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Sample records for anaemia virus isav

  1. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

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    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-01-01

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:26490835

  2. Investigation into the susceptibility of saithe Pollachius virens to infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and their potential role as a vector for viral transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Raynard, R.; Bruno, D.W.;

    2002-01-01

    Wild-caught saithe Pollachius virens were experimentally exposed to an isolate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) of Norwegian origin. Mortality attributable to ISAV did not occur following exposure by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of virus or by cohabitation with ISAV-infected Atlantic...

  3. Evolutionary mechanisms involved in the virulence of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), a piscine orthomyxovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus causing a multisystemic, emerging disease in Atlantic salmon. Here we present, for the first time, detailed sequence analyses of the full-genome sequence of a presumed avirulent isolate displaying a full-length hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene (HPR0), and compare this with full-genome sequences of 11 Norwegian ISAV isolates from clinically diseased fish. These analyses revealed the presence of a virulence marker right upstream of the putative cleavage site R267 in the fusion (F) protein, suggesting a Q266 → L266 substitution to be a prerequisite for virulence. To gain virulence in isolates lacking this substitution, a sequence insertion near the cleavage site seems to be required. This strongly suggests the involvement of a protease recognition pattern at the cleavage site of the fusion protein as a determinant of virulence, as seen in highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5 or H7 and the paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus

  4. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...

  5. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences

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    Lisperger Angelica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA virus (ISAV is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish

  6. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of partial surface protein genes from infectious Salmon Anaemia virus (ISAV suggest novel mechanisms involved in transition to virulence.

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    Turhan Markussen

    Full Text Available Uncultivable HPR0 strains of infectious salmon anaemia viruses (ISAVs infecting gills are non-virulent putative precursors of virulent ISAVs (vISAVs causing systemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The transition to virulence involves two molecular events, a deletion in the highly polymorphic region (HPR of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE gene and a Q266→L266 substitution or insertion next to the putative cleavage site (R267 in the fusion protein (F. We have performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS of these gene regions from healthy fish positive for HPR0 virus carrying full-length HPR sampled in a screening program, and a vISAV strain from an ISA outbreak at the same farming site three weeks later, and compared the mutant spectra. As the UDPS data shows the presence of both HE genotypes at both sampling times, and the outbreak strain was unlikely to be directly related to the HPR0 strain, this is the first report of a double infection with HPR0s and vISAVs. For F amplicon reads, mutation frequencies generating L266 codons in screening samples and Q266 codons in outbreak samples were not higher than at any random site. We suggest quasispecies heterogeneity as well as RNA structural properties are linked to transition to virulence. More specifically, a mechanism where selected single point mutations in the full-length HPR alter the RNA structure facilitating single- or sequential deletions in this region is proposed. The data provides stronger support for the deletion hypothesis, as opposed to recombination, as the responsible mechanism for generating the sequence deletions in HE.

  7. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

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    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion.

  8. Localised Infection of Atlantic Salmon Epithelial Cells by HPR0 Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus.

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    Maria Aamelfot

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is an important, systemic viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Endothelial cells are the main target cells for highly virulent HPR-deleted ISA virus (ISAV types. Here we examine the pathogenesis of non-virulent ISAV HPR0 infections, presenting evidence of an epithelial tropism for this virus type, including actual infection and replication in the epithelial cells. Whereas all HPR0 RT-qPCR positive gills prepared for cryosection tested positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunofluorescent labelling, only 21% of HPR0 RT-qPCR positive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gills were IHC positive, suggesting different methodological sensitivities. Only specific epithelial cell staining was observed and no staining was observed in endothelial cells of positive gills. Furthermore, using an ISAV segment 7 RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated splicing of HPR0, suggesting initial activation of the replication machinery in the epithelial gill cells. Immunological responses were investigated by the expression of interferon-related genes (e.g. Mx and γIP and by ELISA for presence of anti-ISAV antibodies on samples taken sequentially over several months during an episode of transient HPR0 infection. All fish revealed a variable, but increased expression of the immunological markers in comparison to normal healthy fish. Taken together, we conclude that HPR0 causes a localized epithelial infection of Atlantic salmon.

  9. Molecular phylodynamics and protein modeling of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV

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    Castro-Nallar Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ISAV is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family that affects salmonids with disastrous results. It was first detected in 1984 in Norway and from then on it has been reported in Canada, United States, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. Recently, an outbreak was recorded in Chile with negative consequences for the local fishing industry. However, few studies have examined available data to test hypotheses associated with the phylogeographic partitioning of the infecting viral population, the population dynamics, or the evolutionary rates and demographic history of ISAV. To explore these issues, we collected relevant sequences of genes coding for both surface proteins from Chile, Canada, and Norway. We addressed questions regarding their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates, and demographic history using modern phylogenetic methods. Results A recombination breakpoint was consistently detected in the Hemagglutinin-Esterase (he gene at either side of the Highly Polymorphic Region (HPR, whereas no recombination breakpoints were detected in Fusion protein (f gene. Evolutionary relationships of ISAV revealed the 2007 Chilean outbreak group as a monophyletic clade for f that has a sister relationship to the Norwegian isolates. Their tMRCA is consistent with epidemiological data and demographic history was successfully recovered showing a profound bottleneck with further population expansion. Finally, selection analyses detected ongoing diversifying selection in f and he codons associated with protease processing and the HPR region, respectively. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the Norwegian origin hypothesis for the Chilean outbreak clade. In particular, ISAV HPR0 genotype is not the ancestor of all ISAV strains, although SK779/06 (HPR0 shares a common ancestor with the Chilean outbreak clade. Our analyses suggest that ISAV shows hallmarks typical of RNA viruses that can be exploited in epidemiological and

  10. The role of fish movements and the spread of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Chile, 2007-2009.

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    Mardones, F O; Martinez-Lopez, B; Valdes-Donoso, P; Carpenter, T E; Perez, A M

    2014-04-01

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is a constant major threat to farmed and wild Atlantic salmon worldwide. Many epidemics have recently been reported in the most important salmon farming regions of the world, including Chile (2007-2009), where ISAV generated the most important disease and economic crisis in history of the salmon industry of the country. The spread of ISAV within a region is most likely by local or neighborhood spread from an infected farm; however, there is evidence that anthropogenic activities, such as movement of live or harvested fish or their byproduct, may have played a more important role than environmental or passive transmission in the 2007-2009 outbreak. Atlantic salmon farms (n=421) were retrospectively followed from stocking to harvesting in southern Chile at the time of the ISAV epidemic (2007-2009). The effect of husbandry and spatial risk factors, in addition to contact-network risk factors, which were obtained from the social network analyses, on time to first ISAV infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Five variables were retained in the final fitted model: co-existing multiple generations on a farm (hazard ratio [HR]=2.585), mean smolt weight at stocking greater than 120g (HR=1.165), farm area (perkm(2)) (HR=1.005), and increased number of shipments entering a farm, i.e. the farm input degree (HR=1.876) were associated with reduced time to infection; whereas time-to-infection was longer for farms located farther from an ongoing ISAV outbreak (HR=0.943). It was demonstrated that movements of latently infected fish resulted in approximately 7 outbreaks, and potentially explain about 6% of the total number of cases during the epidemic. Results from this study provide new information about the mechanisms of spread of ISAV in one the largest documented ISAV epidemics in the world. Findings may be used to support the design and implementation of risk-based surveillance and control

  11. Development, Characterisation and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection and Quantification of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus in Plasma Samples Using Luminex Bead Array Technology

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    Hoare, R.; Thompson, K. D.; Herath, T.; Collet, B.; Bron, J. E.; Adams, A.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus that has had a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon farming in Europe, North America and Chile. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against Segment 3 (encoding the viral nucleoprotein, NP) of the virus. Six of the mAbs were shown to be specific to ISAV and recognised all isolates from Scotland, Norway and Canada. They reacted with ISAV in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and western blotting. They were also used to develop a novel detection method based on Luminex (Bio-Plex) bead-based flow cytometric technology for the detection of ISAV in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts experimentally infected with ISAV. Fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of virus at 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) = 2.8 x106 per animal. Virus present in plasma of infected fish, collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 28 days post infection using a non-lethal sampling method (n = 12 at each time point), was quantified using the optimised Bio-Plex assay. The results obtained with this assay were compared with absolute quantification of the virus by RT-qPCR using SYBR Green I and TaqMan chemistries. The Bio-Plex assay developed using the NP mAbs appears to be a rapid, sensitive method for detecting and quantifying ISAV in small volumes of fish plasma and has the potential to be multiplexed for the detection of other fish pathogens (e.g. during co-infections). To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of Luminex (Bio-Plex) technology for the detection of a fish pathogen. PMID:27434377

  12. The Detection of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus Using Real-Time Fluorescent Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification%传染性鲑鱼贫血症病毒实时荧光环介导等温扩增检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀杰; 于力; 王津津; 何俊强; 郑晓聪; 贾鹏兰; 文升; 杨锦舜; 刘荭

    2014-01-01

    根据ISAV的基因保守序列,利用LAMP Designer软件设计了6条引物,采用新型的环介导等温扩增设备进行扩增和检测,优化了反应条件,分析了所建立方法的特异性和灵敏度,并与RT-PCR和实时荧光RT-PCR进行比较。研究表明,该方法最适反应温度为64℃,反应10 min就可以观察到明显的扩增。该方法灵敏度高,检测限为78.4 fg RNA,比常规RT-PCR灵敏度高100倍,与实时荧光定量RT-PCR灵敏度相当;特异性好,与传染性胰腺坏死病毒(IPNV)、鲤春病毒血症病毒(SVCV)、出血性败血症病毒(VHSV)、鱼类病毒性神经坏死病病毒(VNNV)、鱼腹水病毒(YAV)等14种主要鱼类病毒没有交叉反应。结果表明,本研究建立了 ISAV 的实时荧光环介导等温扩增检测方法,实验能对整个扩增过程进行实时监测,提高检测灵敏度的同时,防止由于开盖跑电泳或加染料而导致的污染。%The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is classified as an Orthomyxoviridae. Its genome consists of 8 single-stranded negative-sense RNA segments. ISAV is the pathogen of fatal ISA listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). It mainly affects salmon farming in Europe and Northern America, but there has been a high chance of its introduction into China due to the increased salmon importation. Therefore it is very important to establish a rapid and accurate method for ISAV detection. Conventional ISAV detection methods involve cell isolation followed by RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR. Recently Japanese scientists have established a novel technique with high sensitivity and rapidity, namely Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. In this study, LAMP assay was developed for detecting infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Six specific primers were designed according to ISAV genes using LAMP Designer software. A novel LAMP instrument was applied for the amplification and detection. The

  13. Characterization of the equine infectious anaemia virus S2 protein.

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    Yoon, S; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Wilson, S A; Mitrophanous, K A

    2000-09-01

    S2 is an accessory protein of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), the function of which is unknown. In order to gain insight into the function of S2, the intracellular localization of the protein, its interaction with viral proteins and its incorporation into viral particles have been investigated. Immunolocalization of S2 revealed punctate staining in the cytoplasm and the S2 protein co-precipitated with the EIAV Gag precursor. Despite overexpression of S2 through the use of a codon-optimized sequence, there was no preferential association of S2 with EIAV particles. These data suggest that S2 may function to organize the Gag protein during particle assembly in the cytoplasm but that it is unlikely to be involved in the early stages of the virus life-cycle. PMID:10950976

  14. Warm Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia and autoimmune hepatitis in an asymptomatic carrier of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, a rare disease (0.2-1 per 100,000 populations), is due to the presence of warm agglutinins that react with protein antigens on the surface of red blood cells causing their premature destruction. Here, we present a case report of a 10 year old girl who came with features of haemolytic anaemia and history of blood transfusion since 3 years. On admission, laboratory test revealed that she had autoimmune hepatitis type 1 and was also an asymptomatic carrier of hepatitis B virus with positive HBs Ag. Steroid therapy resulted in clinical and laboratory remission. Direct antiglobulin test was negative after anaemia resolution, hepatitis B virus antigenemia persisted. To our knowledge, warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anaemia has not previously been described in association with autoimmune hepatitis and asymptomatic carrier state of hepatitis B virus. (author)

  15. Cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia secondary to Epstein Barr virus infection presenting with peripheral gangrene; case report

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    Karunarathne Suneth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sixty year old male presented with dark urine, symptomatic anaemia and peripheral gangrene following cold exposure. Investigations revealed that he had haemolysis and serological evidence of recent Epstein Barr virus infection. Although acrocyanosis is commonly associated with cold agglutinin disease, gangrene is a rare complication. Management of secondary cold agglutinin disease is mainly supportive.

  16. Intracellular proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus and their antigenic relationship with equine infectious anaemia virus proteins.

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    Egberink, H F; Ederveen, J; Montelaro, R C; Pedersen, N C; Horzinek, M C; Koolen, M J

    1990-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) grown in cat lymphocyte and thymocyte cultures was labelled with L-[35S]methionine or [3H]glucosamine and virus-coded proteins were identified using immunoprecipitation. Polypeptides with apparent Mr values of 15K, 24K, 43K, 50K, 120K and 160K were detected. An additional polypeptide of 10K was detected by Western blot analysis. The two highest Mr species sometimes appeared as one band, of which only the 120K polypeptide was glycosylated. In the presence of tunicamycin gp120 was no longer detectable and a non-glycosylated precursor of 75K was found instead. Pulse-chase experiments suggested that the smaller polypeptides p24 and p15 are cleavage products of both p160 and p50. Western blot analysis using a rabbit serum directed against p26 of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and an anti-EIAV horse serum from a field case of infection revealed a cross-reactivity with p24 of FIV. Cat sera collected late after experimental FIV infection recognized p26 of EIAV, indicating a reciprocal cross-reactivity. PMID:1690264

  17. Definition of sanitary boundaries to prevent ISAv spread between salmon farms in southern Chile based on numerical simulations of currents

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    Olivares, Gonzalo; Sepúlveda, H. H.; Yannicelli, B.

    2015-06-01

    The infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv) is a pathogen that mainly affects the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). It was detected in Norway in 1984 and in June 2007 appeared in Chile, producing a drop of more than 30% in the country's production level. It is expected that with certain regularity, outbreaks will continue to appear in Chile without the need of reintroducing the virus from foreign countries. We present a numerical study of the influence of winds and tides in the dispersion of lagrangian particles to simulate the transport of ISAv in the Aysen region, in southern Chile. This study combines the use of numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere, lagrangian tracking and biological aspects of ISAv infections. As in previous results, a wider dispersion of ISAv was observed during spring tides. Temporal changes in wind significantly modified the transport of viral particles from an infected center. Under similar forcing conditions, the areas of risk associated to culture sites separated by a few kilometers could be very different. Our main results remark the importance of the use of a detailed knowledge of hydrographic and atmospheric circulation in the definition of boundaries for sanitary management areas. We suggest that a methodology similar to the one presented in this study should be considered to define sanitary strategies to minimize the occurrence of native outbreaks of ISAv.

  18. A replication competent lentivirus (RCL) assay for equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vectors.

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    Miskin, J; Chipchase, D; Rohll, J; Beard, G; Wardell, T; Angell, D; Roehl, H; Jolly, D; Kingsman, S; Mitrophanous, K

    2006-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are being developed to satisfy a wide range of currently unmet medical needs. Vectors destined for clinical evaluation have been rendered multiply defective by deletion of all viral coding sequences and nonessential cis-acting sequences from the transfer genome. The viral envelope and accessory proteins are excluded from the production system. The vectors are produced from separate expression plasmids that are designed to minimize the potential for homologous recombination. These features ensure that the regeneration of the starting virus is impossible. It is a regulatory requirement to confirm the absence of any replication competent virus, so we describe here the development and validation of a replication competent lentivirus (RCL) assay for equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV)-based vectors. The assay is based on the guidelines developed for testing retroviral vectors, and uses the F-PERT (fluorescent-product enhanced reverse transcriptase) assay to test for the presence of a transmissible reverse transcriptase. We have empirically modelled the replication kinetics of an EIAV-like entity in human cells and devised an amplification protocol by comparison with a replication competent MLV. The RCL assay has been validated at the 20 litre manufacturing scale, during which no RCL was detected. The assay is theoretically applicable to any lentiviral vector and pseudotype combination. PMID:16208418

  19. Serological and molecular detection of chicken anaemia virus in Iranian poultry flocks.

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    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Despite chicken being the main natural host for chicken anaemia virus (CAV), other birds may be infected by this virus too. In this study we examined chickens, turkeys, and quails for serological and molecular detection of CAV in Iran. For this study, we used 375 sera and thymus samples from broiler chickens, 100 sera and blood samples from turkeys, and 250 thymus samples from quails. The sample were collected from all over Iran between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples were examined using ELISA. DNA was extracted from thymus and blood samples and was analysed for the presence of the VP2 gene of CAV by polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that 69.07% of chickens were positive for antibody to CAV. In chickens, 58.4% were positive for CAV VP2 gene. The prevalence of CAV infection in quails was 15%, based on CAV VP2 gene detection. In turkey flocks, all turkeys (100%) were negative with respect to detection of VP2 CAV gene and CAV antibodies. It was concluded that, for the span of the time considered in this study, CAV has circulated in broiler chickens and quails throughout Iran.

  20. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) dynamics evidence immunomodulation during ISAV-Infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

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    Boltaña, Sebastian; Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Aguilar, Andrea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for participation in the host response to infection, the roles of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) remain unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify lncRNAs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and evaluate their transcriptomic regulation during ISA virus (ISAV) infection, an Orthomyxoviridae virus associated with high mortalities in salmonid aquaculture. Using next-generation sequencing, whole-transcriptome analysis of the Salmo salar response to ISAV infection was performed, identifying 5,636 putative lncRNAs with a mean length of 695 base pairs. The transcriptional modulation evidenced a similar number of differentially expressed lncRNAs in the gills (3,294), head-kidney (3,275), and liver (3,325) over the course of the infection. Moreover, analysis of a subset of these lncRNAs showed the following: (i) Most were similarly regulated in response to ISA virus infection; (ii) The transcript subsets were uniquely modulated in each tissue (gills, liver, and head-kidney); and (iii) A subset of lncRNAs were upregulated for each tissue and time analysed, indicating potential markers for ISAV infection. These findings represent the first discovery of widespread differential expression of lncRNAs in response to virus infection in non-model species, suggesting that lncRNAs could be involved in regulating the host response during ISAV infection. PMID:26939752

  1. Prevalence of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in commercial poultry flocks of northern India: a serological survey.

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    Bhatt, P; Shukla, S K; Mahendran, M; Dhama, K; Chawak, M M; Kataria, J M

    2011-10-01

    Globally, the chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) has gained much importance as an immunosuppressive and economically important emerging pathogen of poultry. In recent years, the virus has been detected and isolated from poultry flocks of India. The present study reports the first sero-epidemiological investigation of the presence of CIAV infection in poultry flocks of the country. A total of 404 serum samples were collected from chicken flocks of eleven poultry farms, which contain a total of 0.34 million birds from four Northern states, suspected of having chicken infectious anaemia (CIA). Screening of the sera samples using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit revealed 351 serum samples (86.88%) to be positive for CIAV antibodies. A high CIAV prevalence rate recorded in the present investigation, along with earlier virus detection reports, indicates the widespread distribution of the virus and that CIAV should be considered an economically important poultry pathogen affecting poultry industry of India. Extensive nationwide epidemiological studies are suggested for revealing the economic impact of CIA and to initiate further research along with devising and adapting suitable prevention and control strategies especially the use of suitable vaccines for safeguarding poultry health and production in the country.

  2. Transcriptomic Profiling of Virus-Host Cell Interactions following Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV Infection in an In Vivo Model.

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    Efstathios S Giotis

    Full Text Available Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV is an economically important virus that targets lymphoid and erythroblastoid progenitor cells leading to immunosuppression. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between viral infection and the host's immune response to better understand the pathways that lead to CAV-induced immunosuppression. To mimic vertical transmission of CAV in the absence of maternally-derived antibody, day-old chicks were infected and their responses measured at various time-points post-infection by qRT-PCR and gene expression microarrays. The kinetics of mRNA expression levels of signature cytokines of innate and adaptive immune responses were determined by qRT-PCR. The global gene expression profiles of mock-infected (control and CAV-infected chickens at 14 dpi were also compared using a chicken immune-related 5K microarray. Although in the thymus there was evidence of induction of an innate immune response following CAV infection, this was limited in magnitude. There was little evidence of a Th1 adaptive immune response in any lymphoid tissue, as would normally be expected in response to viral infection. Most cytokines associated with Th1, Th2 or Treg subsets were down-regulated, except IL-2, IL-13, IL-10 and IFNγ, which were all up-regulated in thymus and bone marrow. From the microarray studies, genes that exhibited significant (greater than 1.5-fold, false discovery rate <0.05 changes in expression in thymus and bone marrow on CAV infection were mainly associated with T-cell receptor signalling, immune response, transcriptional regulation, intracellular signalling and regulation of apoptosis. Expression levels of a number of adaptor proteins, such as src-like adaptor protein (SLA, a negative regulator of T-cell receptor signalling and the transcription factor Special AT-rich Binding Protein 1 (SATB1, were significantly down-regulated by CAV infection, suggesting potential roles for these genes as regulators of viral infection or

  3. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

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    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  5. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  6. 鸡贫血病毒——一个隐性感染的威胁%Chick Anaemia Virus is a hidden menace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen A Lister; 沈权; 何新吾

    2009-01-01

    @@ 鸡贫血病毒(Chick Anaemia Virus,CAV)是一种既可垂直传播又可水平传播的疾病.现在,一个表现出全套临床症状的鸡贫血病毒病已在许多国家中极难见到,但它仍有可能会造成巨大的经济损失.了解疾病的特性及其传播方式将有助于更好地防止鸡受到感染.

  7. ANAEMIA DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Sanam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional anaemia due to iron and folate deficiency is a major global Public Health problem. South Asia ranks among the regions, which have the highest prevalence of anaemia in the world and India perhaps has the highest prevalence of anaemia among the South Asian countries. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50% of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. Many times anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for maternal deaths. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. Maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in preganancy can lead to substantial reduction in under nutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  8. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated. PMID:27359315

  9. The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization for the detection of measles virus and chicken anaemia virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.; McQuaid, S. [Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.]|[Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Microwave irradiation was investigated as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Two probe/tissue systems were used: a single-stranded RNA probe for the detection of measles virus nucleocapsid genome in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain tissue, and a double stranded DNA probe for chicken anaemia virus in thymus of chicken infected with the virus. Microwaving, when used as sold pretreatment, was not as effective as the more traditional enzyme pretreatments for in situ hybridization. However, when used in combination with existing pretreatments, a significant increase was found in hybridization signal in both brain and thymus tissue. This was emphasized when combination enzyme/microwave pretreatments were used prior to detection of measles virus by in situ hybridization in a series of five archival subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases. The use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing in situ hybridization methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. (Author).

  10. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  11. A retrospective study of the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Dorathry Adaunwo; Iyalla, Caroline; Omunakwe, Hannah; Iwo-Amah, Rose Sitonma; Nwabuko, Collins

    2016-07-01

    We reviewed the records of antenatal clinic attendees over a period of 9 years to determine the prevalence of anaemia at booking. The laboratory records of 8751 out of a total of 37,506 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care between 2004 and 2013 at the BMSH were reviewed. The effects of maternal age, educational status, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin genotype and infections on the prevalence of anaemia were investigated. The prevalence of anaemia at booking was 69.6%, most of whom had moderate anaemia. Anaemia was significantly prevalent in the 10-19 year age group, and in women with secondary education, in their 2nd trimester and with SS genotype. Anaemia also increased with gestational age, this however was not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between those who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and had anaemia and those who are HIV negative who also had anaemia. This study shows that anaemia in pregnant women is still unacceptably high considering the consequences and despite interventions on the ground to reduce prevalence. There is a need to review the intervention measures with emphasis on programmes that would increase awareness among pregnant women and the general public. PMID:27110932

  12. Expression of the infectious salmon anemia virus receptor on atlantic salmon endothelial cells correlates with the cell tropism of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2012-10-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, characterized by slowly developing anemia and circulatory disturbances. The disease is caused by ISA virus (ISAV) in the Orthomyxoviridae family; hence, it is related to influenza. Here we explore the pathogenesis of ISA by focusing on virus tropism, receptor tissue distribution, and pathological changes in experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Using immunohistochemistry on ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon tissues with antibody to viral nucleoprotein, endotheliotropism was demonstrated. Endothelial cells lining the circulatory system were found to be infected, seemingly noncytolytic, and without vasculitis. No virus could be found in necrotic parenchymal cells. From endothelium, the virus budded apically and adsorbed to red blood cells (RBCs). No infection or replication within RBCs was detected, but hemophagocytosis was observed, possibly contributing to the severe anemia in fish with this disease. Similarly to what has been done in studies of influenza, we examined the pattern of virus attachment by using ISAV as a probe. Here we detected the preferred receptor of ISAV, 4-O-acetylated sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac(2)). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the in situ distribution of this sialic acid derivate. The pattern of virus attachment mirrored closely the distribution of infection, showing that the virus receptor is important for cell tropism, as well as for adsorption to RBCs. PMID:22811536

  13. Individualizing anaemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M

    2010-12-01

    Individualized strategies for managing renal anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) need to be advanced. Recent outcomes from clinical studies prompted a narrowing of the guideline-recommended haemoglobin target (11-12 g/dL) due to increased mortality and morbidity when targeting higher haemoglobin concentrations. Maintaining a narrow target is a clinical challenge, as haemoglobin concentration tends to fluctuate. The goal of individualized treatment is to achieve the haemoglobin target at the lowest ESA dose while avoiding significant fluctuations in haemoglobin concentrations and persistently low or high concentrations. This may require changes to the ESA dose and dosing frequency over the course of treatment.

  14. Pulse oximetry in severe anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsing, T; Rosenberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was performed in two patients with acute and chronic anaemia (haemoglobin concentrations: 2.9 mmol/l (4.7 g/dl) and 1.9 mmol/l (3.0 g/dl), respectively) using a Radiometer OXI and a Nellcor N-200 pulse oximeter. The two oximeters read...... alternating different values in the two patients. In conclusion, pulse oximeters are able to give a value for oxygen saturation even at extreme anaemia, and when a high value is given, it possibly reflects arterial oxygen saturation. The value of pulse oximetry in severe anaemia is discussed....

  15. Analysis of host- and strain-dependent cell death responses during infectious salmon anemia virus infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mjaaland Siri

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA, a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV infection causes cytophatic effect (CPE in cell lines from Atlantic salmon, leading to rounding and finally detachment of the cells from the substratum. In this study, we investigated the mode of cell death during in vitro ISAV infection in different Atlantic salmon cell lines, using four ISAV strains causing different mortality in vivo. Results The results show that caspase 3/7 activity increased during the course of infection in ASK and SHK-1 cells, infected cells showed increased surface expression of phosphatidylserine and increased PI uptake, compared to mock infected cells; and morphological alterations of the mitochondria were observed. Expression analysis of immune relevant genes revealed no correlation between in vivo mortality and expression, but good correlation in expression of interferon genes. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that there is both strain and cell type dependent differences in the virus-host interaction during ISAV infection. This is important to bear in mind when extrapolating in vitro findings to the in vivo situation.

  16. 免疫失败种鸡群中鸡贫血病毒感染的检测%Detection of chicken anaemia virus infection in immuno-suppressed breeders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳龙; 赵文明; 吉荣; 金文杰; 秦爱建; 崔治中

    2002-01-01

    @@ 鸡贫血病毒(chick anaemia virus,CAV)是鸡传染性贫血的病原,它是圆环病毒科的代表成员,为单股负链环状DNA病毒,基因组全长约为2 300 bp[1,2].CAV可引起雏鸡的再生障碍性贫血和全身淋巴组织萎缩,尤其是胸腺萎缩[3].1周龄以内的雏鸡CAV感染后易导致死亡,而1周龄以上的鸡感染后几乎不引发CAV典型临床症状.但由于全身性淋巴组织萎缩,尤其是骨髓和胸腺细胞发生了G1期阻滞而导致增殖性细胞大量减少和凋亡[4],CAV感染群极易并发或继发其他疾病,以及常引起疫苗免疫失败等情况.CAV既可水平传播,又可垂直传播,这对于种鸡群而言,CAV感染的预防显得尤为重要.

  17. Secuelas de la violencia colectiva: hablan las víctimas del estudio ISAVIC Sequelae of collective violen victims' voices in the ISAVIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A pesar de la importancia de la violencia colectiva en la salud, aún quedan muchas lagunas sobre la naturaleza de las lesiones que produce y su relación con el bienestar y la calidad de vida de sus víctimas. Durante los años 2005-2008 se realizó en el País Vasco el estudio ISAVIC para estimar los efectos de este tipo de violencia en la salud. El estudio intentó comprender las características de las secuelas de la violencia colectiva en la salud de las víctimas a partir de sus percepciones. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de 36 víctimas primarias, a través de redes de contactos y mediadores. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas, analizadas en función del modelo conceptual del estudio. Resultados: Los testimonios sugieren que las víctimas han experimentado un proceso traumático de gran intensidad que no han superado en su totalidad y que es causa de una importante pérdida de calidad de vida. Se describen las principales limitaciones funcionales observadas en términos físicos, emocionales y sociales. Conclusiones: Los resultados cualitativos son coherentes con los obtenidos mediante instrumentos estandarizados, a los que dotan de mayor sentido al explicar la naturaleza de las limitaciones de la salud. También permiten intuir algunas de las relaciones entre las diferentes limitaciones funcionales y su impacto en la calidad de vida. Conviene verificar los resultados con muestras más amplias de víctimas y profundizar en el estudio de la relación entre violencia y salud, incluyendo el impacto del contexto social.Objective: Despite the significant influence of collective violence on the health status of its victims, there are still many gaps in our understanding of the nature of the functional limitations this violence produces and its impact on victims' wellbeing and quality of life. The ISAVIC study was carried out in the autonomous region of the Basque Country from 2005-2008 to

  18. Is hidradenitis suppurativa associated with anaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Johansen, M E; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases may be associated with anaemia of inflammation. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease associated with metabolic comorbidities, low quality of life and fatigue. Anaemia may cause fatigue, and it has been hypothesized...... that HS-related fatigue may be partly due to anaemia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and anaemia. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based and population-based cross-sectional study investigating the red blood cell profile, i.e. haemoglobin. RESULTS: We...... revealed that 60% had normocytic anaemia and 40% microcytic anaemia, in concordance with anaemia of inflammation. CONCLUSION: In contrast to our hypothesis, this study showed that HS is not associated with anaemia. Thus, anaemia may not be the cause of the described fatigue in HS patients. Furthermore...

  19. Haematological Profile in Haemolytic Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Deshpande

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried to find out the frequency of haemolytic anaemia, to know the different etiological factors and their percentage in the region of marathwada, Maharashtra. Background: Knowledge of frequency and different etiological factors is essential for the information of magnitude and treatment of the patients. The present study was done in the department of pathology, Gov. Medical College, Aurangabad, district of Maharashtra. The patients from marathwada region of the Maharashtra were included in this study. The concerned study of “Haemoglobinopathies in Childhood” was conducted by Anil J in 1984 in the same institute. Methodology: Total 76 clinically suspected cases were investigated. For the study routine investigations like Hb estimation, peripheral blood smear examination, reticulocyte count and special investigations like sickling test, Hb solubility test, estimation of faetal haemoglobin and Hb electrophoresis were carried out. Results: Total 76 cases were studied. Out of it 51 cases were male (67.10% and 25 (32.89% cases were female. The patients are in the age group, 5 months to 45 years. Out of 76 cases 51 cases were diagnosed as haemolytic anaemia. In these 51 cases of haemolytic anaemia, 42 cases (82.35% of haemoglobinopathies, it cases (15.68% of malaria and one case (1.96% of auto immune haemolytic anaemia were found to have as causative factor. Conclusion: It showed that the frequency of haemolytic anaemia in studied 76 cases was 67.10%. In diagnosed 51 cases of haemolytic anaemia, the causative factor as haemoglobinopathy was 82.35% and other than haemoglobinopathy was 17.65%. It also showed that majority of the cases in this region were belonging to beta thalassaemia major, which is more common in western zone of India followed by sickle cell anaemia.

  20. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

    2010-01-01

    La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

  1. Coeliac disease with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients are described who have developed autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in association with their coeliac disease. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia may represent an extension of immunological disorders linked with coeliac disease, centred on the histocompatibility antigen B8.

  2. Haemoglobin and anaemia in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lifson, Alan R; Touloumi, Giota;

    2011-01-01

    Data from randomized trials on the development of anaemia after interruption of therapy are not well-described.......Data from randomized trials on the development of anaemia after interruption of therapy are not well-described....

  3. Combined use of the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines to enhance the detection of infectious salmon anemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J.B.; Bouchard, D.; Coll, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a severe disease primarily affecting commercially farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in seawater. The disease has been reported in portions of Canada, the United Kingdom, the Faroe Islands, and the United States. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of ISA, has also been isolated from several asymptomatic marine and salmonid fish species. Diagnostic assays for the detection of ISAV include virus isolation in cell culture, a reverse transcriptase-PCR, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Virus isolation is considered the gold standard, and 5 salmonid cell lines are known to support growth of ISAV. In this study, the relative performance of the salmon head kidney 1 (SHK-1), Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK), and CHSE-214 cell lines in detecting ISAV was evaluated using samples from both experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Interlaboratory comparisons were conducted using a quality control-quality assurance ring test. Both the ASK and SHK-1 cell lines performed well in detecting ISAV, although the SHK-1 line was more variable in its sensitivity to infection and somewhat slower in the appearance of cytopathic effect. Relative to the SHK-1 and ASK lines, the CHSE-214 cell line performed poorly. Although the ASK line appeared to represent a good alternative to the more commonly used SHK-1 line, use of a single cell line for diagnostic assays may increase the potential for false-negative results. Thus, the SHK-1 and ASK cell lines can be used in combination to provide enhanced ability to detect ISAV.

  4. Prevalence of antibodies against chicken anaemia virus (CAV in broiler breeders in Southern Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV em matrizes de corte no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicks infected during the first two weeks of life with chicken anaemia virus (CAV manifest clinical disease that can be avoided if the breeder hens transfer enough antibodies to their progeny. The objective of the present work was to establish the prevalence and titer of anti-CAV antibodies in some Brazilian broiler hen breeder flocks and verify in which phase of life the birds were infected. A total of 1,709 serum samples from 12 broiler hen flocks vaccinated against CAV and 64 unvaccinated flocks were analyzed for CAV antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All non-vaccinated breeder flocks were found to be infected with CAV, with 89% of the hens tested presenting antibodies, 52% of these with titers considered high enough to protect their progeny against CAV infection. Likewise, all vaccinated hens had antibody titer to CAV capable of conferring protection to their progeny. Thus, vaccination of hens seems capable of conferring protection to chicks against clinically apparent CAV-associated disease.A doença clínica causada pelo vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV ocorre quando os pintos são infectados durante as primeiras duas semanas de vida e pode ser prevenida se as matrizes transferirem anticorpos suficientes para a sua progênie. Em vista disso, este estudo foi realizado visando determinar a prevalência de anticorpos contra o CAV em alguns lotes de matrizes pesadas no Brasil. Buscou-se ainda verificar em que fase da vida as reprodutoras seriam infectadas e quais seriam os títulos de anticorpos nessas aves. Um total de 1709 amostras de soro de 64 lotes de reprodutoras não vacinadas e 12 lotes de reprodutoras vacinadas contra o CAV foram analisados por ELISA. Todos os lotes de aves não vacinadas apresentaram anticorpos. Dentre esses, 89% dos indivíduos foram positivos, 52% com títulos de anticorpos capazes de conferir proteção a sua progênie contra o CAV. Igualmente, todos os lotes de matrizes vacinadas

  5. Severe Anaemia during Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahenaz Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency is uncommon in pregnancy, it occurs in 10–28% of uncomplicated pregnancies, and is associated with a few complications. We present a case report of a 21-year-old patient with severe anaemia during late pregnancy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. At 38 weeks gestation and with a BMI of 48.9, a history of rupture of membranes was given but not confirmed. On examination, she appeared pale and therefore full blood counts were done. Interestingly her haemoglobin (Hb levels were 3.7 g/dL. Folate and vitamin B12 levels were also found to be low, and the diagnosis of anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency was made. After treatment with vitamin B12 injections, folic acid and blood transfusions, the patient’s haemoglobin levels improved from 3.7 g/dL to 10.7 g/dL. The conclusion is that effective history taking, diagnosis, and management can prevent many complications that are usually associated with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.

  6. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  7. Current And Future Diagnostics Of Anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Stouten (Karlijn)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAnaemia is often encountered in general practice but the prevalence of the different aetiology remains elusive. We analysed a large database of general practice patients newly diagnosed with anaemia, allowing for the detailed study of the prevalence of a wide range of causes and a th

  8. The anaemia of Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Nicholas M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plasmodium vivax threatens nearly half the world’s population and is a significant impediment to achievement of the millennium development goals. It is an important, but incompletely understood, cause of anaemia. This review synthesizes current evidence on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and consequences of vivax-associated anaemia. Young children are at high risk of clinically significant and potentially severe vivax-associated anaemia, particularly in countries where transmission is intense and relapses are frequent. Despite reaching lower densities than Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax causes similar absolute reduction in red blood cell mass because it results in proportionately greater removal of uninfected red blood cells. Severe vivax anaemia is associated with substantial indirect mortality and morbidity through impaired resilience to co-morbidities, obstetric complications and requirement for blood transfusion. Anaemia can be averted by early and effective anti-malarial treatment.

  9. Anaemia and IBD - an overlooked problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Dorrit; Bager, Palle

      Aim: To evaluate the process of introducing screening tools and treatment algorithms' for anaemia: detection, management and monitoring for IBD patients in an outpatient setting.   Background: Prevalence of anaemia among IBD patients have wide estimates (8,8 % - 73,7%). A reduced production...... of erythrocytes due to inflammatory inhibition of the bone marrow (chronic inflammatory anaemia) and/or lack of "building material" such as iron, folate or Vitamin-B12 are often found in IBD patients - especially Crohn´s disease patients. Furthermore blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding is seen. Anaemia...... due to iron deficiency can be treated with oral- or intravenous iron replacement. To systematize management of anaemia in IBD patients' different tools has been developed at Aarhus University Hospital since 2006.   Patients and Methods: Data related to 111 IBD-patients treated with intravenous iron...

  10. 鸡贫血病病毒VP2基因在大肠杆菌中的表达及其特性%Expression of Chicken Anaemia Virus(CAV) VP2 Gene in E. coli and It's Biological Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳龙; 秦爱建; 金文杰; 叶建强; 吉荣; 崔治中; 段玉友

    2003-01-01

    将鸡贫血病病毒(chicken anaemia virus,CAV)VP2基因克隆入表达性载体pGEX-5X-3,在大肠杆菌以谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)融合蛋白的形式获得了表达.以此表达产物免疫小鼠,制备抗CAV VP2的多克隆抗体.通过对CAV感染的MSB1细胞作间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)检测,结果为阳性,这表明表达产物保留了CAV相关的抗原特性.本研究为进一步探索CAV VP2的生物学特性奠定了基础.

  11. Disease management mitigates risk of pathogen transmission from maricultured salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Simon R. M.; Bruno, David W.; Madsen, Lone;

    2015-01-01

    Open marine net pens facilitate virus and sea lice transfer, occasionally leading to infections and outbreaks of disease in farmed salmon. A review of 3 salmon pathogens (infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], salmon alphavirus [SAV] and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis) shows that incre......Open marine net pens facilitate virus and sea lice transfer, occasionally leading to infections and outbreaks of disease in farmed salmon. A review of 3 salmon pathogens (infectious salmon anaemia virus [ISAV], salmon alphavirus [SAV] and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis) shows...... that increased risk of exposure to neighbouring farms is inversely related to distance from and directly related to biomass at the source of infection. Epidemiological techniques integrating data from oceanography, diagnostics and pathogen shedding rates and viability contribute to improved understanding...... management thresholds. For wild populations, risk of pathogen spillback is estimated from farm-based epidemiological data; however, validation, particularly for ISAV and SAV, is required using direct surveillance....

  12. Successful allogeneic stem cells transplantation in severe aplastic anaemia complicated by dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplastic anaemia is characterized by severe compromise of haematopoiesis and hypocellular bone marrow. Haemorrhagic episodes in patients with aplastic anemia occur usually secondary to thrombocytopenia and require frequent support with platelet concentrates and other blood products. Infection with dengue virus (particularly dengue sero type-2 of South Asian genotype) is associated with dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue infection further worsens the disease process in patients with aplastic anaemia due to uncontrolled haemorrhagic diathesis and major organ failure, which may prove fatal in these already immunocompromised patients, if not treated in time. Recent epidemics of dengue haemorrhagic fever has not only affected the southern region of our country but also spread to other areas of the country. With this background, we report a case of aplastic anaemia complicated by dengue haemorrhagic fever who achieved successful engraftment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from sibling brother and is having normal healthy post transplant life. (author)

  13. Prevalence of anaemia among school adolescent girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goyal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is a major public health problem especially among adolescent females and can result in diminished physical growth and cognitive development, performance in school and at work, and affects reproduction. Findings from NFHS-3 (2005-06 indicate that 56% of the adolescent girls in India are anaemic and, of these 17% suffer from moderate to severe anaemia. Aim & Objective: To find the prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in rural and urban schools of Haldwani. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in rural as well as urban schools of Haldwani from October 2012 to March 2014 among 770 (443 rural and 327 urban adolescent girls selected by multistage random sampling, using predesigned and pretested questionnaire to collect relevant data, and estimating haemoglobin concentration using Haemoglobin Colour Scale. Data was analysed by using SPSS v 20. Results: 48.18% of adolescent girls were found to have anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was 43.11% and 55.04% among rural and urban school girls respectively. Mean haemoglobin concentration of study subjects was 11.35g/dl. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia among study population was 34.53%, 10.13% and 3.52% respectively. Conclusion: The present study revealed that half of the school going adolescent girls were suffering from anaemia in rural and urban areas of Haldwani

  14. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values f

  15. Cerebral microcirculation during experimental normovolaemic anaemia

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    Judith eBellapart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is accepted amongst critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anaemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anaemia. Experimental studies suggest that anaemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion amongst critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anaemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anaesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anaemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anaemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anaemia does not result in short term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain.

  16. Anaemia impedes functional mobility after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N.B.; Kristensen, M.T.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: the impact of anaemia on the outcome after a hip fracture surgery is controversial, but anaemia can potentially decrease the physical performance and thereby impede post-operative rehabilitation. We therefore conducted a prospective study to establish whether anaemia affected functional...... was measured on each of the first three post-operative days, and anaemia defined as Hb ..., respectively. A significant association between anaemia and the ability to walk independently before the correction of anaemia was present on each of the 3 days separately (P

  17. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eGarcía

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3 with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP, fusion (F, hemagglutinin (HE and matrix (M proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  18. Prolactinoma presenting as chronic anaemia with osteoporosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley John P; MacLean Fergus R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Unexplained anaemia is a rare mode of presentation for prolactinoma. We describe a case of a man, with chronic anaemia ascribed to old age. Six years later, he was evaluated and diagnosed with a prolactinoma and resultant osteoporosis. Prolactinoma in old people may present insidiously with chronic anaemia and osteoporosis with or without sexual dysfunction. Case presentation We describe the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who presented with mild anaemia and tirednes...

  19. Intermittent Preventive Antimalarial Treatment for Children with Anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Athuman, Mwaka; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M; Rohwer, Anke C

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a global public health problem. Children under five years of age living in developing countries (mostly Africa and South-East Asia) are highly affected. Although the causes for anaemia are multifactorial, malaria has been linked to anaemia in children living in malaria-endemic areas. Administering intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (IPT) to children might reduce anaemia, since it could protect children from new Plasmodium parasite infection (the parasites tha...

  20. Chronic anaemia, hyperbaric oxygen and tumour radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.; Nias, A.H.W.; Smith, Eileen (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK). Richard Dimbleby Research Lab.)

    1990-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anaemia and tumour response to radiation given in air or HPO in C{sub 3}H mice transplanted with a mammary adenocarcinoma using a growth delay assay to assess radiation response. Radiation studies with these anaemic mice demonstrated that the tumour radiosensitivity was decreased when treatment was given in air. HPO was successful in overcoming the increased radioresistance associated with anaemia. This result suggested that tumours grown in anaemic mice have a higher hypoxic fraction than those grown in control mice. Changes in host physiology with chronic anaemia may contribute to the benefit seen with HPO but such alterations per se may be inadequate to maintain tumour oxygenation when treatment is given in air. (author).

  1. PERINATAL OUTCOME IN SEVERE ANAEMIA COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

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    Nirmala Devi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia is the commonest global public health problem and especially harmful when the pregnancy is complicated by anaemia. Women in reproductive age group are more vulnerable for iron deficiency anaemia with an estimated prevalence of around 70 to 80% in pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyse the foetal outcome in the hospitalised pregnant women with severe anaemia. This is a prospective study carried out at maternity ward of Government G eneral H ospital, Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh, India over a period of one year from October 2007 to September 2008. RESULTS: Total of 9731 deliveries occurred during the study period, 282 (2.89 % were severely anaemic at the time of delivery. Majority of the women w ere of 20 - 24 years age (68.4% with second gravidas 37.5%, term gestation 52.1%, preterm deliveries 47.9%, lower socio - economic status 87.6% and Unbooked cases 67.4% and low birth weight in 53.2% cases, intra uterine growth retardation and intra uterine foetal death contributes to 12.8% and 16.7% cases respectively. A total of 36 (12.8% neonates required admission in neonatal intensive care unit and 16(5.7% of them died. CONCLUSION: Severe anaemia during pregnancy has adverse perinatal outcome in the fo rm of low birth weight, preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death. Regular iron supplementation during the antenatal period, management of anaemia and improving the nutritional status of the mother will improve the adverse neona tal outcome and decreases perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  3. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia.

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    Conor P Doherty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the magnitude and duration of these effects are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the red blood cell incorporation of oral administered stable isotopes of iron and compared incorporation between age matched 18 to 36 months old children with either anaemia post-malaria (n = 37 or presumed iron deficiency anaemia alone (n = 36. All children were supplemented for 30 days with 2 mg/kg elemental iron as liquid iron sulphate and administered (57Fe and (58Fe on days 1 and 15 of supplementation respectively. (57Fe and(58Fe incorporation were significantly reduced (8% vs. 28%: p<0.001 and 14% vs. 26%: p = 0.045 in the malaria vs. non-malaria groups. There was a significantly greater haemoglobin response in the malaria group at both day 15 (p = 0.001 and 30 (p<0.000 with a regression analysis estimated greater change in haemoglobin of 7.2 g/l (s.e. 2.0 and 10.1 g/l (s.e. 2.5 respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Post-malaria anaemia is associated with a better haemoglobin recovery despite a significant depressant effect on oral iron incorporation which may indicate that early erythropoetic iron need is met by iron recycling rather than oral iron. Supplemental iron administration is of questionable utility within 2 weeks of clinical malaria in children with mild or moderate anaemia.

  4. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN GUNTUR

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    Phanindra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  5. The clinical and radiological features of Fanconi's anaemia pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanconi's anaemia is a severe refractory anaemia, associated with congenital malformations in approximately two-thirds of cases. Although these malformations may involve every organ system, suggestive dysmorphic features include growth retardation, radial ray deformities and urinary malformations. These malformations are not specific for Fanconi's anaemia, but should be recognized during pregnancy, or later in childhood, and suggest the possibility of inherited haematopoiesis disorders. De Kerviler, E. (2000)

  6. Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice.

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    Harry A Noyes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa. In cattle, anaemia is the key feature of disease and persists after parasitaemia has declined to low or undetectable levels, but treatment to clear the parasites usually resolves the anaemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The progress of anaemia after Trypanosoma congolense infection was followed in three mouse strains. Anaemia developed rapidly in all three strains until the peak of the first wave of parasitaemia. This was followed by a second phase, characterized by slower progress to severe anaemia in C57BL/6, by slow recovery in surviving A/J and a rapid recovery in BALB/c. There was no association between parasitaemia and severity of anaemia. Furthermore, functional T lymphocytes are not required for the induction of anaemia, since suppression of T cell activity with Cyclosporin A had neither an effect on the course of infection nor on anaemia. Expression of genes involved in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism was followed in spleen, liver and kidney tissues in the three strains of mice using microarrays. There was no evidence for a response to erythropoietin, consistent with anaemia of chronic disease, which is erythropoietin insensitive. However, the expression of transcription factors and genes involved in erythropoiesis and haemolysis did correlate with the expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il6 and Ifng. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The innate immune response appears to be the major contributor to the inflammation associated with anaemia since suppression of T cells with CsA had no observable effect. Several transcription factors regulating haematopoiesis, Tal1, Gata1, Zfpm1 and Klf1 were expressed at consistently lower levels in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that these mice have a lower haematopoietic capacity and therefore less ability to recover from

  7. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  8. Cytogenetic profile of aplastic anaemia in Indian children

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    Vineeta Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Five (11.9% patients with acquired aplastic anaemia had chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy was found to be the commonest abnormality. Cytogenetic abnormalities may be significant in acquired aplastic anaemia although further studies on a large sample are required to confirm the findings.

  9. Malaria, anaemia and antimalarial drug resistance in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obonyo, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria-associated anaemia is a potentially preventable cause of severe morbidity and mortality in children < 5years of age, in areas of high malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional study of 3586 children, 80% were anaemic (haemoglobin [Hb]<11g/dL) and 3% had severe anaemia

  10. Cytokine Expression in Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia

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    Nnodim Johnkennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells become rigid and sticky, and change from being disc-shaped to being crescent-shaped. The change in shape is due to the presence of an abnormal form of haemoglobin. This results in severe pain and damage to some organs. Aim and Objective: The study was carried out to determine the levels of cytokine in sickle cell anemia. Material and Methods: Thirty confirmed sickle cell patients in steady state (HbSS-SS and thirty persons with normal haemoglobin (HbAA as well as sixteen sickle cell disease in crises (HbSS-cr between the ages of 15 to 30 years were selected in this study. Cytokines including interleukin 1 beta (IL- 1β, interleukin 2 (IL- 2, interleukin (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interferon gamma (IFN- λ were measured by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: The results obtained showed that the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in sickle cell anaemia patients in crisis were significantly elevated when compared with sickle cell in steady state (P<0.05. Similarly, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN- λ were significantly increased in sickle cell anaemia stable state when compared to HbAA subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: This may probably implies that cytokine imbalance is implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell crisis. Also, cytokines could be used as an inflammatory marker as well as related marker in disease severity and hence therapeutic intervention.

  11. The Fanconi anaemia pathway: new players and new functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Sarangi, Prabha; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    The Fanconi anaemia pathway repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in the genome. Our understanding of this complex pathway is still evolving, as new components continue to be identified and new biochemical systems are used to elucidate the molecular steps of repair. The Fanconi anaemia pathway uses components of other known DNA repair processes to achieve proper repair of ICLs. Moreover, Fanconi anaemia proteins have functions in genome maintenance beyond their canonical roles of repairing ICLs. Such functions include the stabilization of replication forks and the regulation of cytokinesis. Thus, Fanconi anaemia proteins are emerging as master regulators of genomic integrity that coordinate several repair processes. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the functions of the Fanconi anaemia pathway in ICL repair, together with an overview of its connections with other repair pathways and its emerging roles in genome maintenance. PMID:27145721

  12. The Fanconi anaemia pathway: new players and new functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Sarangi, Prabha; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    The Fanconi anaemia pathway repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in the genome. Our understanding of this complex pathway is still evolving, as new components continue to be identified and new biochemical systems are used to elucidate the molecular steps of repair. The Fanconi anaemia pathway uses components of other known DNA repair processes to achieve proper repair of ICLs. Moreover, Fanconi anaemia proteins have functions in genome maintenance beyond their canonical roles of repairing ICLs. Such functions include the stabilization of replication forks and the regulation of cytokinesis. Thus, Fanconi anaemia proteins are emerging as master regulators of genomic integrity that coordinate several repair processes. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the functions of the Fanconi anaemia pathway in ICL repair, together with an overview of its connections with other repair pathways and its emerging roles in genome maintenance.

  13. Iron in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias

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    John Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias may develop from increased iron absorption secondary to hepcidin suppression, and/or from repeated blood transfusions. While the accumulation of body iron load from blood transfusion is inevitable and predictable from the variable rates of transfusion in the different conditions, there are some important differences in the distribution of iron overload and its consequences between these. Transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT is the best described condition in which transfusional overload occurs. Initially iron loads into macrophages, subsquently hepatocytes, and then the endocrine system including the anterior pituiatry and finally the myocardium. The propensity to extrahepatic iron spread increases with rapid transfusion and with inadequate chelation therapy but there is considerable interpatient and interpopulation variability in this tendency. The conduits though which iron is delivered to tissues is through non transferrin iron species (NTBI which are taken into liver, endocrine tissues and myocardium through L-type calcium channells and possibly through other channells. Recent work by the MSCIO group1 suggests that levels of NTBI are determined by three mechanisms: i increasing with iron overload; ii increasing with ineffective erythropoieis; iii and decreasing when level of transferrin iron utilisation is high. In TDT all three mechanisms increase NTBI levels because transferrin iron utilisation is suppressed by hypertransfusion. It is hypothesized that the transfusion regimen and target mean Hb may have a key impact on NTBI levels because high transfusion regimes may suppress the ‘sink’ effect of the erythron though decreased clearance of transferrin iron. In sickle cell disease (SCD without blood transfusion the anaemia results mainly from haemolysis rather than from ineffective erythropoiesis.2 Thus there is a tendency to iron depletion because of urinary iron loss from

  14. Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Epidemiological Determinants in Pregnant Women

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    R.G.Viveki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia in pregnant women is one of the India’s major public health problems, despite the fact that this problem is largely preventable & easily treatable. Objectives: 1.To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women. 2. To assess the epidemiological determinants of anaemia in pregnancy. Methodology: A descriptive case series study was conducted among the pregnant women from second trimester onwards from urban field practice area from 1st March 2010 to 31st July 2010 by using pre-designed, pre-tested, structured schedule. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method & anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analyses were done by percentages and proportions, Mean and Standard Deviation (S.D, Chi-square test. Results: A high prevalence (82.9% of anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 11.0gm/dl was observed among 228 pregnant women. Majority (50.4% had moderate degree of anaemia (Haemoglobin - 7.0 to 10.0 gm/dl and 7.0% had severe anaemia (Haemoglobin - < 7.0 gm/dl. Severity of anaemia was more in 26 years of age, from nuclear families, educated upto secondary level, having vegetarian diet, parity two or more & those in third trimester with two or more abortions, although statistically not significant. However, anaemia prevalence was significantly higher among those subjects from below Class IV socio-economic status, those with less than two years of spacing between previous and index pregnancies & with less than two months IFA tablet consumption. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women from 4th month onwards till 3-6 months post-partum along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.

  15. Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with advanced HIV disease.

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    Vikesh Nandlal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common clinical finding in HIV infected women and has been associated with advanced disease. The use of antiretroviral drugs such as Zidovudine (ZDV either for prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT of HIV or used in combination with other antiretrovirals have been implicated in the development or increased severity of anaemia. We report the prevalence, type, severity and incidence of anaemia in a cohort of HIV infected women who initiated antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment during pregnancy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a retrospective cohort data analysis of 408 HIV infected pregnant women who participated in a breastfeeding intervention study (HPTN 046 Study, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00074412 in South Africa. Women initiated zidovudine prophylaxis for PMTCT or triple antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy according to the standard of care. Laboratory and clinical data in pregnancy, <72 hours and 2 weeks postdelivery were extracted from the main database and analysed. RESULTS: The mean Hb concentration was 10.6 g/dL at baseline and 262/408 (64.2% women were diagnosed with anaemia (Hb<11 g/dL in pregnancy, 48/146 (32.9% subsequently developed anaemia intrapartum or postpartum and 89/310 (28.7% of all cases of anaemia remained unresolved by 2 weeks postdelivery. In a univariate analysis, CD4 count and gravidity were significant risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy, RR 1.41; 1.23-1.61 (p<0.001 and 1.10; 1.01-1.18 (p = 0.02 respectively. After adjusting for antiretroviral regimen, age and gravidity in a multivariable analysis, only the CD4 count remains a significant risk factor for anaemia in pregnancy and postdelivery. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, anaemia was most common among women in the advanced stage of HIV infection (CD4<200 cells/mm3. There was no evidence of an association between ZDV or triple ARVs and anaemia.

  16. Anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia among young adolescent girls from the peri urban coastal area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Yustina Anie Indriastuti; Muslimatun, Siti; Achadi, Endang L; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is still a widespread problem. Among adolescent girls, it will bring negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the different nutritional and iron status characteristics of young adolescent girls 10-12 years old with iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia without iron deficiency in the rural coastal area of Indonesia. Anaemic girls (N =133) were recruited out of 1358 girls from 34 elementary schools. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor and zinc protophorphyrin were determined for iron status, whilst weight and height were measured for their nutritional status. General characteristics and dietary intake were assessed through interview. Out of 133 anaemic subjects, 29 (21.8%) suffered from iron deficiency anaemia, which was not significantly related to age and menarche. About 50% were underweight and stunted indicating the presence of acute and chronic malnutrition. The proportion of thinness was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among subjects who suffered from iron deficiency anaemia (51.7% vs. 29.8%). Furthermore, thin subjects had a 5 fold higher risk of suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (P< 0.05) than non-thin subjects (OR: 5.1; 95%CI 1.34-19.00). Further study was recommended to explore other factors associated with anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia, such as the thalassemia trait and vitamin A deficiency. The current iron-folate supplementation program for pregnant women should be expanded to adolescent girls.

  17. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ANAEMIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Ather Akhtar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia causes a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia. Cardiac output at rest is not usually increased in most chronic anaemia until haemoglobin levels fall below 7 g/dL, but abnormal rise in output with exercise may occur with levels as high as 10 g/dL. The increase in cardiac output has been observed to correlate well with the degree of anaemia. Other compensatory mechanisms to chronic anaemia available to the body include decreased circulation time and increased tissue oxygen uptake. The latter is facilitated by a shift to the right of the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve. Cardiomegaly may also be as a result of the increased workload on the heart from the increased viscosity of blood in anaemia patients. Anaemia in the elderly is an extremely common problem that is associated with increased mortality and poorer health-related quality of life, regardless of the underlying cause of the low haemoglobin. A study of anaemia in elderly patients found a wide variation in prevalence, ranging from 2.9% to 61% in men and 3.3% to 41% in women. Higher rates were found in hospitalised patients than in community dwellers. It is easy to overlook anaemia in the elderly, since such symptoms as fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath may be attributed to the ageing process itself. Our objective is to show the prevalence of anaemia even in a tertiary health care centre. METHODS One hundred patients were identified who were admitted in the Department of Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences. Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The study was conducted from Jan 2014 To Jan 2015. Patients having haemoglobin less than 10 g% in the medical wards were enrolled in the study. RESULTS Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The average haemoglobin was 6.4 g%, the lowest being 2.8 g%. Peripheral blood smear showed hypochromic picture in 58, macrocytic picture in

  18. Prolactinoma presenting as chronic anaemia with osteoporosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley John P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Unexplained anaemia is a rare mode of presentation for prolactinoma. We describe a case of a man, with chronic anaemia ascribed to old age. Six years later, he was evaluated and diagnosed with a prolactinoma and resultant osteoporosis. Prolactinoma in old people may present insidiously with chronic anaemia and osteoporosis with or without sexual dysfunction. Case presentation We describe the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who presented with mild anaemia and tiredness. His anaemia was investigated and ascribed to senescence. Endocrine causes were not considered or tested for. Six years later, he was again referred. Reassessment and direct questioning revealed long-standing sexual dysfunction. It was also discovered that our patient had fractured his radius twice, with minor trauma, during the preceding year. His serum prolactin was massively increased and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the head demonstrated a pituitary mass consistent with a prolactinoma. Dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed osteoporosis. Treatment of the prolactinoma led to a reduction in his serum prolactin with a rise in his haemoglobin to normal levels. This suggested that the prolactinoma was present during the initial presentation and was the cause of his anaemia. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of fully evaluating and investigating unexplained anaemia in older people and that endocrine causes should be considered. Osteoporosis also requires evaluation with secondary causes considered.

  19. Non-Invasive Detection of Anaemia Using Digital Photographs of the Conjunctiva

    OpenAIRE

    Collings, Shaun; Thompson, Oliver; Hirst, Evan; Goossens, Louise; George, Anup; Weinkove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Anaemia is a major health burden worldwide. Although the finding of conjunctival pallor on clinical examination is associated with anaemia, inter-observer variability is high, and definitive diagnosis of anaemia requires a blood sample. We aimed to detect anaemia by quantifying conjunctival pallor using digital photographs taken with a consumer camera and a popular smartphone. Our goal was to develop a non-invasive screening test for anaemia. Patients and Methods The conju...

  20. Recurrent aphthous ulcers in Fanconi's anaemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otan, Feyza; Açikgöz, Gokhan; Sakallioglu, Umur; Ozkan, Burcu

    2004-05-01

    Fanconi's anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is clinically characterized by aplastic anaemia, congenital malformations of the renal, cardiac, skeletal and skin structures, and an increased predisposition to malignancies. Patients with FA often present with bleeding and infection, which are symptoms related to thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. There are few reports of the oral manifestations of FA. We describe oral aphthous ulcerations in two siblings with FA. There was a rapid improvement and healing of ulcers after blood transfusions and increased haemoglobin levels. This may support the role of severe anaemia in oral ulcerations. PMID:15139958

  1. [Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førland, Elizabeth Siren Bjerga; Lindberg, Mats Jacob Hermansson

    2015-08-10

    Nutritional deficiency anaemia in vegans is common and usually due to lack of vitamin B12, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal-based food products. In this case report we present a 39-year-old male vegan with severe macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to severe vitamin D deficiency. We want to emphasize the importance of a detailed nutritional history for patients with anaemia, and the need for vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements for people who comply with a vegan diet. PMID:26320356

  2. [Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førland, Elizabeth Siren Bjerga; Lindberg, Mats Jacob Hermansson

    2015-08-10

    Nutritional deficiency anaemia in vegans is common and usually due to lack of vitamin B12, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal-based food products. In this case report we present a 39-year-old male vegan with severe macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to severe vitamin D deficiency. We want to emphasize the importance of a detailed nutritional history for patients with anaemia, and the need for vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements for people who comply with a vegan diet.

  3. Diagnostic clues to megaloblastic anaemia without macrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W J; Liu, S Y H; Kho, C S B; Lau, K H T; Liang, Y S; Chu, W R; Ma, S K E

    2007-06-01

    Masking of the macrocytic expression of megaloblastic anaemia (MA) by coexisting thalassaemia, iron deficiency and chronic illness has been widely reported. We described the haematological and clinical features of 20 Chinese patients with MA presenting with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values of haemoglobin, MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW), reticulocyte index, platelet count and serum bilirubin. All provided clues to maturation disorders within the marrow. A decision flowchart for the diagnosis of MA without macrocytosis was proposed. In the studied population, by using the parameters of haemoglobin or = 16% and reticulocyte index peripheral blood smear examination in the diagnostic procedures for such patients, as well as the importance of paying attention to patients' medical history, racial background and previous MCV value. PMID:17474892

  4. Treatment for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Norgaard, Astrid; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum iron deficiency anaemia is caused by bleeding or inadequate dietary iron intake/uptake. This condition is defined by iron deficiency accompanied by a lower than normal blood haemoglobin concentration, although this can be affected by factors other than anaemia and must...... and harms of the available treatment modalities for women with postpartum iron deficiency anaemia. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (9 April 2015); the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Portal (ICTRP), and the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences...... Literature database (LILACS) (8 April 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials that compared a treatment for postpartum iron deficiency anaemia with placebo, no treatment, or another treatment...

  5. Genetic determinants of haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Jacqueline N.; Rooks, Helen; Drasar, Emma; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Melista, Efi; Gordeuk, Victor R; Nouraie, Mehdi; Kato, Gregory R.; Minniti, Caterina; Taylor, James; Campbell, Andrew; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Rana, Sohail; Castro, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is variable among patients with sickle cell anaemia and can be estimated by reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Using principal component analysis of these measurements we computed a haemolytic score that we used as a subphenotype in a genome-wide association study. We identified in one cohort and replicated in two additional cohorts the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in NPRL3 (rs7203560; chr16p13·3) (...

  6. Using clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in African children.

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, S. P.; Kazembe, P.N.; Redd, S. C.; Ziba, C.; Nwanyanwu, O. C.; Hightower, A. W.; C. Franco; Chitsulo, L.; Wirima, J J; Olivar, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Anaemia is a serious and common problem among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. As a first step towards developing guidelines for its recognition and treatment, we conducted a study to evaluate the ability of health workers to use clinical findings to identify children with anaemia. Health care workers examined a total of 1104 children under 5 years of age at two hospital-based outpatient clinics in rural Malawi. Blood samples were taken to determine haemoglobin concentrations. Pallor of ...

  7. Anaemia and radiation therapy; Anemie et radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, F. [Clinique d' Oncologie et de Radiotherapie, INSERM U619, 37 - Tours (France); Lartigau, E. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2004-11-01

    Anaemia is frequent in cancer and may increase tumour hypoxia that stimulates angiogenesis. However, erythropoietin is a hypoxia-inducible stimulator of erythropoiesis which seems to improve quality of life in cancer patients. Two recent phase III randomized studies showed negative results using erythropoietin in head and neck cancer patients and in metastatic breast cancer patients with impaired specific survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments have provided erythropoietin-receptor expression in endothelial cancer cells including malignant tumours of the breast, prostate, cervix, lung, head and neck, ovary, melanoma, stomach, gut, kidney etc. Biologic effect of erythropoietin and its receptor linkage induces proliferation of human breast cancer and angiogenesis and may limit anti-tumour effect of cancer treatment, in part, by tumour vascularization improvement. In addition, the use of exogenous erythropoietin could be able to favour tumour progression by improving tumour oxygenation and nutriment supply. If erythropoietin receptor were functional in human cancer. the assessment of erythropoietin receptor expression on tumour cell may help to select patients benefiting from exogenous erythropoietin. However. the relationship between erythropoietin receptor expression, tumour growth and exogenous erythropoietin. requires more studies. The results of recent clinical trials suggest that using erythropoietin should be avoided in non-anemic patients and discussed in patients receiving curative therapy. (authors)

  8. STUDY OF ANAEMIA AS AN INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTOR IN CVA : ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify anaemia as an individual risk factor in CVA patients , in rural population , Chidambaram. In our study a total of 50 patients were identified in a 3 month non - invasive prospective observational study. The risk factors such as anaemia , diabetes , hypertension , smoking and alcohol consumption , were compared. In our study out of 41 males and 9 females the incidence rate of anaemia was found to be more in males than females. Microcytic Hypochromic anaemia and Dimorphic anaemia are the common types of anaemia identified. The stroke incidence rate was found to be more in hypertensive patients , secondary to anaemia and equal in both alcoholic and non - alcoholic patients. Anaemia was found to be the most common risk factor for stroke followed by hypertension in rural population.

  9. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhami Berber; Halit Diri; Mehmet Ali Erkurt; Ismet Aydogdu; Emin Kaya; Irfan Kuku

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiolog...

  10. Inflammation and anaemia in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Lennaert; Belonje, Anne M. S.; Voors, Adriaan A.; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Ghosh, Sudip; Kim, Joseph; Hillege, Hans L.; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aims Anaemia in heart failure (HF) is associated with a poor prognosis. Although inflammation is assumed to be an important cause of anaemia, the association between anaemia and inflammatory markers in patients with HF has not been well established. Methods Data from a multicentre randomised clinica

  11. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona MR; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb 

  12. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities on anaemia in Ugandan villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, G.F.; Bulte, E.H.; Kontoleon, A.A.; Kabatereine, N.B.; Dunne, D.; Fenwick, A.; Tukahebwa, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia remains an intractable public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing largely to its complex and multifactorial causes. The absolute number of anaemia cases has increased by 50% in SSA from the year 1990 to 2010. To administer the appropriate treatment, identification of anaemia at

  13. Pica and refractory iron deficiency anaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Garnier Christophe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Pica, the ingestion of substances that are inappropriate for consumption, is associated with iron deficiency and may be under-diagnosed. Case presentation A 34-year-old woman presented with iron deficiency anaemia refractory to treatment for more than a decade. The clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and laboratory investigations were consistent with pica. Subsequent geophysical analysis confirmed that the ingested material was kaolin, a negatively charged silicate. Conclusion Prolonged unexplained iron deficiency anaemia should prompt clinicians to remember and inquire about pica. In our patient, this would have averted numerous unnecessary investigations and prevented a decade-long suffering.

  14. Pathophysiological mechanisms of severe anaemia in Malawian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Boele van Hensbroek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiological mechanisms (red cell production failure [RCPF], haemolysis and blood loss to severe anaemia in Malawian children in whom etiological factors have been described previously. More complex associations between etiological factors and the mechanisms were explored using structural equation modelling. In 235 children with severe anaemia (haemoglobin<3.2 mMol/L [5.0 g/dl] studied, RCPF, haemolysis and blood loss were found in 48.1%, 21.7% and 6.9%, respectively. The RCPF figure increased to 86% when a less stringent definition of RCPF was applied. RCPF was the most common mechanism in each of the major etiological subgroups (39.7-59.7%. Multiple aetiologies were common in children with severe anaemia. In the final model, nutritional and infectious factors, including malaria, were directly or indirectly associated with RCPF, but not with haemolysis. CONCLUSION: RCPF was the most common pathway leading to severe anaemia, from a variety of etiological factors, often found in combination. Unlike haemolysis or blood loss, RCPF is a defect that is likely to persist to a significant degree unless all of its contributing aetiologies are corrected. This provides a further explanation for the limited success of the single factor interventions that have commonly been applied to the prevention or treatment of severe anaemia. Our findings underline the need for a package of measures directed against all of the local aetiologies of this often fatal paediatric syndrome.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANAEMIA USING RED CELL AND RETICULOCYTE PARAMETERS USING AUTOMATED HAEMATOLOGY ANALYSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of current models of Automated Haematology Analysers help in calculating the haemoglobin contents of the mature Red cells, Reticulocytes and percentages of Microcytic and hypochromic Red cells. This has helped the clinician in reaching early diagnosis and management of Different haemopoietic disorders like Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Thalassaemia and anaemia of chronic diseases. AIM This study is conducted using an Automated Haematology Analyser to evaluate anaemia using the Red Cell and Reticulocyte parameters. Three types of anaemia were evaluated; iron deficiency anaemia, anaemia of long duration and anaemia associated with chronic disease and Iron deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS The blood samples were collected from 287 adult patients with anaemia differentiated depending upon their iron status, haemoglobinopathies and inflammatory activity. Iron deficiency anaemia (n=132, anaemia of long duration (ACD, (n=97 and anaemia associated with chronic disease with iron deficiency (ACD Combi, (n=58. Microcytic Red cells, hypochromic red cells percentage and levels of haemoglobin in reticulocytes and matured RBCs were calculated. The accuracy of the parameters was analysed using receiver operating characteristic analyser to differentiate between the types of anaemia. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There was no difference in parameters between the iron deficiency group or anaemia associated with chronic disease and iron deficiency. The hypochromic red cells percentage was the best parameter in differentiating anaemia of chronic disease with or without absolute iron deficiency with a sensitivity of 72.7% and a specificity of 70.4%. CONCLUSIONS The parameters of red cells and reticulocytes were of reasonably good indicators in differentiating the absolute iron deficiency anaemia with chronic disease.

  16. Algorithm for the diagnosis of anaemia without laboratory facilities among small children in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Soerensen, Jeff; Bjorkman, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia among small children in tropical Africa is common and often caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of anaemia is difficult without a laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine if clinical findings related to malaria and anaemia would...... help to detect moderate and/or severe anaemia in children in rural Tanzania....

  17. Cardiac manifestations of sickle cell anaemia in Sudanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghada O M; Abdal Gader, Yahya S; Abuzedi, Elfatih S; Attalla, Bakhieta A I

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is one of the commonest chronic hemolytic anaemias in the Sudan; it is a disease with high mortality and morbidity. This study was conducted aiming to observe the clinical pattern of cardiac abnormalities in children with sickle cell anaemia, and to assess the relationship between the cardiac abnormalities and the severity of the disease. The study was conducted in sickle cell disease clinic at Khartoum Children Emergency Hospital. The study group consisted of 289 patients with sickle cell anaemia, age range from 6 months to 18 years. Data were collected using a questionnaire which include full history, clinical examination findings, chest x-rays, and Electro-cardiography. Tachycardia, systolic murmurs, and cardiomegaly were detected in 28%, 61%, and 54% of patients with SCA respectively. Left ventricular dilatation was observed in 51% of the study group, while right ventricular dilatation was observed in 22% of the patients. Left and right atrial dilatations were observed in 16% and 6% of the patients respectively. Contractility, ejection fraction (EF) were found almost always normal in all study subjects. Chamber dilatations were not associated with any abnormality in Left ventricular functions. Hemglobin (Hb) levels correlated negatively with cardiomegaly. Left Ventricular End Diastolic Dimension (LVEDD) correlates negatively with Hb levels and positively with the severity index. Only four patients (1%) had abnormal valves. In conclusion, cardiac abnormalities in patients with SCA correlate with the age of the patients and the severity of the disease. PMID:27493331

  18. Collagenous gastritis : a rare cause of anaemia in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Cecil; Pullicino, Edgar; Fearne, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    We report a thirteen year old boy presenting with severe iron deficiency anaemia. Initial extensive investigation failed to reveal an obvious cause. Subsequently a diagnosis of collagenous gastritis was made. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with this rare condition in the Maltese Islands.

  19. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  20. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Severe Anaemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. van Hensbroek; J.C.J. Calis; K.S. Phiri; R. de Vet; F. Munthali; R. Kraaijenhagen; H. van den Berg; B. Faragher; I. Bates; M.E. Molyneux

    2010-01-01

    Background: Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success. Methods and Findings: We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiologic

  1. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN A SEMI-URBAN POPULATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Ramalingam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  2. SPORTS ANAEMIA IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES: A PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil B Warkar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes require a very efficient oxygen transport system for maximal aerobic power during physical work performance. Many studies carried on endurance athletes suggested low levels of red blood cell markers leading to misconception of existence of so called sports anaemia in athletes. Sometimes athletes are on needless iron supplementation and are concern about anaemia. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the red cell population markers and to study the sports anaemia phenomenon in endurance athletes and the underlying responses responsible for ot. 60 male endurance track and field runners age group 18-21 were selected from the local city based club named Vasant Desai Krida Sangh Akola and were compared with the age, height sex matched non athletes students of Govt. Medical College Akola. The seven red blood cell markers were studied from the blood samples taken from the cubital vein under standard conditions. The blood variables for both the groups were analyzed with an automatic cell counter. The mean values of Hb(12.27 gm% +/- 0.782, RBC count in(3.64millions per cu mm+/-0.52, hematocrit ( 41.58 % +/- 1.32, mean corpuscular Hb conc (MCHC 29.49% +/- 1.198 were all very significantly lower ( p<0.0001 as compare to controls. Whereas the plasma volume (58.412% +/- 1.32, Mean Corpuscular volume (MCV 115.06 cu microns+/- 11.54, Mean Hb conc (MCH 33.998 picogms+/- 2.608, were significantly increased in endurance athletes. Though decrease in Hb conc, Low RBC count and less hematocrit in endurance athletes indicate presence of anaemia in them but it’s not a true anaemia as it is also confirmed by MCV, MCH, MCHC values between the two groups. The significant differences between the groups are due to the response to endurance training leading to hemo dilutional anaemia caused by plasma volume expansion which increases the blood volume in endurance athletes helping them for better oxygen supply and aerobic power needed

  3. A review of anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikazawa, S; Dunning, M D

    2016-07-01

    Anaemia of inflammatory disease is a common cause of anaemia in routine veterinary practice. It is most often mild to moderate, normocytic, normochromic and non-regenerative. Shortened red cell life span, inhibition of iron metabolism and impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin all contribute to its development. Although anaemia of inflammatory disease is a well-known cause of anaemia in dogs and cats, there is a lack of epidemiological information because specific diagnostic criteria have not been established in veterinary species. Anaemia of inflammatory disease is associated with a poor outcome in various disease states in human medicine; however, its clinical significance and treatment in veterinary medicine are not well understood. This review article describes anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats and considers its potential significance. PMID:27385622

  4. Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V; Goka, B Q;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a major complication of malaria but little is known about its pathogenesis. Experimental models have implicated tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in induction of bone-marrow suppression and eythrophagocytosis. Conversely, interleukin 10 (IL-10), which mediates feed......-back regulation of TNF, stimulates bone-marrow function in vitro and counteracts anaemia in mice. We investigated the associations of these cytokines with malarial anaemia. METHODS: We enrolled 175 African children with malaria into two studies in 1995 and 1996. In the first study, children were classified...... as having severe anaemia (n=10), uncomplicated malaria (n=26), or cerebral anaemia (n=41). In the second study, patients were classified as having cerebral malaria (n=33) or being fully conscious (n=65), and the two groups were subdivided by measured haemoglobin as normal (>110 g/L), moderate anaemia (60...

  5. Prohepcidin Levels in Refractory Anaemia Caused by Lead Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayantha Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research evidence suggests a central role for hepcidin in iron homeostasis. Hepcidin is a hormone synthesized in the liver. Hepcidin is also thought to play a vital role in the pathogenic mechanism of anaemia in patients with inflammation or chronic disease. A 38-year-old female who presented with recurrent abdominal pain was found to have raised urinary porphyrins and a blood lead level of 779 µg/l. Her haemoglobin level was 8.3 g/dl. Her MCV was normal. Serum ferritin, B12 and folate were normal. Her serum prohepcidin level was 2,489 ng/ml (normal <450 ng/ml . To our knowledge, this is the first report of raised prohepcidin levels in a patient with anaemia of chronic disease resulting from lead poisoning.

  6. Hereditary anaemias: genetic basis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment*

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The hereditary anaemias present a major genetic health problem that contributes considerably to childhood mortality and morbidity in many developing countries. This article summarizes recent scientific and technical advances in knowledge concerning the genes involved and their interaction to produce major haemoglobinopathies, the clinical pictures of these conditions, and their diagnostic criteria. Though there is no definitive cure, supportive treatment for the haemoglobinopathies has improv...

  7. Etiology of increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district gilgit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the etiological factors responsible for increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district Gilgit. A retrospective analysis of sixty one patients (n=61) was done who were diagnosed as patients of chronic anaemia. They were referred for bone marrow examination. Out of these, twenty two cases (n=22) were diagnosed as megaloblastic anaemia. Serum samples of all the patients were sent to AFIP for estimation of B12 and folate levels. A detailed history with special emphasis on dietary habits was noted. Patients included in the study were either retired Armed Forces personal (n=6) who had been living in district Gilgit for over period of five years. Other patients (n=16) were serving Army personal who had been serving in district Gilgit for over one year. Out of twenty two patients (n=22), only three (n=3, 13.6 %) had poor dietary history. A total of sixteen (n=16, 72.7%) patients had diarrhoea .Out of these sixteen, ten patients (n=10, 62.5%) had vegetative forms of gardia lamblia in their stools specimens. All (n=10) patients, who had giardiasis, had dyspeptic symptoms as their initial complaints. Twenty two serum samples were sent to AFIP for Vit B12 and folate level estimation. A total of seven patients (n=7, 31.8%) had low Vit B12 levels, while one patient (n=1, 4.5 %) had decreased level of both Vit B12 and folate. Chronic giardiasis and dietary insufficiency may be a major cause for increased incidence of megaloblastic anaemia in district Gilgit. (author)

  8. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinyai Masukume

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609, to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation.The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work was the main method of analysis.The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%, that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78, and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without.In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  9. Use of whole gut perfusion to investigate gastrointestinal blood loss in patients with iron deficiency anaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, A; Brydon, W G; Brian, H; Williams, A.; Mackie, M J

    1996-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia may be due to occult bleeding into the gut. However, although clinical investigations may show a high frequency of gastrointestinal tract disease in these patients, the cause-effect relationship between the lesions detected and anaemia remain uncertain. This study aimed to establish whether lesions detected by endoscopy or imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anaemia are bleeding continuously. Routine clinical tests were pe...

  10. Anaemia and long term mortality in heart failure patients: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Valeur, Nana;

    2010-01-01

    Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up.......Anaemia has been demonstrated as a risk factor in patients with heart failure over periods of a few years, but long term data are not available. We examined the long-term risk of anaemia in heart failure patients during 15 years of follow-up....

  11. Relationship of anaemia and morbidities among children aged 5-14 years in a resettlement area, Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Motilal Kasdekar; Josyula Prasuna; Anika Sulania; Sanjeev Kumar Rasania; Nidhi Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Partnership for Child Development (1998), “The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149- 158.World Health Organization. Anaemia. WHO (2010).World Health Organization (WHO). WHO global database on anaemia: Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Ge¬neva: WHO, 2008a. [Cited 2014 Aug 24]. Available from: URL: http://www.who. int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/en/index. htmlWorld Health Organiza...

  12. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Nathália; da Costa, Vanessa Duarte; da Costa, Maristella Matos; Villar, Livia Melo; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes; Esberard, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá; Flores, Priscila Pollo; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; de Almeida, Adilson José; Lampe, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV)-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354) frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb) levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity) was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101) and CC genotypes (rs1127354), respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101) showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475). In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295). For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women. PMID:26154744

  13. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Delvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354 frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101 and CC genotypes (rs1127354, respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101 showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475. In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295. For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women.

  14. Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia is described. The most probable mechanism for the hypercoagulable state was thrombocytosis associated with iron deficiency anaemia. The other possible contributing factor might have been the diuretic therapy during the phase of relapse.

  15. A rare adverse reaction to ethambutol: drug-induced haemolytic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, A; Perazzo, A; Gatto, P; Piroddi, I M G; Barlascini, C; Karamichali, S; Strada, P

    2016-05-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drugs seldom cause serious haematological side effects. However, among these drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, especially when administered intermittently, may very rarely be linked to acute autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Ethambutol (EMB) can cause dose-related retrobulbar neuritis. In this paper, we present the first reported case of acute fatal autoimmune haemolytic anaemia due to EMB. PMID:27084828

  16. Does recombinant human erythropoietin accelerate correction of post-ulcer-bleeding anaemia A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ladas, Spiros D.; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Pagonis, Thomas; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Paspatis, Gregorios; Hatziargiriou, Maria; Raptis, Sotirios A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Anaemia caused by acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is treated with blood transfusion or iron, but patients usually face a two-month recovery period from post-haemorrhage anaemia. This prospective, randomised, open, pilot study was designed to investigate whether recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin) therapy accelerate haematocrit increase in the post-bleeding recovery period.

  17. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in chronic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Katherine; Kotecha, Dipak; Walters, Julia A. E.; Manzano, Luis; Palazzuoli, Alberto; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Flather, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Anaemia is a common (12-55%) co-morbid condition and is associated with worsening symptoms and increased mortality. Anaemia is treatable and can be targeted in the treatment of patients with CHF. Erythrop

  18. Effect of different iron sources on the alleviation of nutritional anaemia in common sole (Solea solea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.; Blonk, R.J.W.; Mheen, van der H.W.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Sole fed commercial pellets suffers from a nutritional anaemia. The hypotheses tested are: (1) the nutritional anaemia in sole fed commercial pellets is caused by an iron deficiency; (2) the assumed iron deficiency is due to inadequate absorption of iron; (3) an increase in absorption due to a highe

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE IN BARPETA DISTRICT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhritishna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.

  20. Pallor as a sign of anaemia in small Tanzanian children at different health care levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian B; Sørensen, Jeff E; Bjorkman, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among small children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied the performance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) recommended assessment of no/some/severe pallor as predictor of anaemia in health surveys at community...

  1. Sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O

    2016-01-01

    Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women. PMID:26214716

  2. The additive burden of iron deficiency in the cardiorenal-anaemia axis : scope of a problem and its consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Enjuanes, Cristina; Voors, Adriaan A.; Banasiak, Waldemar; Bruguera, Jordi; Rozentryt, Piotr; Polonski, Lech; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Comin-Colet, Josep; van der Meer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Aims Iron deficiency (ID), anaemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common co-morbidities in chronic heart failure (CHF) and all independent predictors of unfavourable outcome. The combination of anaemia and CKD in CHF has been described as the cardiorenal-anaemia syndrome. However, the role of

  3. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia: a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional anaemia

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among children aged between 6 months and 14 years in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ngesa

    Full Text Available Anaemia is one of the significant public health problems among children in the world. Understanding risk factors of anaemia provides more insight to the nature and types of policies that can be put up to fight anaemia. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey.Blood samples from 11,711 children aged between 6 months and 14 years were collected using a single-use, spring-loaded, sterile lancet to make a finger prick. Anaemia was measured based on haemoglobin concentration level. The generalized linear model framework was used to analyse the data, in which the response variable was either a child was anemic or not anemic.The overall prevalence of anaemia among the children in Kenya was estimated to be 28.8%. Across each band of age within which the definition of anaemia remained constant (0–4, 5–11, and 12–14 years old, the prevalence of anaemia declined with each year of age. [corrected]. The risk of anaemia was significantly higher in male than female children. Mothers with secondary and above education had a protective effect on the risk of anaemia on their children. Malaria diagnosis status of a child was positively associated with risk anaemia.Controlling co-morbidity of malaria and improving maternal knowledge are potential options for reducing the burden of anaemia.

  5. Epidemiological Profile of Anaemia among Rural School Going Adolescents of District Bareilly, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Agarwal, Hari Shankar Joshi, Syed Esam Mahmood, Arun Singh, Mahendra Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 58.67%. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher among the females (65.11%. Higher prevalence of anaemia was found among adolescents aged between 10-14 years (59.58%, Hindus (62.04%, middle socio-economic class (78.89% and joint families (59.63%. Higher prevalence was also found among those adolescents whose mothers and fathers were educated upto primary level (58.87% and 60.83% respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of anaemia was found, especially among the female adolescents. Adequate food consumption and regular intake of iron and vitamin C rich foods during early childhood period, de-worming, food fortification, supplementary feeding and nutrition education of parents can prevent nutritional anaemia in adolescents. "

  6. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, psurgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis pbariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  7. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.;

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure......! Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia...... and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance...

  8. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

  9. Study of sickle cell anaemia with clinical and hematological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara M.

    2016-01-01

    Results: Males were 154 and females were 146. Degree of anaemia was severe in females when compared to males. Of 52 cases subjected for electrophoresis 36 were homozygous, 15 were heterozygous and 1 case Sickle thalassemia. 7 cases showed HbF above 5%. Conclusions: Most of the patients were under 40 yrs suggesting decreased survival after that age. An increased level of HbF was associated with better prognosis suggesting the need to target at drugs which increase HbF. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 246-251

  10. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Nuno; Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-08-11

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae.

  11. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayashan Chathuranga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world’s population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n=53 had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n=24 had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants’ dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P=0.525, drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P=0.775, frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P=0.499, antihelminthic treatment within past year (P=0.792, and menorrhagia (P=0.560. Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population.

  12. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors affecting anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gogoi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child

  13. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS AND YOUNGER IN NORTH EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari Rupabati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Anaemia is one of the most important public health problem among children. The infants, preschool children, adolescents and pregnant women are at highest risk of nutritional anaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and its correlation to age, gender, haemoglobin values and magnitude of anaemia among the children of North East India. METHODS A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 500 children in the age group 0 to 12 years were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent from the parents. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method using finger prick blood samples. As per WHO recommendation, haemoglobin values below 11 gm/dl was considered anaemic. Statistical data were analysed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 71.2% with males having 5.2%higher than females. The majority of age group comprises 1 to ≤5 years (36.0% and 83.3% of them were anaemic. The highest value of haemoglobin estimated was 14.8 gm/dl with the lowest value of 5.2 gm/dl. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.76±1.21 gm/dl. 53.4% children were mildly anaemic. Both male and female children were affected more with mild anaemia than other types of anaemia. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that all the children should be screened for anaemia irrespective of age and sex as the prevalence is high. Early intervention and appropriate measures should be taken to prevent from anaemia and its associated diseases.

  15. Aplastic anaemia after exposure to a weed killer, 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palva, H L; Koivisto, O; Palva, I P

    1975-01-01

    A 64-year-old farmer developed aplastic anaemia after exposure to 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyactic acid while spraying weed killer. Muscular weakness, haemorrhagic gastritis and slight signs of liver damage occurred at the same time. All these symptoms, including blood dyscrasia , are consistent with those described as toxic effects of chlorphenoxyacetic acids in animal experiments. A causal relationship between aplastic anaemia and the 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyacetic acid thus seems probable. The anaemia was reversible, but the case serves as a warning that careful safety measures are required during the use of chlorphenoxyacetic acids and related compounds. PMID:804793

  16. Role of malaria induced oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanbi OM; Odaibo AB; Olatoregun R; Ademowo AB

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the role of oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy.Methods:Blood samples were collected from pregnant and non-pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic and medical check at Comprehensive Health Center, Akungba-Akoko and Iwaro General Hospital in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were prepared and used for malaria parasite counts. Haemoglobin level was determined by colorimetric method using Drabkin's solution. Oxidative status was determined using malondiadelhyde level as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, while ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione levels were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods.Results: Mean parasite density was significantly higher in pregnant women than non-pregnant women (P<0.05). Haemoglobin level was significantly reduced in malaria positive pregnant and non-pregnant women than malaria negative (8.3-10.0 g/dL) (P<0.05). The oxidative status indicated that malondialdehyde(MDA) was significantly increased in pregnant [(2.5±0.7) nmol/mL] than non-pregnant women [(1.8±0.1) nmol/mL] (P<0.05), while Vit C and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels were significantly reduced in pregnant than non-pregnant women(P<0.05). There was an inverse correlation between Hb and MDA levels in pregnant women studied. Positive correlation was observed between the mean MDA level and parasite density (r = 0.53). The Hb level decreased as the parasite density and MDA level increased in pregnant women.Conclusions:This study shows that oxidative stress, caused by malaria infection could be part of the contributing factors responsible for anaemia in pregnancy.

  17. Haemolytic anaemia as first manifestation of Wilson's disease: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Ghosh, Sumit Kr; De, Dibyendu; Das, Shubhabrata

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease can have different manifestations like jaundice, cirrhosis of liver, extrapyramidal symptoms and dementia. Haemolytic anaemia may occur but it is commonly associated with florid manifestation of liver disease. Sometimes, liver cell necrosis can release huge free copper ions in blood, giving rise to oxidant damage to erythrocytes. Oxidative damage to cell membrane, haemoglobin and erythrocyte metabolism causes haemolytic crisis. In some cases, liver involvement is subclinical, but nonetheless, free copper is released from necrosed hepatocytes and causes oxidative damage to erythrocytes.We had two cases of Wilson's disease with initial presentation as severe haemolytic anaemia and no other clinical feature suggestive of Wilson's disease was present. In unclear cause of haemolytic anaemia, especially in adolescents or young adults, Wilson's disease should be considered. As Wilson disease is rare and its initial presentation with haemolytic anaemia is rarer, high level of suspicion is required to diagnose it.

  18. Milk versus medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in hospitalised infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, C.; Grant, C.; Taua, N; C. Wilson; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare iron fortified follow-on milk (iron follow-on), iron fortified partially modified cows' milk (iron milk), and iron medicine for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in hospitalised infants.

  19. Prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the rural areas of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmathota Arlappa; Meshram, Indrapal I; Nagalla Balakrishna; Rachkula Harikumar; Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao; Avula Laxmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia continues to be a major public health nutritional problem in India, and has adverse health and economic implications. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the state of Maharashtra. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage stratified random sampling procedure was carried out in rural Maharashtra. Information of socio-demographic particulars was collected with p...

  20. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin as an Alternative to Blood Transfusion in Cancer-Related Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Engert

    2000-01-01

    As physicians become more aware of the need to treat anaemia in their patients with cancer, they have to consider 2 treatment options: red blood cell transfusion or recombinant human erythropoietin [epoetin alfa; epoetin beta]. Healthcare systems are under increasing pressure to lower costs while maintaining quality of care; therefore, treatment of cancer-related anaemia requires a disease management strategy aimed at achieving optimal clinical and economic outcomes. Although blood transfusio...

  1. NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA AMONG CURRENTLY MARRIED FEMALES IN THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN RURAL JAMMU

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    Vridhee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: More than one - third of world’s women are a naemic with majority residing in developing countries and that too in rural areas. The most highly affected population in the decreasing order is pregnant women, school age children, non - pregnant women and preschool children. Nutritional anaemia has recent ly been ranked as the third leading problem among the women of reproductive age group. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on pregnant ladies only so it was decided to take all the females in the reproductive age group as the study subjects. AIMS: To find out the prevalence of nutritional anaemia among married females of reproductive age group i.e., 15 - 49 years of age in a rural area of Jammu District. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Across - sectional study was undertaken in rural settings. METHODS AND M ATERIAL: House to house visits were made and288married females in the reproductive age group were interviewed and their blood samples were taken for necessary haematological investigations which were done at GMC Jammu. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Percentages an d chi - square test . RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : More than 90% of the females were suffering from anaemia. Majority of them were having microcytic hypochromic blood picture. More than 50% of the subjects were having moderate anaemia as per WHO classification. Nu tritional anaemia was seen in 70.47% of the study subjects while the remaining females were having either no anaemia or anaemia due to other medical reasons. The prevalence of nutritional anaemia was even more among pregnant and lactating females and this finding was found to be statistically significant.

  2. Addressing Female Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in India: Is Vegetarianism the Major Obstacle?

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso; Marie-Claire Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of vegetarian diet on the risk of developing anaemia among Indian women and suggest initiatives for addressing diet-related iron-deficiency anaemia. Methods. We analysed data on diet, social class, and haemoglobin levels from the nationally representative Indian National Family and Health Survey 2005/06 for a sample of 81,301 women aged 15–49 years using logistic regression models. Results. After controlling for individual-level factors and household leve...

  3. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gayashan Chathuranga; Thushara Balasuriya; Rasika Perera

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire wa...

  4. A Study of Awareness of Nutrition & Anaemia among College Going Students of Mahila College of Bhavnagar

    OpenAIRE

    Harshad Patel, Harsha Solanki, Vibha Gosalia, Falguni Vora, M. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lives of young population are characterized by limited education, lack of knowledge pertaining to health aspects & also limited influence on decisions affecting their lives. Thus, awareness is one major factor for development of this group of population. Aim & Objectives: 1) To study awareness regarding nutrition & anaemia amongst young college going students. 2) To assess the impact of health awareness programme on knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Mat...

  5. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages.

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    Goylette F Chami

    Full Text Available The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women.We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5-90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated.Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001 with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008 more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001 of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002 of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002 was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001.Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes.

  6. Japanese haemodialysis anaemia management practices and outcomes (1999–2006): results from the DOPPS

    OpenAIRE

    Akizawa, Tadao; Ronald L Pisoni; Akiba, Takashi; Saito, Akira; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Asano, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Port, Friedrich K; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Background. Japanese haemodialysis (HD) patients not only have a very low mortality and hospitalization risk but also low haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Internationally, anaemia is associated with mortality, hospitalization and health-related quality of life (QoL) measures of HD patients. Methods. Longitudinal data collected from 1999 to 2006 from 60 to 64 representative Japanese dialysis units participating in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) were used to describe anaemia ...

  7. Morphological differentiation of severe aplastic anaemia from hypocellular refractory cytopenia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Irith; Führer, Monika; Behrendt, Sonja;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood.......To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of the histomorphological criteria differentiating severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) and hypoplastic refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), the most frequently acquired hypocellular bone marrow conditions of childhood....

  8. Prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the rural areas of Maharashtra

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    Nimmathota Arlappa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaemia continues to be a major public health nutritional problem in India, and has adverse health and economic implications. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the state of Maharashtra. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage stratified random sampling procedure was carried out in rural Maharashtra. Information of socio-demographic particulars was collected with pretested questionnaire. A finger prick blood sample of 20 µL was collected from the subjects. Haemoglobin was estimated using cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 59%, 61%, 76% and 73% among pre-school children, adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of anaemia was two times higher among pregnant and lactating women and among the subjects belonged to scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities. Conclusion: Anaemia is a severe public health problem among pre-school children and women of different physiological groups in rural Maharashtra. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the existing national nutritional anaemia control programme and the community is encouraged to consume iron rich foods through health and nutrition education and information, education and communication (IEC activities.

  9. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IMPACT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Chinnatambi Narayanan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is the most widespread nutrition problem in the world and has predominance in developing countries like India, particularly in children and women. The magnitude of anaemia has been well-documented in pregnant women and infants, but there is scarce data on the prevailing occurrence of anaemia in school children. The current study was undertaken to know the point prevalence of anaemia and the comparative effectiveness of twice a week iron supplementation program to daily supplementation program in enhancing the hemoglobin levels in children aged 10-14 years with different grades of anemia in high schools in and around Kakinada, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. METHODS A total of 400 children in the age group of 10-14 years were included in this study from both government and private schools by random sampling. After estimating the point prevalence of anaemia by Sahli’s method all the children were given a single dose anti-helminthic and the children who were anaemic were further randomly divided into two subgroups A and B and allotted to either a daily or a twice weekly iron supplementation regimen respectively. The haemoglobin was again assessed after three months. RESULTS Point prevalence of anaemia among these children was 95.75%. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher amongst girls (97.8% as compared to boys (93.9%. Prevalence of anaemia was nearly equal in government (96% and private (95.5% schools. Mean improvement in Hb% of 2.23gm% and 1.98gm% was seen in daily and weekly twice iron groups respectively with no significant difference between two groups. Reduction in prevalence of anemia was 86% in daily iron and 80% in weekly twice iron regimen group. Daily iron group experienced more side effects (15.1% when compared to weekly twice iron group (8.1%. CONCLUSION This study shows that the point prevalence of anaemia in school children is high. Supervised iron and folic acid therapy twice a week is as effective as

  10. Prognostic analysis of refractory anaemia in adult myelodysplastic syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-qin; CHEN Zi-xing; CHEN Shu-chang; LIN Guo-wei; JI Mei-rong; LIANG Jian-ying; LIU Dun-dan; LI De-gao; MA Yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) display a very diverse pattem. In this study, we investigated prognostic factors and survival rate in adult patients with MDS refractory anaemia (MDS-RA) diagnosed according to French-American-British classification and evaluated the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) for Chinese patients.Methods A multi-center study on diagnosis of MDS-RA was conducted to charactedze the clinical features of Chinese MDS patients. The morphological criteria for the diagnosis of MDS-RA were first standardized. Clinical data of 307 MDS-RA patients collected from Shanghai, Suzhou and Beijing from 1995 to 2006 were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curve, log rank and Cox regression model.Results The median age of 307 MDS-RA cases was 52 years. The frequency of 2 or 3 lineage cytopenias was 85.6%. Abnormal karyotype occurred in 35.7% of 235 patients. There were 165 cases (70.2%) in the good IPSS cytogenetic subgroup, 44 cases (18.7%) intermediate and 26 cases (11.1%) poor. IPSS showed 20 (8.5%) categodzed as low dsk,195 cases (83.0%) as intermediate-I risk and 20 cases (8.5%) as intermediate-ll dsk. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year survival rates were 90.8%, 85.7%, 82.9%, 74.9% and 71.2% respectively. Fifteen cases (4.9%) transformed to acute myeloid leukaemia (median time 15.9 months, range 3-102 months). Lower white blood ceil count (<1.5x109/L), platelet count (<30x109/L) and cytogenetic abnormalities were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis, but age (≥65 years), IPSS cytogenetic subgroup and IPSS risk subgroup were not independent prognostic factors associated with survival time.Conclusions Chinese patients were younger, and had lower incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities, more severe cytopenias but a more favourable prognosis than Western patients. The major prognostic factors were lower white blood cell count, lower platelet count and fewer abnormal karyotypes. The intemational prognostic scodng

  11. Pathogenesis of the erythroid failure in Diamond Blackfan anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieff, Colin A; Yang, Jing; Merida-Long, Lilia B; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-02-01

    Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a severe congenital failure of erythropoiesis. Despite mutations in one of several ribosome protein genes, including RPS19, the cause of the erythroid specificity is still a mystery. We hypothesized that, because the chromatin of late erythroid cells becomes condensed and transcriptionally inactive prior to enucleation, the rapidly proliferating immature cells require very high ribosome synthetic rates. RNA biogenesis was measured in primary mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells; during the first 24 h, cell number increased three to fourfold while, remarkably, RNA content increased sixfold, suggesting an accumulation of an excess of ribosomes during early erythropoiesis. Retrovirus infected siRNA RPS19 knockdown cells showed reduced proliferation but normal differentiation, and cell cycle analysis showed a G1/S phase delay. p53 protein was increased in the knockdown cells, and the mRNA level for p21, a transcriptional target of p53, was increased. Furthermore, we show that RPS19 knockdown decreased MYB protein, and Kit mRNA was reduced, as was the amount of cell surface KIT protein. Thus, in this small hairpin RNA murine model of DBA, RPS19 insufficient erythroid cells may proliferate poorly because of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, and also because of decreased expression of the key erythroid signalling protein KIT.

  12. Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

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    Christian Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P<0.05. Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (P<0.05. Iron (P=0.0072 decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin (P=0.0143 and TIBC (P=0.0143 increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8% participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9% for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8% for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3% for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia. Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation.

  13. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children’s anaemia risk in northern Angola

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    Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs in anaemia endemicity; and (ii develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15, S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86% were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  14. IRON, VITAMIN B12 AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN ADOLESCENTS HAVING NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA

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    Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the formative period of life when the maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place and this is a vulnerable period in the human life cycle for the development of nutritional anaemia, which has been constantly neglected by public health programs. The prevalence of anaemia is disproportionately high in developing countries than developed countries. It has mainly been ascribed to poverty, inadequate diet, certain diseases, pregnancy and lactation, and poor access to health services in developing countries Prevalence of anaemia in adolescents in India have been reported in limited studies available from 16.25% to 96.5%. Nutritional anaemia constitutes the most important cause of anaemia in adolescents. It is mainly due to deficiency of Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folate. Megaloblastic Anaemia resulting from deficiency of folate and B12 appears to be increasing over the last two decades. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1.To study the types of nutritional anemia in adolescents (10-18 yrs. attending the hospital and correlate severity of nutritional anemia with serum levels of ferritin, Vit B12 & folate. 2. And also to determine demographic, socio-economic & nutritional factors for nutritional anemia in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional study was conducted in selected sample of 200 subjects. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Azeezia Medical College; during November 2011 to April 2013, as a cross-sectional observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were selected based on the inclusion criteria set and evaluated with aid of laboratory investigation of blood samples collected from subjects. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Present study was undertaken to find out etiology and socio-demographic correlates of nutritional anaemia in adolescents. And it was found out that Folate deficiency was the most common followed by Vitamin B12 deficiency & then irons deficiency

  15. CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital

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    Omotola Toyin Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. Results: The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/μL vs 920 ± 364cells/μL. Conclusion: It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  16. Incidence of nutritional anaemia among the under five children attending Ahmed Gasim hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B12. Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p12 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program to compact nutritional anaemia should be adopted.(Author)

  17. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.A.; Khan, N.C.; Burema, J.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anae

  18. Neurological Deficits of an Rps19(Arg67del) Model of Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik-Zahorodna, A; Schuster, B; Kanchev, I; Sedláček, R

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anaemia is a rare disease caused by insufficient expression of ribosomal proteins and is characterized by erythroid hypoplasia often accompanied by growth retardation, congenital craniofacial and limb abnormalities. In addition, Diamond-Blackfan anaemia patients also exhibit a number of behavioural abnormalities. In this study we describe the behavioural effects observed in a new mouse mutant carrying a targeted single amino acid deletion in the ribosomal protein RPS19. This mutant, created by the deletion of arginine 67 in RPS19, exhibits craniofacial, skeletal, and brain abnormalities, accompanied by various neurobehavioural malfunctions. A battery of behavioural tests revealed a moderate cognitive impairment and neuromuscular dysfunction resulting in profound gait abnormalities. This novel Rps19 mutant shows behavioural phenotypes resembling that of the human Diamond-Blackfan anaemia syndrome, thus creating the possibility to use this mutant as a unique murine model for studying the molecular basis of ribosomal protein deficiencies. PMID:27643579

  19. Long-term clearance of [57Co]cyanocobalamin in vegans and pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, S; Spinks, T; Ranicar, A; Short, M D; Hoffbrand, A V

    1980-01-01

    1. Whole-body counting has been used to monitor the clearance of [57Co]cyanocobalamin in normal subjects, vegans and patients with pernicious anaemia. After oral administration of 57Co-labelled cyanocobalamin (1 microgram/1 muCi), subjects were counted for radioactivity monthly for a maximum period of 1 year. 2. The results obtained were consistent with a monoexponential clearance model and a least squares fit showed that there was no significant difference between the mean clearance rates for the vegans and normal subjects. 3. The patients with pernicious anaemia cleared the vitamin significantly more quickly than the normal control subjects. 4. This may be due to failure to reabsorb biliary vitamin B12 in pernicious anaemia because of the absence of intrinsic factor.

  20. Anemia de Fanconi: Consideraciones actuales Updating Fanconi’s anaemia

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    M. Sagaseta de Ilurdoz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available La anemia de Fanconi (AF es un síndrome de inestabilidad cromosómica, autosómico recesivo, caracterizado por una hipersensibilidad del DNA a agentes clastogénicos. Clínicamente presenta una insuficiencia medular progresiva, diversas anomalías congénitas e incremento en la predisposición a padecer enfermedades malignas. Se han definido ocho grupos de complementación y se han clonado los genes correspondientes a seis de ellos. Recientes avances en biología molecular han permitido investigar la relación entre el genotipo de AF y la naturaleza y severidad del fenotipo clínico. El tratamiento de la AF es también objeto de una intensa investigación que actualmente se centra en el trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos, con éxito especialmente en caso de donante hermano HLA-idéntico, y en la terapia génica todavía en fase de investigación clínica.Fanconi’s anaemia (FA is an autosomal recessive syndrome associated with chromosomal instability, and hypersensitivity of the DNA to claustrogenic agents. Clinically it presents a progressive marrow insufficiency, different congenital anomalies and an predisposition to malignancy. Eight complementation groups have been defined and the genes corresponding to six of them have been cloned. Recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to investigate the relationship between the FA genotype and the nature and severity of the clinical phenotype. The treatment of FA is also the object of intense research that is currently centred on the transplant of hematopoyetic progenitors, especially successful in cases of an HLA-identical brother or sister donor, and in gene therapy, which is still in the phase of clinical research.

  1. A swollen knee in a patient with refractory anaemia

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    P. Bordin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CASE REPORT A 63-year old man with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts and a history of heart failure, diabetes and hyperuricaemia, presented with pain, warmth and swelling in the left knee. Blood sample showed white cell blood count 3,840/μL (normal formula, haemoglobin 7.1 g/dL, platelets 117,000/L, eritrosedimentation rate 66 mm/h, normal serum creatinine and uric acid. He had no history of neutropenia, fever or recurrent infections. X-ray of the knee did not show any erosion or lytic lesion. Arthrocentesis produced turbid fluid, with elevated cell count (81,000/μL, mainly polimorphonuclear cells, no urate crystals, normal chemical pattern, sterile culture. Synovial fluid smear showed a huge neutrophilic cellularity with scattered mononuclear cells looking like medullar myeloid blasts. The microscopic examination identified a myeloid infiltration as the cause of arthritis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Rheumatic phenomena in myelodysplastic syndromes have a prevalence of 10% and include vasculitis, neuropaties, glomerulonephritis, lupus-like syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, lung infiltrates and arthritis. The pathogenesis is usually autoimmune, as in all paraneoplastic syndromes. In our case, arthritis was due to a direct invasion of blasts. This phenomenon is rarely observed in acute leukemias and was not described yet in myelodysplastic syndromes. Synovial fluid analysis is critical to define the ethiology of an articular effusion, microscopical examination is strongly recommended but it is not always carried out. This case shows how simple diagnostic tests can easily disclose rare conditions.

  2. TO STUDY THE CLINICAL SPECTRUM AND HAEMATOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS OF MACROCYTIC ANAEMIA

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    Daljinderjit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Folate and vitamin12 deficiency have been known to cause megaloblastic anaemia. Megaloblastic anaemia is not uncommon in India , but data are insufficient regarding its prevalence , causative factors and precipitating factors. AIMS & OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the clinic o - haematological profile in patients of macrocytic anaemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS : In the present study , 50 patients of >20years of age with hemoglobin 95 fl and PBF showing macrocytosis and pancytopenia were included. Detailed history with clinical examination was performed and investigations (Bone Marrow aspiration , Serum Folate and cobalamin assays were carried out. RESULTS : The peak incidence of megaloblas tic anaemia was in the age group of 41 - 50 years (48% , with male preponderance (71% . ( The predominant symptoms were fatigue (54% followed by low grade fever (52% , breathlessness (50% , and mild jaundice (22% . ( Physicalfindingswere pallor (88 % , hepatomegaly (80% , knuckle hyperpigmentation (68% , glossitis (50% , peripheral neuropathy (28% and mild icterus was the least common finding in 22% of patients. 64% patients of macrocytic anaemia were found to be lactovegetarian. Cobalamin deficiency wa s present in maximum patients (50% , followed by combined cobalamin and folate deficiency in 34% and folate deficiency in 16% of patients. Bonemarrowsmears revealed megaloblastic picture in 58% of patients and 42% patients had non - megaloblastic bone marrow picture. C ONCLUSION : Megaloblastic anaemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin , mild ic terus or pancytopenia. Therefore , the early screening for cobalamin and folic acid deficiency can lead to improvement in the wellbeing and prolongs the life of people in our community.

  3. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries.

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    Kendra Siekmans

    Full Text Available Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anaemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention. Cross-sectional data on the nutrition and health status of children 24-59 mo (N=2405 were obtained in 2000 and 2004 from program evaluation surveys in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania. Linear regression models estimated the association between haemoglobin and immediate, underlying and basic causes of child anaemia and variation in this association between years. Lower haemoglobin levels were observed in children assessed in 2000 compared to 2004 (difference -3.30 g/L, children from Tanzania (-9.15 g/L and Malawi (-2.96 g/L compared to Ghana, and the youngest (24-35 mo compared to oldest age group (48-59 mo; -5.43 g/L. Children who were stunted, malaria positive and recently ill also had lower haemoglobin, independent of age, sex and other underlying and basic causes of anaemia. Despite ongoing morbidity, risk of lower haemoglobin decreased for children with malaria and recent illness, suggesting decreased vulnerability to their anaemia-producing effects. Stunting remained an independent and unbuffered risk factor. Reducing chronic undernutrition is required in order to further reduce child vulnerability and ensure maximum impact of anaemia control programs. Buffering the impact of child morbidity on haemoglobin levels, including malaria, may be achieved in certain settings.

  4. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmans, Kendra; Receveur, Olivier; Haddad, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anaemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention. Cross-sectional data on the nutrition and health status of children 24-59 mo (N=2405) were obtained in 2000 and 2004 from program evaluation surveys in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania. Linear regression models estimated the association between haemoglobin and immediate, underlying and basic causes of child anaemia and variation in this association between years. Lower haemoglobin levels were observed in children assessed in 2000 compared to 2004 (difference -3.30 g/L), children from Tanzania (-9.15 g/L) and Malawi (-2.96 g/L) compared to Ghana, and the youngest (24-35 mo) compared to oldest age group (48-59 mo; -5.43 g/L). Children who were stunted, malaria positive and recently ill also had lower haemoglobin, independent of age, sex and other underlying and basic causes of anaemia. Despite ongoing morbidity, risk of lower haemoglobin decreased for children with malaria and recent illness, suggesting decreased vulnerability to their anaemia-producing effects. Stunting remained an independent and unbuffered risk factor. Reducing chronic undernutrition is required in order to further reduce child vulnerability and ensure maximum impact of anaemia control programs. Buffering the impact of child morbidity on haemoglobin levels, including malaria, may be achieved in certain settings. PMID:24598692

  5. Impact of socio demographic factors on the severity of maternal anaemia

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    Ambarisha Bhandiwad

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with several social and demographic factors. Strategies must be taken from the conceptional level itself by providing proper antenatal counseling and women should be economically empowered and good antenatal care must be made available and accessible to all of them. Even with routine iron prophylaxis in pregnancy, still the prevalence of anaemia is high, so should we consider one or two doses of routine parenteral iron therapy for all pregnant women? [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 868-872

  6. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.

  7. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  8. Clinical Dilemma in the Treatment of a Patient with Microangiopathic Haemolytic Anaemia, Thrombocytopaenia and Severe Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, D.; Viegas, V.; Castro, I.

    2010-01-01

    While haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children is predominantly associated with Shiga toxin -producing Escherichia coli (typically 0157:H7), some cases occur without associated diarrhoea, or as the manifestation of an underlying disorder other than infection. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome is characterised by microangiopathic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and renal failure, on occasion accompanied by severe hypertension. Malignant hypertension is a syndrome that sometimes exhibits the same ...

  9. Subclinical anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Patients with chronic hypoxaemia develop secondary polycythaemia that improves oxygen-carrying capacity. Therefore, normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in the presence of chronic arterial hypoxaemia in cystic fibrosis constitute \\'relative anaemia\\'. We sought to determine the cause of this relative anaemia in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied haematological indices and oxygen saturation in healthy volunteers (n=17) and in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=15). Patients with cystic fibrosis had lower resting arterial oxygen saturation when compared with normal volunteers (P<0.0001), and exercise led to a greater reduction in arterial oxygen saturation (P<0.0001). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis did not significantly differ from normal volunteers. Serum iron (P=0.002), transferrin (P=0.02), and total iron-binding capacity (P=0.01) were lower in patients with cystic fibrosis. There were no significant differences in serum ferritin, percentage iron saturation, serum erythropoietin or red cell volume between the groups. The data presented demonstrate a characteristic picture of anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis, except for normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values. Normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis appear to represent a combination of the effects of arterial hypoxaemia promoting polycythaemia, counterbalanced by chronic inflammation promoting anaemia of chronic disease.

  10. Serum Iron Status of Under-Five Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

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    S. O. Akodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iron status in patients with sickle cell anaemia is a matter of continuing investigation. Objective. This paper aims to determine the serum iron status of under-five, sickle cell anaemia patients. Methods. The study spanned from December 2009 to February 2010 at the Consultant Outpatient Clinics involving 97 HbSS subjects and 97 age- and sex-matched HbAA controls. Biochemical iron status was assayed in subjects and controls. Results. Age range of the children was seven months to five years, with a mean of 30.6 (±15.97 months. Irrespective of gender, mean serum iron values were higher in HbAA controls than their HbSS counterparts but the observed difference was not significant ( and 0.111, resp.. The mean total iron binding capacity values of males and females were also not significantly different for sickle cell anaemia subjects and controls (. Males and females with HbAA had significantly lower serum ferritin when compared with their HbSS counterparts. Irrespective of gender, mean transferrin saturation was lower in HbSS subjects but the difference was not statistically significant (. Conclusion. Children with sickle cell anaemia have higher serum ferritin than controls, implying relatively higher iron content in the reticuloendothelial cells.

  11. Guidelines on anaemia : effect on primary-care midwives in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P; Fleuren, M; Wensing, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: to assess the adherence and perceived barriers for implementation of a clinical-practice guideline on anaemia, which was the first national guideline for primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. Design: cross-sectional survey study. Setting: primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. Pa

  12. Guidelines on anaemia: effect on primary-care midwives in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Fleuren, M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence and perceived barriers for implementation of a clinical-practice guideline on anaemia, which was the first national guideline for primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Primary-care midwifery in The Netherlands. PA

  13. Evaluation of Ferric and Ferrous Iron Therapies in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

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    Ilhami Berber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day, and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P<0.05. Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study.

  14. Evaluation of ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ilhami; Diri, Halit; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kaya, Emin; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  15. Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused

  16. HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of renal anaemia and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Patrick H; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Small-molecule stabilizers of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) are being developed for the treatment of renal anaemia. These molecules inhibit prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing (PHD) enzymes, resulting in HIF activation and increased production of erythropoietin. Currently, renal anaemia is treated with recombinant human erythropoietin or related analogues, referred to as conventional erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Advantages of PHD enzyme inhibitors over conventional ESAs include their oral administration and their simpler - and potentially cheaper - production. Importantly, inhibition of PHD enzymes is likely to have a range of consequences other than increasing levels of erythropoietin, and these effects could be beneficial - for instance by reducing the need for parenteral iron - but might in some instances be harmful. Several companies are currently testing PHD enzyme inhibitors in patients with renal anaemia and have reported clear evidence of efficacy without serious safety concerns. A central question that current studies are beginning to address is whether using PHD enzyme inhibitors will influence hard end points, including mortality and the rate of cardiovascular events. In terms of approaches to therapy, the exquisite specificity of conventional ESAs is a striking contrast to the pleiotropic effects of activating HIF. Excitingly, PHD inhibitors could also be useful for conditions besides renal anaemia, such as protection from ischaemic injury. PMID:26656456

  17. Anaemia is associated with shorter leucocyte telomere length in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Liza S. M.; Huzen, Jardi; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Codd, Veryan; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Benus, Germaine F. J. D.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is highly prevalent and associated with poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Reduced erythroid proliferation capacity of haematopoietic progenitor cells is associated with reduced telomere length, a marker of cellular ageing. We hypothesize that short telomere le

  18. A Study of Awareness of Nutrition & Anaemia among College Going Students of Mahila College of Bhavnagar

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    Harshad Patel, Harsha Solanki, Vibha Gosalia, Falguni Vora, M. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lives of young population are characterized by limited education, lack of knowledge pertaining to health aspects & also limited influence on decisions affecting their lives. Thus, awareness is one major factor for development of this group of population. Aim & Objectives: 1 To study awareness regarding nutrition & anaemia amongst young college going students. 2 To assess the impact of health awareness programme on knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Materials & Method: Present cross-sectional study was con-ducted among representative group of 68 young girls from Mrs. N.C.Gandhi & Mrs. B.V.Gandhi Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Bhavnagar city. Pre test was carried out before beginning the programme followed by post test to assess the impact of health awareness programme. Health Awareness programme was carried out by Department of PSM, Government Medical College of Bhavnagar on 24th January 2012 on Nutrition & anaemia. Results: The knowledge of girls regarding health aspects im-proved significantly after intervention. There was a considerable increase in the awareness levels of girls with regard to knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Conclusion: The informative & educable intervention definitely has a positive effect on awareness levels which would eventually encourage expansion of knowledge & positive health habits.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction in sickle cell anaemia associated with severe hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, S. T.; ARRUDA, V R; Junqueira, O. O.; Schelini, F. A.; Coelho, O. B.

    1990-01-01

    A 17 year old boy with sickle cell anaemia presented with acute myocardial infarction associated with severe hypoxia and reticulocytopenia. Ischaemic heart disease is rare in sickle cell anemia and in this case it is possible that the acute episode of hypoxia led to myocardial infarction.

  20. Prevention of post-operative anaemia in hip and knee arthroplasty - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Nissa; Troelsen, Anders; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and minimised the length of stay. A similar result was found for fibrin spray in total hip arthroplasty. However, for total knee arthroplasty, the outcome was blurred. Tourniquet use was uniformly not significant in the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid is useful in managing anaemia and blood...

  1. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whi

  2. Severe anaemia is not associated with HIV-1 env gene characteristics in Malawian children

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    Kachala David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is the most common haematological complication of HIV and associated with a high morbidity and a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated anaemia is poorly understood and may include a direct effect of HIV on erythropoiesis. In vitro studies have suggested that specific HIV strains, like X4 that uses the CXCR4 co-receptor present on erythroid precursors, are associated with diminished erythropoiesis. This co-receptor affinity is determined by changes in the hypervariable loop of the HIV-1 envelope genome. In a previous case-control study we observed an association between HIV and severe anaemia in Malawian children that could not be fully explained by secondary infections and micronutrient deficiencies alone. We therefore explored the possibility that alterations in the V1-V2-V3 fragment of HIV-1 were associated with severe anaemia. Methods Using peripheral blood nucleic acid isolates of HIV-infected children identified in the previous studied we assessed if variability of the V1-V2-V3 region of HIV and the occurrence of X4 strains were more common in HIV-infected children with (cases, n = 29 and without severe anaemia (controls, n = 30. For 15 cases bone marrow isolates were available to compare against peripheral blood. All children were followed for 18 months after recruitment. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that HIV-1 subtype C was present in all but one child. All V1-V2-V3 characteristics tested: V3 charge, V1-V2 length and potential glycosylation sites, were not found to be different between cases and controls. Using a computer model (C-PSSM four children (7.8% were identified to have an X4 strain. This prevalence was not different between study groups (p = 1.00. The V3 loop characteristics for bone marrow and peripheral blood isolates in the case group were identical. None of the children identified as having an X4 strain developed a (new episode of severe anaemia during follow up. Conclusion

  3. Anaemia in a phase 2 study of a blood stage falciparum malaria vaccine

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    Guindo Aldiouma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300, no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin Methods To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis. Results A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20] was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect. Conclusions While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely

  4. Screening of aplastic anaemia-related genes in bone marrow CD4+ T cells by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Miao; LIU Wen-li; FU Jin-rong; SUN Han-ying; ZHOU Jian-feng; XU Hui-zhen

    2007-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia. However, the mechanisms of over-proliferation, activation, infiltration of bone marrow and damage to haematopoietic cells of CD4+ T cells in aplastic anaemia are unclear. Therefore, we screened differentially expressed genes of bone marrow CD4+ T cells of aplastic anaemia patients and normal donors by suppressive subtractive hybridization to investigate the pathogenesis of aplastic anaemia.Methods The bone marrow mononuclear cells of a first visit aplastic anaemia patient and a healthy donor of the same age and sex were isolated using lymphocyte separating medium by density gradient centrifugation. With the patients as "tester" and donor as "driver", their CD4+T cells were separated with magnetic bead sorting and a cDNA library established by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Then 15 of the resulting subtracted cDNA clones were randomly selected for DNA sequencing and homological analysis. With semiquantitative RT-PCR, bone marrow samples from 20 patients with aplastic anaemia and 20 healthy donors assessed the expression levels of differentially expressed genes from SSH library.Results PCR detected 89 clones in the library containing an inserted fragment of 100 bp to 700 bp. Among 15 sequenced clones, 12 were known genes including 3 repeated genes. Compared with normal donors, there were 9/12 genes over-expressed in bone marrow CD4+T cells of patients with aplastic anaemia. The effects of these genes included protein synthesis, biology oxidation, signal transduction, proliferative regulation and cell migration. Not all these genes had been reported in the mechanisms of haematopoietic damage mediated by CD4+ T cells in aplastic anaemia.Conclusions Screening and cloning genes, which regulate functions of CD4+ T cells, are helpful in elucidating the mechanisms of over proliferation, activation, infiltrating bone marrow and damaging haematopoietic cells of CD4+ T cells in

  5. Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5% school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5% young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2% boys and 296 (53.8% girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2% were anaemic, 54.9% iron deficient and 16.9% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5% comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6% and hookworm infection (13.5%. It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032 compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002, non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013, low household income (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015, T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008 and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032 were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI% = 1.33-2.58; p<0.001 was a significant predictor for IDA in these children. CONCLUSION: It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

  6. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

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    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  7. Prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people in a rural Ugandan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Mugisha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in high income countries have shown that anaemia is a common medical condition among older people, but such data are scarce in Africa. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people. METHODS: Participants were aged (≥ 50 years recruited from a general population cohort from January 2012 to January 2013. Blood samples were collected for assessing hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, serum folate, C-reactive protein, malaria infection and stool samples for assessment of hookworm infection. HIV status was assessed using an algorithm for HIV rapid testing. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors for anaemia. RESULTS: In total, 1449 people participated (response rate 72.3%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 20.3 % (95% CI 18.2-22.3%, and this was higher for males (24.1%, 95% CI=20.7-27.7% than females (17.5%, 95% CI=15.0-20.1%. In males, the prevalence of anaemia increased rapidly with age almost doubling between 50 and 65 years (p-trend<0.001. Unexplained anaemia was responsible for more than half of all cases (59.7%. Anaemia was independently associated with infections including malaria (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.78-6.82, HIV (OR 2.17, 1.32-3.57 heavy hookworm infection (OR 3.45, 1.73-6.91, low fruit consumption (OR 1.55, 1.05-2.29 and being unmarried (OR 1.37 , 95% CI 1.01-1.89. However, the odds of anaemia were lower among older people with elevated blood pressure (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. CONCLUSION: Anaemia control programmes in Uganda should target older people and should include interventions to treat and control hookworms and educational programs on diets that enhance iron absorption. Clinicians should consider screening older people with HIV or malaria for anaemia. Further studies should be done on unexplained anaemia and serum ferritin levels that predict

  8. Protective oral vaccination against infectious salmon anaemia virus in Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruffo, Mario; Maturana, Carlos; Kambalapally, Swetha; Larenas, Julio; Tobar, Jaime A

    2016-07-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a systemic disease caused by an orthomyxovirus, which has a significant economic impact on the production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Currently, there are several commercial ISA vaccines available, however, those products are applied through injection, causing stress in the fish and leaving them susceptible to infectious diseases due to the injection process and associated handling. In this study, we evaluated an oral vaccine against ISA containing a recombinant viral hemagglutinin-esterase and a fusion protein as antigens. Our findings indicated that oral vaccination is able to protect Atlantic salmon against challenge with a high-virulence Chilean isolate. The oral vaccination was also correlated with the induction of IgM-specific antibodies. On the other hand, the vaccine was unable to modulate expression of the antiviral related gene Mx, showing the importance of the humoral response to the disease survival. This study provides new insights into fish protection and immune response induced by an oral vaccine against ISA, but also promises future development of preventive solutions or validation of the current existing therapies. PMID:26994669

  9. Bilateral macular haemorrhages secondary to hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia, treated with Nd:YAG laser posterior hyaloidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Akshatha; Mariatos, George; Thakur, Shakti

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anaemia in which pancytopenia and bone marrow failure appears 2-3 months after an acute attack of hepatitis. Although bilateral vision loss may rarely be the initial presentation of aplastic anaemia, no such report is known in HAAA. Here the authors report such a case presenting with large premacular subhyaloid haemorrhages secondary to severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Anaemic hypoxic damage to the vessel wall together with increased cardiac output and low platelet counts are interacting causal factors in the development of bleeding. Though these haemorrhages are benign and usually improve spontaneously, the presence of blood may cause permanent macular changes before it resolves. Posterior hyaloidotomy enabled rapid resolution of premacular subhyaloid haemorrhage thereby restoring vision and preventing need for vitreo-retinal surgery. These patients should be advised to refrain from valsalva manoeuvres, ocular rubbing and vigorous exercise to prevent ocular morbidity. PMID:22674943

  10. Anaemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Nana; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; McMurray, John J V;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), mortality is inversely related to haemoglobin (hgb) concentration. We investigated the prognostic importance of anaemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) with and without HF...

  11. The influence of anaemia on stroke prognosis and its relation to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Kristensen, S R; Mickley, H;

    2007-01-01

    Anaemia is a negative prognostic factor for patients with heart failure and impaired renal function, but its role in stroke patients is unknown. Furthermore, anaemia has been shown to influence the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), but this is only investigated...... in patients with heart failure, not in stroke patients. Two-hundred-and-fifty consecutive, well-defined ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Mortality was recorded at 6 months follow-up. Anaemia was diagnosed in 37 patients (15%) in whom stroke severity was worse than in the non-anaemic group, whilst...... the prevalence of renal affection, smoking and heart failure was lower. At 6 months follow-up, 23 patients were dead, and anaemia had an odds ratio of 4.7 when adjusted for age, Scandinavian Stroke Scale and a combined variable of heart and/or renal failure and/or elevation of troponin T using logistic...

  12. Preoperative anaemia and newly diagnosed cancer 1 year after elective total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C. C.; Jans; Kehlet, H.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is a well-established risk factor for use of blood transfusions and postoperative morbidity. Consequently, focus on preoperative evaluation of haemoglobin levels is increasing. In this context, iron deficiency anaemia may be a symptom of undiscovered...... gastrointestinal (GI) cancer requiring further investigation. However, the association between preoperative anaemia and cancer 1 year after elective total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is unknown. We evaluated 1-year cancer diagnoses, particularly GI cancers, in anaemic and non-anaemic THA and TKA......·3%) and 79 (1·6%) new cancers in anaemic and non-anaemic patients, respectively (OR: 1·38; 95% CI: 0·81-2·35, P = 0·228). After propensity matching of 661 anaemic and 1305 non-anaemic patients, we found no association between preoperative anaemia and cancer (OR: 0·94; 95% CI: 0·51-1·73, P = 0·837) or with GI...

  13. Accuracy and reliability of pallor for detecting anaemia: a hospital-based diagnostic accuracy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kalantri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common disorder. Most health providers in resource poor settings rely on physical signs to diagnose anaemia. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of pallor for anaemia by using haemoglobin as the reference standard. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In May 2007, we enrolled consecutive patients over 12 years of age, able to consent and willing to participate and who had a haemoglobin measurement taken within a day of assessment of clinical pallor from outpatient and medicine inpatient department of a teaching hospital. We did a blind and independent comparison of physical signs (examination of conjunctivae, tongue, palms and nailbed for pallor and the reference standard (haemoglobin estimation by an electronic cell counter. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by calculating likelihood ratio values and 95% confidence intervals (CI at different haemoglobin thresholds and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Two observers examined a subset of patients (n = 128 to determine the inter-observer agreement, calculated by kappa statistics. We studied 390 patients (mean age 40.1 [SD 17.08] years; of whom 48% were women. The haemoglobin was <7 g/dL in 8% (95% confidence interval, 5, 10 patients; <9 g/dL in 21% (17, 26 patients and <12 g/dL in 64% (60, 70 patients. Among patients with haemoglobin <7 g/dL, presence of severe tongue pallor yielded a LR of 9.87 (2.81, 34.6 and its absence yielded a LR of 0. The tongue pallor outperformed other pallor sites and was also the best discriminator of anaemia at haemoglobin thresholds of 7 g/dL and 9 g/dL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC area = 0.84 [0.77, 0.90] and 0.71[0.64, 0.76] respectively. The agreement between the two observers for detection of anaemia was poor (kappa values = 0.07 for conjunctival pallor and 0.20 for tongue pallor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical assessment of pallor can rule out and modestly rule in severe

  14. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for

  15. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali; Yeldu Mohammed Haruna; Erhabor Osaro; Imrana Sani; Abubakar Wase; Onuigwe Festus; Okwesili Augustine; Isaac Zama; Yakubu Abdulrahaman; Dallatu Kabiru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7%) family replacement donors and 2 (1.3%) voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland). Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kit-ACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA). Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL) was evident in 24 (16%) and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL) in 5 (10%) of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00) compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20) respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10) compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13) (P=0.01). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01). Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for regular

  16. The impact of renal insufficiency and anaemia on survival in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease, and anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the community setting, little data exists about the risk associated with milder levels of anaemia when it is present concurrently with CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and anaemia in patients with CVD in the community and to examine whether the presence of anaemia was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study and involved a random sample of 35 general practices in the West of Ireland. A practice-based sample of 1,609 patients with established cardiovascular disease was generated in 2000\\/2001 and followed for five years. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. Statistical analysis involved using one-way ANOVA and Chi-squared tests for baseline data and Cox proportional-hazards models for mortality data. RESULTS: Of the study sample of 617 patients with blood results, 33% (n = 203) had CKD while 6% (n = 37) had CKD and anaemia. The estimated risk of death from any cause, when compared to patients with cardiovascular disease only, was almost double (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.98) for patients with both CVD and CKD and was over 4 times greater (HR = 4.33, 95% CI 1.76 to 10.68) for patients with CVD, CKD and anaemia. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiovascular disease in the community, chronic kidney disease and anaemia occur commonly. The presence of chronic kidney disease carries an increased mortality risk which increases in an additive way with the addition of anaemia. These results suggest that early primary care diagnosis and management of this high risk group may be worthwhile.

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Severe Anaemia amongst Under-Five Children Hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Simbauranga, Rehema H; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Hokororo, Adolfine; Benson R Kidenya; Makani, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a major public health problem in developing countries, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst children under-five years of age. About 43 % of under-fives are anaemic worldwide, and two-thirds reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Even where blood transfusion is available for treatment there is still a significant case fatality rate ranging between 6 and 18 %. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and morphological types of anaemia, as well as factor...

  18. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Goka, Bamenla Q; Akanmori, Bartholomew D;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy......, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy....

  19. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  20. Mathematical analysis of /sup 51/Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasfiki, A.G.; Antipas, S.E.; Dimitriou, P.A.; Gritzali, F.A.; Melissinos, K.G.

    1982-04-01

    The parameters of /sup 51/Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-..beta..-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-..beta..-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors.

  1. Mathematical analysis of 51Cr-labelled red cell survival curves in congenital haemolytic anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters of 51Cr labelled red cell survival curves were calculated in 26 patients with homozygous β-thalassaemia, 8 with sickle-cell anaemia and 3 with s-β-thalassaemia, using a non-linear weighted least squares analysis computer program. In thalassaemic children the calculated parameters denote that the shorting of the mean cell life is due to early senescence alone, while there is some evidence that in thalassaemic adults additional extracellular destruction mechanisms participate as well. Red cell survival curves from patients with sickle-cell anaemia and s-β-thalassaemia resemble each other, while their parameters indicate an initial rapid loss of radioactivity, early senescence and the presence of extracellular red cell destruction factors. (orig.)

  2. Joint modeling of Anaemia and Malaria in children under five in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Samson B; Gayawan, Ezra; Heumann, Christian; Seiler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Malaria and anaemia which jointly account for high proportion of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries have been individually studied using binary regression model. We adopt geoadditive latent variable model for binary/ordinal indicators to analyze the influence of variables of different types on the morbidity among young children in Nigeria. Latent variable models allow for the analysis of multidimensional response variables that reveal the indicator's underlying relationship that are caused by the latent variables. We extend the structural model to a semi-parametric geoadditive model in order to quantify the joint spatial structure of morbidity from malaria and anaemia. Findings revealed substantial geographical variations and the generated maps can guide policy makers and donors on how to prudently utilize the scarce resources for designing more cost-effective interventions. PMID:27246277

  3. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  4. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  5. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  6. Reproductive behaviour of families segregating for Cooley's anaemia before and after the availability of prenatal diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamberini, M. R.; Lucci, M; Vullo, C; Anderson, B; Canella, R; Barrai, I

    1991-01-01

    The reproductive behaviour of couples with heterozygous beta thalassaemia, with at least one affected child, was investigated for the period 1955 to 1984 and was compared to the behaviour of control couples matched for age, age at marriage, and presence of at least one child. The comparisons were made as a function of knowledge of the risk and availability of prenatal diagnosis and abortion. It was found that the couples segregating for Cooley's anaemia, before knowledge of the risk, had a hi...

  7. Anaemia, haemoglobin level and cause-specific mortality in people with and without diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Pascal Kengne; Sébastien Czernichow; Mark Hamer; G David Batty; Emmanuel Stamatakis

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both anaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in people with diabetes. While individually both characteristics are known to raise mortality risk, their combined influence has yet to be quantified. In this pooling project, we examined the combined impact of baseline haemoglobin levels and existing CVD on all-cause and CVD mortality in people with diabetes. We draw comparison of these effects with those apparent in diabetes-free individuals. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A ...

  8. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural India: a longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishu Mangla

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is a significantly high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas of India. Our study has also enlisted a few socio demographic factors that contribute to such high prevalence of this disease. Programs focused on target population need to be planned and implemented with active participation of locals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3500-3505

  9. Cost benefits of low dose subcutaneous erythropoietin in patients with anaemia of end stage renal disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, M E; Summerfield, G P; Hall, A.A.; Beck, C. A.; Harding, A.J.; Cove-Smith, J.R.; Paterson, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the cost benefits of low dose subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin in correcting the anaemia of end stage renal disease. DESIGN--Three year retrospective study. SETTING--Subregional nephrology service serving a mixed urban and rural population of 800,000. SUBJECTS--60 patients with symptoms of anaemic end stage renal disease treated with erythropoietin (43 receiving haemodialysis; 11 receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; two with predialysis end st...

  10. Response of anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis to treatment with subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudbjörnsson, B; Hällgren, R; Wide, L; Birgegård, G

    1992-01-01

    Eleven patients with chronic inflammatory arthritides and haemoglobin concentrations less than 105 g/l with symptoms from their anaemia were treated with a dose of 250 IU/kg/week of recombinant human erythropoietin for six weeks. The treatment was given as subcutaneous injections five days a week. All patients had active inflammatory disease. Nine patients responded to treatment with an increase in haemoglobin of more than 15 g/l. The mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration increased from 93.0 (8...

  11. Effect of herbo-mineral formulation EHb in experimental anaemia in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyan, K S; Agrawala, S K; Chauhan, S; Ghosal, S R

    2001-07-01

    EHb-a herbo-mineral formulations of iron (ferrous form) produced a significantly higher and dose dependent increase in the haemoglobin level, as compared to Fefol (a non-complex-chelated iron preparation). Also, EHb did not produce any overt toxicity or gastric irritation at these dose levels. The results suggest that EHb can be of a better choice in the treatment of anaemia than any other commercially available chelated iron preparations. PMID:12019760

  12. Severe haemolytic anaemia after replacement of the mitral valve by a St Jude medical prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, H; Roth, J

    1989-01-01

    Severe haemolytic anaemia developed in a 33 year old patient after the mitral valve was replaced with a St Jude medical prosthesis. This was the patient's third thoracotomy. She had already had a mitral commissurotomy and a mitral valve bioprosthesis. The patient had an E+ antibody to red blood cells as well as a paraprosthetic leak. The haemolysis became less severe once the population of E+ red cells was completely haemolysed. However, the patient continued to require transfusions to remain...

  13. Amifostine Protection Against Mitomycin-induced Chromosomal Breakage in Fanconi Anaemia Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Miriam T. P.; Salas, Carlos E.; Fernanda S. G. Kehdy; Camelo, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic chromosomal instability syndrome caused by impairment of DNA repair and reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance. This disease is also related to bone marrow failure and cancer. Treatment of these complications with radiation and alkylating agents may enhance chromosomal breakage. We have evaluated the effect of amifostine (AMF) on basal and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosomal breakage in FA blood cells using the micronucleus assay. The basal micronucle...

  14. Haemolytic anaemia complicating the concurrent use of allopurinol & azathioprine after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Dhaun; Catherine Hanna; Maria Squires; Simon Watson

    2013-01-01

    Gout is a common problem in renal transplant recipients but often difficult to treat. Allopurinol can be combined with azathioprine but clinicians should be aware of the need for dose reduction, the potential to measure azathioprine breakdown products and the possible side effects of this combination. Leucopenia is a known side effect but this case report shows that haemolytic anaemia can also occur. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000): 330-332

  15. Haemolytic anaemia complicating the concurrent use of allopurinol & azathioprine after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Dhaun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a common problem in renal transplant recipients but often difficult to treat. Allopurinol can be combined with azathioprine but clinicians should be aware of the need for dose reduction, the potential to measure azathioprine breakdown products and the possible side effects of this combination. Leucopenia is a known side effect but this case report shows that haemolytic anaemia can also occur. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 330-332

  16. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busteed, S; Silke, C; Molloy, C; Murphy, M; Molloy, M G

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:11837631

  17. The Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome is Uncommon in Pernicious Anaemia: Results of a Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stockbrügger, R. W.; Armbrecht, U.; Rode, J. W.; Teall, A J; Oberholzer, V. G.; Croker, J R; Cotton, P B

    2011-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether upper gastrointestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with permanent achlorhydria causes malassimilation in more than just the occasional case. In an attempt to clarify this, 19 patients with pernicious anaemia who had undergone a thorough investigation 6.6 y (mean) previously, were reinvestigated with clinical history, upper GI endoscopy including multiple duodenal biopsies, microbial cultures of gastric juice and duodenal mucosa, a xylose absorption test, and...

  18. Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia : possible association with Ancylostoma caninum infection in three dogs : case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lobetti, R. G.; T. Schoeman

    2001-01-01

    Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) may be primary or secondary. In primary IMHA, no underlying cause can be found, whereas secondary IMHA is triggered by an underlying cause, such as neoplasia, infectious diseases, or drugs. This paper describes 3 dogs with typical signs of IMHA that was possibly associated with the intestinal parasite Ancylostoma caninum. As intestinal helminths can be difficult to diagnose on faecal examination, it would be pertinent to performmultiple faecal examina...

  19. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  20. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE RURAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a global public health problem particularly in developing countries. A major contributory factor to maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To find the prevalence and seve rity of anaemia and evaluate the multiple causal factors among pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross sectional study was conducted in pregnant women attending outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from J uly 1 st 2013 to J une 30 th 2015 Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital , a tertiary care rural hospital in C hidambaram . A pre - designed Performa was utilized to obtain relevant information about demographic and patients’ obstetric characteristics. They were screened for anaemia using cyanmethemoglobin method during their first antenatal visit. RESULTS : The prevalence of anaemia was found to be (1202/1434 83.8% of which mild 27.2%, moderate 60.3% and severe was 12.5% ( A ccording to WHO criteria based on Hb level. Majority were between 20 - 25yrs of age (87861.2% in third trimester (95666.7% were unbooked (91263.5%, illiterate (67747.3% and belonged to low socioeconomic class (109276.1%. Multiparity (92864.7%, pregnancy spacing interval less than 1yr (38841.8%, poor nutrition (6724 6.8% were the most common risk factors. CONCLUSION : In our study, the prevalence rate is still very high in spite of the various preventive strategies as awareness is less among the population . Major factors responsible were multiparity, illiteracy, povert y, late antenatal booking, inadequate spacing between pregnancies. Adequate antenatal care and proper education helps to increase the awareness.

  1. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  2. Giant Brunner’s gland adenoma as an unusual cause of anaemia: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner’s gland adenoma (BGA) is a rare benign duodenal tumour proliferating from Brunner’s glands. Here, we present a giant BGA leading to anaemia, with its clinical, endoscopic, radiological, surgical and pathological findings. A 48-year-old Turkish man complained of a six months history of vague epigastric discomfort, loss of appetite and nausea after meals without vomiting. The physical examination had no unremarkable finding. Laboratory findings, including liver function tests, were within normal limits except a hypochromic, microcytic anaemia. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed a lobulated, red, polypoid tumour with a smooth surface covered with normal mucosa. The tumour was located on the anterior surface of duodenal bulb and had a wide base measuring 3.5 × 4 cm in size. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a submucosal polypoid mass located at the anterior surface of duodenal bulb. The endoscopic excision was tried but was not successful. The patient was operated and transduodenal polypectomy was done. The postoperative period was uneventful and the pathologic diagnosis was assessed as Brunner’s gland adenoma. During the follow-up period, the endoscopic examination was normal at 12th month postoperatively. BGA is a rare benign cause of anaemia that can be treated with excellent results

  3. Correlation between Blood Lead Levels and Anaemia in Commercial Enamel Paint Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazumdar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead causes acute, sub-acute or chronic poisoning through occupational exposure along with decrease in some trace elements like iron, whose absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination being affected. Iron deficiency is a serious problem especially in developing countries and lead toxicity can augment anaemia directly by decreasing absorption of Iron and also by inhibiting enzymes of heme synthesis. Aim and Objectives: To assess haematological indices and serum iron and ferritin levels in Enamel paint industry workers who are exposed to very high Lead levels due to their occupation, and determine iron deficiency anaemia. Materials and Methods: Blood lead concentration was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS method. Haematological tests were performed using cell counter to measure haemoglobin, red blood cell and white blood cell count, etc. Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were calculated. Serum ferritin and iron levels were assayed by chemilumenescence and spectrophotometric methods respectively. Results: All the parameters measured and calculated were found to be altered in paint workers as compared to healthy controls, with significant increase in blood lead level and decrease in the haematological as well as other analyte values. Conclusion: There seems to be a direct relationship between chronic lead exposure and the haematological disturbances, resulting in iron deficiency anaemia. Hence awareness about this association should be increased and protective measures should be implied accordingly.

  4. The effects of co-infection with human parvovirus B19 and Plasmodium falciparum on type and degree of anaemia in Ghanaian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwabena Obeng Duedu; Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe; Patrick Ferdinand Ayeh-Kumi; Raymond Bedu Affrim; Theophilus Adiku

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determin the extent to which parvovirus B19 (B19V) and co-infection of B19V and malaria contribute to risk of anaemia in children. Methods: B19V DNA and malaria parasites were screened for 234 children at the PML Children’s Hospital in Accra. The role of B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria in anaemia was evaluated by analysing full blood cell counts, malaria and B19V DNA results from these children. Results: The prevalence of B19V, malaria and co-infection with B19V and malaria was 4.7%, 41.9%and 2.6%, respectively. Malaria posed a greater risk in the development of mild anaemia compared to severe anaemia (OR=5.28 vrs 3.15) whereas B19V posed a higher risk in the development of severe anaemia compared to mild anaemia (OR=4.07 vrs 1.00) from a non-anaemic child. Persons with co-infection with B19V and malaria had 2.23 times the risk (95%CI=0.40-12.54) of developing severe anaemia should they already have a mild anaemia. The degree of anaemia was about three times affected by co-infection (Pillai’s trace=0.551, P=0.001) as was affected by malaria alone (Pillai’s trace=0.185, P=0.001). B19V alone did not significantly affect the development of anaemia in a non-anaemic child. Microcytic anaemia was associated with B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria more than normocytic normochromic anaemia. Conclusions: B19V was associated with malaria in cases of severe anaemia. The association posed a significant risk for exacerbation of anaemia in mild anaemic children. B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria may be associated with microcytic anaemia rather than normocytic normochromic anaemia as seen in cases of B19V infection among persons with red cell abnormalities.

  5. Coeliac disease as the cause of resistant sideropenic anaemia in children with Down's syndrome: Case report

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    Pavlović Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coeliac disease (CD is a permanent intolerance of gluten, i.e. of gliadin and related proteins found in the endosperm of wheat, rye and barley. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, autoimmune nature, predominantly asymptomatic or atypical clinical course, as well as by high prevalence in patients with Down's syndrome (DS and some other diseases. Outline of Cases. We are presenting a girl and two boys, aged 6-7 (X=6.33 years with DS and CD recognized under the feature of sideropenic anaemia resistant to oral therapy with iron. Beside mental retardation, low stature and the morphological features characteristic of DS, two patients had a congenital heart disease; one ventricular septal defect and the other atrioventricular canal. In two patients, trisomy on the 21st chromosome pair (trisomy 21 was disclosed in all cells, while one had a mosaic karyotype. All three patients had classical laboratory parameters of sideropenic anaemia: blood Hb 77-89 g/l (X=81.67, HCT 0.26-0.29% (X=0.28, MCV 69-80 fl (X=73, MCH 24.3-30 pg (X=26.77 and serum iron 2-5 μmol/L (X=4.0. Beside anaemia and in one patient a mild isolated hypertransaminasemia (AST 67 U/l, ALT 62 U/l, other indicators of CD were not registered in any of the children. In addition, in all three patients, we also detected an increased level of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (atTG of IgA class (45-88 U/l so that we performed endoscopic enterobiopsy in order to reliably confirm the diagnosis of CD. In all three patients, the pathohistological finding of the duodenal mucosa specimen showed mild to moderate destructive enteropathy associated with high intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, cryptic hyperplasia and lympho-plasmocytic infiltration of the stroma. In all three patients, the treatment with a strict gluten-free diet and iron therapy applied orally for 3-4 months resulted in blood count normalization and the correction of sideropenia. Serum level of the at

  6. Prevention of the recurrence of anaemia in Gambian children following discharge from hospital.

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    Kalifa A Bojang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic countries, children who have experienced an episode of severe anaemia are at increased risk of a recurrence of anaemia. There is a need to find ways of protecting these at risk children from malaria and chemoprevention offers a potential way of achieving this objective. METHODS: During the 2003 and 2004 malaria transmission seasons, 1200 Gambian children with moderate or severe anaemia (Hb concentration <7 g/dL were randomised to receive either monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP or placebo until the end of the malaria transmission season in which they were enrolled, in a double-blind trial. All study subjects were treated with oral iron for 28 days and morbidity was monitored through surveillance at health centres. The primary endpoint was the proportion of children with moderate or severe anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of clinical episodes of malaria during the surveillance period, outpatient attendances, the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly, nutritional status at the end of the malaria transmission season and compliance with the treatment regimen. RESULTS: The proportions of children with a Hb concentration of <7 g/dL at the end of the malaria transmission season were similar in the two study groups, 14/464 (3.0% in children who received at least one dose of SP and 16/471 (3.4% in those who received placebo, prevalence ratio 0.89 (0.44,1.8 P = 0.742. The protective efficacy of SP against episodes of clinical malaria was 53% (95% CI 37%, 65%. Treatment with SP was safe and well tolerated; no serious adverse events related to SP administration were observed. Mortality following discharge from hospital was low among children who received SP or placebo (6 in the SP group and 9 in the placebo group respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment with SP did not reduce the proportion of previously anaemic children with moderate or severe anaemia

  7. Anaemia among pregnant women at the booking clinic of a teaching hospital in south-western Nigeria

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    Okunade K.S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a global public health challenge. It is the commonest medical disorder of pregnancy and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in most developing countries. Aim: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy and to identify the confounding socio-demographic factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study designed to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at their booking antenatal visit in a teaching hospital in South-western Nigeria. Pregnant women were enrolled for the study by consecutive sampling method at their first antenatal visit and the packed cell volume (PCV was used to assess level of anaemia. Socio-demographic information was obtained from the case records of the enrolled women. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight (27.6% of the 500 enrolled women were found to be anaemic at the time of antenatal booking. Anaemia were more prevalent among primigravidae (33.9% than the multigravidae (25.3%, although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.079. Anaemia was higher among women with no formal education, those unemployed, single mothers and women with sickle cell traits. Conclusion: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a major health challenge in Nigeria with primigravidae identified as being those at most risk. So also are pregnant teenagers and women that book late for antenatal care (ANC. It is therefore important to educate women on early ANC booking and the need for compliance with prescribed medications in pregnancy.

  8. Parvovirus B19 infection and severe anaemia in Kenyan children: a retrospective case control study

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    Tuju James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During acute Human parvovirus B19 (B19 infection a transient reduction in blood haemoglobin concentration is induced, due to a 5-7 day cessation of red cell production. This can precipitate severe anaemia in subjects with a range of pre-existing conditions. Of the disease markers that occur during B19 infection, high IgM levels occur closest in time to the maximum reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Previous studies of the contribution of B19 to severe anaemia among young children in Africa have yielded varied results. This retrospective case/control study seeks to ascertain the proportion of severe anaemia cases precipitated by B19 among young children admitted to a Kenyan district hospital. Methods Archival blood samples from 264 children under 6 years with severe anaemia admitted to a Kenyan District Hospital, between 1999 and 2004, and 264 matched controls, were tested for B19 IgM by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay and 198 of these pairs were tested for B19 DNA by PCR. 536 samples were also tested for the presence of B19 IgG. Results 7 (2.7% cases and 0 (0% controls had high B19 IgM levels (Optical Density > 5 × cut-off value (McNemar's exact test p = 0.01563, indicating a significant association with severe anaemia. The majority of strongly IgM positive cases occurred in 2003. 10/264 (3.7% cases compared to 5/264 (1.9% controls tested positive for B19 IgM. This difference was not statistically significant, odds ratio (OR = 2.00 (CI95 [0.62, 6.06], McNemar's exact test p = 0.3018. There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the B19 IgG (35 (14.8% vs 32 (13.6%, OR = 1.103 (CI95 [0.66, 1.89], McNemar's exact test, p = 0.7982, or the detection of the B19 DNA (6 (3.0% vs 5 (2.5%, OR = 1.2 (CI95 [0.33, 4.01], McNemar's exact test p = 1. Conclusions High B19 IgM levels were significantly associated with severe anaemia, being found only among the cases. This suggests that 7/264 (2.7% of cases of severe

  9. Incidence of anaemia among the female tea garden workers in a tea plantation in upper Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Bani; Chakrabarti, Sila; Rudra, Tapas; Sengupta, Sarthak

    2012-02-01

    Nutritional anaemia is the most common type and cause of anaemia. Tea garden workers constitute approximately 1/5th of population in the state of Assam. Reports indicate higher prevalence of undernutrition in this population. The present study was designed to focus on the incidence of anaemia among the female tea garden workers and to examine the effect of iron with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in them. Two hundred and forty-four female tea garden workers who could be persuaded to participate in the study were sampled for haemoglobin typing by agarose gel electrophoresis (pH 8.9). Their haematological parameters were measured on automated cell counter to read Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC. BMI was calculated from weight/height in metre2. The study revealed 182 anaemic (11.0 g/dl were studied as controls. Level of haemoglobin was rechecked after 3 months by Sahli's method. Based on the size of red blood cells it was observed that the workers suffered from all three forms of anaemia viz, microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic. There was a significant rise in haemoglobin concentration when the anaemic individuals took iron with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplement for three consecutive months supported by two doses of anthelminthic drug. The present study showed that nutritional anaemia is a major problem in the female tea garden workers and arrangement of supplementation therapy is utmost necessary to improve their general condition and work efficiency. PMID:23029840

  10. Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children below five years of age in Cape Verde, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Rosa M L; Santos, Marta M A S; Baião, Mirian R; Luiz, Ronir R; da Veiga, Gloria V

    2014-12-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 chil- dren aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for chil- dren below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions. PMID:25895198

  11. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  12. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  13. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A; Elliott, Alison M

    2007-09-01

    It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43-4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90-3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447]. PMID:17555783

  14. Heartland Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  15. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta-Indonesia: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyawati, W.; Jans, S.; Bor, H.; Siswishanto, R.; Dillen, J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary

  16. Elevation of HbA1C in Non-diabetic Hypothyroid Individuals: Is Anaemia the Connecting Link? -A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Christy, Alap L.; Manjrekar, Poornima; Babu, Ruby P.; M.S., Rukmini; Hegde, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Studies have shown elevated HbA1C in non-diabetic hypothyroid patients. Hypothyroid patients often show anaemia as an associated feature which is an another condition showing falsely elevated A1C. Hence this study is aimed to investigate whether elevated A1C in hypothyroidism can be attributed to anaemia.

  17. Design of the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF) : a Phase III, anaemia correction, morbidity-mortality trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMurray, John J. V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Polu, Krishna R.; Solomon, Scott D.; Sun, Yan; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Wasserman, Scott M.; Young, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) and anaemia have greater functional impairment, worse symptoms, increased rates of hospital admission, and a higher risk of death, compared with non-anaemic HF patients. Whether correcting anaemia can improve outcomes is unknown. The Reduction of Events with Darbepoe

  18. Anaemia in chronic heart failure is not only related to impaired renal perfusion and blunted erythropoietin production, but to fluid retention as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Visser, Folkert W.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Smilde, Tom D. J.; Lipsic, Erik; Navis, Gerjan; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Anaemia is prevalent in the chronic heart failure (CHF) population, but its cause is often unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relation between anaemia, renal perfusion, erythropoietin production, and fluid retention in CHF patients. Methods and results We studied 97 patients wit

  19. Factors contributing to the development of anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: what about drug-resistant parasites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Ofori-Adjei, David;

    2006-01-01

    A major manifestation of complicated malaria especially among children is severe anaemia, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. Among other factors, suppression of the bone marrow's response to erythropoietin, which is rapidly reversed after successful treatment of the malaria, has been...... implicated in its pathogenesis. Since resolution of malaria restores erythropoiesis, we hypothesized that drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum would increase the risk of severe anaemia developing from initially uncomplicated malaria. Using both in vivo and in vitro drug-sensitivity tests we...... compared the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria between severe malarial anaemia SA and non-anaemic malaria NAM patients. Assessment of treatment outcome using the WHO in vivo criteria showed no significant difference in parasite resistance between the two groups. The mean parasite clearance time was also...

  20. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund;

    2016-01-01

    albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co...... reductions of 62.8 and 59.2% in Study Arm 1 from 24.2 to 9.0%, p0.05). Meanwhile, anaemia prevalence reduced significantly (p... by 38.4% (from 19.8 to 12.2%), 20.7% (from 26.6 to 21.1%), and 36.0% (from 28.3 to 18.1%) in Study Arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although the interventions had no significant effects on Hb levels, anaemia prevalence reduced insignificantly by 38.4 and 20.7% in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively...

  1. Nutritional anaemia in 11-year-old schoolchildren in the western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparelli, R D; van der Westhuyzen, J; Steyn, N P; Baynes, R D; MacFarlane, B J; Green, A; Bothwell, T H

    1988-04-16

    A nutritional anaemia survey was carried out on 610 11-year-old coloured, black and white schoolchildren in urban and rural communities in the western Cape. The mean (+/- 1 SD) haemoglobin concentration was 13.0 +/- 1.2 g/dl. The coloured and black subgroups considered together had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentration than the white subgroup (12.8 +/- 1.2 g/dl v. 13.4 +/- 1.0 g/dl) (F = 37.47; P less than 0.0001). The urban population as a whole had a significantly lower geometric mean (1 SD range) serum ferritin concentration than the rural population (25.6 (13.5-48.6) micrograms/l v. 34.1 (21.3-54.6) micrograms/l) (F = 42.94; P less than 0.0001). The lowest geometric mean serum ferritin values were found in the urban coloured (23.1 (11.5-46.4) micrograms/l) and urban black schoolchildren (23.7 (13.2-42.6) micrograms/l), with figures of less than 12 micrograms/l in 11.7% and 12.5% respectively. Although 28% of the children had red cell folate values below the recommended lower limit of normal (175 ng/ml), probability plot analysis of the data suggested that folate deficiency was not a major problem in the study population. The calculated daily iron and folate intakes were below the age-related recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all the subgroups, yet anaemia was relatively uncommon. These findings suggest that the RDA values are too high. Overall the prevalence of nutritional anaemia was low and only the urban coloured subgroup showed significant second populations with low haemoglobin and serum ferritin measurements.

  2. Hyperglycaemic Environment: Contribution to the Anaemia Associated with Diabetes Mellitus in Rats Experimentally Induced with Alloxan

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    Oseni Bashiru Shola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycaemia presents with various complications amongst which anaemia is common particularly in those with overt nephropathy or renal impairment. The present study has examined the contribution of the hyperglycaemic environment in diabetic rats to the anaemia associated with diabetes mellitus. Method. Sixty male albino rats weighing 175–250 g were selected for this study and divided equally into control and test groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced with 170 kgbwt−1 alloxan intraperitoneally in the test group while control group received sterile normal saline. Blood samples obtained from the control and test rats were assayed for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, reticulocyte count, glucose, plasma haemoglobin, potassium, and bilirubin. Result. Significant reduction (P<0.01 in PCV (24.40±3.87 versus 40.45±3.93 and haemoglobin (7.81±1.45 versus 13.39±0.40 with significant increase (P<0.01 in reticulocyte count (12.4±1.87 versus 3.69±0.47, plasma haemoglobin (67.50±10.85 versus 34.20±3.83, and potassium (7.04±0.75 versus 4.52±0.63 was obtained in the test while plasma bilirubin showed nonsignificant increase (0.41±0.04 versus 0.24±0.06. Conclusion. The increased plasma haemoglobin and potassium levels indicate an intravascular haemolytic event while the nonsignificant increased bilirubin showed extravascular haemolysis. These play contributory roles in the anaemia associated with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Increased microerythrocyte count in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia contributes to protection against severe malarial anaemia.

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    Freya J I Fowkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heritable haemoglobinopathy alpha(+-thalassaemia is caused by the reduced synthesis of alpha-globin chains that form part of normal adult haemoglobin (Hb. Individuals homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia have microcytosis and an increased erythrocyte count. Alpha(+-thalassaemia homozygosity confers considerable protection against severe malaria, including severe malarial anaemia (SMA (Hb concentration 1.1 x 10(12/l as a result of the reduced mean cell Hb in homozygous alpha(+-thalassaemia. In addition, children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia require a 10% greater reduction in erythrocyte count than children of normal genotype (p = 0.02 for Hb concentration to fall to 50 g/l, the cutoff for SMA. We estimated that the haematological profile in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia reduces the risk of SMA during acute malaria compared to children of normal genotype (relative risk 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-1.12, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: The increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis in children homozygous for alpha(+-thalassaemia may contribute substantially to their protection against SMA. A lower concentration of Hb per erythrocyte and a larger population of erythrocytes may be a biologically advantageous strategy against the significant reduction in erythrocyte count that occurs during acute infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This haematological profile may reduce the risk of anaemia by other Plasmodium species, as well as other causes of anaemia. Other host polymorphisms that induce an increased erythrocyte count and microcytosis may confer a similar advantage.

  4. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Getachew Million

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected from each participant. A single stool sample was also collected from each selected pregnant woman. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Plasmodium infection prevalence and intensity were assessed with thin and thick blood film examination. Results Of the total 388 study participants, 209 (53.9% were anaemic. Pregnant woman who were rural residents (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.62, 95% C.I: 1.02-2.62, P= 0.042, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs during the study period (AOR = 2.84, 95% C.I: 1.33-6.05, p = 0.007, those who were Plasmodium malaria infected (AOR = 11.19, 95% C.I: 3.31-37.7, p= 0.01 and those with Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH infections (AOR=1.82, 95% C.I: 1.16-2.87, p=0.001 had higher odds of being anaemic than those who were urban residents, using ITNs, free of Plasmodium malaria and Soil transmitted helminth infection, respectively. There was a significant correlation between increasing hookworm parasite load (r = −.110, PAscaris lumbricoides (r = −.122, P Trichuris trichiura (r = −.025, P Conclusion The high prevalence of anaemia indicates it is currently a serious health problem of pregnant women living in Gilgel Gibe Dam area. Plasmodium malaria and soil transmitted helminth infections were significantly associated with anaemia. Antenatal care

  5. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy

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    Alka Kriplani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001 after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l (P<0.001. Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%.Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its

  6. Aplastic anaemia preceding acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an adult with isolated deletion of chromosome 9q.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2008-12-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) can precede acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in 2% of children but this is rarely reported to occur in adults. A 21-year-old male presented with bone marrow failure and bone marrow biopsy showed a profoundly hypocellular marrow. He recovered spontaneously but represented 2 months later when he was diagnosed with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Chromosomal examination revealed 46,XY,del(9)(q13q34). To the best of our knowledge this is the first case to be reported of aplasia preceding ALL with 9q minus as the sole chromosomal abnormality.

  7. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Mohammad; Shakeel, Shayan; Kumari, Shweta; Bharti, Aakanksha; Zahid, Faisal; Anwar, Shadab; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Islam, Mazahirul; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Lata, Sneh; Ali, Vahab; Adak, Tridibes; Das, Pradeep; Raziuddin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85%) at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU), whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome. PMID:26783526

  8. Anaemia, its determinants and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls living in Dibrugarh district of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%.  History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was

  9. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Mohammad; Shakeel, Shayan; Kumari, Shweta; Bharti, Aakanksha; Zahid, Faisal; Anwar, Shadab; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Islam, Mazahirul; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Lata, Sneh; Ali, Vahab; Adak, Tridibes; Das, Pradeep; Raziuddin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85%) at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU), whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome. PMID:26783526

  10. Prevalence of Malaria Infection and Risk Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women in Semiurban Community of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating burden, pathogenesis, and clinical sequel of malaria during pregnancy have combinatorial adverse impact on both mother and foetus that further perplexed the situation of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This prompted us to evaluate the status of population at risk of MIP in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Cross-sectional study was conducted over a year at Sadar Hospital, Hazaribag. Malaria was screened using blood smear and/or RDT. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration. Pretested questionnaires were used to gather sociodemographic, clinical, and obstetrical data. The prevalence of MIP was 5.4% and 4.3% at ANC and DU, and 13.2% malaria was in women without pregnancy. Interestingly, majority were asymptomatically infected with P. vivax (over 85% at ANC and DU. Peripheral parasitemia was significantly associated with fever within past week, rural origin of subjects, and first/second pregnancies in multivariate analysis, with the highest risk factor associated with fever followed by rural residence. Strikingly in cohort, anaemia was prevalent in 86% at ANC as compared to 72% at DU, whereas severe anaemia was 13.6% and 7.8% at ANC and DU. Even more anaemia prevalence was observed in MIP group (88% and 89% at ANC and DU, whereas severe anaemia was 23% and 21%, respectively. In view of observed impact of anaemia, parasitemia and asymptomatic infection of P. vivax during pregnancy and delivery suggest prompt diagnosis regardless of symptoms and comprehensive drug regime should be offered to pregnant women in association with existing measures in clinical spectrum of MIP, delivery, and its outcome.

  11. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants' Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and anaemia of daily iron-folic acid (IFA, twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam.Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (<20 weeks gestation from 50 randomly-selected communes participated, and in the CRT 1,258 pregnant women (<16 weeks gestation in 104 communes were allocated randomly to trial arms. The main outcome was six-month-old infant Hb concentration. Baseline data included women's socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, Hb and serum ferritin. Mean differences in infant Hb and odds ratios of infant anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18; weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12 and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27 were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43, weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54 and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48 groups than in the OS.Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants

  12. Elevated levels of nitric oxide and low levels of haptoglobin are associated with severe malarial anaemia in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, Ben; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Akanmori, Bartholomew D;

    2002-01-01

    Severe malarial anaemia (SA) is a major complication of malaria and an important cause of child mortality and morbidity. However, the pathogenesis behind SA is poorly understood. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to play a protective role against clinical malaria but is also suggested to have a pathogenic...... was there any correlation between parasitaemias and neopterin levels. The low haptoglobin and high levels of NO in this SA group may contribute to haemolysis. Taken together our results support the hypothesis that immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction is involved in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia....

  13. A phase III randomized trial comparing glucocorticoid monotherapy versus glucocorticoid and rituximab in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgens, Henrik; Frederiksen, Henrik; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone and ritu......The impact of first-line treatment with the anti-CD 20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with warm-antibody reactive autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA) is unknown. We report the first randomized study of 64 patients with newly diagnosed WAIHA who received prednisolone...

  14. Cormic Index Profile of Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi Akodu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell disorders are known to have a negative effect on linear growth. This could potentially affect proportional growth and, hence, Cormic Index. Objective. To determine the Cormic Index in the sickle cell anaemia population in Lagos. Methodology. A consecutive sample of 100 children with haemoglobin genotype SS, aged eight months to 15 years, and 100 age and sex matched controls (haemoglobin genotype AA was studied. Sitting height (upper segment and full length or height were measured. Sitting height was then expressed as a percentage of full length/height (Cormic Index. Results. The mean Cormic Index decreased with age among primary subjects (SS and AA controls. The overall mean Cormic Index among primary subjects was comparable to that of controls (55.0±4.6% versus 54.5±5.2%; 54.8±4.5% versus 53.6±4.9% in boys and girls, respectively. In comparison with AA controls, female children with sickle cell anaemia who were older than 10 years had a significantly lower mean Cormic Index. Conclusion. There was a significant negative relationship between Cormic Index and height in subjects and controls irrespective of gender. Similarly, a significant negative correlation existed between age, sitting height, subischial leg length, weight, and Cormic Index in both subjects and controls.

  15. Rare ileal localisation of angiolipoma presenting as chronic haemorrhage and severe anaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Volpe Nicola

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Angiolipomas are frequently observed benign tumours. They have a typical vascular component and are often located in subcutaneous tissues, and more rarely, in the gastrointestinal tract. Case presentation We report an uncommon case of an angiolipoma found in the lower portion of the small bowel of an 80-year-old man who was undergoing evaluation for chronic anaemia. A standardised diagnostic pathway was followed. Endoscopic and radiological findings were negative. The diagnosis was finally established with the aid of capsule endoscopy. The case we report is the first in the literature of an angiolipoma without specific painful symptoms. In fact, the patient did not complain of abdominal pain or alvus changes, and abdominal examination did not suggest an expansive process. The endoscopic study performed with the capsule identified the lesion as the cause of the ingravescent anaemia. Intra-operative histological examination of the lesion made it possible to avoid a major surgical procedure and assured a short postoperative course for the patient. Conclusion This report focuses on the importance of correct pre- and/or intra-operative histological diagnosis in order to offer the best therapeutic choice. An angiolipoma was suspected in this case, even though they are rarely located in the ileum.

  16. Oxpentifylline versus placebo in the treatment of erythropoietin-resistant anaemia: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassett Robert G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main hypothesis of this study is that Oxpentifylline administration will effectively treat erythropoietin- or darbepoietin-resistant anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients. Methods/design Inclusion criteria are adult patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (including dialysis patients with significant anaemia (haemoglobin ≤ 110 g/L for at least 3 months for which there is no clear identifiable cause and that is unresponsive to large doses of either erythropoietin (≥ 200 IU/kg/week or darbepoetin (≥ 1 μg/kg/week. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either placebo (1 tablet daily or oxpentifylline (400 mg daily per os for a period of 4 months. During this 4 month study period, haemoglobin measurements will be performed monthly. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in haemoglobin level between the 2 groups at the end of the 4 month study period, adjusted for baseline values. Secondary outcome measures will include erythropoiesis stimulating agent dosage, Key's index (erythropoiesis stimulating agent dosage divided by haemoglobin concentration, and blood transfusion requirement. Discussion This investigator-initiated multicentre study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists and their chronic kidney disease patients determine whether oxpentifylline represents a safe and effective strategy for treating erythropoiesis stimulating agent resistance in chronic kidney disease. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12608000199314.

  17. Drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Hildebrandt, Martin; Späth-Schwalbe, Ernst; Grüneisen, Andreas; Mayer, Beate; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kurtal, Hanife

    2011-09-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a rare but serious condition. This study investigated the possibility of drug aetiology of immune haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in 134 patients with new onset of IHA who were identified in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study between 2000 and 2009. Single drugs related to IHA in three or more patients and assessed more than once as a certain or probable cause of IHA in a standardized causality assessment included diclofenac, fludarabine, oxaliplatin, ceftriaxone and piperacillin. In a case-control study including all 124 IHA cases developed in outpatient care and 731 controls, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) were observed for beta-lactam antibiotics (OR=8·8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3·2-25·2), cotrimoxazole (OR=6·5; CI 1·1-37·9), ciprofloxacin (OR=6·9, CI 1·3-38·5), fludarabine (OR=22·2; CI: 2·8-454·5) and lorazepam (OR=5·3; CI: 1·2-21·2). Excluding new onset cases with a chronic IHA disease course, an increased risk became also apparent for diclofenac with an OR of 3·1 (CI 1·3-7·0). This is the first case-control study investigating drugs as risk factors for IHA. It corroborates an increased risk for several drugs that have been implicated as a cause of IHA in the standardized causality assessment of individual cases. PMID:21749359

  18. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency--a cause of anaemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna

    2003-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is one of the most important cytoprotective enzymes for oxidative stress. The WHO classification of G6PD deficiency, based on enzyme activity and clinical significance, distinguishes five variants. Chronic haemolytic process is rare and the main factors causing haemolysis are: infections, substances derived from plants, drugs with high oxidation-reduction potential, stress, ketoacidosis in diabetes and surgery operations. We report two cases of women belonging to the class 3 of the WHO classification in whom haemolysis occured during pregnancy. One of the patients developed two incidents of haemolytic anaemia. The cause of the first episode, nine months before pregnancy, was probably infection of the urinary tract caused by Escherichia coli, but the influence of the drugs also cannot be excluded. Because of the genetic background of this enzymopathy we also examined members of the patients, families but did not find any evidence of G6PD deficiency among them. The reported cases indicate that haemolytic anaemia caused by G6PD deficiency may occur during pregnancy what can lead to many not only haematological but also serious obstetrical complications such as infertility, fetus malformations and even its death. We also draw attention to several difficulties in diagnosing G6PD deficiency especially during haemolysis. PMID:16737003

  19. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  20. West Syndrome in an Infant with Vitamin B[subscript 12] Deficiency in the Absence of Macrocytic Anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Ilknur; Alehan, Fusun; Gumus, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits, including macrocytic anaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor, and seizures. The diagnosis of vitamin B[subscript 12] deficiency can be difficult when the typical macrocytic…

  1. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Teske, E.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Day, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Methods Canine (n = 247) and feline (n = 74) blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories

  2. Intermittent administration of iron and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control anaemia in Kenyan children : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Nzyuko, S.M.; Vogel, de S.; Valk, van der R.; Wanga, M.A.; Kuijsten, A.; Veenemans, J.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background Iron supplementation is recommended for children at high risk of anaemia, but its benefits may not outweigh the associated risk of malaria in areas of seasonal transmission. We investigated the effect on haemoglobin concentrations of intermittent administration of iron supplements and sul

  3. A case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D E; Braselton, W E; Taylor, R A; Morgan, T; Hesky, R B

    2002-09-01

    A 38-day-old male warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 %) presented to the Denver Zoological Gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. The piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (< 8.96 micromol/l). Iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and denied access to soil. Fifteen captive warthogs were subsequently evaluated for serum soluble iron content (mean = 21.62 +/- 4.36 micromol/l as well as 5 neonatal warthog piglets that required hand-rearing. Only 1 of 5 neonatal warthog piglets had measurable serum soluble iron (9.50 micromol/l). These data suggest that warthogs are similar to domestic swine and are born with low iron stores. Some form of iron supplementation should be considered for captive neonatal warthog piglets, especially if they are reared on concrete. PMID:12515305

  4. Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Collins, Gary;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional st......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional study. METHODS: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those...... with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV 100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir...

  5. Anaemia in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in South Africa: predictive/prognostic value, aetiologies and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Kerkhoff

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The clinical presentation in such patients is often so non-specific that much tuberculosis remains unsuspected, undiagnosed and is therefore untreated prior to death. Anaemia is one of t

  6. Sustained postoperative anaemia is associated with an impaired outcome after coronary artery bypass graft surgery : insights from the IMAGINE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Tijssen, Jan G.; Warnica, Wayne J.; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between sustained postoperative anaemia and outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design Retrospective analysis of the IMAGINE trial, which tested the effect of the ACE inhibitor quinapril on cardiovascular events after CABG. Setting Thor

  7. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn;

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...

  8. Immune haemolytic anaemia associated with ampicillin dependent warm antibodies and high titre cold agglutinins in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Sørensen, P G

    1984-01-01

    A case of severe immune haemolytic anaemia in a 54-year-old man suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia is presented. A strongly positive direct Coombs test with erythrocyte bound IgG, C3d and C4 was demonstrated during the haemolytic process. Further, serologic investigations revealed ampicillin...

  9. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger C K; Ndiaye, Magatte; Hansson, Helle Holm;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alph...

  10. THE STUDY OF ANAEMIA & ITS RELATED SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL COMMUNITY OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is one of India’s major public health problems and is a major factor responsible for low birth weight. One fifth of the maternal deaths occurred worldwide due to anemia . OBJECTIVES: To find out prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and it s association with socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING : The study was conducted in village Khera at RHTC , Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre , G h aziabad. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study was carried from Oct 2012 to June 2013. A total of 321 pregnant women with gestational period between 12 to 20 weeks were registered. H a emoglobin was estimated and peripheral smear examination was carried out. Statistical Analysis: Chi - Squar e test. RESULTS: A high prevalence of anaemia (79.75% was observed in pregnant women. Majority of the primipara were moderately anaemic (58.38% and were less than 20 years of age. 37% of multipara pregnant women were severely anaemic . Occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be inversely proportional to the socioeconomic class. Statistic ally significant association (P< 0.05 were found amongst anaemic pregnant women with their age , parity and socioeconomic class.

  11. Nutrición y anemias en pacientes graves Nutrition and anaemias in critical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gallardo

    2010-02-01

    postoperados y sépticos, en cuanto a la cifra de hemoglobina, hierro, linfocitos totales, transferrina y albúmina. Se hizo una correlación estadística entre la sideremia y la albúmina, existiendo significación estadística. (Coef Rho de Spearman 0,277. Conclusión: La valoración de la anemia y de la situación nutricional y el tratamiento ferroterapico, como inmunonutriente, pudiera ser beneficioso para la integridad del sistema inmune y su capacidad de defensa ante las agresiones, en pacientes graves ingresados en la UCI.Introduction: We made a clinical study, about nutrition in seriously ill patients, which includes a typical heterogeneous group of critical ill patients, with/without anaemia's, that have been admitted to Intensive Care Unit, ICU. It is difficult to individualize and to generalize the relative importance of all the factors that can contribute to these anaemia's in the admission to the Unit, including nutritional deficiencies, inflammatory alterations, the immune response to aggressions, inmunitary modifications and the complex relations existing between these clinic processes. Objective: Indirect valuation of the nutritional situation and anaemia's, in a typical heterogeneous group of critical ill patients. Method/Results: We studied 202 patients admitted to ICU, of varied and heterogeneous origin, classifying them in 3 groups: control, post surgery and septic group's, becoming the indirect valuation of the nutritional situation on the basis of: Global Subjective Valuation, (VGS and the nutritional analytical determinations of total lymphocytes, albumin, and transferrin. Also we made hemogram and determinations of sideremia and ferritinemia to all of them. In 57% of the patients, we observed levels haemoglobin 12.5 g/dl. Regarding the nutritional prognoses indicators, (VGS + nutritional profile, in the control group's, they did not present anaemia nor analytical clinical under nourishment, in the post surgery group's, anaemia and slight under

  12. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

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    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  13. A 3-marker index improves the identification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia.

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    Lucile Mercadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron disorders are common and complex in chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to determine whether a 3-marker index would improve the classification of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. METHODS: We studied the association between Hb level and iron indexes combining 2 or 3 of the following markers: serum ferritin (<40 ng/mL, transferrin saturation (TSAT<20% and total iron binding capacity (TIBC<50 µmol/L in 1011 outpatients with non-dialysis CKD participating in the Nephrotest study. All had glomerular filtration rates measured (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance; 199 also had hepcidin measures. RESULTS: The TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index explained Hb variation better than indexes combining TSAT-TIBC or ferritin-TSAT. It showed hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional iron deficiency (ID to be more common than either absolute or inflammatory ID: 20%, 19%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. Hb was lower in all abnormal, compared with normal, iron profiles, and decreased more when mGFR was below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (interaction p<0.0001. In patients with mGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2, the Hb decreases associated with hypotransferrinaemia, non-inflammatory functional ID, and absolute ID were 0.83±0.16 g/dL, 0.51±0.18 and 0.89±0.29, respectively. Compared with normal iron profiles, hepcidin was severely depressed in absolute ID but higher in hypotransferrinaemia. CONCLUSIONS: The combined TSAT-TIBC-ferritin index identifies hypotransferrinaemia and non-inflammatory functional ID as the major mechanisms of iron disorders in CKD anaemia. Both disorders were associated with a greater decrease in Hb when mGFR was <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2. Taking these iron profiles into account may be useful in stratifying patients in clinical trials of CKD anaemia and might improve the management of iron therapy.

  14. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for correction of post-transplant anaemia in renal transplant patients

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    Mudge David W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-transplant anaemia remains a common problem after kidney transplantation, with an incidence ranging from nearly 80% at day 0 to about 25% at 1 year. It has been associated with poor graft outcome, and recently has also been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Our transplant unit routinely administers oral iron supplements to renal transplant recipients but this is frequently accompanied by side effects, mainly gastrointestinal intolerance. Intravenous iron is frequently administered to dialysis patients and we sought to investigate this mode of administration in transplant recipients after noticing less anaemia in several patients who had received intravenous iron just prior to being called in for transplantation. Methods This study is a single-centre, prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled trial of oral versus intravenous iron supplements in renal transplant recipients and aims to recruit approximately 100 patients over a 12-month period. Patients will be randomised to receive a single dose of 500 mg iron polymaltose (intravenous iron group or 2 ferrous sulphate slow-release tablets daily (oral iron group. The primary outcome is time to normalisation of haemoglobin post-transplant. Prospective power calculations have indicated that a minimum of 48 patients in each group would have to be followed up for 3 months in order to have a 90% probability of detecting a halving of the time to correction of haemoglobin levels to ≥110 g/l in iron-treated patients, assuming an α of 0.05. All eligible adult patients undergoing renal transplantation at the Princess Alexandra Hospital will be offered participation in the trial. Exclusion criteria will include iron overload (transferrin saturation >50% or ferritin >800 μg/l, or previous intolerance of either oral or intravenous iron supplements. Discussion If the trial shows a reduction in the time to correction of anaemia with intravenous iron or less side

  15. Anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with prostate cancer and bone metastases

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    Pawinski Adam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and prognostic impact of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with bone metastases (BM from prostate cancer. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 51 consecutive patients treated at a community hospital. Twenty-nine patients (57% received taxotere after diagnosis of BM. Results Haemoglobin (Hb ≤ 12.0 g/dL at BM detection was associated with shorter overall survival. During follow-up, 25 patients (49% experienced episodes with Hb 9/L. All of these had previously received blood transfusion. Median interval from Hb 9/L was 2.5 months. Survival after thrombocytopenia was short (3 weeks to 4 months. Haematuria and subdural haematoma were among the causes of death. Conclusions We found high rates of significant bone marrow failure in treatment-refractory patients. Both Hb 9/L predict for unfavourable survival.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among pregnant women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). There were no associations found between being infected in pregnancy and anaemia. PMID:26288929

  17. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  18. The Iron Status of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

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    Musa A. Sani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is one of the commonest genetic disorders in the world. It is characterized by anaemia, periodic attacks of thrombotic pain, and chronic systemic organ damage. Recent studies have suggested that individuals with SCA especially from developing countries are more likely to be iron deficient rather than have iron overload. The study aims to determine the iron status of SCA patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 45 SCA patients in steady state and 45 non-SCA controls was undertaken. FBC, blood film, sFC, sTfR, and sTfR/log sFC index were done on all subjects. Results. The mean patients’ serum ferritin (589.33 ± 427.61 ng/mL was significantly higher than the mean serum ferritin of the controls (184.53 ± 119.74 ng/mL. The mean serum transferrin receptor of the patients (4.24 ± 0.17 μg/mL was higher than that of the controls (3.96 ± 0.17 μg/mL (p=0.290. The mean serum transferrin receptor (sTfR/log serum ferritin index of the patients (1.65 ± 0.27 μg/mL was significantly lower than that of the control (1.82 ± 0.18 μg/mL (p=0.031. Conclusion. Iron deficiency is uncommon in SCA patients and periodic monitoring of the haematological, biochemical, and clinical features for iron status in SCA patients is advised.

  19. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Nigerian sickle cell anaemia children patients

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    Antonella Isgro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA remains associated with high risks of morbidity and early death. Children with SCA are at high risk for ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attacks, secondary to intracranial arteriopathy involving carotid and cerebral arteries. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative treatment for SCA. We report our experience with transplantation in a group of patients with the Black African variant of SCA. Patients and Methods: This study included 31 consecutive SCA patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA-identical sibling donors between 2010 and 2014 following a myeloablative-conditioning regimen. Results: The median patient age was 10 years (range 2-17 years. Before transplantation, 14 patients had recurrent, painful, vaso-occlusive crisis; ten patients had recurrent painful crisis in association with acute chest syndrome; three patients experienced ischaemic stroke and recurrent vaso-occlusive crisis; two patients experienced ischaemic stroke; one patient exhibited leukocytosis; and one patient exhibited priapism. Of the 31 patients, 28 survived without sickle cell disease, with Lansky/Karnofsky scores of 100. All surviving patients remained free of any SCA-related events after transplantation. Conclusion: The protocols used for the preparation to the transplant in thalassaemia are very effective also in the other severe haemoglobinopathy as in the sickle cell anaemia with 90% disease free survival. Today, if a SCA patient has a HLA identical family member, the cellular gene therapy through the transplantation of the allogeneic haemopoietic cell should be performed. Tomorrow, hopefully, the autologous genetically corrected stem cell will break down the wall of the immunological incompatibility.

  20. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  1. Defective lipid metabolism in sickle cell anaemia subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis

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    Kehinde Sola Akinlade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal lipid homeostasis has been reported in sickle cell anaemia (SCA as well as in other haematological disorders. However, there is little information on the lipid profile of SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC. This study determined the lipid profile of adult SCA subjects in VOC and in steady state (SSCA. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight (58 adults with HbSS (30 in steady state and 28 in vaso-occlusive crisis and 24 age-matched healthy individuals with HbAA genotype were recruited into this study. Standard methods were used for the determination of blood pressure (BP, packed cell volume (PCV, total white blood cell count (WBC and haemoglobin phenotype. After an overnight fast, 5 ml of venous blood was obtained from each SSCA and the controls while samples were collected upon admission in the VOC group. Plasma lipid profile was determined using enzymatic method. Differences between two groups were determined using independent Student′s t-test or Man-Whitney U as appropriate. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Plasma total cholesterol (TC and high density lipoprotein (HDL were significantly lower while the ratio of triglyceride (TG to HDL (TG/HDL was significantly higher in SSCA compared with the controls. Low density lipoprotein (LDL and TC were significantly lower in SCA subjects in VOC compared with controls. However, TC, TG, LDL and TG/HDL were significantly lower while HDL was significantly higher in VOC compared with SSCA. Conclusion: Sickle cell anaemia subjects have defective fasting lipid metabolism which becomes pronounced with VOC.

  2. Photoscanning of the Spleen Using Heat-Treated Cr51-Labelled Erythrocytes in Congenital Haemolytic Anaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delineation of the spleen by photoscanning after the intravenous injection of heat-treated Cr51-labelled erythrocytes is valuable when investigating congenital haemolytic anaemias, especially thalassaemia, a disease which is recognized as one of the most important public health problems in Greece. Heat-treated Cr51-labelled erythrocytes were prepared as follows: blood was taken from the subject by venepuncture and delivered into a sterile bottle containing acid-citrate-dextrose. The red cells were separated by centrifugation and the plasma discarded. 50 - 150 μc Cr51-chromate was added to the red cells and the mixture allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature. The labelled cells were washed once with saline and re-suspended in saline. The suspension was heated at 49.5°C for one hour. The heated cells were washed once with saline and re-suspended in saline. The suspension was then injected intravenously into the subject. Scanning was performed one hour later. Cases of thalassaemia major, sickle cell haemoglobin/thalassaemia and thalassaemia trait have been investigated by this method. All the cases studied, with the exception of one carrier of thalassaemia trait, whose spleen was not palpable, showed varying degrees of splenomegaly. The size and configuration of the spleen could be well demonstrated. A constant finding in spleen scans on patients with congenital haemolytic anaemia, not observed in scans on normal subjects, was the presence of regions of lower average radioactivity throughout the organ. The interpretation of this finding is discussed. (author)

  3. Does recombinant human erythropoietin accelerate correction of post-ulcer-bleeding anaemia? A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Dimitrios Polymeros; Thomas Pagonis; Konstantinos Triantafyllou; Gregorios Paspatis; Maria Hatziargiriou; Sotirios A.Raptis

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Anaemia caused by acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is treated with blood transfusion or iron, but patients usually face a two-month recovery period from posthaemorrhage anaemia. This prospective, randomised, open,pilot study was designed to investigate whether recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin) therapy accelerate haematocrit increase in the post-bleeding recovery period.METHODS: We studied hospitalised patients admitted because of acute ulcer bleeding or haemorrhagic gastritis,who had a haematocrit of 27-33% and did not receive blood transfusions. One day after the endoscopic confirmation of cessation of bleeding, they were randomised either to erythropoietin (20 000 IU Epoetin alfa subcutaneously, on days 0, 4 and 6) plus iron (100 mg im, on days 1- 6, (G1) or iron only (G2). Haematocrit was measured on days 0, 6, 14,30, 45, and 60, respectively.RESULTS: One patient from G1 and two from G2 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, 14 and 13 patients from G1 and G2respectively were analysed. Demographic characteristics, serum iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, reticulocytes, and haematocrit were not significantly different at entry to the study.Median reticulocyte counts were significantly different between groups on day six (G1: 4.0, 3.0-6.4 vsG2: 3.5, 2.1-4.4%,P=0.03) and median haematocrit on day fourteen [G1: 35.9,30.7-41.0 vsG2: 32.5, 29.5-37.0% (median, range), P=0.04].CONCLUSION: Erythropoietin administration significantly accelerates correction of anemia after acute ulcer bleeding.The haematocrit gain is equivalent to one unit of transfused blood two weeks after the bleeding episode.

  4. Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Erdős, András; Hajtós, István; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection HUNGARY (Hornok, Sandor) HUNGARY Received: 2008-08-03 Revised: 2008-10-27 Accepted: 2008-10-29

  5. DETECTION OF A RARE BLOOD GROUP “BOMBAY (OH PHENOTYPE” IN A POST CAESAREAN PREGNANCY WITH ANAEMIA - A RARE CASE REPORT FROM EASTERN INDIA

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    Anindya Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Bombay blood group is a very rare blood group discovered almost 60 years back. We report here, a high risk case of Post Caesarean pregnancy with anaemia with Bombay Blood Group

  6. Treatment practice for IBD-associated anaemia remains out of tune with recommendations - A two year follow-up survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Jürgen; Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar;

    Background: In 2009, a survey on anaemia management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) revealed that treatment practice is not in line with treatment recommendations. Despite a high prevalence of severe anaemia and absolute iron deficiency, most patients received oral instead...... of intravenous (i.v.) iron. Since additional data on effective correction of anaemia with i.v. iron emerged in the meantime (FERGIcor), a new survey was performed in 2011 to evaluate whether treatment practice changed. Methods: Gastroenterologists in France, Germany, Spain, UK and Switzerland completed...... questionnaires (Jun-Aug 2011) on patient demographics, blood tests at diagnosis and therapies for the last five IBD patients treated for anaemia within six months. Results are totals over all patients and ranges across countries. Results: 142 gastroenterologists (97 hospital-based only) reported 710 cases of IBD...

  7. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  8. Relationship of anaemia and morbidities among children aged 5-14 years in a resettlement area, Delhi

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    Pankaj Motilal Kasdekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Partnership for Child Development (1998, “The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149- 158.World Health Organization. Anaemia. WHO (2010.World Health Organization (WHO. WHO global database on anaemia: Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. Ge¬neva: WHO, 2008a. [Cited 2014 Aug 24]. Available from: URL: http://www.who. int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/en/index. htmlWorld Health Organization (WHO. Health in Asia and the Pacific: Reproductive health, child and adolescent health, nutrition, and health for older persons. Geneva: WHO, 2008b. [Cited 2014 Jul 6]. Available from: URL: http://www.wpro.who.int/publica-tions/Health+in+Asia+and+the+Pacific. Html. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 (2005-06, Nutrition in India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India,World Health Organisation. Criteria Anaemia 1985; WHO.World Bank.Rema N, Vasanthamani G. Prevalence of nutritional and lifestyle disorders among school going children in urban and rural areas of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu: Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2011; Vol. 4 (2.Bhoite R, et al. Magnitude of malnutrition and Iron deficiency anaemia among rural school children: Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2003; Vol 2(2: 354-361.Handa R, Ahamad F, Prasad R, “Assessment of nutritional status of 7-10    Years School going children of Allahabad District”. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 2008; 3(3:109-115.Verma A, et al. Factors influencing anaemia among girls of school going age (6-18 years from the slums of Ahmedabad city. IJCM 2004; Vol 29 (1.Hasan I, Zulkifle M, A study of malnutrition in government school children in the field area of azad nagar Bangalore, India. (MD thesis.2010.Dept. of preventive and social medicine; National Institute of Unani Medicine.Ananthakrishnan S, Pani SP, Nalini P. A comprehensive study of morbidity in school age children. Indian

  9. Spur cell anaemia and hepatic iron stores in patients with alcoholic liver disease undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoe, A; Kerlin, P; Steadman, C; Clouston, A; Jones, D.; Powell, L; Jazwinska, E; Lynch, S; Strong, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) histological examination of explant livers from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) sometimes shows extensive iron deposits in a distribution suggestive of homozygous haemochromatosis.
AIMS—To use haemochromatosis gene (HFE) assays to distinguish between ALD with notable siderosis and hereditary haemochromatosis. To evaluate the possible influence of spur cell haemolytic anaemia on hepatic iron loading.
PATIENTS—Thirty seven ...

  10. Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian; Zheng, Cong; Xiao, Qiang; Gong, Sugang; Zhao, Qinhua; Wang, Lan; He, Jing; Yang, Wenlan; Shi, Xue; Sun, Xingguo; Liu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Setting The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base with...

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  12. Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women at Booking in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

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    Olujimi A. Olatunbosun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia with an estimated prevalence of 35–75% among pregnant women is a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of anaemia, associated sociodemographic factors and red cell morphological pattern among pregnant women during booking at the University Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional analytical study of 400 women at the booking clinic over a 16-week period. The packed cell volume and red cell morphology of each pregnant woman were determined. Their biodata, obstetric and medical histories, and results of other routine investigations were obtained with questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS Package version 17.0. Results. The mean packed cell volume was 31.8% ±3.2 and 54.5% of the women were anaemic. The commonest blood picture was microcytic hypochromia and normocytic hypochromia suggesting iron deficiency anaemia. Anaemia was significantly and independently related to a history of fever in the index pregnancy (OR=0.4; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.3–0.7, HIV positive status (OR=0.2; P=0.01; 95% CI=0.1–0.6, and low social class (OR=0.3; P=0.00; 95% CI=0.2–0.7. Conclusion. Women need to be economically empowered and every pregnant woman should be encouraged to obtain antenatal care, where haematinics supplementation can be given and appropriate investigations and treatment of causes of fever and management of HIV can be instituted.

  13. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  14. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-12-31

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (pchildren in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  15. Mechanism of anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis: demonstration of raised interleukin 1 beta concentrations in anaemic patients and of interleukin 1 mediated suppression of normal erythropoiesis and proliferation of human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, C P; Andersson, L C; Teppo, A M; Partanen, S. (Sari); Juvonen, E

    1988-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the anaemia associated with rheumatoid disease is unclear. It has previously been shown that the degree of the anaemia correlates with the severity of the inflammatory disease and that serum from patients with arthritis inhibits erythropoiesis. This study was designed to examine whether interleukin 1 could be a mediator of the anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Radioimmunoassay of interleukin 1 beta in serum showed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated anaem...

  16. Impact of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E on Ribavirin-Induced Haemolytic Anaemia in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: An Egyptian Survey

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    M. Assem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We evaluate the impact of combined pentoxifylline and high-dose vitamins E to standard antiviral treatment on RBV-induced haemolytic anaemia. Patients and Methods. Selected 200 naïve chronic HCV patients, were randomized to receive either the standard antiviral therapy (peginterferon α-2b and RBV plus pentoxifylline (800 mg and high-dose vitamin E (1000 iu daily (combined group or received standard antiviral therapy plus placebo only (control group. They were followed up during treatment course and for 6 months posttreatment to assess the occurrence of anaemia and virological response, respectively. Results. RBV dose modification due to anaemia were significantly less in combined group (8.5 versus 21.5%. P<.05.Withdrawal, secondary to sever anemia (Hb<8.5 gm%, was recorded only in 6 (28.6% patients of the control group. Both (ETR and (SVR were significantly higher in combined group than control group by both intention-to-treat analysis (71 versus 56%, P<.05 and 66 versus 49%, P<.05 and per-protocol analysis (85.5 versus 70.9%, P<.05 and 79.5 versus 62%, P<.05. Conclusion. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E can ameliorate RBV-associated haemolysis; improve compliance and virologic clearance when combined with the standard antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  17. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of anaemia and malaria in Ghanaian children: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

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    Margaret Kweku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and anaemia are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We have investigated the effect of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or artesunate plus amodiaquine on anaemia and malaria in children in an area of intense, prolonged, seasonal malaria transmission in Ghana. METHODS: 2451 children aged 3-59 months from 30 villages were individually randomised to receive placebo or artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ monthly or bimonthly, or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP bimonthly over a period of six months. The primary outcome measures were episodes of anaemia (Hb1 year old when they received IPTc compared to the placebo group. However the incidence of malaria in the post intervention period was higher in children who were <1 year old when they received AS+AQ monthly compared to the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: IPTc is safe and efficacious in reducing the burden of malaria in an area of Ghana with a prolonged, intense malaria transmission season. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.

  18. Use of CME to impact self-reported changes in the evaluation and management of anaemia in geriatric patients

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    Kathleen Farmer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III prompted the recognition of geriatric anaemia as a public health concern since ~10% of people aged 65 years or older were anaemic. The objective of this study was to design and implement a continuing medical education (CME event that motivates and guides Primary Care Health Practitioners (PCHPs to adopt medical practices that improve outcomes among geriatric patients with anaemia by employing effective diagnostic workup. Research design and methods. A total of 4196 PCHPs participated in 11 highly interactive 75-minute live conferences conducted throughout the US from 2011 through 2013 that featured case-based interactive discussions on the workup of microcytic, normocytic, and macrocytic anaemia by a PCHP and local haematologist expert. A standardised diagnostic algorithm for geriatric anaemia was used and distributed as a handout at the live activity. A reinforcing mobile application based on this algorithm was introduced in 2012. Main outcome measures. Data from participants were gathered immediately after the event, 10–12 weeks post-event, and 1–3 years post-event. Outcomes were evaluated according to Moore's levels. Chi-squared analyses compared the proportion of respondents who committed to one or more of the five major behavioural changes over time. Results. The Chi-squared test analysed data from each of the three timelines for five medical behavioural changes. A comparison of participants’ responses showed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of responders committing to behavioural change #1, “Avoid indiscriminant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents” and #5, “Refer patients with unexplained mild anaemia to a haematologist” from post-event to 1–3 years (p<0.001 (see Table 2. The proportion of respondents who committed to the other three behavioural changes remained consistent over time, suggesting that actual change

  19. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Ramoteme L. Mamabolo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children’s anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12 and socio-demographic status.Results: At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points.Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  20. Awareness, Knowledge, and Acceptance of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anaemia in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagu, Modu Baba; Wakama, Tamunomieibi; Babadoko, Aliyu Ahmadu; Damulak, Dapus Obadiah; Ocheni, Sunday; Asuquo, Marcus Inyama

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to respondents aged 18 years and above and to the parents or guardians of those below 18 years of age. Results. There were 265 respondents comprising 120 males and 145 females. One hundred and seventy-one (64.5%) respondents were aware of BMT for the treatment of SCA. About 67.8% (116 of 171) of those who were aware believed SCA can be cured with BMT (p = 0.001) and 49.7% (85 of 171) of the respondents accepted BMT (p = 0.001). Conclusion. Awareness of BMT in Nigeria is low when compared with reports from developed countries. The knowledge is poor and acceptance is low. With adequate information, improved education, and psychological support, more Nigerians will embrace BMT.

  1. Hematological Indices of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Nigeria.

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    Sagir G. Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the fourth highest prevalence of TB and the highest prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia (SCA in the world. SCA patients have impaired immunity and are vulnerable to TB. Hence, we studied the haematological indices of SCA patients with TB in Nigeria. A total of 23 SCA patients with TB were studied in parallel with equal number of age and sex matched SCA patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly lower haematocrit, higher level of circulating sickle cells (CSCs and similar level of reticulocyte count in comparison to patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean WBC count associated with higher frequency of neutrophilia in comparison to those without TB. Monocytosis and eosinopenia were exclusively found in SCA patients with TB at frequencies of 52% and 65% respectively. Lymphocyte and basophil counts were normal in all patients with and without TB. Mean platelet counts were high in both patient groups but the frequency of thrombocytosis was significantly higher in patients with TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean ESR than their counterparts without the infection. The findings of this study  revealed that TB in SCA patients was associated with rising level of CSCs, falling level of haematocrit, sub-optimal reticulocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytosis, eosinopenia and rising level of ESR. Hence, SCA patients presenting with these haematological indices should be investigated for TB.

  2. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  3. Decreasing iron-related indexes without anaemia in a patient with genetic haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Baccarin, Alessandra; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella

    2015-10-01

    Present case report refers to a 48-year-old man with genetic haemochromatosis (C282Y mut/mut) diagnosed at the age of 26. After aggressive iron depleting regimen carried out up to normalization of iron-related indexes, he received a maintenance regimen based on regular phlebotomies for about 20 years. In 2014, a marked reduction of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation percent, without concomitant anaemia, was noted on two different occasions at 5-month interval. An obscure occult GI bleeding was suspected, but both upper and lower GI tract endoscopy were negative for abnormal findings, as also was a detailed abdominal US scan. The persistence of low iron-related indexes prompted the physicians to perform a videocapsule endoscopy, which showed an ulcerative bleeding lesion in the small bowel, not confirmed however by both anterograde and retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy. Further MRI and PET allowed the identification of a 3.5 cm large lesion, located outside the small bowel wall, suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). A further laparoscopic procedure allowed the resection of 10 cm of midileum, which included the mass, fully consistent with GIST at pathology. PMID:26210325

  4. Extracellular microvesicle microRNAs in children with sickle cell anaemia with divergent clinical phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Connes, Phillippe; Romana, Marc; Lapping-Carr, Gabrielle; Zhang, Chunling; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2016-09-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is the most frequent genetic haemoglobinopathy, which exhibits a highly variable clinical course characterized by hyper-coagulable and pro-inflammatory states, as well as endothelial dysfunction. Extracellular microvesicles are released into biological fluids and play a role in modifying the functional phenotype of target cells. We hypothesized that potential differences in plasma-derived extracellular microvesicles (EV) function and cargo from SCA patients may underlie divergent clinical trajectories. Plasma EV from SCA patients with mild, intermediate and severe clinical disease course were isolated, and primary endothelial cell cultures were exposed. Endothelial cell activation, monocyte adhesion, barrier disruption and exosome cargo (microRNA microarrays) were assessed. EV disrupted the endothelial barrier and induced expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in a SCA severity-dependent manner compared to healthy children. Microarray approaches identified a restricted signature of exosomal microRNAs that readily distinguished severe from mild SCA, as well as from healthy children. The microRNA candidates were further validated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays, and revealed putative gene targets. Circulating exosomal microRNAs may play important roles in predicting the clinical course of SCA, and in delineation of individually tailored, mechanistically-based clinical treatment approaches of SCA patients in the near future. PMID:27161653

  5. Observations on the pathogenesis of anaemia in fascioliasis and on immunoglobulin metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proline, an excretory/secretory product of liver flukes, was investigated as a possible mediator of anaemia through haemolysis or dyshaemopoiesis in fluke infected animals. Infusion of 700 μmol proline per rabbit per day for 14 days did not significantly alter the halflife (t1/2) of 51Cr labelled erythrocytes nor did it interfere with plasma clearance and utilization of 59Fe in rabbits. Consequently, it was concluded that proline did not interfere with haemoglobin synthesis or induced haemolysis in rabbits at test dose level. The metabolism of radiolabelled IgG was also investigated in calves infected with Fasciola gigantica. In two calves given 1,000 metacercariae of F. gigantica ten weeks earlier, the mean t1/2 of 125I labelled IgG was 74 h, compared with 100 h in uninfected controls. The faecal clearance of 125I labelled IgG was correspondingly higher among infected calves, indicating that serum IgG was being lost into the gut in excessive quantities, probably via the bile. (author). 20 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Recommendations for centres of expertise in rare anaemias. The ENERCA White Book

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    Joan-Lluis Vives Corrons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Community added value of Centres of Expertise (CoE and European Reference Networks (ERN is particularly high for rare diseases (RD due to the rarity of these conditions, which implies both a small number of patients and scarcity of expertise within a single country. Gathering expertise at the European level is therefore, paramount in order to ensure equal access to accurate information, appropriate and timely diagnosis and high quality clinical care and follow up for patients with rare diseases. This applies particularly to rare anaemias due to the high number of different rare diseases that constitute this group. In this context, the European Network for Rare and Congenital Anaemias (ENERCA, co-financed by the European Commission, was created in 2002 with the aim of prevention and management of rare anaemias (RA and the development and promotion of policies to improve the well-being of European Union citizens. The ENERCA White Book is a position paper, developed as a deliverable of the ENERCA (phase 3 project that intends to contribute to the creation of a ERN in RA (ERN-RA by preparation of the recommendations and, in particular, the definition of the criteria that CoE, local centres (LC and their interrelations have to fulfil as healthcare providers. It has been nourished by all the activities that have been performed over the past ten years within the ENERCA framework. The White Book is addressed to authorities in charge of the identifying CoE, as an essential requirement for the official recognition of the ERN, to European and national health authorities, Healthcare centres and health professionals, as well as to all other stakeholders interested in RA. It is also addressed to the patients, as a way to empower their community in this process. One particular characteristic of the White Book is the integration of the three main aspects of a CoE: a ethical and legal frameworks to ensure the non-discrimination and non-stigmatisation of rare

  7. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

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    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  8. Awareness, Knowledge, and Acceptance of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Anaemia in Nigeria

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    Adewumi Adediran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution’s research and ethics committee. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered to respondents aged 18 years and above and to the parents or guardians of those below 18 years of age. Results. There were 265 respondents comprising 120 males and 145 females. One hundred and seventy-one (64.5% respondents were aware of BMT for the treatment of SCA. About 67.8% (116 of 171 of those who were aware believed SCA can be cured with BMT (p=0.001 and 49.7% (85 of 171 of the respondents accepted BMT (p=0.001. Conclusion. Awareness of BMT in Nigeria is low when compared with reports from developed countries. The knowledge is poor and acceptance is low. With adequate information, improved education, and psychological support, more Nigerians will embrace BMT.

  9. Quantitative analysis of mechanisms that govern red blood cell age structure and dynamics during anaemia.

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    Nicholas J Savill

    2009-06-01

    during anaemia.

  10. Adolescents with sickle cell anaemia: Experience in a private tertiary hospital serving a tertiary institution

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    Sarah John-Olabode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD have adjustment difficulties in the transition period from paediatric care to the adult system because they find themselves in unfamiliar waters where they have to learn to manage themselves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalent crises and morbidities associated with SCD in adolescents in Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH, to also assess the level of knowledge of these adolescents about SCD and to determine their emotional response to the disease. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of case notes of adolescents with sickle cell anaemia that were seen in BUTH, from May 2013 to April 2014. Data extracted from the case notes was entered into a Microsoft (MS Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results were presented in tables. Results: A total of 50 subjects were seen in the department during this study period. Vaso-occlusive crises in the form of bone pains (93.1% were the commonest crises encountered. Associated morbidities were malaria 34 (85%, tonsilitis 1 (2.5%, pneumonia 1 (2.5%, leg ulcer 1 (2.5%, azotaemia 1 (2.5% and subarachnoid haemorrhage 2 (5%. Majority (88% had adequate knowledge about general health maintenance while knowledge on nutrition and appropriate analgesia use is still inadequate. Eleven (22% had symptoms of depression, four (8% had suicidal ideation while one (2% had a history of attempted suicide. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the importance of psychosocial intervention as part of a comprehensive health management for people with SCD.

  11. Amifostine Protection Against Mitomycin-induced Chromosomal Breakage in Fanconi Anaemia Lymphocytes

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    Miriam T. P. Lopes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is a rare genetic chromosomal instability syndrome caused by impairment of DNA repair and reactive oxygen species (ROS imbalance. This disease is also related to bone marrow failure and cancer. Treatment of these complications with radiation and alkylating agents may enhance chromosomal breakage. We have evaluated the effect of amifostine (AMF on basal and mitomycin C (MMC-induced chromosomal breakage in FA blood cells using the micronucleus assay. The basal micronuclei count was higher among FA patients than healthy subjects. Pre-treatment with AMF significantly inhibited micronucleation induced by MMC in healthy subjects (23.4 ± 4.0 – MMC vs 12.3 ± 2.9 – AMF →MMC MN/1000CB, p < 0.01, one way ANOVA as well as in FA patients (80.0 ± 5.8 – MMC vs 40.1 ± 5.8 – AMF →MMC MN/1000CB, p < 0.01, ANOVA. Release of ROS by peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with AMF →MMC and measured by chemoluminometry showed that AMF-protection was statistically higher among FA patients than in healthy individuals. Based on these results we suggest that AMF prevents chromosomal breakage induced by MMC, probably by its antioxidant effect.

  12. Integrity of the iron transport process in mice with X-linked anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defect in iron (Fe) absorption in X-linked anaemia (sla) remains an enigma; absorption of a tracer dose of Fe is impaired in mice raised on an iron-containing cube diet but not in those raised on an iron-deficient diet. Because cobalt (Co) shares a similar intestinal transport pathway with Fe, a study was made of the effect of iron deficient diet on Co absorption. The duodenum of sla and genetically normal mice was perfused for 30 min with labelled solutions containing Co or Fe. Co uptake and transfer were similar in sla and normals fed cubes whereas Fe uptake and transfer were less in sla than in normals. The iron deficient diet caused an increase in the uptake and transfer of Co and Fe in sla and normals. When Co and Fe were perfused together in sla fed deficient diet, the uptake and transfer of each metal was less than when perfused alone. The distribution of Fe and Co in subcellular mucosal fractions was determined by a differential centrifugation technique. Deficient diet resulted in a directionally similar change in the subcellular distribution of Co and Fe in sla and normals. The increase in Co as well as Fe absorption in the sla on an iron deficient diet to the same high level found in genetically normal animals, and the inhibitory effect of each metal on the absorption of the other suggests that the absorption defect in sla is unlikely to be due to a primary defect in the function of the transport carrier. (author)

  13. Beyond anaemia management: evolving role of erythropoietin therapy in neurological disorders, multiple myeloma and tumour hypoxia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Marc; Mittelman, Moshe; Vaupel, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has become the standard of care in the treatment of anaemia resulting from cancer and its treatment, and chronic kidney disease. The discovery that erythropoietin and its receptor are located in regions outside the erythropoietic system has led to interest in the potential role of epoetin in other tissues, such as the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that systemically applied epoetin can cross the blood-brain barrier, where it reduces tissue injury associated with stroke, blunt trauma and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Pilot studies in humans have shown that epoetin treatment given within 8 h of stroke reduces infarct size and results in a significantly better outcome when compared with placebo treatment. Studies also suggest that epoetin has the potential to improve cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Anaemia is a major factor causing tumour hypoxia, a condition that can promote changes within neoplastic cells that further tumour survival and malignant progression and also reduces the effectiveness of several anticancer therapies including radiotherapy and oxygen-dependent cytotoxic agents. Use of epoetin to prevent or correct anaemia has the potential to reduce tumour hypoxia and improve treatment outcome. Several therapeutic studies in anaemic animals with experimental tumours have shown a beneficial effect of epoetin on delaying tumour growth. Furthermore, clinical observations in patients with multiple myeloma and animal studies have suggested that epoetin has an antimyeloma effect, mediated via the immune system through activation of CD8+ T cells. Therefore, the role of epoetin may go well beyond that of increasing haemoglobin levels in anaemic patients, although additional studies are required to confirm these promising results. PMID:16244507

  14. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis. PMID:27262503

  15. A prospective, cross-sectional study of anaemia and peripheral iron status in antiretroviral naïve, HIV-1 infected children in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Hussey Gregory D

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is a common manifestation of paediatric HIV infection. Although there are many causes, anaemia of chronic diseases is the most frequent type. In poor countries iron deficiency is widespread. It is probable that many HIV-infected children in these countries are also iron deficient. This study describes the relationship between paediatric HIV infection and anaemia, and documents the peripheral iron status of antiretroviral naive, HIV-infected children. Methods Sixty children were evaluated prospectively. Investigations included CD4+ count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cell (RBC morphology, and iron studies. Results Anaemia was present in 73% of children. Compared to mild HIV infection, median Hb was lower in children with moderate clinical infection (104 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.04 and severe clinical infection (96 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.006, and more children with severe infection were anaemic (92% v 58%, 0.04. There was a significant relationship between immunological status and Hb. 68% had abnormal RBC morphology. Significantly more children with moderate and severe disease, and severe immunosuppression had abnormal RBC morphology. 52% were iron-depleted, 20% had iron-deficient erythropoiesis and 18% iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. 16% (7/44 of anaemic children had microcytosis and hypochromia. Median soluble transferrin receptor concentration was significantly higher in those with microcytic hypochromic anaemia (42.0 nmol/L v 30.0 nmol/L, p = 0.008. Conclusions Both the proportion of anaemic children and the median Hb were associated with disease status. Iron depletion and IDA are major problems in HIV-infected children in South Africa.

  16. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  17. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  18. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  19. Torque teno virus (TTV): current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Shigeo; Miyata, Hironori

    2007-01-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV), currently classified into the family Circoviridae, genus Anellovirus, was first found in a patient with non-A-E hepatitis. TTV has a single stranded circular DNA of approximately 3.8 kb. TTVs are extraordinarily diverse, spanning five groups including SANBAN and SEN viruses. Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with approximately 2.9 kb genome also has wide variants. Recently, two related 2.2- and 2.6-kb species joined this community. Recombinations between variants are frequent. This extensive TTV diversity remains unexplained; it is unclear how TTVs could be viable, and why they require such genetic variation. An unequivocal culture system is still not available. TTVs are ubiquitous in > 90% of adults worldwide but no human pathogenicity of TTV has been fully established. Epidemiological surveys need to specify the variants being studied and clinical targets, and must calibrate the sensitivity of the assay used. Potentially interesting observations include a higher viral load in patients with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. Active replication was also found in infants with acute respiratory diseases. TTV/TTMV-related viruses were found in chimpanzees, apes, African monkeys and tupaias, and also in chickens, pigs, cows, sheep and dogs. Experimentally, rhesus monkeys were persistently infected by TTV, but only 1/53 chimpanzees. TTV transcribes three species of mRNAs, 3.0-, 1.2- and 1.0-kb in the ratio of 60:5:35. Recently, at least three mRNAs were shown in chicken anaemia virus. The genomic region -154/-76 contains a critical promoter. TTV seems to have at least three proteins; however, the definite functions of these proteins await further research work. PMID:17146841

  20. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna A Renner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART containing zidovudine (ZDV recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was−2.7; and 1772 (60.4% had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01: the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38 in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89 in those without (p<0. 01. Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45. Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01. Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of

  1. A Comparative Study of Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Antenatal Women from Urban and Rural Area of Pune, India

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    Kundap RP

    2016-05-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in urban and rural health training centres of a medical college in Pune. The antenatal women were the study subjects. A total of 180 ANC cases were recruited and studies from both the field practice area attending the outpatient clinics. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and anaemia was assessed using recently done haemoglobin reports in the present pregnancy. The study duration was 6 months. GCP and ethical guidelines were followed as advised for human studies. Results: The prevalence of IDA in the study population was 66%. (rural=81%, urban=51%. IDA prevalence was 54% in primigravida and the prevalence increased as gravid status increased. Iron deficiency anaemia was seen statistically significantly associated with residence, illiteracy, type of diet, and gravida status of the pregnant women. Conclusion: IDA has strong relation with residence (urban/rural, literacy level, social status, monthly income and dietary habits. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(5.000: 351-354

  2. Risk factors of post renal transplant anaemia among Sudanese patients, a study in three renal transplant centres

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    Elmusharaf Khalifa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a relative lack of recent information about late post kidney transplantation anaemia (PTA, especially in the developing countries; data are scarce about the prevalence and risk factors of PTA. Sudan was a leading country in Africa and Arab world in kidney transplantation. The first kidney transplantation in Sudan was in 1973. Methods This is a cross-sectional hospital analytic study enrolling all kidney transplanted recipients following in the transplant referral clinics at Ahmed Gassim, Selma and Ibn Sina Hospitals, Khartoum/Sudan, in the period from 1/8/2010 to 1/9/2010, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 114 patients, anaemia was defined as Hb levels of Results The study showed that 39.5% of the patients were anaemic. Univariate analysis showed that late PTA is significantly associated with not using Erythropoietin (EPO in the pre-transplant period (p = Conclusion The study concluded that late PTA is common and under recognized. Risk factors for late PTA include renal dysfunction, history of rejection, longer duration of transplantation and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period. Renal dysfunction and not using EPO in the pre-transplant period are major predictors of late PTA.

  3. Serum copeptin and cortisol do not accurately predict sickle cell anaemia vaso-occlusive crisis as C-reactive protein.

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    Kehinde Sola Akinlade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diagnostic performance and prognostic properties of C-reactive protein (CRP, copeptin and cortisol in individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. METHODS: Sixty consecutive SCA subjects (18-40 years comprising 30 subjects in the steady state and 30 subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC were recruited into this study. Thirty (30 apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype served as controls. ELISA was used for the determination of serum levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and Mann Whitney U as appropriate and P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: SCA subjects in VOC had significantly lower copeptin level and significantly higher CRP level compared with controls. However, serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP were significantly higher in SCA subjects in VOC compared with SCA subjects in steady state. Furthermore, CRP had the widest Area under the ROC curve (AUROC than copeptin and cortisol. No significant difference was observed in the levels of copeptin, CRP and cortisol when SCA subjects in VOC who were hospitalized for less ≤ 5 days were compared with subjects who had longer stays. CONCLUSION: It could be concluded that C-reactive protein has a superior diagnostic performance for vaso-occlusive crisis in individuals with sickle cell anaemia and that C-reactive protein, cortisol and copeptin are not good prognostic markers in SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Profiles amongst Women in a Multiethnic Population in Inner City Britain: A Potential Impact of Anaemia

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    Julia Chackathayil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diabetes is markedly reduced in men with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. The nature of this relationship in women is not clear, nor is there information about the influence of ethnicity, given the increased susceptibility of diabetes amongst South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans. We reviewed 3563 patients with a diagnosis of anaemia from 2000 to 2007. The age-adjusted prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA was calculated, together with cardiovascular comorbidities amongst Caucasians, South Asians, and Afro-Caribbeans. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (women only or IDA was markedly higher in South Asians compared to Caucasians and Afro-Caribbeans. Among women with IDA, diabetes was more prevalent among South Asians (45%, 95% CI 39.0–51.0 compared to Caucasians (3.0%, 2.1–4.0; P<0.001. Among South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency, the prevalence of diabetes was reduced 8.5% (5.2–12.0. South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency had a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic heart disease (IHD, but this relationship was reversed in IDA. IDA is associated with a greater prevalence of diabetes in South Asian women, but it is not coordinated by a greater risk of macrovascular complications. Given the cardiovascular impact of diabetes in South Asians, this association merits further study in relation to its pathophysiological implication.

  5. Bone marrow suppression and severe anaemia associated with persistent Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children with microscopically undetectable parasitaemia

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    Rodriques Onike

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia can develop in the aftermath of Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of protracted bone marrow suppression, possibly due to residual subpatent parasites. Materials and methods Blood was collected from patients with recent malaria and negative malaria microscopy. Detection of the Plasmodium antigens, lactate dehydrogenase (Optimal®, aldolase and histidine rich protein 2 (Now malaria® were used to differentiate between patients with (1 no malaria, (2 recent cleared malaria, (3 persistent P. falciparum infection. Red cell distribution width (RDW, plasma levels of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and erythropoietin (EPO were measured as markers of erythropoiesis. Interleukin (IL 10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNFα were used as inflammation markers. Results EPO was correlated with haemoglobin, irrespective of malaria (R = -0.36, P P. falciparum infection, but not recent malaria without residual parasites, was associated with bone marrow suppression i.e., low RDW (P Conclusion In the treatment of malaria, complete eradication of parasites may prevent subsequent development of anaemia. Severely anaemic children may benefit from antimalarial treatment if antigen tests are positive, even when no parasites can be demonstrated by microscopy.

  6. Intravenous iron supplementation in the anaemia of renal and cardiac failure--a double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotki, Itzchak

    2005-07-01

    The anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is efficiently corrected with a combination of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and intravenous iron supplementation. Recently, patients with severe cardiac failure and anaemia have also been shown to benefit from this treatment. However, iron excess may lead to the production of free radicals and has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and increased risk of infection, the two major causes of death in end-stage renal disease. The exact risk of excess iron supplementation has not been defined and, in the absence of sensitive and specific indicators of iron overload, the risk remains difficult to quantify. There is increasing epidemiological evidence incriminating iron overload as a risk factor in CKD, but direct evidence is still hard to obtain. The precise role of iron is complicated further by the complex inter-relationships between iron metabolism and the inflammatory process characteristic of CKD. The recent discovery of the antimicrobial peptide, hepcidin, may shed light on these inter-relationships. New methods for quantifying non-transferrin-bound (or labile plasma) iron may help in the future to identify patients at risk for toxicity from excess iron supplementation. PMID:16024827

  7. Serum levels of leptin in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia

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    Aina Ayoola O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the pathophysiology of homozygous sickle cell anaemia (SCA results in a myriad of metabolic, nutritional, haematological and clinical effects that interact with other co-morbid factors to determine the quality of life and life expectancy of afflicted patients. Because of its critical roles in nutrition and metabolism, inflammation, haematopoiesis and cellular immunity, this study determined the plasma levels of leptin in steady and unsteady states of HbSS in Nigerian patients. Methods A total of 51 SCA patients aged 5 - 35 years with 34 (61.8% being females who were either on admission or visiting four medical centres in Lagos, Nigeria together with 22 non-SCD controls aged 5 -30 years comprising 12 (54.5% females were enrolled after obtaining their informed consent and ethical approval. Patients were further stratified into steady and unsteady cases of SCA based on clinical presentations, while blood samples collected by venipuncture from each of the study participants were analyzed haematologically for full blood count and HbF level and microscopically for malaria, while plasma leptin was assayed using ELISA method. Body composition defined by weight, fat mass and body mass index (BMI was determined using standard methods. Data obtained for cases and controls were analyzed statistically. Results Twenty - one patients had unsteady HbSS and elicited greater and significant (P P. falciparum parasitaemia (4613.7 vs. 749.6 - 1078.4 parasites/uL, pyrexia rate (58.3 vs. 25.8% when compared with steady state patients or non-SCD controls. Compared to the control, significant decreases in plasma leptin before and after controlling for body fat that was worsened by crisis were observed among the SCD patients. Unlike the non-SCD controls, leptin correlated non-significantly (P > 0.05 with all body composition indices measured in the patients except for fat mass in unsteady cases. Multivariate regression

  8. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) e

  9. Late umbilical cord-clamping as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in term infants in developing and industrialised countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    This review evaluates the potential of delayed cord-clamping for improving iron status and reducing anaemia in term infants and for increasing the risk of polycythaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. We applied a strict search protocol to identify controlled trials of early vs late cord-clamping. Four tri

  10. A qualitative study on barriers in the prevention of anaemia during pregnancy in public health centres: perceptions of Indonesian nurse-midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyawati, W.; Jans, S.M.P.J.; Utomo, S.; Dillen, J. van; Janssen, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia in pregnancy remains a major problem in Indonesia over the past decade. Early detection of anaemia in pregnancy is one of the components which is unsuccessfully implemented by nurse-midwives. This study aims to explore nurse-midwives' experiences in managing pregnant women with an

  11. A case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs : short communication

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    D.E. Kenny

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 38-day-old male warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 % presented to the Denver Zoological Gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. The piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (<8.96 mmol/l. Iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and denied access to soil. Fifteen captive warthogs were subsequently evaluated for serum soluble iron content (mean = 21.62±4.36 mmol/l as well as 5 neonatal warthog piglets that required hand-rearing. Only 1 of 5 neonatal warthog piglets had measurable serum soluble iron (9.50 mmol/l. These data suggest that warthogs are similar to domestic swine and are born with low iron stores. Some form of iron supplementation should be considered for captive neonatal warthog piglets, especially if they are reared on concrete.

  12. Global Positioning System – A new tool to measure the distribution of anaemia and nutritional status of children (5-10years in a rural area, South India

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    Sathish Chandra MR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Global Positioning System (GPS is a satellite based navigation system which is of late being used in the health field. Objectives: 1.To describe the geographical distribution of anaemia and malnutrition with GPS; 2.To assess the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in children aged 5-10 years. Subjects and methods: This exploratory study was conducted over a period of 2 months in the rural field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore during the months of June - July, 2012. Children in the age group of 5-10 years of age were the study subjects. Results: GPS was used for the describing the geographical distribution of anaemia and nutrition status on the Google earth map. The prevalence of anaemia in the study subjects was 8.7%.The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness and severe thinness among the study subjects was 52.8%, 28.5%, 23.5 % and 29.1% respectively, however  overweight  and obesity was observed only in 0.9 % and 1.2% of the study subjects respectively. Conclusion: GPS was easy to use and was able to demonstrate the actual distribution of morbidity at the household level in the rural area.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F.O. Enato; P.F. Mens; A.O. Okhamafe; E.E. Okpere; E. Pogoson; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20%) by microscopy and estimated 2

  14. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin

  15. 复方阿胶浆治疗贫血37例%Treatment of Fufang Ejiao Syrup for 37 cases of Anaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建军

    2012-01-01

    贫血是临床常见的一类血液系统病变,涉及到临床各科的多种疾病,发病率有逐年上升的趋势.如何有效预防和治疗各种原因引起的贫血,是当前中医药研究的重要课题.本文通过对运用复方阿胶浆治疗的37例典型病例分析,评价其对各种原因所致贫血的疗效,为临床合理使用复方阿胶浆提供指导.%Anaemia is a common type of disease related to the blood system, and is often associated with many other diseases. Occurrence of anaemia is rising each year. Effective control and prevention of anaemia of various causes is an important area of research for Chinese medicine. The research evaluates efficacy of Fufang Ejiao Syrup for various anaemia through a case analysis of 37 patients received the treatment, in order to provide guidance for clinical usage.

  16. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massaga, Julius J; Kitua, Andrew Y; Lemnge, Martha M;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, and is often complicated by severe anaemia. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to most affordable antimalarial drugs is an impediment to intermittent chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of presumpt......BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, and is often complicated by severe anaemia. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to most affordable antimalarial drugs is an impediment to intermittent chemotherapy. We investigated the effect...... of presumptive intermittent treatment with amodiaquine and daily iron supplementation in infants on malarial fevers and anaemia, in a holoendemic area of Tanzania where malaria is largely resistant to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine. METHODS: 291 infants aged 12-16 weeks who attended three clinics...... were randomised to receive amodiaquine, iron supplementation, amodiaquine plus iron supplementation, or placebo. Over 6 months, we gave amodiaquine three times with intervals of 60 days; oral iron supplementation was given daily. Malarial fevers and anaemia were monitored at bimonthly treatment visits...

  17. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  18. Renal risk-benefit determinants of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in the remnant kidney rat model - hypertension, anaemia, inflammation and drug dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra; Garrido, Patrícia; Fernandes, João; Vala, Helena; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Reis, Flávio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies showed that high doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) used to correct anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyporesponsive patients may lead to deleterious effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rHuEPO in doses usually used to correct CKD-anaemia (100, 200 IU/kg body weight (BW) per week) and in higher doses used in the treatment of hyporesponsive patients (400, 600 IU/kg BW per week), focusing on renal damage, hypoxia, inflammation and fibrosis. Male Wistar rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by 5/6 nephrectomy were treated with rHuEPO or with vehicle, over a 3-week period. Haematological, biochemical and renal function analyses were performed. Kidney and liver mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and protein expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Kidney histopathological evaluations were also performed. The CRF group developed anaemia, hypertension and a high score of renal histopathologic lesions. Correction of anaemia was achieved with all rHuEPO doses, with improvement in hypertension, renal function and renal lesions. In addition, the higher rHuEPO doses also improved inflammation. Blood pressure was reduced in all rHuEPO-treated groups, compared to the CRF group, but increased in a dose-dependent manner. The current study showed that rHuEPO treatment corrected anaemia and improved urinary albumin excretion, particularly at lower doses. In addition, it is suggested that a short-term treatment with high doses, used to overcome an episode of hyporesponsiveness to rHuEPO therapy, can present benefits by reducing inflammation, without worsening of renal lesions; however, the pro-hypertensive effect should be considered, and carefully managed to avoid a negative cardiorenal impact. PMID:26889660

  19. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

  20. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRAVENOUS IRON SUCROSE AND O RAL IRON IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOME N IN RURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the commonest medi cal disorder in pregnancy in developing countries including India. It is not only the leading cause of maternal death but also an aggravating factor in haemorrhage, sepsis and tox emia. Conditions such as abortions, premature births, antepartum haemorrhage, post partum haemorrhage and low birth weight were especially associated with low haemoglobin leve ls in pregnancy. 40 -80% of women belonging to low socio economic groups are anaemic i n the last trimester of pregnancy. Research on alternative to Iron Folic acid (IFA su pplementation is being carried out in some parts of India. Intravenous (IV Iron sucrose thera py is one such alternative. This study was planned to evaluate the response to intravenous iron sucrose in anaemic pregnant women from rural areas and compare it with oral iron therapy.

  2. The use of the rapid osmotic fragility test as an additional test to diagnose canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paes, Geert; Paepe, Dominique; Meyer, Evelyne;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing canine immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) is often challenging because all currently available tests have their limitations. Dogs with IMHA often have an increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (OF), a characteristic that is sometimes used in the diagnosis of IMHA....... Since the classic osmotic fragility test (COFT) is time-consuming and requires specialized equipment, an easy and less labour-intensive rapid osmotic fragility test (ROFT) has been used in some countries, but its diagnostic value has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate erythrocyte...... osmotic fragility in dogs with and without IMHA, to compare results of the classic (COFT) and rapid (ROFT) test and to assess the value of the ROFT as diagnostic test for canine IMHA. Nineteen dogs with IMHA (group 1a), 21 anaemic dogs without IMHA (group 1b), 8 dogs with microcytosis (group 2), 13...

  3. Good agreement of conventional and gel-based direct agglutination test in immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Christine J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare a gel-based test with the traditional direct agglutination test (DAT for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA. Methods Canine (n = 247 and feline (n = 74 blood samples were submitted for DAT testing to two laboratories. A subset of canine samples was categorized as having idiopathic IMHA, secondary IMHA, or no IMHA. Results The kappa values for agreement between the tests were in one laboratory 0.86 for canine and 0.58 for feline samples, and in the other 0.48 for canine samples. The lower agreement in the second laboratory was caused by a high number of positive canine DATs for which the gel test was negative. This group included significantly more dogs with secondary IMHA. Conclusions The gel test might be used as a screening test for idiopathic IMHA and is less often positive in secondary IMHA than the DAT.

  4. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  5. Serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptor-ferritin index in adults with iron deficiency anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow iron store has been considered the gold standard, but is invasive, painful and expensive and not suitable for everyone. serum transferrin receptor (stfr) which is the concentration of the soluble fragment of transferrin receptor in serum, is an important new haematological parameter. the ratio of stfr to log sf is known as stfr-sf index. this study was conducted to evaluate stfr, ferritin and stfr-f index in diagnosing and differentiating iron deficiency anaemia (ida) from anaemia of chronic disease (acd). methods: one hundred and sixteen (116) adult subjects (80 anaemic and 36 controls) who already had their bone marrow examination done for various reasons were included in the study. stfr, sf, and their index were measured and compared with bone marrow iron stores. absence of iron stores denoted ida whereas increased macrophage iron with decreased siderocytes and sideroblasts was diagnostic of acd. results: out of 80 anaemic patients, 47 were diagnosed as ida while 33 were diagnosed as acd. in case of ida the diagnostic accuracy of index was 91.57%, stfr had accuracy of 85.54% while sf had accuracy of 75.90%. in case of acd, the diagnostic accuracy of stfr was 91.30%, index 89.86%, while sf had accuracy of 79.71%. conclusion: stfr-sf index is a better parameter than stfr or ferritin alone but should only be used when the results of these parameters seem altered or a bone marrow aspiration is mandatory for diagnosis of acd. the estimation of stfr or index may offer a simple non invasive method that may enable more accurate assessments of iron status in such patients. (author)

  6. Knowledge and awareness about Iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors: a study at rural based tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R. Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is promoted in order to make the blood banking safe and successful. Research in the area of blood donation has found that, iron stores are influenced by regular blood donation if dietary intake of iron is inadequate. Awareness and knowledge among blood donors regarding iron and B12 deficiency and its prevention is very much required. Objective: To assess the knowledge and awareness about iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 500 voluntary blood donors during the span of 1 year at one of the blood bank of tertiary care hospital using prestructured questionnaire on the various aspect of iron and B12 deficiency/folate deficiency anemia. The data was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS. Results: Out of 500 blood donors, 15.6% donors were regular blood donor. It was observed 60% blood donors were having knowledge of anemia in general. Iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were known to 42% and 31.6% donors, respectively. Only 20% donors could able to answer the acceptable level of hemoglobin require for donating the blood. About 42% donors were aware about importance of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in maintaining normal hemoglobin level. Majority (82.7% of regular blood donors were willing to get information regarding iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Significant lack of awareness regarding iron and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in regular voluntary blood donors. The present study recommends the provision of health education on iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as Iron, folate and vitamin B12 rich foods to regular blood donor to prevent anaemia among them. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 708-710

  7. Complex preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia, sideroblastic anaemia, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakourou, Georgia; Vrettou, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Destouni, Aspasia; Poulou, Myrto; Moutafi, Maria; Kokkali, Georgia; Pantos, Konstantinos; Davies, Stephen; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select histocompatible siblings to facilitate curative haematopoeitic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is now an acceptable option in the absence of an available human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatible donor. We describe a case where the couple who requested HLA-PGD, were both carriers of two serious haematological diseases, beta-thalassaemia and sideroblastic anaemia. Their daughter, affected with sideroblastic anaemia, was programmed to have HSCT. A multiplex-fluorescent-touchdown-PCR protocol was optimized for the simultaneous amplification of: the two HBB-gene mutated regions (c.118C> T, c.25-26delAA), four short tandem repeats (STRs) in chr11p15.5 linked to the HBB gene, the SLC25A38 gene mutation (c.726C > T), two STRs in chr3p22.1 linked to the SLC25A38 gene, plus eleven informative STRs for HLA-haplotyping (chr6p22.1-21.3). This was followed by real-time nested PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for the detection of HBB and SLC25A38 gene mutations, as well as the analysis of all STRs on an automatic genetic analyzer (sequencer). The couple completed four clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF)/PGD cycles. At least one matched unaffected embryo was identified and transferred in each cycle. A twin pregnancy was established in the fourth PGD cycle and genotyping results at all loci were confirmed by prenatal diagnosis. Two healthy baby girls were delivered at week 38 of pregnancy. The need to exclude two familial disorders for HLA-PGD is rarely encountered. The methodological approach described here is fast, accurate, clinically-validated, and of relatively low cost. PMID:26636621

  8. Efficacy of intravenous iron in treating iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Are there predictors of response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ferreiro Iglesias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a very common disorder. Until recently, oral iron has been the mainstay therapy, nevertheless it has been associated with intolerance and noncompliance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron in IDA in IBD patients and the secondary aim was to investigate whether other potential factors could influence in the response to the treatment. Design: an open-label, prospective, consecutive, single centre study. Material and methods: we performed our study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD with severe anaemia or intolerance with oral iron. All of them received intravenous sacarose iron and did biochemistry profile with haemoglobin (Hb. Moreover, the correlation with other variables was studied: age, sex, smoking habit, IBD type, previous surgery and type of surgery and other treatments. Response was defined as Hb increase of ≥ 2 g/dL or normalization of the levels. Results: fifty-four patients were included into the study, 34 (63% with UC y 20 (37% with CD, 18 (33.3% men and 36 women (66.6% and the average was 48 ± 14 years. The total proportion of responders was 52% (SD ± 05; 43% of the patients reached Hb ≥ 2 g/dl and y 9% of them normalized Hb. Only the utilization of 5-ASA was associated with low response to iron treatment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: our study suggests that response to intravenous iron is achievable in the majority of patients with IBD and severe IDA or intolerance treatment with oral iron. Moreover, the patients with consumption of 5-ASA could had less response to the treatment.

  9. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  10. ‘Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model’

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Michelle Shui Yee; Mooney, Peter; White, William; Appleby, Victoria; Moreea, Sulleman; Haythem, Ismail; Elias, Joshua; Bundhoo, Kiran; Corbett, Gareth; Wong, Liam; Tsai, Her Hsin; Cross, Simon; Hebden, John; Hoque, Sami; Sanders, David

    2016-01-01

    Background International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target ana...

  11. 'Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model'.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, M.S.; Mooney, P.; White, W.; Appleby, V.; Moreea, S.; Haythem, I.; Elias, J.; Bundhoo, K.; Corbett, G; Wong, L.; Tsai, H H; Cross, S; Hebden, J.; Hoque, S.; Sanders, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target an...

  12. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  13. A mediator embedded micro-immunosensing unit for electrochemical detection on viruses within physiological saline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a time- and cost-saving alternative to the conventional methods for virus detection in biological media, this work presents an electrochemical micro-immunosensor based on the nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) redox mediator film coating the interdigitated microelectrodes (IDMEs). By chelation binding with no additional cross-linker, the 6xHis-tagged antibodies were immobilized on a NiHCF film. Secondly, an immunoassay response was enhanced by employing microbeads coated with 6xHis antibody. The electrochemical properties and the stability of the NiHCF film modified IDMEs were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The bead-induced impedance variations at the electrode film/electrolyte interface were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and verified using FEM simulation. Experiments of virus detection were conducted through targeting the antigens of the vital infectious salmon viruses, such as infectious salmon anaemia virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and salmonid alphavirus subtype 3. The micro-immunosensor exhibited detection limits as low as 10 pg ml−1 and detection sensitivities as high as 57.5 kΩ µM−1 within a physiological saline solution. Tests for multiple antigen–antibody interactions showed good detection specificity, as confirmed by ELISA. By incorporating the microfluidic network, electrochemical impedance micro-immunosensing units can be realized in a fully integrated platform for multiplex virus detection in tissue samples.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Guadalajara--a case of chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia responding to splenectomy and the role of splenectomy in this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Jones, F G C; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2004-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate shunt pathway a major function of which is to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Deficiency in red blood cells is associated with a number of varied clinical manifestations. Chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia is uncommon but is usually characterized by chronic haemolysis, often with severe anaemia. In the past splenectomy in this condition has been thought to be of questionable benefit. We report a case of G6PD Guadalajara where splenectomy produced transfusion independence and have reviewed the literature. Those cases with exon 10 mutations often have a severe clinical phenotype, which responds to splenectomy. This procedure should be considered in this condition.

  15. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (pconcentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects.

  16. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  17. Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman; Vikas Goya; Hosmar Ganesh Shenoy

    2015-01-01

    The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus). The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi for averting anaemia in Gabon: a comparison between intention to treat and according to protocol analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lell Bertrand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gabon, the impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi was not statistically significant on malaria reduction, but the impact on moderate anaemia was, with some differences between the intention to treat (ITT and the according to protocol (ATP trial analyses. Specifically, ATP was statistically significant, while ITT analysis was borderline. The main reason for the difference between ITT and ATP populations was migration. Methods This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of IPTi on the reduction of anaemia in Gabon, comparing results of the ITT and the ATP clinical trial analyses. Threshold analysis was conducted to identify when the intervention costs and protective efficacy of IPTi for the ATP cohort equalled the ITT cost-effectiveness ratio. Results Based on IPTi intervention costs, the cost per episode of moderate anaemia averted was US$12.88 (CI 95% 4.19, 30.48 using the ITT analysis and US$11.30 (CI 95% 4.56, 26.66 using the ATP analysis. In order for the ATP results to equal the cost-effectiveness of ITT, total ATP intervention costs should rise from 118.38 to 134 US$ ATP or the protective efficacy should fall from 27% to 18.1%. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio using ITT trial results was higher than using ATP results. Conclusions Migration implies great challenges in the organization of health interventions that require repeat visits in Gabon. This was apparent in the study as the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP worsened when drop out from the prevention was taken into account. Despite such challenges, IPTi was both inexpensive and efficacious in averting cases of moderate anaemia in infants.

  19. Bone marrow pathology in dogs and cats with non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and pure red cell aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J

    2008-01-01

    Many dogs and cats with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) lack a bone marrow erythroid regenerative response. To better understand the failure of the bone marrow to respond to the anaemia, bone marrow pathology associated with non-regenerative IMHA and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was reviewed. Eighty-two affected dogs and 57 affected cats were identified from a population presenting to a referral hospital over a 10-year period. Fifty-five dogs had non-regenerative IMHA (38 had bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia and 17 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 27 had pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Twenty-eight cats had non-regenerative IMHA (24 had erythroid hyperplasia and 4 had erythroid maturation arrest) and 29 had PRCA. A variety of pathological changes were observed in bone marrow aspirates and core biopsy specimens taken from these animals. These changes included dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation, haemophagocytic syndrome, lymphocyte aggregation, and lymphocyte or plasma cell hyperplasia. In both dogs and cats, dysmyelopoiesis, myelonecrosis, myelofibrosis, interstitial oedema, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and haemophagocytic syndrome were primarily noted in bone marrow specimens where there was evidence of erythroid hyperplasia. These animals were also more often neutropenic and thrombocytopenic, and had decreased 60 day survival when compared with dogs or cats with non-regenerative anaemia associated with erythroid maturation arrest or PRCA. Therefore, the pathogenesis of the non-regenerative anaemia in non-regenerative IMHA may involve both antibody-mediated destruction of bone marrow precursor cells and pathological events within the bone marrow that result in ineffective erythropoiesis.

  20. Genetic variation in CD36, HBA, NOS3 and VCAM1 is associated with chronic haemolysis level in sickle cell anaemia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Andreia; Dias, Alexandra; Morais, Anabela; Nunes, Baltazar; Ferreira, Emanuel; Picanço, Isabel; Faustino, Paula; Lavinha, João

    2014-03-01

    Chronic haemolysis stands out as one of the hallmarks of sickle cell anaemia, a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive monogenic anaemia. However, the genetic architecture of this sub-phenotype is still poorly understood. Here, we report the results of an association study between haemolysis biomarkers (serum LDH, total bilirubin and reticulocyte count) and the inheritance of 41 genetic variants of ten candidate genes in a series of 99 paediatric SS patients (median current age of 9.9 yr) followed up in two general hospitals in Greater Lisboa area (median follow-up per patient of 5.0 yr). Although in a large number of tests a seemingly significant (i.e. P haplotype 7 within VCAM1 gene; (ii) a lower total bilirubin was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA gene, rs2070744_T allele at NOS3 gene, and haplotype 9 within VCAM1 promoter; and (iii) a diminished reticulocyte count was associated with the 3.7-kb deletion at HBA, whereas an increased count was associated with rs1984112_G allele at CD36 gene. On the whole, our findings suggest a complex genetic architecture for the sickle cell anaemia haemolysis process involving multiple pathways, namely control of vascular cell adhesion, NO synthesis and erythrocyte volume and haemoglobinisation. PMID:24168396

  1. Ferrochelatase deficiency of the bone marrow in a syndrome of congenital microcytic anaemia with iron overload of the liver and hyperferraemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By far the most common mechanisms for hypochromic anaemias are either iron deficiency with a limited production of haem or the thalassaemias with a limited production of peptide chains. Some extremely rare congenital hypochromic anaemias have also been reported, in which iron deficiency or thalassaemia is not the cause. One of them is atransferrinaemia. In another rare type of hereditary, congenital hypochromic anaemia, the patients have hyperferraemia with a near fully saturated total iron binding capacity. In spite of heavy haemosiderin deposits in the liver, the bone marrow haemosiderin is reduced. In our studies which where reported in 1983, we found normal transferrin, Hb electrophoresis was normal, and there were no findings indicating thalassaemia minor or lead intoxication. We suggested that the most likely explanation of the condition was a defect in the iron transport mechanism from transferrin into the erythroid cells in the bone marrow, but at that time we had no method for studying this. During the last few years, more reliable methods have become available for assaying ferrochelatase, the enzyme largely responsible for the incorporation of iron into haem. We have therefore repeated our previous studies (with essentially the same results as reported in 1973), and have also assayed ferrochelatase activity of the bone marrow. (author)

  2. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  3. Association between iron status, iron deficiency anaemia, and severe early childhood caries: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroth Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe tooth decay is known to affect the health and well-being of young children. However, little is known about the influence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC on childhood nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to contrast ferritin and haemoglobin levels between preschoolers with S-ECC and caries-free controls. Methods Children were recruited as part of a larger case–control study examining differences in nutritional status between those with and without S-ECC. Preschoolers with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their dental surgery, while caries-free controls were recruited from the community. Parents completed a questionnaire and the child underwent venipuncture. The study was approved by the University’s Health Research Ethics Board. Statistics included descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses. A p value ≤ .05 was significant. A total of 266 children were recruited; 144 with S-ECC and 122 caries-free. Results The mean age was 40.8 ± 14.1 months. The mean ferritin concentration for all children was 29.6 ± 17.9 μg/L while the mean haemoglobin level was 115.1 ± 10.1 g/L. Children with S-ECC were significantly more likely to have low ferritin (p=.033 and low haemoglobin levels (p>.001. Logistic regression analyses revealed that children with S-ECC were nearly twice as likely to have low ferritin levels and were over six times more likely to have iron deficiency anaemia than caries-free controls. Conclusions Children with S-ECC appear to be at significantly greater odds of having low ferritin status compared with caries-free children and also appear to have significantly lower haemoglobin levels than the caries-free control group. Children with S-ECC also appear to be at significantly greater odds for iron deficiency anaemia than cavity-free children.

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Factors associated with malaria parasitaemia, malnutrition, and anaemia among HIV-exposed and unexposed Ugandan infants: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterbauer Beth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, malnutrition and anaemia are major causes of morbidity and mortality in African children. The interplay between these conditions is complex and limited data exist on factors associated with these conditions among infants born to HIV-uninfected and infected women. Methods Two hundred HIV-exposed (HIV-uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers and 400 HIV-unexposed infants were recruited from an area of high malaria transmission in rural Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was performed at enrolment to measure the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, measures of malnutrition (z-scores Results The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 20%. Factors protective against parasitaemia included female gender (OR = 0.66, p = 0.047, mother’s age (OR = 0.81 per five-year increase, p = 0.01, reported bed net use (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03 and living in a well-constructed house (OR = 0.25, p = 0.01. Although HIV-unexposed infants had a higher risk of parasitaemia compared to HIV-exposed infants (24% vs 14%, p = 0.004, there was no significant association between HIV-exposure status and parasitaemia after controlling for the use of malaria preventative measures including bed net use and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis. The prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 10%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. HIV-exposed infants had a higher odds of stunting (OR = 2.23, p = 0.005, underweight (OR = 1.73, p = 0.09 and wasting (OR = 3.29, p = 0.02. The prevalence of anaemia was 12%. Risk factors for anaemia included older infant age (OR = 2.05 per one month increase, p = 0.003 and having malaria parasitaemia (OR = 5.74, p  Conclusions Compared to HIV-unexposed infants, HIV-exposed infants had a higher use of malaria preventative measures and lower odds of malaria parasitaemia. Having a better constructed house was also protective against malaria

  6. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  7. A multi-centre retrospective study of rituximab use in the treatment of relapsed or resistant warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maung, Su W

    2013-10-01

    This retrospective analysis assessed the response, safety and duration of response to standard dose rituximab 375 mg\\/m(2) weekly for four weeks as therapy for patients with primary or secondary warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (WAIHA), who had failed initial treatment. Thirty-four patients received rituximab for WAIHA in seven centres in the Republic of Ireland. The overall response rate was 70·6% (24\\/34) with 26·5% (9\\/34) achieving a complete response (CR). The time to response was 1 month post-initiation of rituximab in 87·5% (21\\/24) and 3 months in 12·5% (3\\/24) of patients. The median duration of follow-up was 36 months (range 6-90 months). Of the patients who responded, 50% (12\\/24) relapsed during follow up with a median time to next treatment of 16·5 months (range 6-60 months). Three patients were re-treated with rituximab 375 mg\\/m2 weekly for four weeks at relapse and responded. There was a single episode of neutropenic sepsis. Rituximab is an effective and safe treatment for WAIHA but a significant number of patients will relapse in the first two years post treatment. Re-treatment was effective in a small number of patients, suggesting that intermittent pulse treatment or maintenance treatment may improve long-term response.

  8. Xpf and not the Fanconi anaemia proteins or Rev3 accounts for the extreme resistance to cisplatin in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisms like Dictyostelium discoideum, often referred to as DNA damage "extremophiles", can survive exposure to extremely high doses of radiation and DNA crosslinking agents. These agents form highly toxic DNA crosslinks that cause extensive DNA damage. However, little is known about how Dictyostelium and the other "extremophiles" can tolerate and repair such large numbers of DNA crosslinks. Here we describe a comprehensive genetic analysis of crosslink repair in Dictyostelium discoideum. We analyse three gene groups that are crucial for a replication-coupled repair process that removes DNA crosslinks in higher eukarya: The Fanconi anaemia pathway (FA, translesion synthesis (TLS, and nucleotide excision repair. Gene disruption studies unexpectedly reveal that the FA genes and the TLS enzyme Rev3 play minor roles in tolerance to crosslinks in Dictyostelium. However, disruption of the Xpf nuclease subcomponent results in striking hypersensitivity to crosslinks. Genetic interaction studies reveal that although Xpf functions with FA and TLS gene products, most Xpf mediated repair is independent of these two gene groups. These results suggest that Dictyostelium utilises a distinct Xpf nuclease-mediated repair process to remove crosslinked DNA. Other DNA damage-resistant organisms and chemoresistant cancer cells might adopt a similar strategy to develop resistance to DNA crosslinking agents.

  9. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  10. 慢性充血性心力衰竭患者合并贫血的临床分析%Correlativity study on anaemia and the prognosis of chronic heart failur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪明; 饶大勇; 毛尚; 张利进; 刘在军

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慢性充血性心力衰竭患者合并贫血的患病情况及其与预后的相关性.方法 将不同程度的心力衰竭患者106例按贫血情况分为正常组、轻度贫血组、中度贫血组、重度贫血及极重度贫血组,采用前瞻性队列研究的方法,在接受常规治疗心力衰竭情况下,追踪观察1年,分析贫血对慢性充血性心力衰竭(CHF)患者心功能、再住院率、病死率及脑钠肽(BNP)等指标的影响.结果 随着心功能分级增高,贫血患病率呈逐渐增高趋势(P<0.01),中重度贫血的CHF患者的再住院率、病死率高,BNP均高于正常及轻度贫血组(P<0.05).结论 CHF合并贫血的患者其再住院率及病死率较高,贫血的程度越重,病情越严重,预后越差.%Objective To study the correlativity of anaemia and the prognosis of serious chronic heart failure.Methods The CHF patients with received in 2008 were divided into four groups.The normal group, the mild anaemia group, the moderate anaemia group,the serious group and the most serious group according to the Hb level.Under the convention control heart faille treatment, related date were collected and the effect of anaemia on again being hospitalized rate and mortality were analyzed and BNP in the one year follow up.Results The again being hospitalized rate and mortality in CHF Patients Combining anaemia were higher than those in CHF patients not comb ining anaemia( P < 0.01 ) ,Again being hospital rate and mortalityin moderate serious anaemia in CHF patients were higher than those in mild anaemia group and the Hb normal group(P <0.05).Conclusion The again being hospitalized rate and mortalify of CHF patients are higher,The anaemias degree is more deeply,the state of illness is move serious, and tbeprognosis is worse.

  11. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2005-01-01

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  12. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

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    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  13. Clinical Application of Reticulocyte Parameters in Anaemia Differential Diagnosis%网织红细胞参数在贫血性疾病鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾虹; 郑军; 董西华; 周立平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨网织红细胞参数在各类贫血性疾病鉴别诊断中的临床应用.方法 采用Sysmex XE-2100血液分析仪检测各类贫血患者和健康体检者网织红细胞百分率(RET%)、网织红细胞绝对值(RET#)、未成熟网织红细胞比率(IRF)、低荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(LFR%)、中荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(MFR%)和高荧光强度网织红细胞百分率(HFR%).结果 溶血性贫血组RET%、RET#、IRF、MFR%、HFR%显著高于其他各类型的贫血(P<0.01),而LFR%显著减低(P<0.01).缺铁性贫血组、肾病性贫血组及肝病性贫血组与健康对照组比较,RET#的差异无统计学意义,而缺铁性贫血组MFR%、HFR%及IRF比健康对照组显著升高(P<0.01),且升高的程度高于肾病性贫血组及肝病性贫血组.再生障碍性贫血组和白血病贫血组RET%、RET#低于其他各类型的贫血,白血病贫血组IRF较再生障碍性贫血组显著升高.结论 网织红细胞新型参数可以反映网织红细胞的成熟度,对不同类型贫血的鉴别诊断具有实用价值.%Objective To explore the clinical application value of reticulocyte parameters in anaemia differential diagnosis. Methods To analyze RET%,RET#,IRF,LFR%,MFR% and HFR% in the anaemia patients with different type and normal people with Sysmex XE-2100 automatic blood analyzer. Results RET%,RET#,IRF,MFR% and HFR% in patients with hemolytic anaemia were obviously higher than that of other groups and the LFR% was lower (P < 0.01) than that of other groups. Compared iron anaemia patients, renal anaemia patients and liver anaemia patients with health control, RET# was no significant differences among them, but MFR%, HFR% and 1RF were significantly increased in iron anaemia patients (P < 0.01). RET% and RET# in aplastia anaemia patients and leukemia anaemia patients were lower than that of other groups,and the IRF of leukemia anaemia patients was obviously higher than that of aplastia

  14. Molecular analysis of the most prevalent mutations of the FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with Fanconi anaemia

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    David Enrique Aguilar Rodriguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is a recessive autosomal disease determined by mutations in genes of at least eleven complementation groups, with distinct distributions in different populations. As far as we know, there are no reports regarding the molecular characterisation of the disease in unselected FA patients in Brazil. OBECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the most prevalent mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with FA. METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from 22 racially and ethnically diverse unrelated FA patients (mean age ± SD: 14.0 ± 7.8 years; 10 male, 12 female; 14 white, 8 black was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction site assays for identification of FANCA (delta3788-3790 and FANCC (delta322G, IVS4+4A -> T, W22X, L496R, R548X, Q13X, R185X, and L554P gene mutations. RESULTS: Mutations in FANCA and FANCC genes were identified in 6 (27.3% and 14 (63.6% out of 22 patients, respectively. The disease could not be attributed to the tested mutations in the two remaining patients enrolled in the study (9.1%. The registry of the two most prevalent gene abnormalities (delta3788-3790 and IVS4 + 4 -> T revealed that they were present in 18.2% and 15.9% of the FA alleles, respectively. Additional FANCC gene mutations were found in the study, with the following prevalence: delta322G (11.4%, W22X (9.1%, Q13X (2.3%, L554P (2.3%, and R548X (2.3% of total FA alleles. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes are the most prevalent mutations among FA patients in Brazil.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ferrous Sulphate (Tardyferon®) after Single Oral Dose Administration in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, A; Barthe, L; Clavel, T; Sanchez, C; Oulmi-Castel, M; Paillard, B; Edmond, J M; Brunner, V

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing preparations available on the market vary in dosage, salt, and chemical state of iron contained in the preparation, as well as in the iron delivery process (immediate or prolonged-release). The present study aimed at characterizing the serum pharmacokinetics of iron in non pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) following a single oral administration of a prolonged-release ferrous sulphate tablet. This multicenter, single dose, open-label study was conducted in 30 women aged between 18 and 45 years with IDA. A single 160 mg oral dose of ferrous sulphate was given as 2 tablets of 80 mg of Tardyferon(®) under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected before dosing and until 24 h post-dosing. Serum iron concentrations were determined using a routine colorimetric analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the serum concentration profiles using a non compartmental approach. Serum profiles showed elevated levels of iron up to 12 h after drug intake. The median time to maximum serum concentrations (Tmax) occurred 4 h post-dosing. Between 2 and 8 h post-dosing, mean serum iron concentrations fluctuated by only 20%. Additionally, C8h and C12h represented on average 78.6% and 47.5% of the Cmax, respectively. This study demonstrates that a single oral dose of 160 mg Tardyferon(®) administered under fasting condition to 30 women with IDA leads to an optimal long-lasting release of iron in the gastrointestinal tract in the targeted population. This allows the attainment and maintenance of elevated serum iron levels for up to 12 h after administration. PMID:25989284

  16. Impact of different strategies to control Plasmodium infection and anaemia on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea

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    Roche Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs have been the main tool used to control malaria over the last 13 years. In 2004, started an indoor residual spraying (IRS campaign to control malaria. The purpose of this study is to asses the impact of the two control strategies on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea, with regards to Plasmodium infection and anaemia in the children under five years of age. Methods Two transversal studies, the first one prior to the start of the IRS campaign and the second one year later. Sampling was carried out by stratified clusters. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film, and the packed cell volume (PCV percentage. Data related to ITN use and information regarding IRS were collected. The Pearson's chi-square and logistic regression statistical tests were used to calculate odds ratios (OR Results In the first survey, 168 children were sampled and 433 children in the second one. The prevalence of infection was 40% in 2004, and significantly lower at 21.7% in 2005. PCV was 41% and 39%, respectively. 58% of the children surveyed in 2004 and 44.3% in 2005 had slept under an ITN. 78% of the dwellings studied in 2005 had been sprayed. In the 2005 survey, sleeping without a mosquito net meant a risk of infection 3 times greater than sleeping protected with a net hanged correctly and with no holes (p Conclusion IRS and ITNs have proven to be effective control strategies on the island of Bioko. The choice of one or other strategy is, above all, a question of operational feasibility and availability of local resources.

  17. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] 18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52 ± 1.61 and 1.72 ± 1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

  18. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation.

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    Anita Kloss-Brandstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6. Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726 and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5(th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832, but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.

  19. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased the prevalence of anaemia and improved iron status, whereas weekly iron supplementation only improved iron status in Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Sandalinas, Fanny; de Sesmaisons, Agnès; Laillou, Arnaud; Tam, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Bruyeron, Olivier; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Berger, Jacques

    2012-10-28

    In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95% CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95% CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95% CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple micronutrients is effective in reducing anaemia prevalence in school children.

  20. Association of G6PD202A,376G with lower haemoglobin concentration but not increased haemolysis in patients with sickle cell anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nouraie, Mehdi; Reading, Noel S.; Campbell, Andrew; Minniti, Caterina P.; Rana, Sohail R.; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    The genetic bases of the highly variable degrees of anaemia and haemolysis in persons with Hb SS are not fully known, but several studies have indicated that G6PD deficiency is not a factor. The G6PD202A and G6PD376G alleles and α-thalassaemia were determined by molecular genetic testing in 261 children and adolescents with Hb SS in a multicentre study. G6PD202A,376G (G6PD A-) was defined as hemizygosity for both alleles in males and homozygosity in females. Among the participants 41% were re...

  1. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter.

  2. Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib: an active agent only in non progressive patients

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    Duffaud Florence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib : an active agent only in non progressive patients. Background Imatinib is a standard treatment for advanced/metastatic GIST and in adjuvant setting. Anaemia is frequently observed in patients with advanced GIST, and is one of the most frequent side effects of imatinib with grade 3–4 anaemia in 10% of patients. Whether EPO treatment is useful in the management of GIST patients receiving imatinib treatment is unknown. Methods A retrospective study of EPO treatment in GIST patients receiving imatinib was undertaken in 4 centres. Thirty four patients received EPO treatment among the 319 GIST patients treated with imatinib in clinical trials or with compassionate use between 2001 and 2003. The efficacy of EPO on the anaemia of patients with GIST treated with imatinib was analyzed. Results There were 18 males and 16 females with a median age of 59 years. Median WHO-PS was 1. Primary tumour sites were mainly gastric (32% and small bowel (29%. Sites of metastases were mainly liver (82% and peritoneum (79%. The median delay between the initiation of imatinib treatment and EPO was 58 days (range 0–553. Median haemoglobin (Hb level prior to EPO was 9 g/dL (range 6,9-11,8 and 11,7 g/dL (range 6,8-14,4 after 2 months. An increase of more than 2 g/dL was observed in 18 (53% of patients. None of the 7 patients who progressed (PD under imatinib treatment (400 mg/day experienced HB response, as compared to 66% (18/27 of the remaining patients (PR + SD (p = 0,002. Primary tumour site, liver metastases, peritoneal metastases, age, gender did not correlate with HB response to EPO. Response to EPO was observed in 2/11 patients receiving high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day vs 16/23 of others. Using logistic regression, only PD before EPO treatment was retained as a predictive factor for EPO response. Conclusion EPO enables to

  3. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed Riyaaz, Abdul Azeez; Samarasinghe, Randula; Sellahewa, Kolitha; Sivakumaran, Sabaratnam; Tampoe, Manjula Sri

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter. PMID:26881154

  4. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  5. PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6 MONTHS-5 YEARS ADMITTED AT KBNTGH AND TO KNOW THE RATES OF PROPHYLACTIC IRON SUPPLEMENTATION, A ONE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mujumdar; Siddaling; Preethi; Nabeel; Harshvardhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) among chilsdren aged 6 months-5 years in KBNTGH (Khaja Bandanawaz Teaching and General Hospital attached to Khaja Bandanawaz Institute of Medical Sciences). The files of 1519 patients aged between 0-5 years, who were hospitalized to KBN Hospital Pediatrics Ward were reviewed. A total of 50 patients with anaemia (Haemoglobin: 9gm%) consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16.59±1.68 mon...

  6. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  8. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  9. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  10. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  11. Genetic contribution to iron status: SNPs related to iron deficiency anaemia and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 calcium channel subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; Remacha, Angel; Vaquero, M Pilar; López-Parra, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies associate genetic markers with iron- and erythrocyte-related parameters, but few relate them to iron-clinical phenotypes. Novel SNP rs1375515, located in a subunit of the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3, is associated with a higher risk of anaemia. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of this SNP with iron-related parameters and iron-clinical phenotypes, and to explore the potential role of calcium channel subunit region in iron regulation. Furthermore, we aim to replicate the association of other SNPs reported previously in our population. We tested 45 SNPs selected via systematic review and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 region, with haematological and biochemical traits in 358 women of reproductive age. Multivariate analyses include back-step logistic regression and decision trees. The results replicate the association of SNPs with iron-related traits, and also confirm the protective effect of both A allele of rs1800562 (HFE) and G allele of rs4895441 (HBS1L-MYB). The risk of developing anaemia is increased in reproductive age women carriers of A allele of rs1868505 (CACNA2D3) and/or T allele of rs13194491 (HIST1H2BJ). Association of SNPs from fine mapping with ferritin and serum iron suggests that calcium channels could be a potential pathway for iron uptake in physiological conditions.

  12. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (pNOx] were higher in NSCA subjects (pNOX] in SCA than in NSCA subjects (plow-dose supplementation with l-arginine improved liver function, oxidative stress, plasma arginine concentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects. PMID:27156372

  13. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  14. Causes of anaemia in children from Beihai city in last ten years%北海市10年间儿童贫血病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪睿; 王玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the causes of anaemia in children from Beihai city. Methods A retrospective analysis was made in case data collected from kids with anaemia in our hospital from 2001 to 2011. Results Within the 10 years, totally 280 children with anaemia were hospitalized, in which 132 cases were erythrocyte glucose - 6 - phosphate dehydrogenase( G - 6 - PD ) deficiency( 47. 14% )and 44 ones were malignant tumor( 15. 71% ). The ratio of children with the two diseases had a tendency of increment before 2009,but decreased in recent two years. Mediterranean anemia occurred in 50 cases( 17. 86 )% ,and the number had a tendency of increment year by year;nutritional iron deficiency anemia occurred in 34 cases( 12. 14% ),and its incidence decreased year by year; aplastic anemia occurred in 8 cases( 2. 86% ); hemorrhagic anemia occurred in 12 cases( 4. 29% ), and its tendency of changing was not significant. Conclusion The order of the reasons causing anaemia in children from Beihai city has changed. Genetic diseases become the main reason causing the anaemia, among which G - 6 - PD deficiency is the most outstanding, and mediterranean aneamia takes the second place. Prenatal diagnosis should be well performed in order to reduce the incidence of aneamia in children.%目的 了解北海市儿童贫血的原因.方法 收集2001~2011年10年间在我院住院治疗的贫血患儿的病例资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 10年间共收住贫血患儿280例,其中红细胞葡萄糖6 - 磷酸脱氨酶(G - 6 - D)缺乏症132例,占47.14%,恶性肿瘤44例,占15.71%,两病在2009年前有增加趋势,但近两年又有所下降;地中海贫血50例,占17.86%,有逐年增加趋势;营养性缺铁性贫血(IDA)34例,占12.14%,发病率逐年减少;再生障碍性贫血8例,占2.86%,出血性贫血12例,占4.29%,变化趋势不明显.结论 引起北海市儿童贫血原因的排序已发生了变化,遗传性疾病已成为导致贫血的主要原因,其中G - 6 - PD缺乏症

  15. High risk of severe anaemia after chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate antimalarial treatment in patients with G6PD (A- deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina I Fanello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common inherited human enzyme defect. This deficiency provides some protection from clinical malaria, but it can also cause haemolysis after administration of drugs with oxidant properties. METHODS: The safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone+artesunate (CD+A and amodiaquine+sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was evaluated according to G6PD deficiency in a secondary analysis of an open-label, randomized clinical trial. 702 children, treated with CD+A or AQ+SP and followed for 28 days after treatment were genotyped for G6PD A- deficiency. FINDINGS: In the first 4 days following CD+A treatment, mean haematocrit declined on average 1.94% (95% CI 1.54 to 2.33 and 1.05% per day (95% CI 0.95 to 1.15 respectively in patients with G6PD deficiency and normal patients; a mean reduction of 1.3% per day was observed among patients who received AQ+SP regardless of G6PD status (95% CI 1.25 to 1.45. Patients with G6PD deficiency recipients of CD+A had significantly lower haematocrit than the other groups until day 7 (p = 0.04. In total, 10 patients had severe post-treatment haemolysis requiring blood transfusion. Patients with G6PD deficiency showed a higher risk of severe anaemia following treatment with CD+A (RR = 10.2; 95% CI 1.8 to 59.3 or AQ+SP (RR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 32.7. CONCLUSIONS: CD+A showed a poor safety profile in individuals with G6PD deficiency most likely as a result of dapsone induced haemolysis. Screening for G6PD deficiency before drug administration of potentially pro-oxidants drugs, like dapsone-containing combinations, although seldom available, is necessary.

  16. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Ashley Mariko; Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C

    2013-01-10

    Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS) to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0-5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic relationships ranged from

  17. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimone Ashley Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0–5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic

  18. Anemia ferropriva em crianças do município de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in children from the City of S. Paulo

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    Dirce M. Sigulem

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma amostra de crianças do município de São Paulo, com idade variando de 6 a 60 meses foi estudada a prevalência de anemia, suas relações com a renda familiar em salários mínimos per capita, com a idade da criança e com a escolaridade materna. Foi também estudada a dieta dessas crianças no que tange sua adequação em ferro de origem animal e vegetal, complementando o estudo com prova terapêutica em uma pequena amostra. Concluiu-se que a anemia observada foi do tipo ferropriva, ocorrendo mais freqüentemente entre crianças menores de 2 anos e em crianças pertencentes a famílias de baixa renda. Em função dos achados os autores recomendam, particularmente, o uso profilático de sulfato ferroso durante o primeiro ano de vida no sentido de suplementar ferro uma vez que a dieta própria para a idade, pobre neste nutriente, é o fator básico para o aparecimento da anemia. Chamam também a atenção para a utilização de técnicas simplificadas para o diagnóstico precoce da anemia ferropriva, como rotina de serviço principalmente em crianças menores de 2 anos.In children from the City of S. Paulo, with ages between 6 and 60 months, anaemia related, to age, family income and mother schooling background were studied. Also, iron adequacy in the diet was compared with recommended dietary allowances for this nutrient and, finnaly, a small group received iron sulfate as a therapeutic test. The authors concluded that anaemia was of the iron deficiency type, mainly, more prevalent in children below 2 years old coming from low income families. To conclude, they recommend the profilatic use of iron sulfate for children during the first years of life and call attention to simplified technical methods for early diagnosis of anaemia to be used, as routine, in medical care of children under 2 years of age.

  19. Extra-hepatic replication and infection of hepatitis E virus in neuronal-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drave, S A; Debing, Y; Walter, S; Todt, D; Engelmann, M; Friesland, M; Wedemeyer, H; Neyts, J; Behrendt, P; Steinmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and a member of the genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Infection usually leads to acute hepatitis that can become fulminant, particularly among pregnant women and in patients with preexisting liver disease, or may evolve to a chronic state, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. HEV has been shown to produce a range of extra-hepatic manifestations including aplastic anaemia, acute thyroiditis, glomerulonephritis as well as neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis. The pathogenesis of these neurological injuries remains largely unknown, and it is also uncertain whether or not HEV can directly infect neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated whether HEV is capable of completing the viral life cycle in human neuronal-derived cell lines such as neuroepithelioma (SK-N-MC), desmoplastic cerebellar medulloblastoma (DAOY), glioblastoma multiforme (DBTRG), glioblastoma astrocytoma (U-373 MG) and oligodendrocytic (M03.13) cells. Following transfection of these cells with HEV Gaussia luciferase reporter virus, all tested cell lines supported HEV RNA replication. Furthermore, extra- and intracellular viral capsid was detected by an HEV antigen ELISA as a marker for virus assembly and release. Permissiveness for HEV cell entry could be demonstrated for the oligodendrocytic cell line M03.13. In conclusion, these results indicate that HEV tropism is not restricted to the liver and HEV can potentially complete the full viral life cycle in neuronal-derived tissues explaining neurologic disorders during HEV infection. PMID:26891712

  20. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

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    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IMPROVEMENT IN HAEMOGLOBIN % IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA TREATED WITH IRON SUPPLEMENTS ALONE AND IRON WITH B12 SUPPLEMENTATION

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    Suhasini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available C o - existence of vitamin B 12 deficiencies along with iron has been observed among young females aged between 15 to 25 years .but limited evidence is available from india.so comparative study was done in young females with iron deficiency anaema in the improvement of haemoglobin % treated with iro n supplementation alone and iron along with B12 supplementation in Kadapa , A ndhra Pradesh. A total of 50 young females with moderate anaemia 1 (Hb % in between 8 - 10gm % were taken. T hey were divided into two groups .group - 1 consists of 25 patients treated with oral iron, group - 2 consists of 25 patients treated with oral iron and oral B12. R esults - significantly found that Hb% improvement was more in females treated with iron and B 12 compared with group treated with iron alone. Conclusion : This study shows that in addition to iron supplementation B12 supplementation was benefi cial in the improvement of Hb%

  2. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  3. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  4. A comparison of high versus low dose recombinant human erythropoietin versus blood transfusion in the management of anaemia of prematurity in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, M; Cory, B J; Galpin, J; Ballot, D E; Cooper, P A; Sherman, G; Davies, V A

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of early treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in two different treatment regimes (high vs. low dose) in comparison to the conventional treatment of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions in the management of anaemia of prematurity in a country with limited resources. An open controlled trial was conducted on 93 preterm infants (7 days postnatal age, 900-1500 g birthweight). Patients were randomly assigned either to a low dose (250 IU/kg), a high dose (400 IU/kg), or a control group. EPO was administered subcutaneously three times a week and all infants received 6 mg/kg iron orally from study entry to endpoint of therapy. Haematological parameters were measured and compared. The success was defined as an absence of transfusions and a haematocrit that did not fall below 30 per cent during the time period that the infants were in the study. The three groups were statistically comparable at study entry with respect to gestational age, birthweight, Apgar scores, and haematological values. Over the period that the infants were in the study, 75 per cent of the low dose group and 71 per cent of the high dose group met the criteria for success compared with 40 per cent in the control group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the number of transfusions when the low and high EPO dose groups (9.5 per cent) were combined and compared with the control group (26.7 per cent) p = 0.0587. It was concluded that in stable infants, 900-1500 g, where phlebotomy losses are minimized and stringent transfusion guidelines are adhered to, EPO does not significantly decrease the number of transfusions. A conservative approach in the management of anaemia of prematurity, is a viable alternative in areas with limited resources. PMID:12200985

  5. Rabies virus glycoprotein pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors enables retrograde axonal transport and access to the nervous system after peripheral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, N D; Azzouz, M; Rohll, J B; Ellard, F M; Wilkes, F J; Olsen, A L; Carter, E E; Barber, R D; Baban, D F; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; O'Malley, K; Mitrophanous, K A

    2001-09-15

    In this report it is demonstrated for the first time that rabies-G envelope of the rabies virus is sufficient to confer retrograde axonal transport to a heterologous virus/vector. After delivery of rabies-G pseudotyped equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) based vectors encoding a marker gene to the rat striatum, neurons in regions distal from but projecting to the injection site, such as the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, become transduced. This retrograde transport to appropriate distal neurons was also demonstrated after delivery to substantia nigra, hippocampus and spinal cord and did not occur when vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped vectors were delivered to these sites. In addition, peripheral administration of rabies-G pseudotyped vectors to the rat gastrocnemius muscle leads to gene transfer in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord. In contrast the same vector pseudotyped with VSV-G transduced muscle cells surrounding the injection site, but did not result in expression in any cells in the spinal cord. Long-term expression was observed after gene transfer in the nervous system and a minimal immune response which, together with the possibility of non-invasive administration, greatly extends the utility of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy of human neurological disease. PMID:11590128

  6. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  7. Virus Infection

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    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  8. Influence of anaemia on levels of NT-proBNP and BNP in patients with heart failure%贫血对慢性心力衰竭患者血浆NT-proBNP和BNP水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵枫; 孙一奎; 王峰; 王卫华; 曲静伟; 曹超

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨贫血对慢性心力衰竭患者血浆氮末端—前体脑钠肽(NT-proBNP)、羧基端活性段脑钠肽(BNP)的影响.方法:研究对象为76例因心功能不全入院的慢性心力衰竭患者,其中31例贫血.测定血浆NT-proBNP、BNP、血常规、肾功能等.结果:1)两组NT-proBNP比较差别没有统计学意义(P>0.05).但是,BNP在两组中差别有统计学意义(P<0.05).2)相关性分析示血红蛋白浓度与BNP呈现负相关(r=-0.687),与NT-proBNP无关.结论:研究表明在评价心力衰竭患者NT-proBNP、BNP水平时需考虑其贫血等相关影响因素.%Objective:To study the influence of anaemia on BNP and NT - proBNP levels in a large group of hospitalised HF patients. Methods: 76 patients hospitalised for HF were studied. Of these patients, 31 were anaemic. BNP and NT - proBNP levels were measured in all patients before discharge. Blood routine test and renal function test were also carried out on these patients. Results: 1. NT - proBNP levels had no difference in the patients with a-naemia and patients without anaemia (P >0. 05) . BNP level of anaemia patients was signifcantly higher than that in patients without anaemia(P <0. 05) . 2. Pearson analysis showed plasma haemoglobin level had negative correlation with the levels of BNP. Conclusion: These results indicate that anaemia should be taken into consideration during the interpretation of BNP and NT - proBNP levels in HF patients.

  9. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  10. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  11. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  12. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  15. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  16. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  17. Taming influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems allow the artificial generation of viruses with cloned cDNA-derived genomes. Since the establishment of such systems for influenza virus, numerous attempts have been made to tame this pathogenic agent. In particular, several types of viruses expressing foreign genes have been generated and used to further our knowledge of influenza virus replication and pathogenicity and to develop novel influenza vaccines. Here, we review these achievements and discuss ...

  18. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  19. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  20. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  2. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  3. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  4. Circulating microparticles, protein C, free protein S and endothelial vascular markers in children with sickle cell anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piccin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Circulating microparticles (MP have been described in sickle cell anaemia (SCA; however, their interaction with endothelial markers remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between MP, protein C (PC, free protein S (PS, nitric oxide (NO, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adrenomedullin (ADM in a large cohort of paediatric patients. Method: A total of 111 children of African ethnicity with SCA: 51 in steady state; 15 in crises; 30 on hydroxyurea (HU therapy; 15 on transfusion; 17 controls (HbAA of similar age/ethnicity. MP were analysed by flow cytometry using: Annexin V (AV, CD61, CD42a, CD62P, CD235a, CD14, CD142 (tissue factor, CD201 (endothelial PC receptor, CD62E, CD36 (TSP-1, CD47 (TSP-1 receptor, CD31 (PECAM, CD144 (VE-cadherin. Protein C, free PS, NO, pro-ADM and C-terminal ET-1 were also measured. Results: Total MP AV was lower in crisis (1.26×106 ml−1; 0.56–2.44×106 and steady state (1.35×106 ml−1; 0.71–3.0×106 compared to transfusion (4.33×106 ml−1; 1.6–9.2×106, p0.9, p<0.05 between total numbers of AV-positive MP (MP AV and platelet MP expressing non-activation platelet markers. There was a lower correlation between MP AV and MP CD62P (R=0.73, p<0.05 (platelet activation marker, and also a lower correlation between percentage of MP expressing CD201 (%MP CD201 and %MP CD14 (R=0.627, p<0.001. %MP CD201 was higher in crisis (11.6% compared with HbAA (3.2%, p<0.05; %MP CD144 was higher in crisis (7.6% compared with transfusion (2.1%, p<0.05; %CD14 (0.77% was higher in crisis compared with transfusion (0.0%, p<0.05 and steady state (0.0%, p<0.01; MP CD14 was detectable in a higher number of samples (92% in crisis compared with the rest (40%; %MP CD235a was higher in crisis (17.9% compared with transfusion (8.9%, HU (8.7% and steady state (9.9%, p<0.05; %CD62E did not differ significantly across the groups and CD142 was undetectable. Pro-ADM levels were raised in chest crisis: 0.38 nmol L−1 (0.31–0

  5. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  6. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  7. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  8. Online identification of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaskar, A S; Naik, P S

    2000-06-01

    A computerized animal virus information system is developed in the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) format. This database is available on the Word Wide Web (WWW) at the site http://bioinfo.ernet.in/www/avis/avis++ +.html. The database has been used to generate large number of identification matrices for each family. The software is developed in C. Unix shell scripts and Hypertext Marked-up Language (HTML) to assign the family to an unknown virus deterministically and to identify the virus probabilistically. It has been shown that such web based virus identification approach provides results with high confidence in those cases where identification matrix uses large number of independent characters. Protein sequence data for animal viruses have been analyzed and oligopeptides specific to each virus family and also specific to each virus species are identified for several viruses. These peptides thus could be used to identify the virus and to assign the virus family with high confidence showing the usefulness of sequence data in virus identification. PMID:10917875

  9. Study of the effects of the nutritional and socio-economic factors on the prevalance of iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Study was conducted with the following objectives: 1.determine the prevalance of iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women. 2. Determine the factors that affect the iron status of pregnant women (nutritional, social etc...). For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy, 30 healthy pregnant women were included in a longitudinal study from the first to the third trimester. One blood sample was taken in the first trimester and a second blood sample was taken in the third trimester. All subjects were given ten iron supplement tablets at the beginning of the study by the researcher. However, they did not receive any other iron supplements throughout their pregnancy. Ten healthy non-pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. The iron status was assessed using the following parameters: haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels which was measured using ImmunoRadiometric Assay (IRMA). The nutritional status was assessed from a nutritional/socio-economic questionnaire that was answered by the study and control groups. Both the study and the control groups had haemoglobin level below the WHO cut-off points (0.05) between the level of haemoglobin of control and the study groups in the first and third trimester. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in the level of serum ferritin between the study and control group. The study group had a higher level of serum ferritin than the control. there was also high significant difference (p<0.01) in the level of serum ferritin between the first and third trimester in which a large decrease in the level of serum ferritin was apparent. The results of this study also showed that 16.5% had IDA (Iron Defeciency Anaemia) in the first trimester whereas 27.6% had depleted iron stores without frank defeciency. The prevalance of IDA increased to 26.4% in the third trimester while those who had depleted iron stores increased to 46.6%. Almost 50% of pregnant women started their pregnancy with adequate iron stores

  10. TTV, a new human virus with single stranded circular DNA genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    TT virus (TTV) was found in 1997 from a hepatitis patient without virus markers. However, the real impact of TTV on liver diseases remains uncertain to date. Due to the lack of suitable cell systems to support the growth of TTV, the biology of TTV is still obscure. This review tries to summarise the current status of TTV on aspects other than the taxonomic diversity of TTV. TTV was the first human virus with a single stranded circular DNA genome. TTV was considered to be a member of Circoviridae, but others suggested it conformed to a new family. TTV is distinct from ambisense viruses in the genus Circovirus, since the former genome is negative stranded. The genome structure of TTV is more related to chicken anaemia virus in the genus Gyrovirus, however, the sequence similarity is minimal except for a short stretch at 3816-3851 of TA278. Currently the working group is proposing the full name for TTV as TorqueTenoVirus and the TTV-like mini virus as TorqueTenoMiniVirus (TTMV) in a new genus Anellovirus (ring). TTVs are prevalent in non-human primates and human TTV can cross-infect chimpanzees. Furthermore, TTV sequences have been detected in chickens, pigs, cows and sheep. TTV can be transmitted by mother-to-child infection. However, within a year after birth, the prevalence reaches the same level for children born to both TTV-positive and TTV-negative mothers even without breast-feeding. The non-coding region surrounding a short 113 nt GC-rich stretch and occupying approximately one-third of the genome is considered to contain the putative replication origin. Three mRNAs are expressed by TTV, 3.0 and 1.2 and 1.0 kb species. A protein translated from the 3.0 kb mRNA is considered to be the major capsid protein as well as replicase. The nature of the proteins translated by the other two mRNAs are still putative. PMID:11987140

  11. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  12. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  13. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  14. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  15. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  16. The Influenza Virus Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Rachelle; Webster, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza continue to challenge both scientists and clinicians. Drug-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses have dominated the 2009 flu season, and the H5N1 avian influenza virus continues to kill both people and poultry in Eurasia. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and transmissibility of influenza viruses and we emphasize the need to find better predictors of both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza.

  17. Endocytosis of influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lakadamyali, Melike; Rust, Michael J.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is known to play an important role in the entry of many viruses into host cells. However, the exact internalization mechanism has, until recently, remained poorly understood for many medically important viruses, including influenza. Developments in real-time imaging of single viruses as well as the use of dominant negative mutants to selectively block specific endocytic pathways, have improved our understanding of the influenza infection process.

  18. Filamentous influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Dadonaite, Bernadeta; Vijyakrishnan, Swetha; Fodor, Ervin; Bhella, David; Hutchinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of influenza virus produce pleomorphic virus particles, including extremely long filamentous virions. In contrast, strains of influenza that have adapted to laboratory growth typically produce only spherical virions. As a result, the filamentous phenotype has been overlooked in most influenza virus research. Recent advances in imaging and improved animal models have highlighted the distinct structure and functional relevance of filamentous virions. In this review we summaris...

  19. The virus of management

    OpenAIRE

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way of describing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledge production. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basic distinctions that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable engines of organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized by stability i...

  20. Interactions between zinc, essential fatty acids and prostaglandins: relevance to acrodermatitis enteropathica, total parenteral nutrition, the glucagonoma syndrome, diabetes, anorexia nervosa and sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrobin, D F; Cunnane, S C

    1980-03-01

    Many of the features of zinc deficiency and of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency are similar in both animals and humans. The two agents interact in various ways. EFAs are important in zinc absorption, probably after conversion to prostaglandins (PGs). Zinc seems necessary for at least two stages in EFA metabolism, the conversion of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid, and the mobilisation of dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) for the synthesis of 1 series PGs. Zinc may also be important in the conversion of DGLA to arachidonic acid and in arachidonic acid mobilisation for 2 series PG formation. These interactions shed considerable light on a number of clinical syndromes, including acrodermatitis enteropathica, total parenteral nutrition, diabetes mellitus, the glucagonoma syndrome and sickle cell anaemia. There is substantial evidence to suggest that anorexia nervosa is due to a combined deficiency of zinc and EFAs. Understanding of the roles of zinc and EFAs in these various clinical situations is likely to lead to improved therapy. PMID:6253772

  1. Acute chest syndrome is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism-defined beta globin cluster haplotype in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Christopher J; Boulet, Sheree L; Yang, Genyan; Payne, Amanda B; Ghaji, Nafisa; Pyle, Meredith E; Hooper, W Craig; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Keefer, Jeffrey; Barron-Casella, Emily A; Casella, James F; Debaun, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity at the human β-globin locus has been implicated as a modifier of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity. However, haplotypes defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism sites across the β-globin locus have not been consistently associated with clinical phenotypes. To define the genetic structure at the β-globin locus more thoroughly, we performed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in 820 children who were homozygous for the sickle cell mutation (HbSS). Genotyping results revealed very high linkage disequilibrium across a large region spanning the locus control region and the HBB (β-globin gene) cluster. We identified three predominant haplotypes accounting for 96% of the β(S) -carrying chromosomes in this population that could be distinguished using a minimal set of common SNPs. Consistent with previous studies, fetal haemoglobin level was significantly associated with β(S) -haplotypes. After controlling for covariates, an association was detected between haplotype and rate of hospitalization for acute chest syndrome (ACS) (incidence rate ratio 0·51, 95% confidence interval 0·29-0·89) but not incidence rate of vaso-occlusive pain or presence of silent cerebral infarct (SCI). Our results suggest that these SNP-defined β(S) -haplotypes may be associated with ACS, but not pain or SCI in a study population of children with SCA. PMID:23952145

  2. Fanconi anaemia, BRCA2 mutations and childhood cancer: a developmental perspective from clinical and epidemiological observations with implications for genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chandler, Kate; Gillespie, Alan; Birch, Jillian M; Evans, D Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited condition characterised by congenital and developmental abnormalities and a strong cancer predisposition. In around 3-5% of cases FA is caused by biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Individuals heterozygous for BRCA2 mutations have an increased risk of inherited breast and ovarian cancer. We reviewed the mutation spectrum in BRCA2-associated FA, and the spectrum and frequency of BRCA2 mutations in distinct populations. The rarity of FA due to biallelic BRCA2 mutations supports a fundamental role of BRCA2 for prevention of malignant transformation during development. The spectrum of malignancies seen associated with FA support the concept of a tissue selectivity of BRCA2 mutations for development of FA-associated cancers. This specificity is illustrated by the distinct FA-associated BRCA2 mutations that appear to predispose to specific brain or haematological malignancies. For some populations, the number of FA-patients with biallelic BRCA2 disruption is smaller than that expected from the carrier frequency, and this implies that some pregnancies with biallelic BRCA2 mutations do not go to term. The apparent discrepancy between expected and observed incidence of BRCA2 mutation-associated FA in high-frequency carrier populations has important implications for the genetic counselling of couples with recurrent miscarriages from high-risk populations.

  3. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Renoux

    Full Text Available Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC, but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown.Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA, 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults patients.Our results showed that 1 RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2 during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3 blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4 haematocrit decreases as SS patients age.The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders.

  4. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Romana, Marc; Joly, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Faes, Camille; Lemonne, Nathalie; Skinner, Sarah; Garnier, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Bertrand, Yves; Petras, Marie; Cannas, Giovanna; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Nader, Elie; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Lamarre, Yann; Gauthier, Alexandra; Waltz, Xavier; Kebaili, Kamila; Martin, Cyril; Hot, Arnaud; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Pialoux, Vincent; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC), but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown. Materials and Methods Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA), 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults) and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults) patients. Results Our results showed that 1) RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2) during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3) blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4) haematocrit decreases as SS patients age. Conclusion The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders. PMID:27355589

  5. Neurotoxicity, haemostatic disturbances and haemolytic anaemia after a bite by a Tunisian saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex): failure of antivenom treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Theakston, R D; Barth, J; May, B; Krieg, M; Warrell, D A

    1994-08-01

    A young man in Germany was bitten by a large captive saw-scaled viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex) of Tunisian origin. During the first few hours after the bite he developed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis, and bled spontaneously. Despite being given a total of 310 ml of three different Echis-specific antivenoms (together with large amounts of fresh frozen plasma and concentrated clotting factors), venom antigenaemia (measured by enzyme immunoassay) and coagulopathy persisted for more than 10 days, and he developed a haemolytic anaemia and mild renal dysfunction. Transient bilateral ptosis was attributed to envenoming. The venom of the snake responsible for the bite was immunologically distinct from that of Nigerian E. ocellatus and was clearly not neutralised by the three monospecific antivenoms which had been administered. This case is another illustration of the geographical variation in snake venoms and the need for pooling venoms from snakes from different parts of the geographical range in the preparation of antivenoms. Envenoming by North African Echis species may not be reversible by available antivenoms. PMID:7985198

  6. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  7. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  8. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  9. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  10. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27287356

  12. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  13. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  14. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  15. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Vincent J. Munster

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated

  16. Influence of the βs haplotype and α-thalassemia on stroke development in a Brazilian population with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Igor F; Falcão, Diego A; Hatzlhofer, Betania L; Cunha, Anderson F; Santos, Magnun N; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Fertrin, Kleber Y; Costa, Fernando F; Azevedo, Renata C; Machado, Cíntia G; Araújo, Aderson S; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio R; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is a catastrophic complication of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and is one of the leading causes of death in both adults and children with SCA. Evidence suggests that some genetic polymorphisms could be related to stroke development, but their association remains controversial. Here, we performed genotyping of five published single nucleotide polymorphisms, the α-thalassemia genotype, the G6PD A (-) variant deficiency, and the β(S) haplotype in a large series of SCA patients with well-defined stroke phenotypes. Of 261 unrelated SCA patients included in the study, 67 (9.5 %) presented a documented, primary stroke event. Markers of haemolysis (red blood cell (RBC) counts, p = 0.023; reticulocyte counts, p = 0.003; haemoglobin (Hb) levels, p haplotype (odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 4.31; p = 0.003) and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.11 to 0. 83; p = 0.02) were associated with increased and decreased stroke risk, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the β(S) haplotype was independently associated with stroke development (OR 2.26, 95 % CI 1.16 to 4.4; p = 0.016). Our findings suggest that only the β(S) haplotypes and the α(3.7kb)-thalassemia genotype modulate the prevalence of stroke in our SCA population. Genetic heterogeneity among different populations may account for the irreproducibility amongst different studies. PMID:24493127

  17. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  18. Research on clinical value of laboratory detection of MCV and RDW in anaemia diagnosis%MCV、RDW实验室检测对贫血诊断的临床应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the diagnosis value of mean corpuscular volume ( MCV) and red blood cell distribution width ( RDW) in different types of anaemia. Methods: ABX PENTRA60 was employed to detect the mean corpuscular volume and red blood cell distribution width in 106 patients. Results; MCV results had statistical significances in iron - deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, sideroblastic anemia and simple microcytic anemia (t =6.4715,P 0.05) ;The sensitivities of MCV and RDW in different types of anaemia were 86. 7% ~ 94.4% , and the specificities were 90. 7% - 100%. Conclusion; Detection of MCV and RDW had high accuracy in diagnosis of anaemia, which was suitable for wide application.%目的:探讨检测MCV和RDW值对各型贫血的诊断价值.方法:采用ABX PENTRA60全自动血细胞分析仪检测106例患者红细胞平均体积和分布宽度.结果:缺铁性贫血、巨幼细胞性贫血、再生障碍性贫血、溶血性贫血、铁粒幼细胞性贫血和单纯小细胞性贫血MCV结果差别有统计学意义(t=6.4715,P<0.001),而RDW无差别(t=1.8697,P>0.05);各型贫血MCV与RDW检测的敏感性为86.7% ~94.4%,特异性为90.7% ~ 100%.结论:检测MCV和RDW对贫血诊断准确性高,值得临床推广应用.

  19. Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

  20. Iron deficiency and anaemia in bariatric surgical patients: causes, diagnosis and proper management Deficiencia de hierro y anemia en pacientes de cirugía bariátrica: causas, diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced chronic inflammation leads to activation of the immune system that causes alterations of iron homeostasis including hypoferraemia, iron-restricted erythropoiesis, and finally mild-to-moderate anaemia. Thus, preoperative anaemia and iron deficiency are common among obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery (BS. Assessment of patients should include a complete haematological and biochemical laboratory work-up, including measurement of iron stores, vitamin B12 and folate. In addition, gastrointestinal evaluation is recommended for most patients with iron-deficiency anaemia. On the other hand, BS is a long-lasting inflammatory stimulus in itself and entails a reduction of the gastric capacity and/or exclusion from the gastrointestinal tract which impair nutrients absorption, including dietary iron. Chronic gastrointestinal blood loss and iron-losingenteropathy may also contribute to iron deficiency after BS. Perioperative anaemia has been linked to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and decreased quality of life after major surgery, whereas treatment of perioperative anaemia, and even haematinic deficiency without anaemia, has been shown to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. However, long-term follow-up data in regard to prevalence, severity, and causes of anaemia after BS are mostly absent. Iron supplements should be administered to patients after BS, but compliance with oral iron is no good. In addition, once iron deficiency has developed, it may prove refractory to oral treatment. In these situations, IV iron (which can circumvent the iron blockade at enterocytes and macrophages has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for perioperative anaemia management. Monitoring should continue indefinitely even after the initial iron repletion and anaemia resolution, and maintenance IV iron treatment should be provided as required. New IV preparations, such ferric carboxymaltose, are safe, easy to use and

  1. Manejo, prevención y control del síndrome anémico secundario a deficiencia férrica Management, prevention and control of anaemia secondary to iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Paz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La anemia ferropénica representa la anemia carencial más frecuente en nuestro medio, la primera causa de consulta hematológica y el tipo de alteración nutricional más común. Se caracteriza por la disminución o ausencia de los depósitos de hierro. La prueba deficiencia que confirma la existencia de anemia por déficit de hierro (AF son unos niveles séricos bajos de ferritina, indicativos de una situación de depleción de hierro. Otros parámetros no permiten diferenciar la AF de la anemia trastornos crónicos. La dieta es de gran importancia en la anemia, sin embargo, ningún alimento contiene concentraciones suficientes de hierro para poder constituir un remedio práctico en los estados de carencia del mismo, por lo que el tratamiento debe realizarse por vía oral con preparados a poder ser a base de sulfato ferroso para asegurar una mejor absorción. Se recomienda una dosis inicial de 150-200 mg. de hierro elemental al día, repartido en tres tomas (3-5 mg/kg/día en niños.Anemia secondary to iron deficiency is the most frequent anaemia in our environment, the first cause of consultation in Haematology and the most common nutritional problem. It is characterized by a diminution or absence of iron deposits. The ultimate test that confirms the diagnosis of anaemia secondary to iron deficiency is a low serum level of ferritin, which indicates iron depletion. Other parameters do not allow to distinguish iron deficiency anaemia from other chronic derangements. Diet is of utmost importance in anaemia. There is not a single food product with sufficient concentration of iron capable of restoring iron deficiency situations. Therefore, treatment of iron deficiency must be made orally with iron preparates, mainly in the form of iron sulphate in order to guarantee a better absorption. The initial recommended doses are 150-200 mg of elemental iron per day split in three ingestions (in children 3-5 mg/Kg/day.

  2. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  3. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  4. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Tweet Share Compartir CDC's Ongoing Work to Contain Ebola in West Africa The Road to Zero: CDC’s ...

  5. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available. Prevention Mosquito bites Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. This can be done by wearing ...

  6. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  7. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  8. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  9. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  10. Ebola Virus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    PV Bhargavan; PV Shiji; Jare Jagannath Udhavrao; Nagaraj Desai

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is named after the river in the former Zaire where a haemorrhagic fever initially identified in 1976 involved human to human transmission, as well as spread by contaminated injection equipments. Ebola virus causes an acute febrile illness associated with a high mortality rate. The illness is characterized by multi-system involvement that begins with abrupt onset of headache, myalgia, fever and proceeds to prostration, rash, shock and bleeding manifestation.

  11. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  12. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  14. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  15. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  16. Long-term follow-up of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with moderate/severe anaemia receiving human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3: independent positive impact of erythroid response on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisà, Elena; Foli, Cristina; Passera, Roberto; Darbesio, Antonella; Garvey, Kimberly B; Boccadoro, Mario; Ferrero, Dario

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported a 60% erythroid response rate with recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis retinoic acid + dihydroxylated vitamin D3 in 63 elderly myelodysplastic patients (median age 75 years) with unfavourable features for response to erythropoietin alone [70% transfusion-dependent, 35% refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts/refractory anaemia with excess of blasts type 1 (RAEB1), 70% with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) Intermediate-1 or -2]. This report updates that case study at a 7-year follow-up, and compared the impact on overall survival of erythroid response to known prognostic factors. The erythroid response duration (median 17 months; 22 in non-RAEB patients, with 20% patients in response after 6 years of therapy) was longer than in most studies with erythropoietin alone. Overall survival (median 55 months in non-RAEB, 15 in RAEB1 patients) was negatively affected by RAEB1 diagnosis, IPSS and WPSS intermediate scores and transfusion-dependence. In the multivariate analysis, erythroid response maintained an independent positive impact on survival, particularly in non-RAEB patients in the first 3 years from diagnosis (90% survival compared to 50% of non-responders). In conclusion, the long-term follow-up confirmed the achievement, by our combined treatment, of fairly long-lasting erythroid response in the majority of MDS patients with unfavourable prognostic features for response to erythropoietin: this translated in a survival benefit that was independent from other prognostic features. PMID:22571649

  17. PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6 MONTHS-5 YEARS ADMITTED AT KBNTGH AND TO KNOW THE RATES OF PROPHYLACTIC IRON SUPPLEMENTATION, A ONE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujumdar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA among chilsdren aged 6 months-5 years in KBNTGH (Khaja Bandanawaz Teaching and General Hospital attached to Khaja Bandanawaz Institute of Medical Sciences. The files of 1519 patients aged between 0-5 years, who were hospitalized to KBN Hospital Pediatrics Ward were reviewed. A total of 50 patients with anaemia (Haemoglobin: 9gm% consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16.59±1.68 months were included into the study. The prevalence of IDA was 3.29% (Boys: 4.23%, girls: 2.1%. Haemoglobin and haematocrit of these patients was analysed. Hemoglobim and hematocrit of children >24 months were significantly higher than those of the patients with the age of 6–12 months. Of the 28 patients who were older than 12 months, only 44% of them had received a full course of iron supplementation for 8 months. In conclusion, although prophylactic iron supplementation lowered the prevalences of IDA, receiving rates of iron supplementation were not adequate. While IDA is still a public health problem, prophylactic approaches should be carried out more effectively.

  18. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  19. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  20. 慢性心功能不全合并贫血的临床分析%Clinical analysis of chronic cardiac insufficiency with anaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越红; 王宇楠; 侯天华; 苏文亭; 赵宇; 石铭宇; 赵进军

    2010-01-01

    级患者RR分别为1.62、3.14(P<0.05或<0.01).结论 慢性心功能不全患者在常规治疗基础上,同时治疗贫血,可以改善心脏收缩功能.%Objective To find the effective therapeutic arrangement through investigating the clinical characteristics of chronic cardiac insufficiency with anaemia. Methods A total of 46 cases of anemia from 315patients who had been admitted to department of cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University for chronic cardiac insufficiency with anaemia were selected. They were divided into two groups. There were 22 patients in the first group who only accepted treatment to improve cardiac function (normal cardiac, diuretic,vasodilator therapy, etc.), and 24 patients in the second group who accepted treatment to improve cardiac function while receiving anti-anemia therapy treatment, oral ferrous sulfate tablets(0.3 g/tablet), 1 tablet each time, 3 times a day and(or) 2 times per week subcutaneous erythropoietin 3000 U. The hemoglobin(Hb), red blood cell(RBC) ,hematocrit (HCT), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), stroke volume (SV) , cardiac output(CO) and E peak and A peak ratio(E/A) were observed before and after treatment. By logistic regression, grade grade Ⅱ , Ⅲ , Ⅳ, the incidence of anaemia were 7.9% (10/126), 19.2% (23/120) and 24.6% (17/69),respectively. Grade Ⅱ compared with grades Ⅲ, Ⅳ, the difference was statistically significant (x2 = 4.08, 3.12, all (3.49 ± 0.17) × 1012/L, (0.36 ± 0.08)%, (48.9 ± 3.11)%, (15.6 ± 1.8)%, (38.9 ± 3.7)%, (4.4 ± 1.6)% and (130.7 ±5.75)g/L, (4.12 ± 0.25) × 1012/L, (0.43 ± 0.02)%, (58.5 ± 2.65)%, (18.0 ± 2.5)%, (49.1 ± 7.7)%, (5.1 ± 1.2)%in the first and second groups, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(t =value of Hb, RBC, HCT, LVEF, FS,SV, CO were (102.7 ± 6.93)g/L, (3.41 ± 0.12) × 1012/L, (0.35 ± 0.07)%,(47.5 ± 2.86)%, (16.0 ± 2.4)%, (38.2 ± 7.9)%, (3.7 ± 1

  1. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (epoetin and darbepoetin) for treating cancer treatment-induced anaemia (including review of technology appraisal no. 142): a systematic review and economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crathorne, Louise; Huxley, Nicola; Haasova, Marcela; Snowsill, Tristan; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Hoyle, Martin; Briscoe, Simon; Coelho, Helen; Long, Linda; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Napier, Mark; Hyde, Chris

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anaemia is a common side effect of cancer treatments and can lead to a reduction in quality of life. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are licensed for use in conjunction with red blood cell transfusions to improve cancer treatment-induced anaemia (CIA). OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESAs in anaemia associated with cancer treatment (specifically chemotherapy). DATA SOURCES The following databases were searched from 2004 to 2013: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, British Nursing Index, Health Management Information Consortium, Current Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. The US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency websites were also searched. Bibliographies of included papers were scrutinised for further potentially includable studies. REVIEW METHODS The clinical effectiveness review followed principles published by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), or systematic reviews of RCTs, of ESAs (epoetin or darbepoetin) for treating people with CIA were eligible for inclusion in the review. Comparators were best supportive care, placebo or other ESAs. Anaemia- and malignancy-related outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. When appropriate, data were pooled using meta-analysis. An empirical health economic model was developed comparing ESA treatment with no ESA treatment. The model comprised two components: one evaluating short-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (while patients are anaemic) and one evaluating long-term QALYs. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and univariate deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS Of 1457 titles and abstracts screened, 23 studies assessing ESAs within their licensed

  2. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  3. Stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched related donor for Fanconi's anaemia: a retrospective review of the multicentric Italian experience on behalf of AIEOP-GITMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, C; Rondelli, R; Locatelli, F; Miano, M; Di Girolamo, G; Bacigalupo, A; Messina, C; Porta, F; Balduzzi, A; Iorio, A P; Buket, E; Madon, E; Pession, A; Dini, G; Di Bartolomeo, P

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-seven consecutive Italian patients with Fanconi's anaemia (FA) underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT) from an HLA-matched related donor in 10 Italian centres of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP), Gruppo Italiano di Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Twenty-two patients (81.5%) were conditioned with low-dose (median 20 mg/kg) cyclophosphamide (Cy) and thoraco-abdominal or total body irradiation (median dose 500 cGy), five patients (18.5%) with high-dose Cy (median 120 mg/kg). Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was carried out with cyclosporin A in 26 cases; methotrexate (MTX) was added in eight cases. One patient received MTX alone. The median follow-up was 36 months. Ninety-two percent of patients (25 out of 27) engrafted, grade II and III acute GVHD occurred in 28% and 8% of patients, respectively, with chronic GVHD in 12.5%. Conditioning-related toxicity was mild: 4% of patients had grade III mucositis, 7.4% had grade II haemorrhagic cystitis, 14.8% had grade III liver toxicity and 11.1% had grade III renal toxicity. Transplant-related mortality at 12 months was 19.2%, survival at 36 months was 81.5%, with a median Karnofsky score of 100%. No late tumours occurred after a mean follow-up of the survivors of 5 years. None of the studied variables significantly affected the survival, including conditioning regimen, acute GVHD and clinical non-haematological phenotype. Among the studied variables, only conditioning regimens containing high-dose Cy and the presence of genital abnormalities were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with an increased rate of acute GVHD. Our study demonstrates that the Italian FA patients undergoing SCT from an HLA-matched related donor have a very good outcome. These patients, when compared with others of different ethnic origin who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, showed a less severe non-haematological phenotype, raising the possibility that this milder phenotype may

  4. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    HiroyukiTsukagoshi; TaiseiIshioka

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus (HEV) infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it ...

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  9. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  11. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  12. Clinical analysis of anaemia and nutritional situation in the elderly population%老年人贫血及营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞爱琳; 卢惠茹; 梁刚; 王小飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察分析老年人贫血发生率及营养状况.方法 选择门诊健康查体的离退休老年人2052例,按年龄分为4组,65~69岁(528例)、70~74岁(593例)、75~79岁(423例),≥80岁(508例),检测体质指数(BMI)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均体积(MCV)、三酰甘油(TG)、血肌酐(Cr)、血浆白蛋白(ALB)、血清铁蛋白(Fer)等指标,统计贫血发生率及对各营养指标进行分析.结果 (1)老年人贫血发生率为4.4%,其中男性4.0%,女性6.1%,>80岁组为9.5%.Hb<90 g/L者5例,均为80岁以上高龄患者.(2)各年龄组营养相关指标BMI、TG、Cr、ALB、Hb、MCV、Fer差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),且Hb、ALB在4组间差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01),TG、Cr、MCV在多组间差异也有统计学意义(均P<0.05).(3)经Pearson相关性分析,Hb与TG、ALB、Fer、MCV呈正相关,相关系数r值分别为0.12、0.21、0.11、0.10(均P<0.01).结论 老年人随着年龄增长,贫血发生率逐渐增加,女性多于男性,尤以80岁以上高龄者发生率最高,且营养状况随着年龄增长而逐渐恶化.%Objective To observe the incidence rate of anaemia and analyze the nutritional situation in the elderly population.Methods From April to August 2010,a total of 2052 elderly persons from out-department of Tianjin First Center Hospital were divided into four age groups:65-69years group (n=528),70-74 years group (n=593),75-79 years group (n=423) and 80 years and over group (n= 508).The body mass index (BMI),haemoglobin (Hb),mean corpuscular volume (MCV),triglyceride (TG),creatinine (Cr),serum albumin (ALB) and ferritin (Fer) were tested and evaluated using K-W test.Results (1) Anaemia was found in 90 subjects (4.4 %),4.0% in men and 6.l% in women,9.5% in 80 years and over group.The subjects with Hb level less than 90g/L were all 80 years and over.(2)There were significant differences among the groups in BMI,TG,Cr,ALB,Hb,MCV and Fer levels (all P<0.01).There were significant

  13. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  14. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. PMID:27154393

  15. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  16. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  17. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  18. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  19. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

      The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses. Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life. Archaeal viruses are characterized by a particularly

  20. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...