGINE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Tijssen, Jan G.; Warnica, Wayne J.; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between sustained postoperative anaemia and outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design Retrospective analysis of the IMAGINE trial, which tested the effect of the ACE inhibitor quinapril on cardiovascular events after CABG. Setting Thor

  19. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn;

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...

  20. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  1. Elevated levels of nitric oxide and low levels of haptoglobin are associated with severe malarial anaemia in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, Ben; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2002-01-01

    Severe malarial anaemia (SA) is a major complication of malaria and an important cause of child mortality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis behind SA is poorly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a protective role against clinical malaria but is also suggested to have a pathogen...

  2. Anaemia in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in South Africa: predictive/prognostic value, aetiologies and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The clinical presentation in such patients is often so non-specific that much tuberculosis remains unsuspected, undiagnosed and is therefore untreated prior to death. Anaemia is one of t

  3. Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Collins, Gary;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional st......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those...... with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV 100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir...

  4. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  5. PARENTERAL IRON SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PACKED CELLS/BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sarala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM This case study focuses on the efficacy of iron sucrose in moderate-to-severe anaemia in pregnancy and to compare the efficacy of iron sucrose with packed cell transfusion and based on the study to establish whether iron sucrose could be an alternative to packed cells transfusion for the management of moderate-to-severe anaemia complicating pregnancy remote from the term gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a case control study for a period of 2 years. Women were randomly selected where for the study group 50 patients intravenous iron sucrose was given and for control group 50 patients packed cells transfusion was given. RESULTS The study group and the control group had 50 subjects each. On an average 80% were in the age group of 15-24 yrs. in both groups. In both groups, on an average 85% were with moderate anaemia (6-8 g/dL and 15% were with severe anaemia (<6 g/dL. Mean requirement of iron sucrose for moderate anaemia was 1100 mg and for severe anaemia it was 1300 mg. Mean requirement of packed cells for moderate anaemia was 3 units and for severe anaemia 4-5 units. In iron sucrose group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.1±0.8 g/dL, after 1 week 7.9±0.6, after 4 weeks 11±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 11.7±0.6 g/dL. In packed cells group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.0±0.7 g/dL, after 1 week 10.2±0.5 g/dL, after 4 weeks 10.3±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 10.4±0.4 g/dL. The mean haematocrit values in iron sucrose group at baseline 20.9±2.5%, after 1 week 25.3±2.2% and after 4 weeks 33.6±2.0%. The mean haematocrit values in packed cells group at baseline 20.8±2.3%, after 1 week 30.0±1.9% and after 4 weeks 30.2±2.0%. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 1 week in iron sucrose and packed cells group were 4.4±1.3% and 9.1±2.0% respectively. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 4 weeks in iron sucrose and packed cell group were 12.7±2.1% and 9.3±2.3 respectively. The mean ferritin values in iron sucrose group at baseline

  6. Nutrición y anemias en pacientes graves Nutrition and anaemias in critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallardo

    2010-02-01

    postoperados y sépticos, en cuanto a la cifra de hemoglobina, hierro, linfocitos totales, transferrina y albúmina. Se hizo una correlación estadística entre la sideremia y la albúmina, existiendo significación estadística. (Coef Rho de Spearman 0,277. Conclusión: La valoración de la anemia y de la situación nutricional y el tratamiento ferroterapico, como inmunonutriente, pudiera ser beneficioso para la integridad del sistema inmune y su capacidad de defensa ante las agresiones, en pacientes graves ingresados en la UCI.Introduction: We made a clinical study, about nutrition in seriously ill patients, which includes a typical heterogeneous group of critical ill patients, with/without anaemia's, that have been admitted to Intensive Care Unit, ICU. It is difficult to individualize and to generalize the relative importance of all the factors that can contribute to these anaemia's in the admission to the Unit, including nutritional deficiencies, inflammatory alterations, the immune response to aggressions, inmunitary modifications and the complex relations existing between these clinic processes. Objective: Indirect valuation of the nutritional situation and anaemia's, in a typical heterogeneous group of critical ill patients. Method/Results: We studied 202 patients admitted to ICU, of varied and heterogeneous origin, classifying them in 3 groups: control, post surgery and septic group's, becoming the indirect valuation of the nutritional situation on the basis of: Global Subjective Valuation, (VGS and the nutritional analytical determinations of total lymphocytes, albumin, and transferrin. Also we made hemogram and determinations of sideremia and ferritinemia to all of them. In 57% of the patients, we observed levels haemoglobin 12.5 g/dl. Regarding the nutritional prognoses indicators, (VGS + nutritional profile, in the control group's, they did not present anaemia nor analytical clinical under nourishment, in the post surgery group's, anaemia and slight under

  7. Haemolytic anaemia in an HIV-infected patient with severe falciparum malaria after treatment with oral artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpolongo Angela

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravenous (i.v. artesunate is now the recommended first-line treatment of severe falciparum malaria in adults and children by WHO guidelines. Nevertheless, several cases of haemolytic anaemia due to i.v. artesunate treatment have been reported. This paper describes the case of an HIV-infected patient with severe falciparum malaria who was diagnosed with haemolytic anaemia after treatment with oral artemether-lumefantrine. The patient presented with fever, headache, and arthromyalgia after returning from Central African Republic where he had been working. The blood examination revealed acute renal failure, thrombocytopaenia and hypoxia. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia (6% and Plasmodium falciparum infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Severe malaria according to the laboratory WHO criteria was diagnosed. A treatment with quinine and doxycycline for the first 12 hours was initially administered, followed by arthemeter/lumefantrine (Riamet® for a further three days. At day 10, a diagnosis of severe haemolytic anaemia was made (Hb 6.9 g/dl, LDH 2071 U/l. Hereditary and autoimmune disorders and other infections were excluded through bone marrow aspiration, total body TC scan and a wide panel of molecular and serologic assays. The patient was treated by transfusion of six units of packed blood red cell. He was discharged after complete remission at day 25. At present, the patient is in a good clinical condition and there is no evidence of haemolytic anaemia recurrence. This is the first report of haemolytic anaemia probably associated with oral artemether/lumefantrine. Further research is warranted to better define the adverse events occurring during combination therapy with artemisinin derivatives.

  8. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.

  9. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  10. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  11. Myeloneuropathy following nitrous oxide anesthaesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesso, R.M.C.C.; Iunes, Y.; Melo, A.C.P. [Department of Neurology, Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    The neurological condition triggered by anaesthesia with nitrous oxide involves the cyanocobalamine pathway and is characterised by progressive demyelination and axonal lesions of the peripheral nerves and cervicothoracic spinal cord (posterior and anterolateral columns) giving a peripheral neuropathy and very frequently subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. It is possible to show these demyelinating lesions by MRI of the spine, allowing early diagnosis and follow-up. We describe a case of myeloneuropathy with onset a few hours after nitrous oxide anaesthesia in a patient with macrocytic anaemia and possible subclinical vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and MRI evidence of a lesion of the cervical spinal cord. Neurological and haematological improvement followed cyanocobalamine replacement. (orig.) With 2 figs., 15 refs.

  12. Chronic transfusion practice for children with sickle cell anaemia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Banu; McMurray, Marsha A; Schultz, William H; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Hilliard, Lee; Alvarez, Ofelia; Heeney, Matthew; Kalinyak, Karen; Lee, Margaret T; Miller, Scott; Helms, Ronald W; Ware, Russell E

    2009-05-01

    Chronic transfusions to maintain haemoglobin S (HbS) < or =30% are the mainstay of treatment for children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and previous stroke. This HbS target is often hard to maintain, however, and values achieved in current practice are unknown. In preparation for the Phase III Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) trial, we collected data on 295 children with SCA and stroke who received transfusions at 23 institutions. The overall average pre-transfusion %HbS was 35 +/- 11% (institutional range 22-51%). Receiving scheduled transfusions on time was the most predictive variable for maintaining HbS at the < or =30% goal.

  13. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with prostate cancer and bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinski Adam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and prognostic impact of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with bone metastases (BM from prostate cancer. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 51 consecutive patients treated at a community hospital. Twenty-nine patients (57% received taxotere after diagnosis of BM. Results Haemoglobin (Hb ≤ 12.0 g/dL at BM detection was associated with shorter overall survival. During follow-up, 25 patients (49% experienced episodes with Hb 9/L. All of these had previously received blood transfusion. Median interval from Hb 9/L was 2.5 months. Survival after thrombocytopenia was short (3 weeks to 4 months. Haematuria and subdural haematoma were among the causes of death. Conclusions We found high rates of significant bone marrow failure in treatment-refractory patients. Both Hb 9/L predict for unfavourable survival.

  14. 'Polar anaemia': cardiac failure during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guly, H R

    2012-04-01

    On the Belgica expedition (1897-1899), Dr F.A. Cook described a disease that he called 'polar anaemia' and on this expedition it affected most of the expedition members and caused one death. The symptoms were shortness of breath, abnormalities of the pulse and oedema (swelling of the legs) and the disease was clearly cardiac failure. During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration a similar disease affected at least eight other expeditions causing five other deaths. This disease was very similar (and probably identical) to a disease affecting (mostly) Scandinavian seamen and called 'ship beri-beri'. Both diseases were almost certainly what is now called wet beri-beri due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency though most sufferers were probably also vitamin C deficient and some may have had both beri-beri and scurvy. It may have been exacerbated by invalid diets. This paper describes the disease and how it was considered and treated at the time.

  15. Transient leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia associated with severe acute phenobarbital intoxication in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoutorsky, A; Bruchim, Y

    2008-07-01

    A nine-year-old Labrador retriever dog was admitted to the emergency unit of the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with acute-onset tremors and coma. It had recently ingested a large quantity of phenobarbital and had a high serum phenobarbital concentration. On this basis, a diagnosis of acute phenobarbital intoxication was made. Significant leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild anaemia developed on the third day after admission. The leucopenia resolved on day 6 and the thrombocytopenia on day 13. The red blood cell count remained low for the next month. The dog was discharged on day 13 at which time it was ambulatory but weak. It was completely recovered clinically eight days later. In summary, high levels of serum phenobarbital as a result of acute intoxication induced pancytopenia, which improved when the serum phenobarbital level was normalised.

  16. Sickle-cell anaemia: an explanation for the ancient myth of reincarnation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubalili, J K

    1983-08-27

    The belief in reincarnation, widely held in Nigeria for many centuries, has waned in the past 30 years. It is most probable that the "reincarnate" child had sickle-cell anaemia, since this disease would explain all the clinical features and natural history of "reincarnation". Most reincarnate children died of Plasmodium falciparum or bacterial infection. The prevailing high birth rate and familial predisposition almost ensured that another sickler was born to the family. The widespread introduction of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and therapy, the recognition of sickle-cell disease, and some measure of improvement in health care and socioeconomic standards have resulted in an increase in life expectancy for children with HbSS and consequently near-total total extinction of the people's belief in reincarnation.

  17. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  18. The Iron Status of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Sani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is one of the commonest genetic disorders in the world. It is characterized by anaemia, periodic attacks of thrombotic pain, and chronic systemic organ damage. Recent studies have suggested that individuals with SCA especially from developing countries are more likely to be iron deficient rather than have iron overload. The study aims to determine the iron status of SCA patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 45 SCA patients in steady state and 45 non-SCA controls was undertaken. FBC, blood film, sFC, sTfR, and sTfR/log sFC index were done on all subjects. Results. The mean patients’ serum ferritin (589.33 ± 427.61 ng/mL was significantly higher than the mean serum ferritin of the controls (184.53 ± 119.74 ng/mL. The mean serum transferrin receptor of the patients (4.24 ± 0.17 μg/mL was higher than that of the controls (3.96 ± 0.17 μg/mL (p=0.290. The mean serum transferrin receptor (sTfR/log serum ferritin index of the patients (1.65 ± 0.27 μg/mL was significantly lower than that of the control (1.82 ± 0.18 μg/mL (p=0.031. Conclusion. Iron deficiency is uncommon in SCA patients and periodic monitoring of the haematological, biochemical, and clinical features for iron status in SCA patients is advised.

  19. Does recombinant human erythropoietin accelerate correction of post-ulcer-bleeding anaemia? A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Dimitrios Polymeros; Thomas Pagonis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou; Gregorios Paspatis; Maria Hatziargiriou; Sotirios A.Raptis

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Anaemia caused by acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is treated with blood transfusion or iron, but patients usually face a two-month recovery period from posthaemorrhage anaemia. This prospective, randomised, open,pilot study was designed to investigate whether recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin) therapy accelerate haematocrit increase in the post-bleeding recovery period.METHODS: We studied hospitalised patients admitted because of acute ulcer bleeding or haemorrhagic gastritis,who had a haematocrit of 27-33% and did not receive blood transfusions. One day after the endoscopic confirmation of cessation of bleeding, they were randomised either to erythropoietin (20 000 IU Epoetin alfa subcutaneously, on days 0, 4 and 6) plus iron (100 mg im, on days 1- 6, (G1) or iron only (G2). Haematocrit was measured on days 0, 6, 14,30, 45, and 60, respectively.RESULTS: One patient from G1 and two from G2 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 14 and 13 patients from G1 and G2respectively were analysed. Demographic characteristics, serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, reticulocytes, and haematocrit were not significantly different at entry to the study.Median reticulocyte counts were significantly different between groups on day six (G1: 4.0, 3.0-6.4 vsG2: 3.5, 2.1-4.4%,P=0.03) and median haematocrit on day fourteen [G1: 35.9,30.7-41.0 vsG2: 32.5, 29.5-37.0% (median, range), P=0.04].CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin administration significantly accelerates correction of anemia after acute ulcer bleeding.The haematocrit gain is equivalent to one unit of transfused blood two weeks after the bleeding episode.

  20. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  1. Widespread ocular use of topical chloramphenicol: is there justifiable concern regarding idiosyncratic aplastic anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, C N; Anastas, C N

    1996-02-01

    A theoretical but as yet not conclusively proved risk of chloramphenicol induced idiosyncratic aplastic anaemia exists with topical ophthalmic therapy, with the absolute, but highly improbable, maximum risk of death (equalling that of systemic therapy) being 1 in 50,000 to 90,000. To put this in realistic perspective, one must note that the comparable risk of fatal anaphylaxis resulting from penicillin therapy, from any route, is similar at 1 in 100,000. Indeed, it has been noted recently that with more than 200 million ocular chloramphenicol products dispensed in the UK in the past 10 years, only 11 reports (all non-fatal) of suspected topical chloramphenicol induced blood dyscrasia have been reported to the Committee on the Safety of Medicines since 1966. One also has to consider that inadvertent exposure to minute quantities of chloramphenicol (ng/ml) may occur through consumption of livestock that have been treated with chloramphenicol. Broad statements condemning topical chloramphenicol need to be tempered with its proved safety, tolerance, cost, and efficacy while acknowledging an extremely remote risk of the very serious adverse effect of drug induced aplastic anaemia. Risk-benefit assessment is the duty of all prescribing physicians and a decision to prescribe or not prescribe must be made on the basis of personal judgment and an awareness of the statistics in perspective. The only known factor to be associated with vulnerability in the case of topical chloramphenicol is family history. There is no evidence to date that suggests children are any more susceptible than adults.

  2. DETECTION OF A RARE BLOOD GROUP “BOMBAY (OH PHENOTYPE” IN A POST CAESAREAN PREGNANCY WITH ANAEMIA - A RARE CASE REPORT FROM EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Bombay blood group is a very rare blood group discovered almost 60 years back. We report here, a high risk case of Post Caesarean pregnancy with anaemia with Bombay Blood Group

  3. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Goka, Bamenla Q; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detec...

  4. A qualitative study on barriers in the prevention of anaemia during pregnancy in public health centres: perceptions of Indonesian nurse-midwives

    OpenAIRE

    Widyawati, W.; Jans, S.M.P.J.; Utomo, S.; Dillen, J. van; Janssen, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia in pregnancy remains a major problem in Indonesia over the past decade. Early detection of anaemia in pregnancy is one of the components which is unsuccessfully implemented by nurse-midwives. This study aims to explore nurse-midwives' experiences in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Public Health Centres. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study with semi-structured face to face interviews from November 2011 to February 2012 with 23 nurse-midwives in five districts i...

  5. Gender inequalities in excess adiposity and anaemia combine in a large double burden of malnutrition gap detrimental to women in an urban area in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, J.; Gartner, Agnès; Ben Gharbia, H.; Delpeuch, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The nutrition transition has exacerbated the gender gap in health in the Middle East and North Africa region as the increase in excess adiposity has been much higher among women than men. This is not exclusive of the persistence of anaemia, generally also more prevalent among women. We assessed the magnitude and sociodemographic factors associated with gender inequality vis-a-vis the double burden of excess adiposity and anaemia. Design: Cross-sectional study, stratified two-stage ...

  6. Asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and anaemia among children in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Akiyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymptomatic malaria can be observed in both stable endemic areas and unstable transmission areas. However, although much attention has been given to acute malaria infections, relatively little attention has been paid to asymptomatic malaria. Nonetheless, because the asymptomatic host serves as a reservoir for the malaria parasite, asymptomatic malaria is now recognized as an important obstacle to malaria elimination. Asymptomatic malaria is also associated with anaemia, a global public health problem with serious consequences on human health as well as social and economic development. In Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, malaria, anaemia, and malnutrition are serious public health concerns. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between these variables. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between asymptomatic malaria, growth status, and the prevalence of anaemia among children aged 120 months old or younger in rural villages in Lao PDR. Methods In December 2010 and March 2011, data were collected from five villages in Savannakhet province. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and malaria rapid diagnostic tests were conducted. The presence of malaria was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction assays for Plasmodium falciparum. Underweight status, stunting, and anaemia were defined according to World Health Organization standards. Results The mean age of participants (n = 319 was 88.3 months old (Standard Deviation: 20.6, ranged from 30–119 months old, and 20 participants (6.3 % had an asymptomatic malaria infection, 92 (28.8 % were anaemic, 123 (38.6 % were underweight, and 137 (42.9 % were stunted. Stunted children were more likely to be infected with asymptomatic malaria [odds ratio (OR 3.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.25–8.93], and asymptomatic malaria was associated with anaemia [OR 5.17, 95 % CI 1.99–13.43]. Conclusions These results suggest a

  7. Prevalence of preoperative anaemia in patients having first-time cardiac surgery and its impact on clinical outcome. A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C J; Connell, H; McGeorge, A D; Hu, R

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of anaemia is increasing globally. It has a close association with perioperative blood transfusion which, in turn, results in an increased risk of postoperative complications. Undesirable effects are not only limited to short-term, but also have long-term implications. Despite this, many patients undergo cardiac surgery with undiagnosed and untreated anaemia. We designed a retrospective, observational study to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in patients having cardiac surgery in Auckland District Health Board, blood transfusion rates and associated clinical outcome. Two hundred of seven hundred and twelve (28.1%) patients were anaemic. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates were significantly higher in the anaemic group compared to the non-anaemic group (160 (80%) vs. 192 (38%), p-value Anaemia was significantly associated with the development of new infection (14 (7%) vs. 15 (2.9%), p-value 0.0193, RR (CI 95%) 2.389 (1.175-4.859)), prolonged ventilation time (47.01 hours vs. 23.59 hours, p-value 0.0076) and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (80.23 hours vs. 50.27, p-value 0.0011). Preoperative anaemia is highly prevalent and showed a clear link with significantly higher transfusion rates and postoperative morbidity. It is vital that a preoperative management plan for the correction of anaemia should be sought to improve patient safety and outcome.

  8. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha......-talassaemia.RESULTS:Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI0.01-0.08]). Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI1.4 -- 6.8]), with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI 1.4 -- 9.0]), alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI1...

  9. Relationship of anaemia and morbidities among children aged 5-14 years in a resettlement area, Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Motilal Kasdekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnership for Child Development (1998, “The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149- 158.World Health Organization. Anaemia. WHO (2010.World Health Organization (WHO. WHO global database on anaemia: Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Ge¬neva: WHO, 2008a. [Cited 2014 Aug 24]. Available from: URL: http://www.who. int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/en/index. htmlWorld Health Organization (WHO. Health in Asia and the Pacific: Reproductive health, child and adolescent health, nutrition, and health for older persons. Geneva: WHO, 2008b. [Cited 2014 Jul 6]. Available from: URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/publica-tions/Health+in+Asia+and+the+Pacific. Html. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 (2005-06, Nutrition in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India,World Health Organisation. Criteria Anaemia 1985; WHO.World Bank.Rema N, Vasanthamani G. Prevalence of nutritional and lifestyle disorders among school going children in urban and rural areas of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu: Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2011; Vol. 4 (2.Bhoite R, et al. Magnitude of malnutrition and Iron deficiency anaemia among rural school children: Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2003; Vol 2(2: 354-361.Handa R, Ahamad F, Prasad R, “Assessment of nutritional status of 7-10    Years School going children of Allahabad District”. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2008; 3(3:109-115.Verma A, et al. Factors influencing anaemia among girls of school going age (6-18 years from the slums of Ahmedabad city. IJCM 2004; Vol 29 (1.Hasan I, Zulkifle M, A study of malnutrition in government school children in the field area of azad nagar Bangalore, India. (MD thesis.2010.Dept. of preventive and social medicine; National Institute of Unani Medicine.Ananthakrishnan S, Pani SP, Nalini P. A comprehensive study of morbidity in school age children. Indian

  10. Early and extensive CD55 loss from red blood cells supports a causal role in malarial anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwamaka Moses

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of complement regulatory proteins (CrP on the surface of red blood cells (RBC decrease during severe malarial anaemia and as part of cell ageing process. It remains unclear whether CrP changes seen during malaria contribute to the development of anaemia, or result from an altered RBC age distribution due to suppressive effects of malaria on erythropoiesis. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in the north-east coast of Tanzania to investigate whether the changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins (CD55 and CD59 contributes to malaria anaemia. Blood samples were collected from a cohort of children under intensive surveillance for Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and illness. Levels of CD55 and CD59 were measured by flow cytometer and compared between anaemic (8.08 g/dl and non- anaemic children (11.42 g/dl. Results Levels of CD55 and CD59 decreased with increased RBC age. CD55 levels were lower in anaemic children and the difference was seen in RBC of all ages. Levels of CD59 were lower in anaemic children, but these differences were not significant. CD55, but not CD59, levels correlated positively with the level of haemoglobin in anaemic children. Conclusion The extent of CD55 loss from RBC of all ages early in the course of malarial anaemia and the correlation of CD55 with haemoglobin levels support the hypothesis that CD55 may play a causal role in this disorder.

  11. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  12. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm;

    2012-01-01

    -talassaemia.RESULTS:Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI0.01-0.08]). Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI1.4 -- 6.8]), with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI 1.4 -- 9.0]), alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI1...

  13. Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women at Booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujimi A. Olatunbosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR=0.4; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.3–0.7, HIV positive status (OR=0.2; P=0.01; 95% CI=0.1–0.6, and low social class (OR=0.3; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.2–0.7. Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted.

  14. Management of anaemia in oncohaematological patients treated with biosimilar epoetin alfa: results of an Italian observational, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Giovanni; Petrini, Mario; Bosi, Alberto; Galieni, Piero; Bernardi, Daniele; Giglio, Gianfranco; Dorotea, Laura; Falini, Brunangelo; Scelzi, Elvira; Veltri, Enzo; Castelli, Roberto; Longagnani, Chiara; Raggi, Tommaso; Simonetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with solid tumours or nonmyeloid haematopoietic tumours develop symptomatic anaemia, which has a major impact on quality of life (QoL). The efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in improving QoL and reducing blood transfusions has been widely demonstrated. Binocrit® (biosimilar epoetin alfa) is an ESA indicated in the European Union for treating chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Binocrit® on haemoglobin (Hb) levels in anaemic cancer patients in Italian clinical practice. Methods: The ANEMONE study was a national, longitudinal, retrospective, multicentre observational study. Patients had to be 18 years or older, with a solid tumour or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease or multiple myeloma, receiving chemotherapy, and treated with Binocrit® to manage chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with a Hb increase ⩾1 g/dl during the first 4 weeks and with a Hb increase ⩾2 g/dl during the first 12 weeks. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled and 215 patients were evaluable for statistical analysis. In the first 4 weeks, 49.3% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾1 g/dl: 45.5% in patients with solid tumours and 52.1% in patients with haematological malignancies. In the first 12 weeks, 51.6% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾2 g/dl (48.4% solid tumours, 54.2% haematological diseases). Treatment with Binocrit® was well tolerated. Conclusions: These results confirm the effectiveness and safety of Binocrit® for chemotherapy-induced anaemia in routine practice in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. PMID:28203295

  15. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-12-31

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (pchildren in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  16. STUDY OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN PATIENTS OF ANAEMIA USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC IN RIMS (A PREMIER INSTITUTE OF JHARKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, although major cause of anaemia is said to be nutritional deficiencies which can be treated by medications, haemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited red cell disorders causing anaemia world-wide. Most clinically significant haemoglobinopathies are inherited defects of the globin chain of adult haemoglobin. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and for prevention of thalassaemias, sickle cell anaemia and other clinically severe haemoglobinopathies. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thalassaemias, sickle cell and other haemoglobinopathies in patients of a tertiary care hospital of Jharkhand. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was undertaken in which 1048 cases were included over a period of 3 years {From October 2012 to Sept 2015} for patient referred from outpatient and inpatient department of tertiary medical care hospital for anaemia. Clinical history and family history were obtained from each patient. The venous blood samples were analysed for complete blood count and HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was performed on the samples with Bio-Rad Variant II. RESULTS Normal haemoglobin (Hb pattern was observed in 444 (42.5% cases and abnormalities were detected in 600 (57.5% patients. β (beta thalassaemia trait was the most common abnormality found in 156 (14.9% patients. Sickle cell disease in 128 (12.2% patients, HbSβ in 128 (12.26% patients, β thalassaemia major/intermedia in 112 (10.7% cases, Sickle cell trait in 55 (5.2% cases. Other variants detected included HbE, HbD-Punjab, HbD-Punjab trait, double heterozygous state of HbE and β-thalassaemia HbE, double heterozygous state of HbS and HbD-Punjab and HbJ-Meerut. CONCLUSION Premarital and antenatal screenings are important measures to prevent birth of children with severe Hb disorders. HPLC is a rapid and reliable technique for identification of various Hb fractions.

  17. Impact of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E on Ribavirin-Induced Haemolytic Anaemia in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: An Egyptian Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We evaluate the impact of combined pentoxifylline and high-dose vitamins E to standard antiviral treatment on RBV-induced haemolytic anaemia. Patients and Methods. Selected 200 naïve chronic HCV patients, were randomized to receive either the standard antiviral therapy (peginterferon α-2b and RBV plus pentoxifylline (800 mg and high-dose vitamin E (1000 iu daily (combined group or received standard antiviral therapy plus placebo only (control group. They were followed up during treatment course and for 6 months posttreatment to assess the occurrence of anaemia and virological response, respectively. Results. RBV dose modification due to anaemia were significantly less in combined group (8.5 versus 21.5%. P<.05.Withdrawal, secondary to sever anemia (Hb<8.5 gm%, was recorded only in 6 (28.6% patients of the control group. Both (ETR and (SVR were significantly higher in combined group than control group by both intention-to-treat analysis (71 versus 56%, P<.05 and 66 versus 49%, P<.05 and per-protocol analysis (85.5 versus 70.9%, P<.05 and 79.5 versus 62%, P<.05. Conclusion. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E can ameliorate RBV-associated haemolysis; improve compliance and virologic clearance when combined with the standard antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  18. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of anaemia and malaria in Ghanaian children: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kweku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and anaemia are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We have investigated the effect of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or artesunate plus amodiaquine on anaemia and malaria in children in an area of intense, prolonged, seasonal malaria transmission in Ghana. METHODS: 2451 children aged 3-59 months from 30 villages were individually randomised to receive placebo or artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ monthly or bimonthly, or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP bimonthly over a period of six months. The primary outcome measures were episodes of anaemia (Hb1 year old when they received IPTc compared to the placebo group. However the incidence of malaria in the post intervention period was higher in children who were <1 year old when they received AS+AQ monthly compared to the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: IPTc is safe and efficacious in reducing the burden of malaria in an area of Ghana with a prolonged, intense malaria transmission season. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.

  19. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoteme L. Mamabolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children’s anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 and socio-demographic status.Results: At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points.Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  20. Use of CME to impact self-reported changes in the evaluation and management of anaemia in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Farmer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III prompted the recognition of geriatric anaemia as a public health concern since ~10% of people aged 65 years or older were anaemic. The objective of this study was to design and implement a continuing medical education (CME event that motivates and guides Primary Care Health Practitioners (PCHPs to adopt medical practices that improve outcomes among geriatric patients with anaemia by employing effective diagnostic workup. Research design and methods. A total of 4196 PCHPs participated in 11 highly interactive 75-minute live conferences conducted throughout the US from 2011 through 2013 that featured case-based interactive discussions on the workup of microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anaemia by a PCHP and local haematologist expert. A standardised diagnostic algorithm for geriatric anaemia was used and distributed as a handout at the live activity. A reinforcing mobile application based on this algorithm was introduced in 2012. Main outcome measures. Data from participants were gathered immediately after the event, 10–12 weeks post-event, and 1–3 years post-event. Outcomes were evaluated according to Moore's levels. Chi-squared analyses compared the proportion of respondents who committed to one or more of the five major behavioural changes over time. Results. The Chi-squared test analysed data from each of the three timelines for five medical behavioural changes. A comparison of participants’ responses showed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of responders committing to behavioural change #1, “Avoid indiscriminant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents” and #5, “Refer patients with unexplained mild anaemia to a haematologist” from post-event to 1–3 years (p<0.001 (see Table 2. The proportion of respondents who committed to the other three behavioural changes remained consistent over time, suggesting that actual change

  1. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  2. Awareness, Knowledge, and Acceptance of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anaemia in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewumi Adediran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution’s research and ethics committee. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to respondents aged 18 years and above and to the parents or guardians of those below 18 years of age. Results. There were 265 respondents comprising 120 males and 145 females. One hundred and seventy-one (64.5% respondents were aware of BMT for the treatment of SCA. About 67.8% (116 of 171 of those who were aware believed SCA can be cured with BMT (p=0.001 and 49.7% (85 of 171 of the respondents accepted BMT (p=0.001. Conclusion. Awareness of BMT in Nigeria is low when compared with reports from developed countries. The knowledge is poor and acceptance is low. With adequate information, improved education, and psychological support, more Nigerians will embrace BMT.

  3. I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism in carbimazole induced acute aplastic anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, B.A.; Van Every, B.; Kelly, M.J. [Alfred Hospital, Prahran, VIC (Australia). Nuclear Medicine Department

    1998-06-01

    Full text: We present a case of a 39 year old previously well woman who developed carbimazole-induced acute aplastic anaemia. Following 6 weeks of carbimazole for Grave`s disease she presented with fever, sore throat and lethargy and was found to be pancytopaenic. Haemoglobin fell to 79g/l (normal>120g/l), neutrophils to an undetectable level and platelets to 4,000/ml (normal>150,000/ml). From the MIRD schema it was estimated that a therapeutic dose of 444 MBq (12mCi) to treat her hyperthyroidism would deliver a red marrow radiation dose of about 30 mSv, at least an order of magnitude below any expected demonstrable deleterious effect on the marrow. Subsequently a dose of 444 MBq of I-131 was given and within 2 weeks the marrow had begun to recover, eventually to normal. This case would support the use of 1-131 for hyperthyroidism in carbimazole-induced marrow aplasia, even in profoundly depressed marrow

  4. Recommendations for centres of expertise in rare anaemias. The ENERCA White Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Lluis Vives Corrons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Community added value of Centres of Expertise (CoE and European Reference Networks (ERN is particularly high for rare diseases (RD due to the rarity of these conditions, which implies both a small number of patients and scarcity of expertise within a single country. Gathering expertise at the European level is therefore, paramount in order to ensure equal access to accurate information, appropriate and timely diagnosis and high quality clinical care and follow up for patients with rare diseases. This applies particularly to rare anaemias due to the high number of different rare diseases that constitute this group. In this context, the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias (ENERCA, co-financed by the European Commission, was created in 2002 with the aim of prevention and management of rare anaemias (RA and the development and promotion of policies to improve the well-being of European Union citizens. The ENERCA White Book is a position paper, developed as a deliverable of the ENERCA (phase 3 project that intends to contribute to the creation of a ERN in RA (ERN-RA by preparation of the recommendations and, in particular, the definition of the criteria that CoE, local centres (LC and their interrelations have to fulfil as healthcare providers. It has been nourished by all the activities that have been performed over the past ten years within the ENERCA framework. The White Book is addressed to authorities in charge of the identifying CoE, as an essential requirement for the official recognition of the ERN, to European and national health authorities, Healthcare centres and health professionals, as well as to all other stakeholders interested in RA. It is also addressed to the patients, as a way to empower their community in this process. One particular characteristic of the White Book is the integration of the three main aspects of a CoE: a ethical and legal frameworks to ensure the non-discrimination and non-stigmatisation of rare

  5. Awareness, Knowledge, and Acceptance of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anaemia in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagu, Modu Baba; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; Babadoko, Aliyu Ahmadu; Damulak, Dapus Obadiah; Ocheni, Sunday; Asuquo, Marcus Inyama

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to respondents aged 18 years and above and to the parents or guardians of those below 18 years of age. Results. There were 265 respondents comprising 120 males and 145 females. One hundred and seventy-one (64.5%) respondents were aware of BMT for the treatment of SCA. About 67.8% (116 of 171) of those who were aware believed SCA can be cured with BMT (p = 0.001) and 49.7% (85 of 171) of the respondents accepted BMT (p = 0.001). Conclusion. Awareness of BMT in Nigeria is low when compared with reports from developed countries. The knowledge is poor and acceptance is low. With adequate information, improved education, and psychological support, more Nigerians will embrace BMT.

  6. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  7. Sickle cell anaemia among Eti-Turks: haematological, clinical and genetic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluoch, J R; Kilinç, Y; Aksoy, M; Yüregir, G T; Bakioglu, I; Kutlar, A; Kutlar, F; Huisman, T H

    1986-09-01

    Haematological and genetic observations have been made on 71 SS Eti-Turk patients and their relatives from Cukurova (southern Turkey) and of immigrant families in The Netherlands. Similar data were collected for 25 Black patients and their relatives from Surinam, Netherlands Antilles, and Kenya. Haematological and clinical results were the same for both groups; the haemolytic anaemia in the Turkish patients was as severe as in the others. Haplotyping, involving nine restriction sites, identified haplotype 19 (Antonarakis et al, 1984) as the major type among the Eti-Turks; this chromosome has previously primarily been observed among SS patients from West Africa. The suggestion that the beta S-chromosome among Eti-Turks originates from that area is supported by a relatively high incidence of alpha-thalassaemia-2 (the 3.7 kb deletion), also frequently present in the Black population of West Africa, and by the absence of other major haplotypes, such as types 20 and 3, characteristic for the beta S-chromosome in the population of Central Africa and Kenya, and in Senegal, respectively. The Saudi Arabian type of beta S chromosome in association with the haplotype 19 beta S chromosome was present in only one Eti-Turk patient; this 30-year-old female was mildly affected and exhibited a high level of fetal haemoglobin.

  8. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  9. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  10. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  11. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  12. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency due to a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder in the absence of mtDNA deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Michael J; Monavari, Ahmad A; Cotter, Melanie; Murphy, Nuala P

    2015-02-26

    A fatigued 8-year-old boy was found to have sideroblastic anaemia (haemoglobin 7.8 g/dL) which over time became transfusion dependent. Subtle neurological dysfunction, initially manifesting as mild spastic diplegia, was slowly progressive and ultimately led to wheelchair dependence. Elevated plasma lactate and urinary 3-methylglutaconate led to a muscle biopsy which confirmed partial complex IV deficiency. PCR in leucocytes and muscle was negative for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Faltering growth prompted an insulin tolerance test which confirmed growth hormone sufficiency and adrenal insufficiency. Plasma renin was elevated and adrenal androgens were low, suggesting primary adrenal insufficiency. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy was initiated. A renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and diabetes mellitus developed subsequently. Sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency, both individually and collectively, are associated with mtDNA deletion; however, absence of the same does not exclude the possibility that sideroblastic anaemia and primary adrenal insufficiency are of mitochondrial origin.

  13. Quantitative analysis of mechanisms that govern red blood cell age structure and dynamics during anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Savill

    2009-06-01

    during anaemia.

  14. Adolescents with sickle cell anaemia: Experience in a private tertiary hospital serving a tertiary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah John-Olabode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD have adjustment difficulties in the transition period from paediatric care to the adult system because they find themselves in unfamiliar waters where they have to learn to manage themselves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalent crises and morbidities associated with SCD in adolescents in Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH, to also assess the level of knowledge of these adolescents about SCD and to determine their emotional response to the disease. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of case notes of adolescents with sickle cell anaemia that were seen in BUTH, from May 2013 to April 2014. Data extracted from the case notes was entered into a Microsoft (MS Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results were presented in tables. Results: A total of 50 subjects were seen in the department during this study period. Vaso-occlusive crises in the form of bone pains (93.1% were the commonest crises encountered. Associated morbidities were malaria 34 (85%, tonsilitis 1 (2.5%, pneumonia 1 (2.5%, leg ulcer 1 (2.5%, azotaemia 1 (2.5% and subarachnoid haemorrhage 2 (5%. Majority (88% had adequate knowledge about general health maintenance while knowledge on nutrition and appropriate analgesia use is still inadequate. Eleven (22% had symptoms of depression, four (8% had suicidal ideation while one (2% had a history of attempted suicide. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of psychosocial intervention as part of a comprehensive health management for people with SCD.

  15. A prospective, cross-sectional study of anaemia and peripheral iron status in antiretroviral naïve, HIV-1 infected children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussey Gregory D

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is a common manifestation of paediatric HIV infection. Although there are many causes, anaemia of chronic diseases is the most frequent type. In poor countries iron deficiency is widespread. It is probable that many HIV-infected children in these countries are also iron deficient. This study describes the relationship between paediatric HIV infection and anaemia, and documents the peripheral iron status of antiretroviral naive, HIV-infected children. Methods Sixty children were evaluated prospectively. Investigations included CD4+ count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cell (RBC morphology, and iron studies. Results Anaemia was present in 73% of children. Compared to mild HIV infection, median Hb was lower in children with moderate clinical infection (104 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.04 and severe clinical infection (96 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.006, and more children with severe infection were anaemic (92% v 58%, 0.04. There was a significant relationship between immunological status and Hb. 68% had abnormal RBC morphology. Significantly more children with moderate and severe disease, and severe immunosuppression had abnormal RBC morphology. 52% were iron-depleted, 20% had iron-deficient erythropoiesis and 18% iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. 16% (7/44 of anaemic children had microcytosis and hypochromia. Median soluble transferrin receptor concentration was significantly higher in those with microcytic hypochromic anaemia (42.0 nmol/L v 30.0 nmol/L, p = 0.008. Conclusions Both the proportion of anaemic children and the median Hb were associated with disease status. Iron depletion and IDA are major problems in HIV-infected children in South Africa.

  16. The Xmnl polymorphic site 5 ' to the gene G gamma in a Brazilian patient with sickle cell anaemia - fetal haemoglobin concentration, haematology and clinical features

    OpenAIRE

    Belini Junior, Edis [UNESP; Cancado, Rodolfo D.; Domingos, Claudia R.B.

    2010-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old female with sickle cell anaemia and with an HbF concentration of 15.8%. The patient was not using hydroxyurea and was not receiving regular blood transfusions. The patient never had chronic manifestations of sickle cell anaemia, only pain crises of a mild intensity. After laboratory tests, we found that she was homozygous for HbS with the Bantu/atypical haplotype, and was heterozygous for the XmnI site. The influence of the XmnI site on the expression of HbF can explai...

  17. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna A Renner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART containing zidovudine (ZDV recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was−2.7; and 1772 (60.4% had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01: the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38 in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89 in those without (p<0. 01. Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45. Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01. Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Microalbuminuria in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia: Experience in a Tertiary Health Facility in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bismarck Eke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is a pre-clinical marker of renal damage in children with sickle cell anaemia and can predict renal failure. Reported prevalence rates increased with age. In Nigeria, burden of disease and prevailing poor health facilities necessitate its screening, determination of prevalence and associated risk factors. It is a cross-sectional as well as descriptive study. Screening microalbuminuria used subjects’ early morning urine. Socio-demographic as well as clinical details were ascertained using semi-structured questionnaires and case files. Associations and statistical relationship of prevalence rates and clinical/epidemiological data were ascertained using chi-squared and multivariate analysis . Two hundred children with sickle cell anaemia (4–17 years in steady state and 200 age/gender-matched controls were enrolled. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was ,respectively, 18.5% and 2.5% for subjects and controls . Microalbuminuria was commoner in females (19.8% than males (17.4% , increased with age , significantly associated with haemoglobin level and hospitalizations (0.001. Subjects had normal renal function. Hospitalizations and haemoglobin levels showed statistical significance on multivariate analysis. Prevalence of microalbuminuria is 18.5%. Age, haemoglobin concentrations, and higher hospitalizations influenced microalbuminuria among subjects. Screening for microalbuminuria should be incorporated in the case management of subjects with identified risk factors.

  19. A Comparative Study of Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Antenatal Women from Urban and Rural Area of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundap RP

    2016-05-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in urban and rural health training centres of a medical college in Pune. The antenatal women were the study subjects. A total of 180 ANC cases were recruited and studies from both the field practice area attending the outpatient clinics. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and anaemia was assessed using recently done haemoglobin reports in the present pregnancy. The study duration was 6 months. GCP and ethical guidelines were followed as advised for human studies. Results: The prevalence of IDA in the study population was 66%. (rural=81%, urban=51%. IDA prevalence was 54% in primigravida and the prevalence increased as gravid status increased. Iron deficiency anaemia was seen statistically significantly associated with residence, illiteracy, type of diet, and gravida status of the pregnant women. Conclusion: IDA has strong relation with residence (urban/rural, literacy level, social status, monthly income and dietary habits. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(5.000: 351-354

  20. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriques Onike

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. Materials and methods Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal®, aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria® were used to differentiate between patients with (1 no malaria, (2 recent cleared malaria, (3 persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW, plasma levels of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and erythropoietin (EPO were measured as markers of erythropoiesis. Interleukin (IL 10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNFα were used as inflammation markers. Results EPO was correlated with haemoglobin, irrespective of malaria (R = -0.36, P P. falciparum infection, but not recent malaria without residual parasites, was associated with bone marrow suppression i.e., low RDW (P Conclusion In the treatment of malaria, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy.

  1. Mutations in CUBN, encoding the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, cause hereditary megaloblastic anaemia 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, M; Carter, J E; Chadwick, R B; Johnson, C; Gräsbeck, R; Abdelaal, M A; Broch, H; Jenner, L B; Verroust, P J; Moestrup, S K; de la Chapelle, A; Krahe, R

    1999-03-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia 1 (MGA1, OMIM 261100) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile megaloblastic anaemia, as well as neurological symptoms that may be the only manifestations. At the cellular level, MGA1 is characterized by selective intestinal vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) malabsorption. MGA1 occurs worldwide, but its prevalence is higher in several Middle Eastern countries and Norway, and highest in Finland (0.8/100,000). We previously mapped the MGA1 locus by linkage analysis in Finnish and Norwegian families to a 6-cM region on chromosome 10p12.1 (ref. 8). A functional candidate gene encoding the intrinsic factor (IF)-B12 receptor, cubilin, was recently cloned; the human homologue, CUBN, was mapped to the same region. We have now refined the MGA1 region by linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, fine-mapped CUBN and identified two independent disease-specific CUBN mutations in 17 Finnish MGA1 families. Our genetic and molecular data indicate that mutations in CUBN cause MGA1.

  2. Nonsense mutation in pseudouridylate synthase 1 (PUS1) in two brothers affected by myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia (MLASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Berardinelli, Angela; Valente, Lucia; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia (MLASA) is a rare condition that combines early-onset myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia. MLASA has been associated with a missense mutation in pseudouridylate synthase 1 (PUS1), an enzyme located in both nucleus and mitochondria, which converts uridine into pseudouridine in several cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNA positions and increases the efficiency of protein synthesis in both compartments. We examined two Italian brothers with MLSA and sequenced the PUS1 gene. We found combined defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in muscle and fibroblast homogenates of both patients, and low levels of mtDNA translation products in fibroblast mitochondria. A novel, homozygous stop mutation was present in PUS1 (E220X). The stop mutation in PUS1 is likely to determine the loss of function of the protein, since it predicts the synthesis of a protein missing 208/427 amino acid residues on the C terminus, and was associated with low mtDNA translation.

  3. Infectious haemolytic anaemia causes jaundice outbreaks in seawater-cultured coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P A; Larenas, J; Contreras, J; Cassigoli, J; Venegas, C; Rojas, M E; Guajardo, A; Pérez, S; Díaz, S

    2006-12-01

    In the last 9 years, epizootics of an icterus condition has affected coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), reared in seawater cages in southern regions of Chile. At necropsy, fish from field cases exhibited signs of jaundice accompanied by pale light-brown livers and dark spleens. Histopathological and haematological results indicated that these fish presented haemolytic anaemia. After microbiological examination no bacterial or viral agents could be identified as aetiological agents of this disease. In an infectivity trial, coho salmon, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were inoculated intraperitoneally with a filtrate of an organ homogenate (0.45 microm) from a diseased coho salmon and held for 60 days in tanks supplied with fresh water. The disease was only reproduced in coho salmon in which mortalities, beginning at day 23 post-inoculation (p.i.), reached a cumulative value of 24% at day 27 p.i. This condition was transmitted to non-inoculated cohabiting coho salmon suggesting that it is a waterborne disease. Thus, this icteric condition is caused by an infectious form of haemolytic anaemia, probably of viral aetiology, and coho salmon are more susceptible than either Atlantic salmon or rainbow trout.

  4. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  5. Immunosuppressive Therapy and Bone Marrow Transplantation for Aplastic Anaemia--The CMC Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Biju; Mathews, Vikram; Viswabandya, Auro; Abraham, Aby; Ganapule, Abhijeet; Fouzia, N A; Korula, Anu; Lakshmi, Kavitha N; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok

    2015-03-01

    This is a single centre experience on the use of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with aplastic anaemia. Between 1985 and December 2013, 530 patients underwent IST while 214 underwent allogeneic SCT. Overall response rate with the use of IST was 58% with higher responses seen in adults (65.1%) compared to children (35.8%) [p = 0.001]. At a median follow up of 34 months (range: 1 - 264), 5 year KM estimates for OS for the entire group is 68.2 ± 2.2%. Loss of response or relapse was seen in 27 responders while clonal evolution to PNH was seen in 8 patients and transformation to MDS or AML was seen in 3. The 5 yr OS for children (45.7 ± 4.7%) was significantly lower than the OS of age groups 16-30 (75.6 ± 3.6%), 31-50 years (76.2 ± 4.2%) and > 50 years (73.0 ±4.2%) (p = 0.0001). SCT was performed in 214 patients with engraftment seen in 91%. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) was 38.4% with grade III-IV GVHD in 11.7%. Chronic GVHD was seen in 47.5% of evaluable patients with majority (73%) being limited chronic GVHD. At a median follow up of 32 months (range: 1 - 244), the 5 year KM estimates of OS for the entire cohort is 64.8 ± 3.3%); The 5 yr OS was significantly higher with the use of Flu/Cy (5 yr OS of 73.8 ± 3.6%) compared to Cy/ATG (5 yr OS of 44.4 ± 9.6%) or Flu/Bu conditioning (5 yr OS of 52.4 ± 8.9%) [p = 0.001]. Imp: SCT and IST offer good response rates and survival in Indian patients with AA except in children receiving IST.

  6. Serum levels of leptin in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Ayoola O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the pathophysiology of homozygous sickle cell anaemia (SCA results in a myriad of metabolic, nutritional, haematological and clinical effects that interact with other co-morbid factors to determine the quality of life and life expectancy of afflicted patients. Because of its critical roles in nutrition and metabolism, inflammation, haematopoiesis and cellular immunity, this study determined the plasma levels of leptin in steady and unsteady states of HbSS in Nigerian patients. Methods A total of 51 SCA patients aged 5 - 35 years with 34 (61.8% being females who were either on admission or visiting four medical centres in Lagos, Nigeria together with 22 non-SCD controls aged 5 -30 years comprising 12 (54.5% females were enrolled after obtaining their informed consent and ethical approval. Patients were further stratified into steady and unsteady cases of SCA based on clinical presentations, while blood samples collected by venipuncture from each of the study participants were analyzed haematologically for full blood count and HbF level and microscopically for malaria, while plasma leptin was assayed using ELISA method. Body composition defined by weight, fat mass and body mass index (BMI was determined using standard methods. Data obtained for cases and controls were analyzed statistically. Results Twenty - one patients had unsteady HbSS and elicited greater and significant (P P. falciparum parasitaemia (4613.7 vs. 749.6 - 1078.4 parasites/uL, pyrexia rate (58.3 vs. 25.8% when compared with steady state patients or non-SCD controls. Compared to the control, significant decreases in plasma leptin before and after controlling for body fat that was worsened by crisis were observed among the SCD patients. Unlike the non-SCD controls, leptin correlated non-significantly (P > 0.05 with all body composition indices measured in the patients except for fat mass in unsteady cases. Multivariate regression

  7. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicuri, E.; Biao, P.; Hutton, G.; Tediosi, F.; Menendez, C; Lell, B.; Kremsner, P.; Conteh, L.; Grobusch, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT) and the according to protocol (ATP) trial analyses. Specif

  8. 复方阿胶浆治疗贫血37例%Treatment of Fufang Ejiao Syrup for 37 cases of Anaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建军

    2012-01-01

    贫血是临床常见的一类血液系统病变,涉及到临床各科的多种疾病,发病率有逐年上升的趋势.如何有效预防和治疗各种原因引起的贫血,是当前中医药研究的重要课题.本文通过对运用复方阿胶浆治疗的37例典型病例分析,评价其对各种原因所致贫血的疗效,为临床合理使用复方阿胶浆提供指导.%Anaemia is a common type of disease related to the blood system, and is often associated with many other diseases. Occurrence of anaemia is rising each year. Effective control and prevention of anaemia of various causes is an important area of research for Chinese medicine. The research evaluates efficacy of Fufang Ejiao Syrup for various anaemia through a case analysis of 37 patients received the treatment, in order to provide guidance for clinical usage.

  9. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) e

  10. Treatment practice for IBD-associated anaemia remains out of tune with recommendations - A two year follow-up survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Jürgen; Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar

    in correcting anaemia, and worse baseline Hb and iron status compared to a prior survey. The on-going lack in awareness of evidence-based recommendations on iron supplementation emphasises the need for new educational strategies to improve implementation of current and upcoming guidelines....

  11. Treatable factors associated with severe anaemia in adults admitted to medical wards in Blantyre, Malawi, an area of high HIV seroprevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.K.; Whitty, C.J.; Walsh, A.L.; Epino, H.; Broek, N.R.; Letsky, E.A.; Munthali, C.; Mukiibi, J.M.; Boeree, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Severe anaemia is a common presentation in non-pregnant adults admitted to hospital in southern Africa. Standard syndromic treatment based on data from the pre-HIV era is for iron deficiency, worms and malaria. We prospectively investigated 105 adults admitted consecutively to medical wards with hae

  12. Factors contributing to the development of anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: what about drug-resistant parasites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Ofori-Adjei, David

    2006-01-01

    A major manifestation of complicated malaria especially among children is severe anaemia, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. Among other factors, suppression of the bone marrow's response to erythropoietin, which is rapidly reversed after successful treatment of the malaria, has be...

  13. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massaga, Julius J; Kitua, Andrew Y; Lemnge, Martha M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, and is often complicated by severe anaemia. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to most affordable antimalarial drugs is an impediment to intermittent chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of presumpt...

  14. A qualitative study on barriers in the prevention of anaemia during pregnancy in public health centres: perceptions of Indonesian nurse-midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyawati, W.; Jans, S.M.P.J.; Utomo, S.; Dillen, J. van; Janssen, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia in pregnancy remains a major problem in Indonesia over the past decade. Early detection of anaemia in pregnancy is one of the components which is unsuccessfully implemented by nurse-midwives. This study aims to explore nurse-midwives' experiences in managing pregnant women with an

  15. A case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Kenny

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 38-day-old male warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 % presented to the Denver Zoological Gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. The piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (<8.96 mmol/l. Iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and denied access to soil. Fifteen captive warthogs were subsequently evaluated for serum soluble iron content (mean = 21.62±4.36 mmol/l as well as 5 neonatal warthog piglets that required hand-rearing. Only 1 of 5 neonatal warthog piglets had measurable serum soluble iron (9.50 mmol/l. These data suggest that warthogs are similar to domestic swine and are born with low iron stores. Some form of iron supplementation should be considered for captive neonatal warthog piglets, especially if they are reared on concrete.

  16. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloss-Brandstätter, A.; Erhart, G.; Lamina, C.; Meister, B.; Haun, M.; Coassin, S.; Seifert, M.; Klein-Franke, A.; Paulweber, B.; Kedenko, L.; Kollerits, B.; Swinkels, D.W.; Vermeulen, S.; Galesloot, T.E.; Kronenberg, F.; Weiss, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA) is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6). Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineo

  17. Polymorphisms in genes of interleukin 12 and its receptors and their association with protection against severe malarial anaemia in children in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Laurence

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malarial anaemia is characterized by destruction of malaria infected red blood cells and suppression of erythropoiesis. Interleukin 12 (IL12 significantly boosts erythropoietic responses in murine models of malarial anaemia and decreased IL12 levels are associated with severe malarial anaemia (SMA in children. Based on the biological relevance of IL12 in malaria anaemia, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL12 and its receptors and SMA was examined. Methods Fifty-five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms covering genes encoding two IL12 subunits, IL12A and IL12B, and its receptors, IL12RB1 and IL12RB2, were examined in a cohort of 913 children residing in Asembo Bay region of western Kenya. Results An increasing copy number of minor variant (C in IL12A (rs2243140 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SMA (P = 0.006; risk ratio, 0.52 for carrying one copy of allele C and 0.28 for two copies. Individuals possessing two copies of a rare variant (C in IL12RB1 (rs429774 also appeared to be strongly protective against SMA (P = 0.00005; risk ratio, 0.18. In addition, children homozygous for another rare allele (T in IL12A (rs22431348 were associated with reduced risk of severe anaemia (SA (P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.69 and of severe anaemia with any parasitaemia (SAP (P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.66. In contrast, AG genotype for another variant in IL12RB1 (rs383483 was associated with susceptibility to high-density parasitaemia (HDP (P = 0.003; risk ratio, 1.21. Conclusions This study has shown strong associations between polymorphisms in the genes of IL12A and IL12RB1 and protection from SMA in Kenyan children, suggesting that human genetic variants of IL12 related genes may significantly contribute to the development of anaemia in malaria patients.

  18. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  19. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s.

  20. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices.

  1. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  2. Human herpes virus-6 seroprevalence and leukaemias: a case-control study. GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, G; Mele, A; Ragona, G; Faggioni, A; Zompetta, C; Tosti, M E; Visani, G; Castelli, G; Pulsoni, A; Monarca, B; Martino, P; Mandelli, F

    1999-06-01

    The relationships between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and human herpes virus (HHV)-6 antibody level were investigated in a multicentre case-control study. An association between increased HHV-6 seropositivity and geometric mean titre ratio with AML was shown: P for trend = 0.022, adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.33 respectively. No association was found between HHV-6 and ALL, CML or RAEB.

  3. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  4. Jaw Osteomyelitis as a Complication of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Three Omani Patients; Case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Al-Ismaili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is a common haemoglobinopathy among people from the Middle East, the Afro-Caribbean region, the Mediterranean and East India. While osteomyelitis of the long bones is a welldocumented complication of SCA, there are few documented cases of SCA patients presenting with jaw osteomyelitis. We report three SCA patients with chronic jaw osteomyelitis who presented to the Department of Oral Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 2009 and 2013. Two of the patients had osteomyelitis of the mandible and the third had osteomyelitis of the maxilla. In addition, a brief review of the literature is presented focusing on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of jaw osteomyelitis among patients with SCA.

  5. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cudjoe Opoku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. Objective: To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. Design: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co-administered to 131 schoolchildren in Study Arm 1; artemether-lumefantrine, albendazole, and praziquantel to 90 children in Study Arm 2 versus albendazole and praziquantel to 127 children in Control Arm 3. Medicines were administered to all children at least 30 min after a meal. A HemoCue® photometer was used to measure haemoglobin (Hb, while the code transmission test (CTT, adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch, was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. Results: We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence reductions of 62.8 and 59.2% in Study Arm 1 from 24.2 to 9.0%, p0.05. Meanwhile, anaemia prevalence reduced significantly (p<0.01 in all three study arms after interventions by 38.4% (from 19.8 to 12.2%, 20.7% (from 26.6 to 21.1%, and 36.0% (from 28.3 to 18.1% in Study Arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although the interventions had no significant effects on Hb levels, anaemia prevalence reduced insignificantly by 38.4 and 20.7% in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 36.0% in Control Arm 3. Among schoolchildren in Study Arms 1 and 2, mean CTT score improved significantly after interventions by 10.4% (from 3.18 to 3.55, p=0.01 and 20.5% (from 2.83 to 3.56, p=0.01 respectively, compared to 5.75% in Control Arm 3 (from 2.95 to 3.13, p=0.09. Likewise

  6. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  7. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  8. Knowledge and awareness about Iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors: a study at rural based tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R. Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is promoted in order to make the blood banking safe and successful. Research in the area of blood donation has found that, iron stores are influenced by regular blood donation if dietary intake of iron is inadequate. Awareness and knowledge among blood donors regarding iron and B12 deficiency and its prevention is very much required. Objective: To assess the knowledge and awareness about iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 500 voluntary blood donors during the span of 1 year at one of the blood bank of tertiary care hospital using prestructured questionnaire on the various aspect of iron and B12 deficiency/folate deficiency anemia. The data was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS. Results: Out of 500 blood donors, 15.6% donors were regular blood donor. It was observed 60% blood donors were having knowledge of anemia in general. Iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were known to 42% and 31.6% donors, respectively. Only 20% donors could able to answer the acceptable level of hemoglobin require for donating the blood. About 42% donors were aware about importance of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in maintaining normal hemoglobin level. Majority (82.7% of regular blood donors were willing to get information regarding iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Significant lack of awareness regarding iron and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in regular voluntary blood donors. The present study recommends the provision of health education on iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as Iron, folate and vitamin B12 rich foods to regular blood donor to prevent anaemia among them. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 708-710

  9. Efficacy of intravenous iron in treating iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Are there predictors of response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ferreiro Iglesias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a very common disorder. Until recently, oral iron has been the mainstay therapy, nevertheless it has been associated with intolerance and noncompliance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron in IDA in IBD patients and the secondary aim was to investigate whether other potential factors could influence in the response to the treatment. Design: an open-label, prospective, consecutive, single centre study. Material and methods: we performed our study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD with severe anaemia or intolerance with oral iron. All of them received intravenous sacarose iron and did biochemistry profile with haemoglobin (Hb. Moreover, the correlation with other variables was studied: age, sex, smoking habit, IBD type, previous surgery and type of surgery and other treatments. Response was defined as Hb increase of ≥ 2 g/dL or normalization of the levels. Results: fifty-four patients were included into the study, 34 (63% with UC y 20 (37% with CD, 18 (33.3% men and 36 women (66.6% and the average was 48 ± 14 years. The total proportion of responders was 52% (SD ± 05; 43% of the patients reached Hb ≥ 2 g/dl and y 9% of them normalized Hb. Only the utilization of 5-ASA was associated with low response to iron treatment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: our study suggests that response to intravenous iron is achievable in the majority of patients with IBD and severe IDA or intolerance treatment with oral iron. Moreover, the patients with consumption of 5-ASA could had less response to the treatment.

  10. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners in government, academia, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to better understand Zika virus, the disease ... Associated Co-Infections Allergy, Immunology, Transplantation Research Resources Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Resources Preclinical and Clinical Services ...

  11. Iron deficiency and anaemia in bariatric surgical patients: causes, diagnosis and proper management Deficiencia de hierro y anemia en pacientes de cirugía bariátrica: causas, diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, M.; F. Botella-Romero; S. Gómez-Ramírez; de Campos, A.; J. A. García-Erce

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation leads to activation of the immune system that causes alterations of iron homeostasis including hypoferraemia, iron-restricted erythropoiesis, and finally mild-to-moderate anaemia. Thus, preoperative anaemia and iron deficiency are common among obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery (BS). Assessment of patients should include a complete haematological and biochemical laboratory work-up, including measurement of iron stores, vitamin B12 and folate. I...

  12. ‘Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model’

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Michelle Shui Yee; Mooney, Peter; White, William; Appleby, Victoria; Moreea, Sulleman; Haythem, Ismail; Elias, Joshua; Bundhoo, Kiran; Corbett, Gareth; Wong, Liam; Tsai, Her Hsin; Cross, Simon; Hebden, John; Hoque, Sami; Sanders, David

    2016-01-01

    Background International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target ana...

  13. 'Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model'.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, M.S.; Mooney, P.; White, W.; Appleby, V.; Moreea, S.; Haythem, I.; Elias, J.; Bundhoo, K.; Corbett, G; Wong, L.; Tsai, H H; Cross, S; Hebden, J.; Hoque, S.; Sanders, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target an...

  14. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Guadalajara--a case of chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia responding to splenectomy and the role of splenectomy in this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Jones, F G C; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2004-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate shunt pathway a major function of which is to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Deficiency in red blood cells is associated with a number of varied clinical manifestations. Chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia is uncommon but is usually characterized by chronic haemolysis, often with severe anaemia. In the past splenectomy in this condition has been thought to be of questionable benefit. We report a case of G6PD Guadalajara where splenectomy produced transfusion independence and have reviewed the literature. Those cases with exon 10 mutations often have a severe clinical phenotype, which responds to splenectomy. This procedure should be considered in this condition.

  16. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (pconcentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects.

  17. Bone marrow pathology in dogs and cats with non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J

    2008-01-01

    Many dogs and cats with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) lack a bone marrow erythroid regenerative response. To better understand the failure of the bone marrow to respond to the anaemia, bone marrow pathology associated with non-regenerative IMHA and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was reviewed. Eighty-two affected dogs and 57 affected cats were identified from a population presenting to a referral hospital over a 10-year period. Fifty-five dogs had non-regenerative IMHA (38 had bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia and 17 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 27 had pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Twenty-eight cats had non-regenerative IMHA (24 had erythroid hyperplasia and 4 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 29 had PRCA. A variety of pathological changes were observed in bone marrow aspirates and core biopsy specimens taken from these animals. These changes included dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation, haemophagocytic syndrome, lymphocyte aggregation, and lymphocyte or plasma cell hyperplasia. In both dogs and cats, dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and haemophagocytic syndrome were primarily noted in bone marrow specimens where there was evidence of erythroid hyperplasia. These animals were also more often neutropenic and thrombocytopenic, and had decreased 60 day survival when compared with dogs or cats with non-regenerative anaemia associated with erythroid maturation arrest or PRCA. Therefore, the pathogenesis of the non-regenerative anaemia in non-regenerative IMHA may involve both antibody-mediated destruction of bone marrow precursor cells and pathological events within the bone marrow that result in ineffective erythropoiesis.

  18. Systemic Sclerosis Presenting with Simultaneous Retinal Vasculitis in One Eye and Optic Neuritis in the other along with Severe Immune Haemolytic Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Moulick, Avijit; Sarkar, Biswanath Sharma; Jana, Anirban; Guha, Pradipta; Das, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder which involves multiple systems in a chronic progressive manner. Micro–angiopathic haemolytic anaemia is a distinguished feature of “scleroderma renal crisis”, which is manifested by severe hypertension, a rapidly progressing renal dysfunction and hyperreninaemia and is seen in patients with an early, diffuse form of the disease. A nervous system involvement is rare, though entrapment neuropathies have been reported. Who presented with ...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lell Bertrand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT and the according to protocol (ATP trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48 using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66 using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants.

  20. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Roger CK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin Methods Study participants were randomly selected from a list of children who participated in a survey in December 2010. Children aged from 1 to 10 years with haemoglobin level below 11 g/dl represented cases (anaemic children. Control participants were eligible if of same age group and their haemoglobin level was >= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha-talassaemia. Results Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI[0.01-0.08]. Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI[1.4 – 6.8], with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI [1.4 – 9.0], alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI[1.1–5.3] and stunting (aOR=3.6 95%CI [1.6–8.2] for children above 5 years. No association was found between G6PD deficiency, intestinal worm carriage and children’s gender. Conclusion Malaria parasitaemia, stunting and haemoglobin genetic disorders represented the major causes of anaemia among study participants. Anaemia control in this area could be achieved by developing integrated interventions targeting both malaria and malnutrition.

  1. Genetic variation in CD36, HBA, NOS3 and VCAM1 is associated with chronic haemolysis level in sickle cell anaemia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Andreia; Dias, Alexandra; Morais, Anabela; Nunes, Baltazar; Ferreira, Emanuel; Picanço, Isabel; Faustino, Paula; Lavinha, João

    2014-03-01

    Chronic haemolysis stands out as one of the hallmarks of sickle cell anaemia, a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive monogenic anaemia. However, the genetic architecture of this sub-phenotype is still poorly understood. Here, we report the results of an association study between haemolysis biomarkers (serum LDH, total bilirubin and reticulocyte count) and the inheritance of 41 genetic variants of ten candidate genes in a series of 99 paediatric SS patients (median current age of 9.9 yr) followed up in two general hospitals in Greater Lisboa area (median follow-up per patient of 5.0 yr). Although in a large number of tests a seemingly significant (i.e. P haplotype 7 within VCAM1 gene; (ii) a lower total bilirubin was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA gene, rs2070744_T allele at NOS3 gene, and haplotype 9 within VCAM1 promoter; and (iii) a diminished reticulocyte count was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA, whereas an increased count was associated with rs1984112_G allele at CD36 gene. On the whole, our findings suggest a complex genetic architecture for the sickle cell anaemia haemolysis process involving multiple pathways, namely control of vascular cell adhesion, NO synthesis and erythrocyte volume and haemoglobinisation.

  2. Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroth Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, little is known about the influence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC on childhood nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to contrast ferritin and haemoglobin levels between preschoolers with S-ECC and caries-free controls. Methods Children were recruited as part of a larger case–control study examining differences in nutritional status between those with and without S-ECC. Preschoolers with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their dental surgery, while caries-free controls were recruited from the community. Parents completed a questionnaire and the child underwent venipuncture. The study was approved by the University’s Health Research Ethics Board. Statistics included descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses. A p value ≤ .05 was significant. A total of 266 children were recruited; 144 with S-ECC and 122 caries-free. Results The mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. The mean ferritin concentration for all children was 29.6 ± 17.9 μg/L while the mean haemoglobin level was 115.1 ± 10.1 g/L. Children with S-ECC were significantly more likely to have low ferritin (p=.033 and low haemoglobin levels (p>.001. Logistic regression analyses revealed that children with S-ECC were nearly twice as likely to have low ferritin levels and were over six times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia than caries-free controls. Conclusions Children with S-ECC appear to be at significantly greater odds of having low ferritin status compared with caries-free children and also appear to have significantly lower haemoglobin levels than the caries-free control group. Children with S-ECC also appear to be at significantly greater odds for iron deficiency anaemia than cavity-free children.

  3. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  4. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  5. Characterisation of the opposing effects of G6PD deficiency on cerebral malaria and severe malarial anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Geraldine M; Rockett, Kirk; Kivinen, Katja; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna E; Rowlands, Kate; Jallow, Muminatou; Conway, David J; Bojang, Kalifa A; Pinder, Margaret; Usen, Stanley; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Sirugo, Giorgio; Toure, Ousmane; Thera, Mahamadou A; Konate, Salimata; Sissoko, Sibiry; Niangaly, Amadou; Poudiougou, Belco; Mangano, Valentina D; Bougouma, Edith C; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Modiano, David; Amenga-Etego, Lucas N; Ghansah, Anita; Koram, Kwadwo A; Wilson, Michael D; Enimil, Anthony; Evans, Jennifer; Amodu, Olukemi K; Olaniyan, Subulade; Apinjoh, Tobias; Mugri, Regina; Ndi, Andre; Ndila, Carolyne M; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alexander; Peshu, Norbert; Williams, Thomas N; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Clark, Taane G; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris; Reyburn, Hugh; Nyirongo, Vysaul; Kachala, David; Molyneux, Malcolm; Dunstan, Sarah J; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Quyen, Nguyen Ngoc; Thai, Cao Quang; Hien, Tran Tinh; Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Siba, Peter; Karunajeewa, Harin; Allen, Steve; Allen, Angela; Davis, Timothy ME; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Molloy, Síle F; Campino, Susana; Kerasidou, Angeliki; Cornelius, Victoria J; Hart, Lee; Shah, Shivang S; Band, Gavin; Spencer, Chris CA; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Achidi, Eric; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Farrar, Jeremy; Marsh, Kevin; Taylor, Terrie; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effect has proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infection. Here we report an analysis of multiple allelic forms of G6PD deficiency in a large multi-centre case-control study of severe malaria, using the WHO classification of G6PD mutations to estimate each individual’s level of enzyme activity from their genotype. Aggregated across all genotypes, we find that increasing levels of G6PD deficiency are associated with decreasing risk of cerebral malaria, but with increased risk of severe malarial anaemia. Models of balancing selection based on these findings indicate that an evolutionary trade-off between different clinical outcomes of P. falciparum infection could have been a major cause of the high levels of G6PD polymorphism seen in human populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15085.001 PMID:28067620

  6. Xpf and not the Fanconi anaemia proteins or Rev3 accounts for the extreme resistance to cisplatin in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisms like Dictyostelium discoideum, often referred to as DNA damage "extremophiles", can survive exposure to extremely high doses of radiation and DNA crosslinking agents. These agents form highly toxic DNA crosslinks that cause extensive DNA damage. However, little is known about how Dictyostelium and the other "extremophiles" can tolerate and repair such large numbers of DNA crosslinks. Here we describe a comprehensive genetic analysis of crosslink repair in Dictyostelium discoideum. We analyse three gene groups that are crucial for a replication-coupled repair process that removes DNA crosslinks in higher eukarya: The Fanconi anaemia pathway (FA, translesion synthesis (TLS, and nucleotide excision repair. Gene disruption studies unexpectedly reveal that the FA genes and the TLS enzyme Rev3 play minor roles in tolerance to crosslinks in Dictyostelium. However, disruption of the Xpf nuclease subcomponent results in striking hypersensitivity to crosslinks. Genetic interaction studies reveal that although Xpf functions with FA and TLS gene products, most Xpf mediated repair is independent of these two gene groups. These results suggest that Dictyostelium utilises a distinct Xpf nuclease-mediated repair process to remove crosslinked DNA. Other DNA damage-resistant organisms and chemoresistant cancer cells might adopt a similar strategy to develop resistance to DNA crosslinking agents.

  7. A screening programme for the prospective prevention of Mediterranean anaemia in Latium: results of seven years' work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Lerone, M; Congedo, P; Ponzini, D; Braconi, F; Aliquo, C

    1984-08-01

    Since 1975 the Rome Microcythaemia Centre has carried out every year, under the auspices of the health authorities of the Latium region, a screening of thalassaemics among intermediate schoolchildren of Latium. From these campaigns, knowledge about thalassaemias among the young adult population has grown which, in its turn, has resulted in screening of these young adults. Through screening in schools between 1975 and 1982, of 289 763 students examined, 6838 thalassaemics were identified, 6045 of whom were beta- or delta beta-thalassaemics. The total number of young thalassaemics who are identified at present in the Centre through screenings of schoolchildren and young adults is about 3300 per year. Furthermore, from January 1980 to April 1983, 110 prospective couples of child-bearing age at risk (94 of whom originated from Latium) were identified at the Centre, and five homozygous fetuses (three of which originated from Latium) were diagnosed. These data derive from an area in which the frequency of thalassaemia is only 2.4%, and they show that the programme in Latium for the prevention of Mediterranean anaemia has been successful.

  8. A multi-centre retrospective study of rituximab use in the treatment of relapsed or resistant warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maung, Su W

    2013-10-01

    This retrospective analysis assessed the response, safety and duration of response to standard dose rituximab 375 mg\\/m(2) weekly for four weeks as therapy for patients with primary or secondary warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA), who had failed initial treatment. Thirty-four patients received rituximab for WAIHA in seven centres in the Republic of Ireland. The overall response rate was 70·6% (24\\/34) with 26·5% (9\\/34) achieving a complete response (CR). The time to response was 1 month post-initiation of rituximab in 87·5% (21\\/24) and 3 months in 12·5% (3\\/24) of patients. The median duration of follow-up was 36 months (range 6-90 months). Of the patients who responded, 50% (12\\/24) relapsed during follow up with a median time to next treatment of 16·5 months (range 6-60 months). Three patients were re-treated with rituximab 375 mg\\/m2 weekly for four weeks at relapse and responded. There was a single episode of neutropenic sepsis. Rituximab is an effective and safe treatment for WAIHA but a significant number of patients will relapse in the first two years post treatment. Re-treatment was effective in a small number of patients, suggesting that intermittent pulse treatment or maintenance treatment may improve long-term response.

  9. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anaemia: a report from the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Corti, Paola; Favre, Claudio; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Locatelli, Franco; Prete, Arcangelo

    2014-06-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA). We report the transplantation outcome of 30 Italian DBA patients referred to the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry between 1990 and 2012. This is one of the largest national registry cohorts of transplanted DBA patients. Most patients (83%) were allografted after 2000. A matched sibling donor was employed in 16 patients (53%), the remaining 14 patients (47%) were transplanted from matched unrelated donors. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients engrafted. One patient died at day +6 due to veno-occlusive disease without achieving neutrophil recovery and another patient remained transfusion-dependent despite the presence of a full donor chimerism. The 5-year overall survival and transplant-related mortality was 74·4% and 25·6%, respectively. Patients younger than 10 years as well as those transplanted after 2000 showed a significantly higher overall survival and a significantly lower risk of transplant-related mortality. No difference between donor type was observed. Our data suggest that allogeneic HSCT from a related or unrelated donor was a reasonable alternative to transfusion therapy in young and well chelated DBA patients.

  10. 慢性充血性心力衰竭患者合并贫血的临床分析%Correlativity study on anaemia and the prognosis of chronic heart failur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪明; 饶大勇; 毛尚; 张利进; 刘在军

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慢性充血性心力衰竭患者合并贫血的患病情况及其与预后的相关性.方法 将不同程度的心力衰竭患者106例按贫血情况分为正常组、轻度贫血组、中度贫血组、重度贫血及极重度贫血组,采用前瞻性队列研究的方法,在接受常规治疗心力衰竭情况下,追踪观察1年,分析贫血对慢性充血性心力衰竭(CHF)患者心功能、再住院率、病死率及脑钠肽(BNP)等指标的影响.结果 随着心功能分级增高,贫血患病率呈逐渐增高趋势(P<0.01),中重度贫血的CHF患者的再住院率、病死率高,BNP均高于正常及轻度贫血组(P<0.05).结论 CHF合并贫血的患者其再住院率及病死率较高,贫血的程度越重,病情越严重,预后越差.%Objective To study the correlativity of anaemia and the prognosis of serious chronic heart failure.Methods The CHF patients with received in 2008 were divided into four groups.The normal group, the mild anaemia group, the moderate anaemia group,the serious group and the most serious group according to the Hb level.Under the convention control heart faille treatment, related date were collected and the effect of anaemia on again being hospitalized rate and mortality were analyzed and BNP in the one year follow up.Results The again being hospitalized rate and mortality in CHF Patients Combining anaemia were higher than those in CHF patients not comb ining anaemia( P < 0.01 ) ,Again being hospital rate and mortalityin moderate serious anaemia in CHF patients were higher than those in mild anaemia group and the Hb normal group(P <0.05).Conclusion The again being hospitalized rate and mortalify of CHF patients are higher,The anaemias degree is more deeply,the state of illness is move serious, and tbeprognosis is worse.

  11. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  15. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  16. Virus Ebola Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  17. Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, M J; Robertson, C; Jarrett, O

    1989-09-09

    A representative sample of the pet cat population of the United Kingdom was surveyed. Blood samples from 1204 sick and 1007 healthy cats of known breed, age and sex were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). The prevalence of FIV was 19 per cent in sick cats and 6 per cent in healthy cats, and the prevalence of FeLV was 18 per cent in sick cats and 5 per cent in healthy cats; both infections were more common in domestic cats than in pedigree cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus was more prevalent in older cats but FeLV was more prevalent in younger cats. There was no difference between the prevalence of FeLV in male and female cats but male cats were more likely to be infected with FIV than female cats. No interaction was demonstrated between FIV and FeLV infections. Of the cats which were in contact with FIV in households with more than one cat, 21 per cent had seroconverted. The prevalence of FeLV viraemia in cats in contact with FeLV was 14 per cent. The clinical signs associated with FIV were pyrexia, gingivitis/stomatitis and respiratory signs, and with FeLV, pyrexia and anaemia. It was concluded that both viruses were significant causes of disease, and that the cats most likely to be infected with FIV were older, free-roaming male cats and for FeLV, younger, free-roaming cats.

  18. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  19. Clinical Application of Reticulocyte Parameters in Anaemia Differential Diagnosis%网织红细胞参数在贫血性疾病鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾虹; 郑军; 董西华; 周立平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨网织红细胞参数在各类贫血性疾病鉴别诊断中的临床应用.方法 采用Sysmex XE-2100血液分析仪检测各类贫血患者和健康体检者网织红细胞百分率(RET%)、网织红细胞绝对值(RET#)、未成熟网织红细胞比率(IRF)、低荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(LFR%)、中荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(MFR%)和高荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(HFR%).结果 溶血性贫血组RET%、RET#、IRF、MFR%、HFR%显著高于其他各类型的贫血(P<0.01),而LFR%显著减低(P<0.01).缺铁性贫血组、肾病性贫血组及肝病性贫血组与健康对照组比较,RET#的差异无统计学意义,而缺铁性贫血组MFR%、HFR%及IRF比健康对照组显著升高(P<0.01),且升高的程度高于肾病性贫血组及肝病性贫血组.再生障碍性贫血组和白血病贫血组RET%、RET#低于其他各类型的贫血,白血病贫血组IRF较再生障碍性贫血组显著升高.结论 网织红细胞新型参数可以反映网织红细胞的成熟度,对不同类型贫血的鉴别诊断具有实用价值.%Objective To explore the clinical application value of reticulocyte parameters in anaemia differential diagnosis. Methods To analyze RET%,RET#,IRF,LFR%,MFR% and HFR% in the anaemia patients with different type and normal people with Sysmex XE-2100 automatic blood analyzer. Results RET%,RET#,IRF,MFR% and HFR% in patients with hemolytic anaemia were obviously higher than that of other groups and the LFR% was lower (P < 0.01) than that of other groups. Compared iron anaemia patients, renal anaemia patients and liver anaemia patients with health control, RET# was no significant differences among them, but MFR%, HFR% and 1RF were significantly increased in iron anaemia patients (P < 0.01). RET% and RET# in aplastia anaemia patients and leukemia anaemia patients were lower than that of other groups,and the IRF of leukemia anaemia patients was obviously higher than that of aplastia

  20. TO EVALUATE ANAEMIA BY ERYTHROCYTE INDICES, RED CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH AND HAEMOGLOBIN ELECTROPHORESIS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THALASSEMIA IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is not a diagnosis; it is a manifestation of an underlying disorder. Thus, even mild, asymptomatic anemia should be investigated so that the primary problem can be diagnosed and treated. Laboratory evaluation begins with a CBC, including WBC and platelet counts, RBC indices and morphology (MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC distribution width [RDW], and examination of the peripheral smear. In many instances routine test like Hb, TLC, DLC, GBP fail to decide anemia especially in early cases and also fail to decide the type of anaemia. In such situations the RBC indices and RDW are very useful. These become abnormal even before changes in routine hemogram are appreciable. Thalassemia minor poses problems in diagnosis because GBP reveals no features of hemolysis rather it has microcytic hypochromic picture which has similarity with iron deficiency anemia. It is difficult to differentiate between two by only GBP. Several decision making rules have been proposed for differentiation. METHOD : The present study was carried out in 100 cases to evaluate anaemia in different age groups based on RBC Indices and RDW and t o evaluate sensitivity of RBC indices and RDW in diagnosis of anaemia. Cases showing positivity by various rules and RDW in favour of thalassemia minor were subjected to Hb electrophoresis for confirmation of diagnosis. RESULTS : RBC indices are more sensitive for diagnosis of microcytic hypochromic anemia, normocytic normochromic anemia and macrocytic anemia than PBS alone. RDW - CV is superior to all in use to differentiate iron deficiency anemia an d thalassemia minor having high sensitivity 87.3% and specificity 90 .5%.

  1. Relative response of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and other transfusion-dependent anaemias to deferasirox (ICL670): a 1-yr prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John; Galanello, Renzo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Neufeld, Ellis J; Vichinsky, Elliott; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Olivieri, Nancy; Piga, Antonio; Cunningham, Melody J; Soulières, Denis; Gattermann, Norbert; Tchernia, Gilbert; Maertens, Johan; Giardina, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Janet; Quarta, Giovanni; Jeng, Michael; Forni, Gian Luca; Stadler, Michael; Cario, Holger; Debusscher, Louisette; Porta, Matteo Della; Cazzola, Mario; Greenberg, Peter; Alimena, Giuliana; Rabault, Bertrand; Gathmann, Insa; Ford, John Malcolm; Alberti, Daniele; Rose, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Objectives/methods This 1-yr prospective phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of deferasirox in regularly transfused patients aged 3–81 yrs with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; n = 47), Diamond–Blackfan anaemia (DBA; n = 30), other rare anaemias (n = 22) or β-thalassaemia (n = 85). Dosage was determined by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC). Results In patients with baseline LIC ≥7 mg Fe/g dry weight, deferasirox initiated at 20 or 30 mg/kg/d produced statistically significant decreases in LIC (P < 0.001); these decreases were greatest in MDS and least in DBA. As chelation efficiency and iron excretion did not differ significantly between disease groups, the differences in LIC changes are consistent with mean transfusional iron intake (least in MDS: 0.28 ± 0.14 mg/kg/d; greatest in DBA: 0.4 ± 0.11 mg/kg/d). Overall, LIC changes were dependent on dose (P < 0.001) and transfusional iron intake (P < 0.01), but not statistically different between disease groups. Changes in serum ferritin and LIC were correlated irrespective of disease group (r = 0.59), supporting the potential use of serum ferritin for monitoring deferasirox therapy. Deferasirox had a safety profile compatible with long-term use. There were no disease-specific safety/tolerability effects: the most common adverse events were gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rash and non-progressive serum creatinine increases. Conclusions Deferasirox is effective for reducing iron burden with a defined, clinically manageable safety profile in patients with various transfusion-dependent anaemias. There were no disease-specific adverse events. Once differences in transfusional iron intake are accounted for, dose-dependent changes in LIC or serum ferritin are similar in MDS and other disease groups. PMID:18028431

  2. Prevalence of anaemia among Quranic school (Khalawi) students (Heiran)in Wad El Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, Central Sudan: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. Methods A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Conclusion Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications. PMID:27800099

  3. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] 18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52 ± 1.61 and 1.72 ± 1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

  4. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased the prevalence of anaemia and improved iron status, whereas weekly iron supplementation only improved iron status in Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Sandalinas, Fanny; de Sesmaisons, Agnès; Laillou, Arnaud; Tam, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Bruyeron, Olivier; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Berger, Jacques

    2012-10-28

    In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95% CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95% CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95% CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple micronutrients is effective in reducing anaemia prevalence in school children.

  5. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kloss-Brandstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6. Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726 and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5(th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832, but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.

  6. Molecular analysis of the most prevalent mutations of the FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with Fanconi anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Enrique Aguilar Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is a recessive autosomal disease determined by mutations in genes of at least eleven complementation groups, with distinct distributions in different populations. As far as we know, there are no reports regarding the molecular characterisation of the disease in unselected FA patients in Brazil. OBECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the most prevalent mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with FA. METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from 22 racially and ethnically diverse unrelated FA patients (mean age ± SD: 14.0 ± 7.8 years; 10 male, 12 female; 14 white, 8 black was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction site assays for identification of FANCA (delta3788-3790 and FANCC (delta322G, IVS4+4A -> T, W22X, L496R, R548X, Q13X, R185X, and L554P gene mutations. RESULTS: Mutations in FANCA and FANCC genes were identified in 6 (27.3% and 14 (63.6% out of 22 patients, respectively. The disease could not be attributed to the tested mutations in the two remaining patients enrolled in the study (9.1%. The registry of the two most prevalent gene abnormalities (delta3788-3790 and IVS4 + 4 -> T revealed that they were present in 18.2% and 15.9% of the FA alleles, respectively. Additional FANCC gene mutations were found in the study, with the following prevalence: delta322G (11.4%, W22X (9.1%, Q13X (2.3%, L554P (2.3%, and R548X (2.3% of total FA alleles. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes are the most prevalent mutations among FA patients in Brazil.

  7. A paediatric case of sideroblastic anaemia. Ultrastructural studies of erythroblasts cultured from marrow BFU-E in a methylcellulose micromethod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, M; Vannereau, H; Bellet, H; Margueritte, G; Sultan, C

    1986-10-01

    We examined the morphological and functional characteristics of erythroblasts derived from marrow erythroid progenitor cells grown in a methylcellulose microculture, which were taken from a female child with rare atypical sideroblastic anaemia (SA) partially responsive to pyridoxine. Colony formation was within the normal range in three successive cultures (median values: 82.25 CFU-E and 16.4 BFU-E derived colonies/6.6 X 10(4) cells) compared to growth by normal cells (65-315 CFU-E and 9-40 BFU-E). We evaluated in vitro differentiation by biochemical microassay of a cytosol enzyme involved in the haem pathway: uroporphyrinogen I synthase (UROS). The UROS values in the erythroid colonies from SA marrow were at the lowere end of the normal range (median values: 6.7 +/- 0.3 and 14.4 +/- 3.8 pmol uroporphyrinogen/h in CFU-E and BFU-E-derived colonies respectively versus 17.4 +/- 7.3 and 25 +/- 7.2 pmol/h in CFU-E and BFU-E colonies from normal subjects. Ultrastructural examination of the SA erythroblasts from non-cultured bone marrow or derived from cultured BFU-E revealed the characteristic deposition of iron in mitochondria around the nucleus of most cells (ringed sideroblasts). However, the majority of cultured cells had marked dyserythropoietic features, with a large number of bilobulated or trilobulated erythroblasts, multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles, numerous abnormalities of the nucleus, and excessive membrane material beneath the plasma membrane, all features difficult to observe in non-cultured marrows.

  8. Impact of different strategies to control Plasmodium infection and anaemia on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been the main tool used to control malaria over the last 13 years. In 2004, started an indoor residual spraying (IRS campaign to control malaria. The purpose of this study is to asses the impact of the two control strategies on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea, with regards to Plasmodium infection and anaemia in the children under five years of age. Methods Two transversal studies, the first one prior to the start of the IRS campaign and the second one year later. Sampling was carried out by stratified clusters. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film, and the packed cell volume (PCV percentage. Data related to ITN use and information regarding IRS were collected. The Pearson's chi-square and logistic regression statistical tests were used to calculate odds ratios (OR Results In the first survey, 168 children were sampled and 433 children in the second one. The prevalence of infection was 40% in 2004, and significantly lower at 21.7% in 2005. PCV was 41% and 39%, respectively. 58% of the children surveyed in 2004 and 44.3% in 2005 had slept under an ITN. 78% of the dwellings studied in 2005 had been sprayed. In the 2005 survey, sleeping without a mosquito net meant a risk of infection 3 times greater than sleeping protected with a net hanged correctly and with no holes (p Conclusion IRS and ITNs have proven to be effective control strategies on the island of Bioko. The choice of one or other strategy is, above all, a question of operational feasibility and availability of local resources.

  9. Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib: an active agent only in non progressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffaud Florence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib : an active agent only in non progressive patients. Background Imatinib is a standard treatment for advanced/metastatic GIST and in adjuvant setting. Anaemia is frequently observed in patients with advanced GIST, and is one of the most frequent side effects of imatinib with grade 3–4 anaemia in 10% of patients. Whether EPO treatment is useful in the management of GIST patients receiving imatinib treatment is unknown. Methods A retrospective study of EPO treatment in GIST patients receiving imatinib was undertaken in 4 centres. Thirty four patients received EPO treatment among the 319 GIST patients treated with imatinib in clinical trials or with compassionate use between 2001 and 2003. The efficacy of EPO on the anaemia of patients with GIST treated with imatinib was analyzed. Results There were 18 males and 16 females with a median age of 59 years. Median WHO-PS was 1. Primary tumour sites were mainly gastric (32% and small bowel (29%. Sites of metastases were mainly liver (82% and peritoneum (79%. The median delay between the initiation of imatinib treatment and EPO was 58 days (range 0–553. Median haemoglobin (Hb level prior to EPO was 9 g/dL (range 6,9-11,8 and 11,7 g/dL (range 6,8-14,4 after 2 months. An increase of more than 2 g/dL was observed in 18 (53% of patients. None of the 7 patients who progressed (PD under imatinib treatment (400 mg/day experienced HB response, as compared to 66% (18/27 of the remaining patients (PR + SD (p = 0,002. Primary tumour site, liver metastases, peritoneal metastases, age, gender did not correlate with HB response to EPO. Response to EPO was observed in 2/11 patients receiving high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day vs 16/23 of others. Using logistic regression, only PD before EPO treatment was retained as a predictive factor for EPO response. Conclusion EPO enables to

  10. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter.

  11. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  12. Genetic contribution to iron status: SNPs related to iron deficiency anaemia and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 calcium channel subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; Remacha, Angel; Vaquero, M Pilar; López-Parra, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies associate genetic markers with iron- and erythrocyte-related parameters, but few relate them to iron-clinical phenotypes. Novel SNP rs1375515, located in a subunit of the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3, is associated with a higher risk of anaemia. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of this SNP with iron-related parameters and iron-clinical phenotypes, and to explore the potential role of calcium channel subunit region in iron regulation. Furthermore, we aim to replicate the association of other SNPs reported previously in our population. We tested 45 SNPs selected via systematic review and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 region, with haematological and biochemical traits in 358 women of reproductive age. Multivariate analyses include back-step logistic regression and decision trees. The results replicate the association of SNPs with iron-related traits, and also confirm the protective effect of both A allele of rs1800562 (HFE) and G allele of rs4895441 (HBS1L-MYB). The risk of developing anaemia is increased in reproductive age women carriers of A allele of rs1868505 (CACNA2D3) and/or T allele of rs13194491 (HIST1H2BJ). Association of SNPs from fine mapping with ferritin and serum iron suggests that calcium channels could be a potential pathway for iron uptake in physiological conditions.

  13. In vitro CFU-E and BFU-E responses to androgen in bone marrow from children with primary hypoproliferative anaemia: a possible therapeutic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, M; Margueritte, G; Sultan, C

    1986-02-01

    The effects of natural and synthetic androgens on erythroid colony formation in children's bone marrow cultures were studied using a methylcellulose microculture assay. In an attempt to predict the clinical response to androgens in two children with Fanconi anaemia (FA) and two children with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome (DB), we tested the hormonal stimulation of testosterone, nortestosterone and etiocholanolone on CFU-E, BFU-E and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed that colony formation and UROS activity were reduced when compared to values obtained with normal children's bone marrow cultures. The addition of steroids to the cultures significantly enhanced the numbers of CFU-E and BFU-E derived colonies and their UROS activity in marrow from patients with FA and one patient with DB. The strong depletion of marrow progenitor cells in the unresponsive marrow from child 4 with DB could explain the absence of hormonal response. Whereas the responsiveness to steroids varied according to the individual, the in vitro testing of erythroid differentiation in the presence of androgens theoretically may lead to an effective prediction of response to therapy in children with hypoplastic anaemia.

  14. Efficacy and safety of deferasirox doses of >30 mg/kg per d in patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia and iron overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali; Cappellini, Maria D; Vichinsky, Elliott; Galanello, Renzo; Piga, Antonio; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Clark, Joan; Habr, Dany; Porter, John B

    2009-01-01

    The highest approved dose of deferasirox is currently 30 mg/kg per d in many countries; however, some patients require escalation above 30 mg/kg per d to achieve their therapeutic goals. This retrospective analysis investigated the efficacy (based on change in serum ferritin levels) and safety of deferasirox >30 mg/kg per d in adult and paediatric patients with transfusion-dependent anaemias, including β-thalassaemia, sickle cell disease and the myelodysplastic syndromes. In total, 264 patients pooled from four clinical trials received doses of >30 mg/kg per d; median exposure to deferasirox >30 mg/kg per d was 36 weeks. In the overall population there was a statistically significant median decrease in serum ferritin of 440 μg/l (P30 mg/kg per d was consistent with previously published data. There was no worsening of renal or liver function following dose escalation. Deferasirox >30 mg/kg per d effectively reduced iron burden to levels lower than those achieved prior to dose escalation in patients with transfusion-dependent anaemias. This has important implications for patients who are heavily transfused and may require higher doses to reduce body iron burden. PMID:19764988

  15. Red cell indices and discriminant functions in the detection of beta-thalassaemia trait in a population with high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Kela, K

    1999-01-01

    Red cell indices and discriminant functions were studied in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassaemics (337 without iron deficiency, 126 with iron deficiency) and 195 patients of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) to ascertain their utility in the detection of betathalassaemia trait (BTT). Majority of traits in both groups had an elevated RBC count (> or = 5.0 x 10(12)/L). The counts were significantly higher than of patients with IDA, only 4.6% of whom had this degree of erythrocytosis. Mean Hb concentration was significantly higher in traits as compared to iron deficient subjects (p < 0.0001). Mean MCV and MCH were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower in traits more so in those with ID as compared to patients of IDA. MCV < 80 fl and MCH < 27 pg were found to be sensitive markers in the detection of traits even in the presence of ID. Of the four discriminant functions studied MCSQ was found to be most sensitive in detection of BTT and it identified 97.9% traits. DF of England and Fraser was most specific for BTT being < 8.4 in only 6.2% patients with IDA. Detection of erythrocytosis especially in the presence of mild anaemia and calculation of discriminant functions derived from red cell indices were found to play an important role in screening for BTT even in the presence of ID and helped identify those patients who required further laboratory evaluation.

  16. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  17. Causes of anaemia in children from Beihai city in last ten years%北海市10年间儿童贫血病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪睿; 王玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the causes of anaemia in children from Beihai city. Methods A retrospective analysis was made in case data collected from kids with anaemia in our hospital from 2001 to 2011. Results Within the 10 years, totally 280 children with anaemia were hospitalized, in which 132 cases were erythrocyte glucose - 6 - phosphate dehydrogenase( G - 6 - PD ) deficiency( 47. 14% )and 44 ones were malignant tumor( 15. 71% ). The ratio of children with the two diseases had a tendency of increment before 2009,but decreased in recent two years. Mediterranean anemia occurred in 50 cases( 17. 86 )% ,and the number had a tendency of increment year by year;nutritional iron deficiency anemia occurred in 34 cases( 12. 14% ),and its incidence decreased year by year; aplastic anemia occurred in 8 cases( 2. 86% ); hemorrhagic anemia occurred in 12 cases( 4. 29% ), and its tendency of changing was not significant. Conclusion The order of the reasons causing anaemia in children from Beihai city has changed. Genetic diseases become the main reason causing the anaemia, among which G - 6 - PD deficiency is the most outstanding, and mediterranean aneamia takes the second place. Prenatal diagnosis should be well performed in order to reduce the incidence of aneamia in children.%目的 了解北海市儿童贫血的原因.方法 收集2001~2011年10年间在我院住院治疗的贫血患儿的病例资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 10年间共收住贫血患儿280例,其中红细胞葡萄糖6 - 磷酸脱氨酶(G - 6 - D)缺乏症132例,占47.14%,恶性肿瘤44例,占15.71%,两病在2009年前有增加趋势,但近两年又有所下降;地中海贫血50例,占17.86%,有逐年增加趋势;营养性缺铁性贫血(IDA)34例,占12.14%,发病率逐年减少;再生障碍性贫血8例,占2.86%,出血性贫血12例,占4.29%,变化趋势不明显.结论 引起北海市儿童贫血原因的排序已发生了变化,遗传性疾病已成为导致贫血的主要原因,其中G - 6 - PD缺乏症

  18. High risk of severe anaemia after chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate antimalarial treatment in patients with G6PD (A- deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina I Fanello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common inherited human enzyme defect. This deficiency provides some protection from clinical malaria, but it can also cause haemolysis after administration of drugs with oxidant properties. METHODS: The safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate (CD+A and amodiaquine+sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was evaluated according to G6PD deficiency in a secondary analysis of an open-label, randomized clinical trial. 702 children, treated with CD+A or AQ+SP and followed for 28 days after treatment were genotyped for G6PD A- deficiency. FINDINGS: In the first 4 days following CD+A treatment, mean haematocrit declined on average 1.94% (95% CI 1.54 to 2.33 and 1.05% per day (95% CI 0.95 to 1.15 respectively in patients with G6PD deficiency and normal patients; a mean reduction of 1.3% per day was observed among patients who received AQ+SP regardless of G6PD status (95% CI 1.25 to 1.45. Patients with G6PD deficiency recipients of CD+A had significantly lower haematocrit than the other groups until day 7 (p = 0.04. In total, 10 patients had severe post-treatment haemolysis requiring blood transfusion. Patients with G6PD deficiency showed a higher risk of severe anaemia following treatment with CD+A (RR = 10.2; 95% CI 1.8 to 59.3 or AQ+SP (RR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 32.7. CONCLUSIONS: CD+A showed a poor safety profile in individuals with G6PD deficiency most likely as a result of dapsone induced haemolysis. Screening for G6PD deficiency before drug administration of potentially pro-oxidants drugs, like dapsone-containing combinations, although seldom available, is necessary.

  19. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  20. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Ashley Mariko; Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C

    2013-01-10

    Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS) to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0-5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic relationships ranged from

  1. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimone Ashley Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0–5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic

  2. The Thal-index with the BTT prediction.exe to discriminate β-thalassaemia traits from other microcytic anaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangama Arachchige Nilanga Nishad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several attempts have been made previously to differentiate β-thalassaemia trait (BTT from other microcytic anaemias using formulae with red cell (RC parameters. Presently available formulae have low sensitivity and specificity. We wanted to develop a more precise algorithm, which could be used in situations where the gold-standard test for thalassaemia diagnosis: the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is not available. The study was carried out prospectively from November 2008 to March 2010 from randomly collected blood samples with a mean cell volume (MCV of less than 80 fL. HbA2 measured by HPLC was used to diagnose BTT. We used Fishers stepwise linear discriminant function analysis to develop an algorithm with RC parameters. Calculated new index Thal-index was then subjected to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to identify best cutoff to discriminate BTT from other microcytic blood films. Software was developed to predict the BTT status (BTT prediction.exe. New index, referred to as the Thal-index, was calculated using discriminant function analysis and is given as Thal-index=[(0.615xMCV +(0.518xmean corpuscular hemoglobin+ (0.446xred cell distribution width]. A value of 59 for Thal-index has 90% sensitivity and 85% specificity for differentiating BTT from other microcytic anaemias. This showed better sensitivity and specificity compared to other formulae presently used (i.e., Mentzer in Eshani, et al.. Our study gives a better answer to set-up where HPLC is not available. Although this cannot replace HPLC, BTT prediction.exe is useful to predict instantly and is the first ever computer program available for this function. 先前已利用含红细胞(RC)参数的公式做出若干尝试,以鉴别β-地中海贫血(BTT)和其他小红细胞性贫血。目前可用公式的敏感度和特异度均低。我们想要开发更精确的算法,在地中海贫血诊断的金标准测试法(即高效液相色

  3. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  4. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  5. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  6. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  7. Anemia ferropriva em crianças do município de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in children from the City of S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce M. Sigulem

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma amostra de crianças do município de São Paulo, com idade variando de 6 a 60 meses foi estudada a prevalência de anemia, suas relações com a renda familiar em salários mínimos per capita, com a idade da criança e com a escolaridade materna. Foi também estudada a dieta dessas crianças no que tange sua adequação em ferro de origem animal e vegetal, complementando o estudo com prova terapêutica em uma pequena amostra. Concluiu-se que a anemia observada foi do tipo ferropriva, ocorrendo mais freqüentemente entre crianças menores de 2 anos e em crianças pertencentes a famílias de baixa renda. Em função dos achados os autores recomendam, particularmente, o uso profilático de sulfato ferroso durante o primeiro ano de vida no sentido de suplementar ferro uma vez que a dieta própria para a idade, pobre neste nutriente, é o fator básico para o aparecimento da anemia. Chamam também a atenção para a utilização de técnicas simplificadas para o diagnóstico precoce da anemia ferropriva, como rotina de serviço principalmente em crianças menores de 2 anos.In children from the City of S. Paulo, with ages between 6 and 60 months, anaemia related, to age, family income and mother schooling background were studied. Also, iron adequacy in the diet was compared with recommended dietary allowances for this nutrient and, finnaly, a small group received iron sulfate as a therapeutic test. The authors concluded that anaemia was of the iron deficiency type, mainly, more prevalent in children below 2 years old coming from low income families. To conclude, they recommend the profilatic use of iron sulfate for children during the first years of life and call attention to simplified technical methods for early diagnosis of anaemia to be used, as routine, in medical care of children under 2 years of age.

  8. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  9. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of ...

  10. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  11. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  13. Quasispecies of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic viruses have RNA genomes that cause acute and chronic infections. These viruses replicate with high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity, so-called viral quasispecies. Viral quasispecies play an important role in chronic infectious diseases, but little is known about their involvement in acute infectious diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) infection. DENV, the most important human arbovirus, is a causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Accumulating observations suggest that DENV exists as an extremely diverse virus population, but its biological significance is unclear. In other virus diseases, quasispecies affect the therapeutic strategies using drugs and vaccines. Here, I describe the quasispecies of DENV and discuss the possible role of quasispecies in the pathogenesis of and therapeutic strategy against DENV infection in comparison with other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and poliovirus.

  14. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marburg virus outbreaks: Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation When an outbreak ... Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region ...

  15. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  16. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  17. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  18. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  19. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  20. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin ... (nsSL). Beside increase in haemoglobin the only significant change in blood parameters after transfusion was a decrease in thrombocyte count (nsSL). No significant differences were seen in concentrations of cytokines before and after transfusion. Conclusion: Transfusion of two units of red cells...... relieved self-estimated fatigue, independent of blood storage time. Thrombocyte count decreased after transfusion, probably due to dilution by transfused blood. Aged red cells may not, or only sparsely, directly trigger the interleukin cascade....

  1. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  2. Lenalidomide: a review of its use in patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome associated with 5q chromosome deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Yahiya Y; Scott, Lesley J

    2013-07-01

    Lenalidomide (Revlimid(®)), a thalidomide analogue, is an orally administered second generation immunomodulator with anti-angiogenic, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and pro-erythropoietic properties. It is approved for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia due to International Prognostic Scoring System low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with either chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)] with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities (US, Japan and Switzerland etc.), or with an isolated del(5q) cytogenetic abnormality when other therapeutic options are insufficient or inadequate (EU) [featured indication]. In a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, registrational trial (MDS-004; n = 205) in this patient population, a significantly higher proportion of lenalidomide recipients than placebo recipients achieved red blood cell transfusion independence for ≥26 consecutive weeks (primary endpoint for efficacy) and cytogenetic responses. The erythroid response to lenalidomide was accompanied by an increase in the haemoglobin levels. These efficacy outcomes are generally consistent with those seen in an earlier noncomparative registrational trial (MDS-003; n = 148). In MDS-004, lenalidomide also significantly improved health-related quality of life compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Retrospective analyses that compared outcomes between lenalidomide-treated patients with low- or intermediate-1-risk del(5q) MDS and multicentre registry cohorts showed that lenalidomide treatment did not appear to increase the risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. Lenalidomide had a manageable safety profile in the registrational trials, with ≤20 % of patients discontinuing treatment because of adverse events. The most common adverse events (incidence ≥20 %) occurring in lenalidomide recipients were thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, which were generally managed by dosage reductions and/or interruptions, and

  3. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  4. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...... borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  5. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  6. Influence of anaemia on levels of NT-proBNP and BNP in patients with heart failure%贫血对慢性心力衰竭患者血浆NT-proBNP和BNP水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵枫; 孙一奎; 王峰; 王卫华; 曲静伟; 曹超

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨贫血对慢性心力衰竭患者血浆氮末端—前体脑钠肽(NT-proBNP)、羧基端活性段脑钠肽(BNP)的影响.方法:研究对象为76例因心功能不全入院的慢性心力衰竭患者,其中31例贫血.测定血浆NT-proBNP、BNP、血常规、肾功能等.结果:1)两组NT-proBNP比较差别没有统计学意义(P>0.05).但是,BNP在两组中差别有统计学意义(P<0.05).2)相关性分析示血红蛋白浓度与BNP呈现负相关(r=-0.687),与NT-proBNP无关.结论:研究表明在评价心力衰竭患者NT-proBNP、BNP水平时需考虑其贫血等相关影响因素.%Objective:To study the influence of anaemia on BNP and NT - proBNP levels in a large group of hospitalised HF patients. Methods: 76 patients hospitalised for HF were studied. Of these patients, 31 were anaemic. BNP and NT - proBNP levels were measured in all patients before discharge. Blood routine test and renal function test were also carried out on these patients. Results: 1. NT - proBNP levels had no difference in the patients with a-naemia and patients without anaemia (P >0. 05) . BNP level of anaemia patients was signifcantly higher than that in patients without anaemia(P <0. 05) . 2. Pearson analysis showed plasma haemoglobin level had negative correlation with the levels of BNP. Conclusion: These results indicate that anaemia should be taken into consideration during the interpretation of BNP and NT - proBNP levels in HF patients.

  7. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  8. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  9. Circulating microparticles, protein C, free protein S and endothelial vascular markers in children with sickle cell anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piccin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Circulating microparticles (MP have been described in sickle cell anaemia (SCA; however, their interaction with endothelial markers remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between MP, protein C (PC, free protein S (PS, nitric oxide (NO, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adrenomedullin (ADM in a large cohort of paediatric patients. Method: A total of 111 children of African ethnicity with SCA: 51 in steady state; 15 in crises; 30 on hydroxyurea (HU therapy; 15 on transfusion; 17 controls (HbAA of similar age/ethnicity. MP were analysed by flow cytometry using: Annexin V (AV, CD61, CD42a, CD62P, CD235a, CD14, CD142 (tissue factor, CD201 (endothelial PC receptor, CD62E, CD36 (TSP-1, CD47 (TSP-1 receptor, CD31 (PECAM, CD144 (VE-cadherin. Protein C, free PS, NO, pro-ADM and C-terminal ET-1 were also measured. Results: Total MP AV was lower in crisis (1.26×106 ml−1; 0.56–2.44×106 and steady state (1.35×106 ml−1; 0.71–3.0×106 compared to transfusion (4.33×106 ml−1; 1.6–9.2×106, p0.9, p<0.05 between total numbers of AV-positive MP (MP AV and platelet MP expressing non-activation platelet markers. There was a lower correlation between MP AV and MP CD62P (R=0.73, p<0.05 (platelet activation marker, and also a lower correlation between percentage of MP expressing CD201 (%MP CD201 and %MP CD14 (R=0.627, p<0.001. %MP CD201 was higher in crisis (11.6% compared with HbAA (3.2%, p<0.05; %MP CD144 was higher in crisis (7.6% compared with transfusion (2.1%, p<0.05; %CD14 (0.77% was higher in crisis compared with transfusion (0.0%, p<0.05 and steady state (0.0%, p<0.01; MP CD14 was detectable in a higher number of samples (92% in crisis compared with the rest (40%; %MP CD235a was higher in crisis (17.9% compared with transfusion (8.9%, HU (8.7% and steady state (9.9%, p<0.05; %CD62E did not differ significantly across the groups and CD142 was undetectable. Pro-ADM levels were raised in chest crisis: 0.38 nmol L−1 (0.31–0

  10. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  11. Mechanical properties of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Pedro J; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2013-01-01

    Structural biology techniques have greatly contributed to unveil the relationships between structure, properties and functions of viruses. In recent years, classic structural approaches are being complemented by single-molecule techniques such as atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers to study physical properties and functions of viral particles that are not accessible to classic structural techniques. Among these features are mechanical properties such as stiffness, intrinsic elasticity, tensile strength and material fatigue. The field of virus mechanics is contributing to materials science by investigating some physical parameters of "soft" biological matter and biological nano-objects. Virus mechanics studies are also starting to unveil the biological implications of physical properties of viruses. Growing evidence indicate that viruses are subjected to internal and external forces, and that they may have adapted to withstand and even use those forces. This chapter describes what is known on the mechanical properties of virus particles, their structural determinants, and possible biological implications, of which several examples are provided.

  12. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Michael

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, salmonid alphavirus (SAV and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV. Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the

  13. Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Dario; Darbesio, Antonella; Giai, Valentina; Genuardi, Mariella; Dellacasa, Chiara Maria; Sorasio, Roberto; Bertini, Marilena; Boccadoro, Mario

    2009-02-01

    The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has generally been best in untransfused patients with 'refractory anaemia' according to the World Health Organization (WHO). We treated 63 MDS patients [excluding refractory anaemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB2)] with a previously tested combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 +/- 6-thioguanine in addition to rEPO. Most patients were categorized as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and RAEB1, with intermediate 1 International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score; all had Hb <95 g/l, and 70% required regular erythrocyte transfusions. Treatment was well tolerated, and erythroid response rate according to new International Working Group criteria was 60%: 50% in RAEB1 and 64% in non-RAEB patients (P = 0.383). Response rate was not affected by transfusion requirement (63%; 58% in untransfused), IPSS and WHO Prognostic Scoring System scores, and weekly rEPO dosage (30-50 000 U vs. 80 000 U). Median response duration was 16 months. Median survival reached 14 months for RAEB1 and 55 months for non-RAEB patients, with a significant difference in the latter between responders and non-responders (median 82 months vs. 44 months; P = 0.036). Our combined therapy, independent of rEPO dosage, achieved in patients with unfavourable response predictors, a rate of anaemia improvement comparable to the best obtained in lower risk patients by high-dose rEPO.

  14. Thermal Inactivation of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    and lied. 99:289-292. Pastier, L./B. 1952. Toxic manifestations in rabbits and mice associated with the virus of western equine encephalomyelitiSo...Dis. 80:201-205. Mahdy, M. S., and M. Ho. 1964. Potentiation effect of fractions of eastern equine encsphalomyelitis virus on Interferon...Thermoinactivation of Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. J. Bacteriol. 89(3):671-674. Provost, P. J., B. S. Wolanski, W. J. Miller, 0. L

  15. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  16. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Archaea - the third domain of life - by Woese and colleagues in 1977, the subsequent developments in molecular and cell biology, and also genomics, have strongly reinforced the view that archaea and eukarya co-evolved, separately from bacteria, over a long time. However......, when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses...

  17. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  18. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for resistance against infectious salmon anaemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar: comparing survival analysis with analysis on affected/resistant data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Sigbjørn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA is a viral disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar worldwide. The identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting resistance to the disease could improve our understanding of the genetics underlying the trait and provide a means for Marker-Assisted Selection. We previously performed a genome scan on commercial Atlantic salmon families challenge tested for ISA resistance, identifying several putative QTL. In the present study, we set out to validate the strongest of these QTL in a larger family material coming from the same challenge test, and to determine the position of the QTL by interval mapping. We also wanted to explore different ways of performing QTL analysis within a survival analysis framework (i.e. using time-to-event data, and to compare results using survival analysis with results from analysis on the dichotomous trait 'affected/resistant'. Results The QTL, located on Atlantic salmon linkage group 8 (following SALMAP notation, was confirmed in the new data set. Its most likely position was at a marker cluster containing markers BHMS130, BHMS170 and BHMS553. Significant segregation distortion was observed in the same region, but was shown to be unrelated to the QTL. A maximum likelihood procedure for identifying QTL, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, was developed. QTL mapping was also done using the Haley-Knott method (affected/resistant data, and within a variance-component framework (affected/resistant data and time-to-event data. In all cases, analysis using affected/resistant data gave stronger evidence for a QTL than did analysis using time-to-event data. Conclusion A QTL for resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia in Atlantic salmon was validated in this study, and its more precise location on linkage group eight was determined. The QTL explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in resistance to the disease. The linkage group also displayed

  19. A hemagglutinin-esterase-expressing salmonid alphavirus replicon protects Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against infectious salmon anemia (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Astrid; Hodneland, Kjartan; Frost, Petter; Braaen, Stine; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-01-11

    A replicon expression system based on the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) that encodes the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) was constructed and found to be an efficacious vaccine against infectious salmon anemia (ISA). Following a single intramuscular immunization, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were effectively protected against subsequent ISAV challenge. Additional replicons coding for the ISAV fusion glycoprotein (F) or the ISAV matrix protein (M) were created and tested in combination with the replicon that encodes the HE. The ISAV HE was confirmed as a potent antigen, but neither the F nor the M proteins were found to be essential for immunization-induced protection. Innate immune response induced at the site of vaccination illustrated the immunogenicity of the SAV-based replicon and its ability to activate antiviral responses in Atlantic salmon. The successful testing of the SAV-based replicon as a vaccine model against ISA showed that the replicon approach may represent a novel immunization technology for the aquaculture industry. It offers potential benefits in terms of safety, efficacy, flexibility, and vaccine production complexity.

  20. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  1. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  2. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  3. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  4. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  5. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  6. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony;

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  7. Mayaro virus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencio, J M; Rebello, M A

    1993-01-01

    Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%). The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 +/- 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated p1, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in which three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein synthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  8. Mayaro virus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Mezencio

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%. The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 ñ 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated pl, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected. Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in wich three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein sinthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  9. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Romana, Marc; Joly, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Faes, Camille; Lemonne, Nathalie; Skinner, Sarah; Garnier, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Bertrand, Yves; Petras, Marie; Cannas, Giovanna; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Nader, Elie; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Lamarre, Yann; Gauthier, Alexandra; Waltz, Xavier; Kebaili, Kamila; Martin, Cyril; Hot, Arnaud; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Pialoux, Vincent; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC), but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown. Materials and Methods Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA), 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults) and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults) patients. Results Our results showed that 1) RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2) during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3) blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4) haematocrit decreases as SS patients age. Conclusion The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders. PMID:27355589

  10. Fibroblasts from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia show abnormal expression of genes involved in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramenghi Ugo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA is a rare inherited red cell hypoplasia characterised by a defect in the maturation of erythroid progenitors and in some cases associated with malformations. Patients have an increased risk of solid tumors. Mutations have been found in several ribosomal protein (RP genes, i.e RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A. Studies in haematopoietic progenitors from patients show that haplo-insufficiency of an RP impairs rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. DBA lymphocytes show reduced protein synthesis and fibroblasts display abnormal rRNA processing and impaired proliferation. Results To evaluate the involvement of non-haematopoietic tissues in DBA, we have analysed global gene expression in fibroblasts from DBA patients compared to healthy controls. Microarray expression profiling using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133A 2.0 Arrays revealed that 421 genes are differentially expressed in DBA patient fibroblasts. These genes include a large cluster of ribosomal proteins and factors involved in protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism, as well as genes associated to cell death, cancer and tissue development. Conclusion This analysis reports for the first time an abnormal gene expression profile in a non-haematopoietic cell type in DBA. These data support the hypothesis that DBA may be due to a defect in general or specific protein synthesis.

  11. Fanconi anaemia, BRCA2 mutations and childhood cancer: a developmental perspective from clinical and epidemiological observations with implications for genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chandler, Kate; Gillespie, Alan; Birch, Jillian M; Evans, D Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited condition characterised by congenital and developmental abnormalities and a strong cancer predisposition. In around 3-5% of cases FA is caused by biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Individuals heterozygous for BRCA2 mutations have an increased risk of inherited breast and ovarian cancer. We reviewed the mutation spectrum in BRCA2-associated FA, and the spectrum and frequency of BRCA2 mutations in distinct populations. The rarity of FA due to biallelic BRCA2 mutations supports a fundamental role of BRCA2 for prevention of malignant transformation during development. The spectrum of malignancies seen associated with FA support the concept of a tissue selectivity of BRCA2 mutations for development of FA-associated cancers. This specificity is illustrated by the distinct FA-associated BRCA2 mutations that appear to predispose to specific brain or haematological malignancies. For some populations, the number of FA-patients with biallelic BRCA2 disruption is smaller than that expected from the carrier frequency, and this implies that some pregnancies with biallelic BRCA2 mutations do not go to term. The apparent discrepancy between expected and observed incidence of BRCA2 mutation-associated FA in high-frequency carrier populations has important implications for the genetic counselling of couples with recurrent miscarriages from high-risk populations.

  12. Acute chest syndrome is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism-defined beta globin cluster haplotype in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Christopher J; Boulet, Sheree L; Yang, Genyan; Payne, Amanda B; Ghaji, Nafisa; Pyle, Meredith E; Hooper, W Craig; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Keefer, Jeffrey; Barron-Casella, Emily A; Casella, James F; Debaun, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity at the human β-globin locus has been implicated as a modifier of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity. However, haplotypes defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism sites across the β-globin locus have not been consistently associated with clinical phenotypes. To define the genetic structure at the β-globin locus more thoroughly, we performed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in 820 children who were homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (HbSS). Genotyping results revealed very high linkage disequilibrium across a large region spanning the locus control region and the HBB (β-globin gene) cluster. We identified three predominant haplotypes accounting for 96% of the β(S) -carrying chromosomes in this population that could be distinguished using a minimal set of common SNPs. Consistent with previous studies, fetal haemoglobin level was significantly associated with β(S) -haplotypes. After controlling for covariates, an association was detected between haplotype and rate of hospitalization for acute chest syndrome (ACS) (incidence rate ratio 0·51, 95% confidence interval 0·29-0·89) but not incidence rate of vaso-occlusive pain or presence of silent cerebral infarct (SCI). Our results suggest that these SNP-defined β(S) -haplotypes may be associated with ACS, but not pain or SCI in a study population of children with SCA.

  13. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Renoux

    Full Text Available Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC, but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown.Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA, 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults patients.Our results showed that 1 RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2 during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3 blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4 haematocrit decreases as SS patients age.The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders.

  14. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  15. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Dicistroviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicistroviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of approximately 8-10 kilobases in length. All members infect arthropod hosts with some having devastating economic consequences, such as Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Israeli acute paralysis virus towar...

  16. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.

  17. Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

  18. Viruses as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, R D

    1993-03-01

    The ability of certain viruses to affect prenatal development in domestic animals is well documented. However, differentiating a viral-induced malformation from those caused by genetic or other environmental causes is a diagnostic dilemma. Understanding how viruses interact with their embryo-fetal hosts and the potential consequences on prenatal development requires refining and dispelling some old concepts and injecting new insights into this diagnostic challenge. This article discusses several viral teratogens affecting domestic animals: Akabane, bluetongue, Cache Valley, Japanese B encephalitis, bovine viral diarrhea, Border disease, Chuzan, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, hog cholera, Rift Valley fever, and Wesselsbron disease viruses.

  19. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  20. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  1. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  2. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiency of virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  3. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  4. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  5. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  6. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  7. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  8. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  9. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  11. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  12. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  14. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  15. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  16. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages.

  17. Research on clinical value of laboratory detection of MCV and RDW in anaemia diagnosis%MCV、RDW实验室检测对贫血诊断的临床应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the diagnosis value of mean corpuscular volume ( MCV) and red blood cell distribution width ( RDW) in different types of anaemia. Methods: ABX PENTRA60 was employed to detect the mean corpuscular volume and red blood cell distribution width in 106 patients. Results; MCV results had statistical significances in iron - deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, sideroblastic anemia and simple microcytic anemia (t =6.4715,P 0.05) ;The sensitivities of MCV and RDW in different types of anaemia were 86. 7% ~ 94.4% , and the specificities were 90. 7% - 100%. Conclusion; Detection of MCV and RDW had high accuracy in diagnosis of anaemia, which was suitable for wide application.%目的:探讨检测MCV和RDW值对各型贫血的诊断价值.方法:采用ABX PENTRA60全自动血细胞分析仪检测106例患者红细胞平均体积和分布宽度.结果:缺铁性贫血、巨幼细胞性贫血、再生障碍性贫血、溶血性贫血、铁粒幼细胞性贫血和单纯小细胞性贫血MCV结果差别有统计学意义(t=6.4715,P<0.001),而RDW无差别(t=1.8697,P>0.05);各型贫血MCV与RDW检测的敏感性为86.7% ~94.4%,特异性为90.7% ~ 100%.结论:检测MCV和RDW对贫血诊断准确性高,值得临床推广应用.

  18. A YAC contig spanning the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Fanconi anaemia group C, and xeroderma pigmentosum group A loci on chromosome 9q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.J.; Reis, A. [Freie Universtiaet, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized primarily by multiple basal cell carcinomas, epithelium-lined jaw cysts, and palmar and plantar pits, as well as various other features. Loss of heterozygosity studies and linkage analysis have mapped the NBCCS gene to chromosome 9q and suggested that it is a tumor suppressor. The apparent sensitivity of NBCCS patients to UV and X-irradiation raises the possibility of hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents or defective DNA repair being etiological in the disorder. The recent mapping of the Fanconi anaemia group C (FACC) and xeroderma pigmentosum complementing group A (XPAC) genes to the same region on 9q has led us to begin the molecular dissection of the 9q22-q31 region. PCR analysis of the presence or absence of 10 microsatellite markers and exons 3 and 4 of the XPAC and FACC genes, respectively, allowed us to order 12 YACs into an overlapping contig and to order the markers as follows: D9S151/D9S12P1-D9S12P2-D9S197-D9S196-D9S280-FACC-D9S287/XPAC-D9S180-D9S6-D9S176. Sizing of the YACs has provided an initial estimate of the size of the NBCCS candidate region between D9S12 and D9S180 to be less than 1.65 Mb. 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Influence of the βs haplotype and α-thalassemia on stroke development in a Brazilian population with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Igor F; Falcão, Diego A; Hatzlhofer, Betania L; Cunha, Anderson F; Santos, Magnun N; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Fertrin, Kleber Y; Costa, Fernando F; Azevedo, Renata C; Machado, Cíntia G; Araújo, Aderson S; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio R; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is a catastrophic complication of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and is one of the leading causes of death in both adults and children with SCA. Evidence suggests that some genetic polymorphisms could be related to stroke development, but their association remains controversial. Here, we performed genotyping of five published single nucleotide polymorphisms, the α-thalassemia genotype, the G6PD A (-) variant deficiency, and the β(S) haplotype in a large series of SCA patients with well-defined stroke phenotypes. Of 261 unrelated SCA patients included in the study, 67 (9.5 %) presented a documented, primary stroke event. Markers of haemolysis (red blood cell (RBC) counts, p = 0.023; reticulocyte counts, p = 0.003; haemoglobin (Hb) levels, p haplotype (odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 4.31; p = 0.003) and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.11 to 0. 83; p = 0.02) were associated with increased and decreased stroke risk, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the β(S) haplotype was independently associated with stroke development (OR 2.26, 95 % CI 1.16 to 4.4; p = 0.016). Our findings suggest that only the β(S) haplotypes and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype modulate the prevalence of stroke in our SCA population. Genetic heterogeneity among different populations may account for the irreproducibility amongst different studies.

  20. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of